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Health and Safety Concerns Relating to Lead and Lead Compounds in Conservation

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Web site: http://www.cac-accr.ca. The views expressed in this publication are those of the individual authors, and are not necessarily those of the editors or of CAC. Journal de l'Association canadienne pour la conservation et la restauration (J. ACCR), Volume 30 © l'Association canadienne pour la conservation et la restauration, 2005 Cet article : © Institut canadien de conservation (http://www.cci-icc.gc.ca/copyright_f.aspx), Ministère du Patrimoine canadien, 2005 Le J.ACCR est un journal révisé par des pairs qui est publié annuellement par l'Association canadienne pour la conservation et la restauration des biens culturels (ACCR), BP 87028, 332, rue Bank, Ottawa (Ontario) K2P 1X0, Canada; Téléphone : (613) 231-3977; Télécopieur : (613) 231-4406; Adresse électronique : coordinator@cac-accr.com; Site Web : http://www.cac-accr.ca. Les opinions exprimées dans la présente publication sont celles des auteurs et ne reflètent pas nécessairement celles de la rédaction ou de l'ACCR.

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... These tanks are susceptible to a variety of accidents that may have severe consequences for humans, the environment and equipment [4]. 1-Butene is an organic chemical compound in gas form and has a chemical structure of C4H8, highly flammable, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and explodes in contact with oxygen [5].1-Butene ...
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Background: Nowadays, the reduction of incidents, their effects and their consequences have become one of the priorities of organizations. Despite all the efforts made in various sectors to reduce events, every year, there are many events that threaten industrial societies. In order to mitigate the effects of these incidents, prediction and planning are critical to dealing with them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of explosion of 1-butane reservoir in a polymer complex based on an analysis of the outcome using the PHAST software. Methods: This study was conducted in one of the Kermanshah petrochemical complexes in 2016. Necessary geographic information and other basic information were collected. 16 probable scenarios were selected and consequences modeling was done by PHAST software. Results: The modeling results showed that full rupture scenarios and leakage scenarios from the 150 mm hole are the most dangerous scenarios. Conclusion: The results of modeling showed that the larger the leakage size, the associated consequences would be more dangerous and consequently more losses. Due to the capabilities of studied company and the readiness level of the company, it has the ability to respond to the first scenario to some extent.
... Like other lead compounds, lead acetate and lead sulfide are toxic (Selwyn 2005), although there is so little lead acetate in these papers that some safety data sheets do not label the papers as hazardous. Lead acetate is also known as sugar of lead and was used historically to sweeten (and inadvertently poison) wine (Nriagu 1992). ...
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Introdução e objetivos: O setor da Conservação e Restauro ainda não foi abordado pela Saúde Ocupacional de uma forma completa ou exaustiva, pelo que se registam várias lacunas de conhecimento em relação aos seus fatores de risco/ riscos laborais. Os autores tiveram como objetivo recolher e resumir toda a informação que encontraram sobre, como ponto de partida para outros projetos que se afirmem como pertinentes, no contexto da Saúde Ocupacional destes profissionais. Contudo, como os artigos encontrados foram muito escassos, foi elaborada uma outra revisão complementar, relativa aos riscos genéricos que o Chumbo pode acarretar na saúde humana. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma Scoping Review, elaborada no últimotrimestre de 2018, utilizando os motores de busca Scopus; Pub Med; Web of Science; Science Direct; Academic Search Complete; CINALH; Med Line; Database of Abstracts and Reviews; Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Nursing and Allied Health Collection; MedicLatina e RCAAP. Conteúdo/ Resultados: Entre Conservadores- Restauradores, há o risco de contatar com chumbo em tintas (de telas, esculturas, vitrais, edifícios) e gessos antigos; bem como na restauração de objetos de metal. Aliás, algumas esculturas são feitas de bronze e chumbo, para além de brinquedos antigos que foram finalizados com uma camada externa deste produto, para obter determinada cor e/ ou proteção contra a corrosão. A soldadura de materiais contaminados também proporciona algum risco. Por vezes este agente foi também usado em talheres, copos e pratos, que podem ser algo de restauração. O contato com o Chumbo implica problemas médicos específicos. Discussão: Ainda que existam muito poucos dados e documentos publicados relativos aos riscos que o Chumbo pode acarretar entre Conservadores- Restauradores, este está melhor descrito para outras classes profissionais do setor industrial ou até população geral e, de forma intermédia, também para os artistas que elaboram diversos tipos de peças de arte. Ao longo da história existiram vários casos famosos de intoxicação por chumbo ou saturnismo, nomeadamente através do contexto ocupacional, em artistas, situação essa designada por “cólica ou loucura do Pintor” (como Miguel Ângelo, Caravaggio, Pierrodella Francesca, Rembrandt, Goya, Fortuny, Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo e Portinari, supõe-se). Limitações: Os autores desenvolveram esforços no sentido de tentar que a sua pesquisa fosse exaustiva mas, uma vez concluída, perceberam que não encontraram dados relevantes sobre: doseamento do chumbo atmosférico nos ambientes de trabalho da Conservação/ Restauração (sequer genericamente e muito menos nos diversos subsetores: pintura, escultura, vidro, metal, têxtil, joias) e quantificação do risco associado para os Restauradores- Conservadores, em função dos doseamentos atmosféricos obtidos e quantificações da plumbémia, ALAU e/ ou ALAD (numa amostra sequer global de profissionais do setor, expostos a este agente, quanto mais nos subsetores atrás mencionados, de forma individualizada). Conclusões: Desde longa data que são conhecidos malefícios concretos e sérios associados a este agente químico. Contudo, o setor da Conservação e Restauro é ainda muito pouco estudado em contexto de Saúde Ocupacional e os riscos do eventual contato com Chumbo não são exceção. Seria muito pertinente que surgissem equipas motivadas para estudar este setor e colmatar parte das limitações encontradas, não desenvolvidas na literatura internacional.
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Background and Objectives: Propane is classified in gas hydrocarbons and storage as a liquid in tanks is used as fuel for machines and heating equipment. Given that, the main risk associated with propane is the risk of high flammability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reducing the volume and working pressure propane tank on the consequences of the effects of flash fire and jet fire. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on a tank containing propane single-phase material in Kerman Sarcheshmeh copper complex in 1395. Information about this study was collected through a field survey. Risks related to the tank were identified and possible scenarios were selected based on identifying risks. The data obtained were analyzed by PHAST software. Results: Most sudden fire death rate was related to leakage from a 150 mm gap in the first scenario with a radius of 254 meters and the lowest affected death was due to thirtieth scenario with a radius of 109 meters. Most radiation (37.5 kW/m2) of fire that caused deaths and destroyed the surround building was the third and fourth scenario with a radius of 105 meters. The least death consequence with a radius of 39 meters was due to thirteenth scenario. Conclusions:The modeling results in different types of fire modes, showed that effect of consequences could be reduced significantly with half the volume and pressure. Keywords:Consequence,Flash fire,jet fire,Propane How to cite this article: Jafarei MJ, Saberi-behdad S, Poyakian M. The Effect of Reducing the Volume and Working Pressure Propane Tank on the Consequences of the Effects of Flash Fire and Jet Fire. J Saf Promot Inj Prev. 2016; 4(4): 245-52 .
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Lead is used widely in the United Kingdom on both modern and historic buildings. It is regarded by architects as a traditional, durable material. Lead roofs are, however, susceptible to failure by condensation corrosion, the incidence of which has increased in recent years. Laboratory studies have investigated the patination of lead when exposed to present-day environments and underside condensation corrosion conditions. Factors influencing the chemical and physical properties of the patinas in both situations are discussed.
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The Oddy test is an accelerated corrosion test employed by museums to evaluate the suitability of materials for use in display and storage cases. The standard Oddy test requires a separate test set-up and control run for each of the three metals commonly involved: silver, copper and lead. A variant test is described here which simplifies the test procedure, placing all three metals into one outer vessel. An improved method of sealing the outer enclosure, with zero water loss for the 28-day test period, is presented.
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The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide (1990). Allsworth Press, New York. Distributed by North light Books. 328 pp. 14 figures, 28 tables, bibliography, index, ISBN 0-927629-10-0, $16.95 (paper). North Light Books, 1507 Dana Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45207 (Tel. 800-289-0963).
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The physical and chemical phenomena responsible for the atmospheric corrosion of lead are presented. Corrosion layer formation, morphology, and chemical makeup are discussed in the context of lead containing minerals and other crystalline structures that thermodynamics and kinetics suggest are likely to be present. Formation pathways for the minerals most often reported to be present in lead corrosion layers are shown in schematic diagrams. Lead is quite reactive to common atmospheric gases, outdoor exposures typically producing anglesite and/or cerussite and indoor exposures often producing lead carboxylates. The presence of these species is shown to be a natural consequence of the thin aqueous layer chemistry that obtains on lead in humid environments. The primary atmospheric agents responsible for degradation of lead are , , and carboxylic acids. Comprehensive kinetic simulations of the corrosion process are desirable, but await more extensive laboratory determinations of the rates of dissolution, precipitation, and transformation of lead containing chemical species.
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Occupational exposures to lead are characterised for a number of different lead-based paint abatement techniques in two work settings: residential renovation and structural steel demolition. Exposure levels reported during heavy structural steel demolition work involving acetylene torch cutting, welding, and abrasive blasting can be more than 100 times greater than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for construction (200 µg/m³), which was in effect at the time of this study (the PEL was reduced to 50 µg/m³ in 1993). Surveillance data from an OSHA database for those standard industry classification (SIC) codes with a potential for exposure to lead-based paint in construction show that 49% of the air samples collected by OSHA were greater than 200 µg/m³, suggesting widespread non-compliance. New occupational exposure data from lead-based paint abatement work in public and private housing are also presented. In one public housing development, personal exposures to lead particulates measured during open flame burning and uncontained powered sanding were found to be more than 5000 µg/m³. These findings are contrasted with exposures measured during lead-based paint abatement work performed in accordance with the lead-based paint guidelines released by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, where exposures were all lower than 25 µg/m³. Data from another public housing abatement project, involving work on 400 dwelling units over a 15-month period, show that workers' blood lead levels did not increase by more than 5 µg/dl above the pre-employment baseline. Abatement techniques studied here include interior and exterior building component replacement and exterior paint-stripping using a needle gun equipped with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum dust containment system. The data presented here show that it is feasible to keep airborne lead exposures below 20 µg/m³ in residential lead hazard control work, and to establish medical removal protection at blood lead levels of 25 µg/dl. These findings should be considered as OSHA finalises its interim final rule for lead exposure in construction work.
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Claims that poisoning by lead—specifically lead from the solder of the cans of food carried—was a major factor in the loss of the last Franklin expedition have been examined. It is suggested that the high incidence of environmental lead in 19th-century Britain, the known behaviour of lead on ingestion by adults, the electrolytic protection by tin and iron of lead in food cans (which is confirmed by published analyses of very old cans of food), simple calculations from the published lists of provisions carried by the expedition, and alternative interpretations of the lead isotope data, lead to a number of questions which must be answered before the hypothesis is acceptable. In the meantime, it is concluded that the contribution of canned foods to body loads of lead or to any incipient ill health in Franklin's crews was trivial.
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Lead has been known and used by man for thousands of years and its toxic properties have been known for almost as long. In consequence, a wide body of legislation has built up and is designed to protect individuals in both the occupational and the general environments. At the occupational level, two types of controls are widely employed, namely, lead-in-air and lead-in-blood. Limits placed on the amount of lead-in-air are designed to ensure that individuals are not exposed to unsafe levels of lead via inhalation. Currently, the most common standard is 0.15 mg m−3 but there is a clear downward trend and levels as low as 0.05 mg m−3 are mandatory in some countries. Controls on the amount of lead-in-blood give a more direct indication of the exposure experienced by individuals. The most common level presently employed is 70 μg m−3 but, as knowledge of the health effects of lead improves, lower levels are being introduced and 50 μg m−3 is now fairly common. While women are no more sensitive to lead than men, some countries do employ lower blood-lead limits for women in the workplace in order to protect any developing foetus. This paper examines the levels currently in force in various countries and describes developments which are now taking place in the legislation that is being enacted in several parts of the world. As far as the general public is concerned, only a relatively small number of countries employ controls. Where controls do exist, however, they are set at much lower levels than for the occupational environment in order to protect the most sensitive members of the population. Several countries employ limits on lead in ambient air. Traditionally, these have been set at either 1.5 or 2.0 μg m−3, but several countries are currently considering sharp downward revisions to levels of the order of 0.5 μg m−3. A few countries offer guidance on acceptable blood levels for the general population, most commonly for children. Again downward revisions are taking place but where data are available, there is a very encouraging downward trend also in average blood-lead levels found amongst members of the population. These must be due to a combination of factors which have reduced exposures to lead. The net result is that, at least in the more industrialized countries, average blood-lead levels have fallen to extremely low levels and very few individuals can be found with blood lead levels above currently accepted levels of concern.
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The use of do-it-yourself heat guns by urban home owners for the removal of old paint from their buildings appears to be increasing. The hot air generated from these home tools is applied on the paint surface and can result in volatilization of lead in the paint being removed and in excessive lead exposure. Two cases of lead poisoning in individuals removing old lead-based paint in this manner are described. The regular occupations of both individuals were unrelated to environmental lead hazards. The recommendation is made that physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion of lead poisoning and other occupational diseases by taking a thorough environmental and occupational history including description of place of residence, hobbies, and part-time jobs, particularly when the patient presents nonspecific central nervous system and gastrointestinal symptoms.
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Atomic absorption analysis of recently discovered human remains from a 19 century British Arctic expedition indicates lead levels consistent with lead intoxication. Levels up to 30 times higher than those found in modern exposed individuals indicate that the effects of lead may have contributed to the loss of the entire expedition. Lead isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometry demonstrates that the lead found in the human tissues originated from soldered food cans supplied to the expedition.
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In a study of the elution of lead (Pb) from crystal decanters and glasses, port containing 89 micrograms Pb/l was placed in decanters and the Pb content of the wine rose steadily to 3518 micrograms/l after 4 months. Wines and spirits stored in crystal decanters for a long time contained Pb at concentrations up to 21,530 micrograms/l. In a short-term experiment white wine eluted small amounts of Pb from crystal glasses within minutes.
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Two cases of lead poisoning following exposures in the arts and crafts environment are presented. The first illustrates the impact of an unusual exposure source experienced by a female art conservator while restoring an antique Peruvian tapestry from the Chancay Period (A.D. 1000-1500). The second demonstrates the extension to the artist's family members of a lead hazard associated with pottery work. Noted were a wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical abnormalities, ranging from severe neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms to subtle alterations in the biosynthetic pathway of heme. Marked elevation of the blood lead level (up to 130 mcg/100 mL) was found in the most severe case of lead poisoning. The cases illustrate the need for industrial hygiene measures in this type of work in order to prevent lead intoxication, both in the adult artist and children in the household. However, in some instances of increased lead absorption in persons with lead-related hobbies, sources other than those associated with arts and crafts should be investigated. This alternative is illustrated by a third case, in which firearms training was the more likely source of excessive exposure. Multiple occupational factors must occasionally be considered in evaluating increased lead absorption.
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The cause of acquired megacolon in adults is often obscure. Although lead poisoning is mentioned in some standard texts as a cause, the authors have not been able to find any documented report linking the two conditions. They describe a patient with acute plumbism who presented with reversible megacolon.
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A case of lead poisoning in a female art conservator is reported. The patient had experienced excessive lead exposure while restoring an antique Peruvian tapestry from the Chancay period (1000 to 1500 AD) using a powdered pigment (cinnabar), which had been recovered from the same tomb in which the tapestry was found. Over two months, prominent neurological, gastrointestinal, and diffuse muscular symptoms developed. Severe anemia accompanied by basophilic stippling of RBCs led to the diagnosis of lead poisoning, which was confirmed by markedly elevated blood lead levels (up to 130 micrograms/dL) and impairment of heme synthetic enzymes. The severity of the intoxication necessitated chelation therapy. Chemical analysis of the antique powdered pigment showed it to be the source of lead exposure, in that it contained about 1% lead.
Workplace Lead Poisoning and Dr Alice Hamilton: A Struggle Against Indifference
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