Radioactivity is a natural phenomenon and sources of radiation are typical features of some elements in the environment. Radiation and radioactive substances have many beneficial applications, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. The world is undergoing rapid developments where government administrators and people are giving emphasis to sustainable energy sources without pollution. Being a clean source of energy, nuclear energy is a preferable option to meet the energy requirements in different sectors and it does not contribute to greenhouse gases that contaminate our environment. The radioactive materials, which are, usually the by-products of the nuclear energy generation and other applications of nuclear fission, research, and medicine are commonly referred to as the radioactive wastes. Radioactive waste (or nuclear waste) is a material deemed no longer useful that has been contaminated by or contains radionuclides. Radionuclides are unstable atoms of an element that decay, or disintegrate spontaneously, emitting energy in the form of radiation. There are approximately 5000 natural and artificial radionuclides that have been identified, each with a different half-life. Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production, and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by-product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. Waste from nuclear weapons and reprocessing units usually contain alpha-emitting actinides such as Pu-239, which is a fissile material used in explosives, high specific activity material Pu-238 or Po, ³H, and Am-241. Medical wastes generally contain beta particles and gamma ray emitters varying from Y-90, I-131, Sr-89, Ir-192, Co-60, Cs-137, and few other isotopes that are used for medical applications. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) includes all radioactive elements found in the environment. Long-lived radioactive elements such as U, Th, and K and their decay products viz. Ra and Rn are examples of NORM. These elements have always been present in the Earth’s crust and are concentrated in some areas, such as uranium ore builds which may be mined. The coal industry, oil and gas industry, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands, fertilizers industry, building industry are few activities that generally contain NORM. The quantum of radioactive waste in a country is dependent upon the scale of applications and range of activities associated with nuclear and radioactive mineral utilization. If not handled properly, radioactive wastes are deleterious to most forms of life as well as to the environment. The radioactive elements (radionuclides) cannot be destroyed by any known chemical or mechanical process. Their ultimate destruction is through radio-decay as stable isotopes or by nuclear transmutation by bombardment with atomic particles. Consequently, radioactive waste management consists of controlling and reducing the radioactive releases to tolerable levels. Removal of radionuclides from effluents and solid wastes is done by concentrating them into a form which can be stored or disposed of in a manner that they do not appear in hazardous concentrations in an ecosystem. Various international regulatory bodies like International Atomic Energy Agency and other government regulatory agencies are in action in order to protect the human health and environment by ensuring the safe use of nuclear energy.