ArticlePDF Available

Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Massage of essential oils is increasing being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in humans is rather scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Labiatae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. Thirty five healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rosemary oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure which indicate an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the stimulating effect of rosemary oil and provides evidence for its use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in humans.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Sci Pharm www.scipharm.at
Research article
Open Access
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage
with Rosemary Oil on Humans
Tapanee HONGRATANAWORAKIT
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Rangsit-
Ongkharak Road, Nakhonnayok 26120, Thailand
E-mail:
tapanee@swu.ac.th
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77: 375–387 doi:10.3797/scipharm.0903-12
Published: April 30
th
2009 Received: March 24
th
2009
Accepted: April 29
th
2009
This article is available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.090312
© Hongratanaworakit; licensee Österreichische Apotheker-Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., Vienna, Austria.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction
in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Massage of essential oils is increasing being used for the improvement of the
quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific
evaluation of the effects of fragrances in humans is rather scarce. The aim of
this study was to investigate the effect of rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L.,
Labiatae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy
subjects after transdermal absorption. Thirty five healthy volunteers participated
in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing
rate, pulse rate, skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were
assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rosemary oil
caused significant increases of breathing rate, systolic blood pressure, and
diastolic blood pressure which indicate an increase of autonomic arousal. At the
emotional level, subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and
more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding suggests an
increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. In conclusion, our investigation
demonstrates the stimulating effect of rosemary oil and provides evidence for its
use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in humans.
Keywords
Rosmarinus officinalis • Percutaneous absorption • Physiological parameters • Emotional
parameters
376 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
Introduction
The use of complementary medicines as an addition to traditional Western medical
practice has significantly increased in many countries over the past decades.
Aromatherapy is the fastest growing complementary medicine. Massage of essential oils is
increasingly being used for the improvement of the quality of life as well as for the relief of
various symptoms in patients [1–6], but scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in
humans is rather scarce. Many researchers have attempted to prove the scientific effects
of aromatherapy, most of the aromatherapy studies were not controlled studies and their
results are therefore possibly biased and not scientific. Presently, there are a variety of
approaches to evaluate the physiological and psychological effects of fragrances such as
measuring changes in autonomic parameters, e.g. heart rate, breathing rate, blood
pressure, eye-blinks, skin temperature and skin conductance [7–9], changes in brain wave
activities, e.g. electroencephalogram, contingent negative variation [10–13], changes in
mood, cognitive performances and emotion [14–17].
The interest in the use of essential rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Labiatae) as
therapeutically active agent has grown considerably. Especially in aromatherapy,
rosemary essential oil is used for mental strain or dullness and lethargy or exhaustion [18-
19]. In addition, rosemary oil reportedly helps to strengthen the brain, to improve memory,
and to fortify the heart. In animal studies, rosemary oil showed a stimulating effect by the
increase in locomotor activity in mice after inhalation or oral administration of the
substance. 1,8-Cineole is believed to be the active principle [20]. Furthermore, rosemary
oil and its main components, i.e. camphor, 1,8-cineole, had a stimulating effect on the
cerebral cortex of the rat in vitro [21]. A rosmaricine derivative (O,O,N-trimethyl-
rosmaricine) has been demonstrated to exhibit significant smooth muscle stimulate effects
in vitro [19]. In humans, rosemary oil showed a stimulating effect on the contingent
negative variation brain waves after inhalation of the oil [22]. Rosemary oil, peppermint oil,
and jasmine oil have been demonstrated to possess subjectively stimulating or arousing
properties [11, 23]. Diego and colleagues reported the electroencephalogram (EEG)
activity, alertness and mood on humans after inhalation of rosemary oil. Their results
showed that a significant decrease in EEG frontal alpha power was found after inhalation
of rosemary oil. These findings suggested an increased alertness/stimulation of the oil.
Moreover, rosemary oil produced a significant enhancement of quality of memory and
secondary memory factors in humans [15]. Atsumi et al. [24] showed that rosemary oil
enhanced free radical scavenging activity and decreased the stress hormone, cortisol
which protects the body from oxidative stress.
Although Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil is quoted extensively in many literatures as
a stimulant, there have been relatively few published controlled studies of its efficacy in
stimulating nervous system and emotional responses. Up to now, no experiments about
the effects of rosemary oil on human autonomic parameters and on emotional responses
after transdermal administration have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of
the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on autonomic
parameters as well as on emotional responses in healthy humans following transdermal
absorption.
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 377
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
Results and Discussion
In the present investigation rosemary oil was administered transdermally to healthy
subjects. Autonomic parameters, i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood
pressure (DBP), pulse rate (PR), breathing rate (BR), and skin temperature (ST), were
recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition,
subjects had to rate their mental and emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor,
calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral
arousal.
Autonomic Parameters
The mean and SEM of autonomic parameters of the control group and the rosemary group
are presented in Table 1.
Tab. 1. Mean and SEM of autonomic parameters of the control group and the rosemary
group:
ANS Control (Mean+SEM) Rosemary (Mean+SEM)
parameters Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
SBP 101.77±3.27 101.00±2.83 102.00±2.47 105.38±2.87
DBP 58.54±2.19 60.46±2.44 58.92±1.90 63.15±1.91
BR 16.83±1.07 15.74±1.12 16.78±1.24 17.75±1.62
ST 36.98±0.20 36.55±0.23 36.90±0.38 36.28±0.42
PR 68.07±1.76 66.20±1.84 68.16±2.72 64.21±2.27
SBP: systolic blood pressure DBP: diastolic blood pressure, BR: breathing rate, ST:
skin temperature, PR: pulse rate, SEM: standard error mean
SBP of subjects in the control group only marginally changed in the second trial compared
with the first trial. In contrast, SBP of subjects in the rosemary oil group increased at the
end of the second trial compared with the end of the first trial. The difference scores of
SBP between the second trial and the first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil
group are shown in Figure 1. Comparison of these difference scores revealed a
significantly larger increase of SBP in the rosemary oil group than in the control group
(P0.05). DBP of subjects in the control and the rosemary oil groups increased at the end
of the second trial compared with the end of the first trial. The difference scores of DBP
between the second trial and the first trial for the control group and the rose oil group are
shown in Figure 1. Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significantly larger
increase of DBP in the rosemary oil group than in the control group (P0.05). The
rosemary oil caused a significant increase of blood pressure. Since blood pressure is
determined by the activity of the sympathetic branch of the ANS, an increase of blood
pressure shows an increase of sympathetic tone, i.e., an increase of autonomic arousal
[25, 26].
BR of subjects in the control group decreased at the end of the second trial compared with
the end of the first trial. In contrast, BR of subjects in the rosemary oil group increased in
the second trial compared with the first trial. The difference scores of BR between the
second trial and the first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil group are shown in
Figure 1. Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significantly larger increase of
378 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
BR in the rosemary oil group than in the control group (P<0.05). Transdermal absorption of
rosemary oil led to a significant increase of breathing rate. In general, the cardiovascular
system has a relationship with the respiratory system. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity
was associated with respiratory function, namely, an increase of respiratory rate leads to
an increase of muscle sympathetic activity [27]. Furthermore, an increase of breathing rate
may cause a decrease of baroreceptor sensitivity [28].
No significant effects of the rosemary oil on ST and on PR were found (P>0.05 for all).
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
Control group Rosemary oil group
Difference score
SBP DBP BR ST PR
*
*
*
Fig. 1. The difference scores of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure
(DBP), breathing rate (BR), skin temperature (ST), and pulse rate (PR) for the
control group and the rosemary oil group, * on the top of the bars indicates
significant differences (P 0.05).
Emotional Parameters
The mean and SEM of emotional parameters of the control group and the rosemary group
are presented in Table 2.
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 379
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
Tab. 2. Mean and SEM of emotional parameters of the control group and the rosemary
group.
Emotional Control (Mean+SEM) Rosemary (Mean+SEM)
parameters Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
AT 22.31±3.33 26.75±4.13 23.87±3.34 17.60±2.41
AL 39.17±3.28 41.06±4.13 37.30±2.71 28.37±3.14
M 28.42±3.36 30.84±3.59 26.70±2.54 19.30±2.35
V 35.41±3.20 38.06±3.93 32.77±2.92 26.00±3.01
C 23.20±2.74 25.15±3.40 23.10±3.81 17.60±2.03
R 30.25±3.66 29.40±3.49 30.73±3.37 22.53±1.88
AT: attentiveness, AL: alertness, M: mood, V: vigor, C: calmness, R: relaxation, SEM:
standard error mean
Subjects in the control group felt less attentive at the end of the second trial compared with
the end of the first trial. On the other hand, subjects in the rosemary oil group judged
themselves more attentive at the end of the second trial compared with the end of the first
trial. The difference scores of subjective attentiveness between the second trial and the
first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil group are shown in Figure 2.
Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significant increase of subjective
attentiveness in the rosemary oil group compared with the control group (P0.05).
Subjects in the rosemary oil group rated themselves more attentive than subjects in the
control group. This finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation
[25, 26].
Furthermore, subjects in the control group felt less alert at the end of the second trial
compared with the end of the first trial. On the other hand, subjects in the rosemary oil
group judged themselves more alert at the end of the second trial compared with the end
of the first trial. The difference scores of subjective alertness between the second trial and
the first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil group are shown in Figure 2.
Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significant increase of subjective
alertness in the rosemary oil group compared with the control group (P0.05). Subjects in
the rosemary oil group rated themselves more alert than subjects in the control group. This
finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation [25, 26].
In addition, subjects in the control group felt less cheerful at the end of the second trial
compared with the end of the first trial. On the other hand, subjects in the rosemary oil
group judged themselves more cheerful at the end of the second trial compared with the
end of the first trial. The difference scores of subjective mood between the second trial and
the first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil group are shown in Figure 2.
Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significant increase of subjective mood
in the rosemary oil group compared with the control group (P0.05). Subjects in the
rosemary oil group rated themselves more cheerful than subjects in the control group. This
finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation [25, 26].
Moreover, subjects in the control group felt less vigorous at the end of the second trial
compared with the end of the first trial. On the other hand, subjects in the rosemary oil
group judged themselves more vigorous at the end of the second trial compared with the
380 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
end of the first trial. The difference scores of subjective vigor between the second trial and
the first trial for the control group and the rosemary oil group are shown in Figure 2.
Comparison of these difference scores revealed a significant increase of subjective vigor
in the rosemary oil group compared with the control group (P0.05). Subjects in the
rosemary oil group rated themselves more vigorous than subjects in the control group.
This finding points towards an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation [25, 26].
No significant effects of the rosemary oil on subjective calmness and relaxation were found
(P>0.05 for all).
-9
-6
-3
0
3
6
9
12
15
Control group Rosemary oil group
Difference score
Attentiveness Alertness Mood Vigor Calmness Relaxation
*
*
*
*
Fig. 2. The difference scores of subjective attentiveness, alertness, mood, vigor,
calmness, and relaxation for the control group and the rosemary oil group, * on
the top of the bars indicates significant differences (P0.05).
Transdermal absorption of rosemary oil increased the level of arousal of the autonomic
nervous system (ANS), i.e. increases of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure,
and breathing rate. Moreover, massage of rosemary oil lead to activation at the behavioral
level, i.e. subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than
before the administration of the oil. This finding points towards an increase of arousal in
terms of self-evaluation. Thus, the effects of rosemary oil by means of percutaneous
administration may be characterized by the concept of stimulating/activating effects which
has also been described for sandalwood oil, kaffir lime oil, and the essential oil of Citrus
sinensis [29–31]. In addition, our findings clearly support previous studies indicating the
stimulating effect of rosemary oil [19–24].
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 381
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
Rosemary essential oil contains abundant oxides and monoterpenes, and has the main
action of stimulating the nervous system under sympathetic control, leading to increase in
alertness, attentiveness and concentrating abilities [32]. Heuberger et al. [33] described
the effect of 1,8-cineole, the main component of rosemary oil, on the autonomic nervous
system. Their results showed 1,8-cineole increased respiration rate after administration of
the substance. Moreover, camphor, one of the constituents of rosemary oil, has been
reported to stimulate activity of the central nervous system, respiration, and circulation
[19, 21, 34] Furthermore, essential oils with a stimulating effect on the sympathetic activity,
e.g. pepper oil, estragon oil and grapefruit oil, have been reported. These essential oils
consist of some component, i.e. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are possible that
these components mediate the stimulating effect on the sympathetic activity. Therefore, it
is possible that these components such as 1,8-cineole, camphor or alpha-pinene mediate
the stimulating effect of the rosemary oil on the nervous system. Although our findings
agree with other reports, it is important to further assess on biochemical measures (e.g.,
noradrenaline), as these measures further confirm the presence of a stimulating/activating
effect.
Correlation analysis between the ANS and emotional parameters showed that the
increases of blood pressure and breathing rate were not correlated with changes in
emotional responses (data not shown). These findings suggest the effectiveness of
pharmacological mechanisms, e.g. direct interactions between fragrance molecules and
receptor sites which are involved in the regulation of ANS arousal. Due to its high
lipophilicity fragrance molecule easily penetrate the blood brain barrier and enter to the
brain following inhalation or massage [20, 35]. Therefore, one possibility that explains the
stimulating effect of the rosemary oil could be that the oil possibly stimulates the locus
ceruleus in the brain into releasing noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter that creates a
stimulating/ activating effect. The locus ceruleus is also involved in arousal and activation
[26, 36]. Another possibility that explains its effect could be that essential rosemary oil
exerts its effects by an interaction with central (e.g. hypothalamic, limbic, thalamus)
structures which control the level of autonomic and/or behavioral arousal. All our findings
indicate that differential effects of the essential oils depend on mode/route of
administration. Both pharmacological and psychological effects are active simultaneously
when the oils are administered by means of inhalation and olfactory processing occurs. In
contrast, percutaneous administration gives an evidence for pure pharmacological effect
and exclusion of olfactory processing. Therefore, in order to differentiate between
pharmacological and psychological effects of fragrances, subjective evaluation of the
odors must be prevented [29–31, 37–42].
In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the stimulating/activating effects of rosemary
oil and provides evidence for its use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in
humans.
Experimental
Subjects and essential oil
Thirty-five healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 48 years (mean age 23.40 ± 1.13
years) took part in the experiments. Demographic data for the control group and the
rosemary group are presented in Table 3. Subjects were tested in individual sessions and
382 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
randomly assigned to either the control group or the rosemary oil group according to
random numbers. They were fully briefed, gave written informed consent to all aspects of
the study and were free to withdraw at any time. Forty-eight hours prior to testing subjects
were asked to abstain from food, beverages and toiletries containing the essential oil as
well as from any stimulants (e.g. caffeine and nicotine). The experimental protocol was
approved by the Srinakharinwirot University Ethic Committees and all procedures
conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki.
Tab. 3. Demographic data for the control group and the rosemary group.
Parameters Control
group
Rosemary
group
Number of
volunteers
20 15
Sex (M:F) 8:12 7:8
Height (cm)
(mean±SD)
Male
Female
172.75±2.13
159.92±1.29
172.14±2.15
165.75±1.97
Weight (kg)
(mean±SD)
Male
Female
59.38±3.27
56.50±2.94
63.29±1.46
54.63±1.98
Rosemary oil was obtained by steam distillation from the fresh flowering top of Rosmarinus
officinalis (available from Thai-China Flavours and Fragrances Industry Co., Ltd.,
Thailand). The oil was analyzed by the gas chromatography/flame ionization detector
(GC/FID) and the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The oil mainly
contains 1,8-cinole (50.88%), alpha-pinene (14.40%) and camphor (9.10%). The minor
components are sabinene (7.12%), camphene (4.97%) and caryophyllene (2.45%).
Essential oil administration
In the experimental group, 1 mL of a 20% (w/w) solution of rosemary oil in sweet almond
oil was applied to the skin of the lower abdomen of each subject and the subjects self-
massaged the oil into the skin for 5 min. Afterwards the massage area was covered with a
plastic film in order to prevent evaporation of the oil. In the control group, 1 mL of the
placebo oil, pure sweet almond oil, was used. In both groups subjects were supplied with
pure air by breathing masks (inhalation set for adult, product no.1500004020, B+P
Beatmungsprodukte GmbH, Neunkirchen, Germany) in order to eliminate any olfactory
stimulation by nose or mouth.
Experimental protocol
The experimental protocol has been previously described by our group [29–31, 37–42].
Briefly, one session consisted of two trials of 20 min each. At the beginning and at the end
of each trial, emotional responses were assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS).
Autonomic parameters were recorded continuously during each trial. In the first trial, which
served as a control for influences of the experimental setup, the placebo substance was
administered to all subjects. In the second trial the placebo was again administered to the
control group, whereas in the experimental groups the appropriate fragrance was
administered.
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 383
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
Acquisition of autonomic parameters
Breathing rate (BR), pulse rate (PR) and skin temperature (ST) were recorded
simultaneously and in real time on the non-dominant side of the body. All parameters were
measured using Power Lab/4SP hardware (ADInstruments, Inc., NSW, Australia) including
sensors and Ag/AgCl surface electrodes. Sampling rate was 100 Hz. Systolic blood
pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured in the dominant arm
by sphygmomanometry using an automated system (Digital Electronic Model DS-155E,
Japan). Details of the recording system and procedure have been described elsewhere
[29–31, 37–42]
Acquisition of visual analogue scales (VAS)
VAS were used to assess subjective mental and emotional condition. They consisted of
100 mm lines for six items: relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood and alertness.
Each subject was asked to mark his or her feeling for each item between the two possible
extremes: relaxed and tense for the item ‘relaxation’, vigorous and feeble for the item
‘vigor’, calm and restless for the item ‘calmness’, attentive and inattentive for the item
‘attentiveness’, cheerful and bad tempered for the item ‘mood’, alert and tired for the item
‘alertness’.
Procedure
All experiments were conducted in a bright and quiet room. Ambient temperature was 24-
26°C. Upon arrival, the volunteers were interviewed about their personal data, e.g. sex,
age, height, weight. In addition, they were asked about the rating of emotional responses.
After completion of the interview and the rating scales, systolic and diastolic blood
pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Subsequently, subjects were seated in a semi-
reclined position, providing easy access to attach the ANS electrodes or probes. BR was
measured using a MLT415 surface temperature thermistor probe which registers breathing
cycles on the basis of the difference in temperature between inhaled and exhaled air. The
probe was placed at the entrance of the left nostril with non-caustic adhesive tape. PR was
measured using a MLT1010 pulse transducer. The non-invasive pulse transducer was
placed on the first phalanx of the ring finger with non-caustic adhesive tape. ST was
measured using a MLT409 fast response thermistor. The sensor was placed on the middle
of the back of the hand with non-caustic adhesive tape. The breathing mask was fitted to
the volunteer’s face to cover the nose and mouth. The oxygen was then supplied directly.
The oil or the placebo were administered as described together with recording of the
autonomic parameters. After completion of the first trial, the subjects were asked to rate
the VAS. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) were measured at the
end of the first trial. This procedure was repeated in the second trial. At the end of each
trial, the subjects were asked if they had perceived any odor during the experiment. All
subjects stated that they did not perceive any odor during the experiment.
Data and statistical analyses
The autonomic recordings of each subject were computed by trial using Chart
®
software
(ADInstruments, Inc., NSW, Australia). For each subject and every parameter the mean
value in the second trial was subtracted from the mean value in the first trial to give the
individual inter-trial difference score. For emotional ratings, on each scale the distance of
the mark from the left-hand side was measured in mm. Individual difference scores
384 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
between ratings were calculated for each item. The Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS version 11.5) was used for statistical analysis. Mann-Whitney-U-Test
analysis of variances was used in this study. The effects of fragrances on autonomic
parameters and ratings of emotional responses were determined by comparing the
difference scores between the control group and the experimental groups. Correlational
analyses between ratings of emotional responses and autonomic parameters were
performed by means of Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient.
Acknowledgement
This work was supported by grants from Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand (grant
number: 022/2008) The author is grateful to Prof. Dr. G. Buchbauer and Dr. E. Heuberger,
for experimental design suggestions.
Author’s Statements
Competing Interests
The author declares no conflict of interest.
Informed Consent & Ethical Approvals
The institutional and (inter)national ethical guides for experiments on human subjects were
followed and informed consent was obtained. See the experimental part for details.
References
[1] Dunn C, Sleep J, Collett D.
Sensing an improvement: an experimental study to evaluate the use of aromatherapy, massage and
periods of rest in an intensive care unit.
J Adv Nurs. 1995; 21, 34–40.
doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.21010034.x
[2] Brooker DJ, Snape M, Ward D, Payne M.
Single case evaluation of the effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in severe
dementia.
Br J Clin Psychol. 1997; 36: 287–296.
PMid:9167869
[3] Wilkinson S, Aldridge J, Salmon I, Cain E, Wilson B.
An evaluation of aromatherapy massage in palliative care.
Palliat Med. 1999; 13: 409–417.
doi:10.1191/026921699678148345
[4] Edge J.
A pilot study addressing the effect of aromatherapy massage on mood, anxiety and relaxation in adult
mental health.
Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2003; 9: 90–97.
doi:10.1016/S1353-6117(02)00104-X
[5] Kyle G.
Evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care
patients:Results of a pilot study.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006; 29: 148–155.
doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2005.11.003
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 385
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
[6] Yip YB, Tam ACY.
An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil
for moderate-to severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong.
Complement Ther Med. 2008; 16: 131–138.
doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2007.12.003
[7] Bensafi M, Rouby C, Farget V, Bertrand B, Vigouroux M, Holley A.
Autonomic nervous system responses to odors: the role of pleasantness and arousal.
Chem Senses. 2002; 27: 703–709.
doi:10.1093/chemse/27.8.703
[8] Inoue N, Kuroda K, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T, Fushiki T.
Different autonomic nervous responses according to preference for the odor of jasmine tea.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003; 67: 1206–1214.
doi:10.1271/bbb.67.1206
[9] Kuroda K, Inoue N, Ito Y, Kubota K, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T.
Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on
autonomic nerve activity and mood states.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005; 95: 107–114.
doi:10.1007/s00421-005-1402-8
[10] Lorig, TS, Schwartz, GE.
Brain and odor: I. Alteration of human EEG by odor administration.
Psychobiology. 1998; 16: 281–284.
[11] Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, Hermandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, McAdam V, Galamaga R,
Galamaga M.
Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations.
Int J Neurosci. 1998; 96: 217–224.
PMid:10069621
[12] Goel N, Lao RP.
Sleep changes vary by odor perception in young adults.
Biol Psychol. 2006; 71: 341–349.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.07.004
[13] Murali S, Vladimir KV.
Analysis of fractal and fast fourier tranform spectra of human electroencephalograms induced by
odors.
Int J Neurosci. 2007; 117: 1383–1406.
doi:10.1080/00207450600941130
[14] Degel J, Koester EP.
Odors: Implicit memory and performance effects.
Chem Senses. 1999; 24: 317–325.
doi:10.1093/chemse/24.3.317
[15] Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, Duckett P.
Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy
adults.
Int J Neurosci. 2003; 113: 15–38.
doi:10.1080/00207450390161903
[16] Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Cisneros W, Feijo L, Vera Y.
Lavender fragrance cleansing gel effects on relaxation.
Int J Neurosci. 2005; 115: 207–222.
doi:10.1080/00207450590519175
[17] Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K.
Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang.
Int J Neurosci. 2008; 115: 59–77.
doi:10.1080/00207450601042094
386 T. Hongratanaworakit:
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
[18] Lis-Balchin M.
Aromatherapy science: a guide for healthcare professionals.
London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006: 296–299.
[19] Albert YL, Steven F.
Encyclopedia of common natural ingredient 2
nd
ed.
New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1996: 446–448.
[20] Kovar KA, Gropper B, Friess D, Ammon HTP.
Blood level of 1,8-cineole and locomotor activity of mice after inhalation and oral administration of
rosemary oil.
Planta Med. 1987; 53: 315–319.
doi:10.1055/s-2006-962725
[21] Steinmetz MD, Vial M, Millet Y.
[Actions of essential oils of rosemary and certain of its constituents (eucalyptol and camphor) on the
cerebral cortex of the rat in vitro].
J Toxicol Clin Exp. 1987; 7: 259–271.
PMid:3694556
[22] Kubota M.
Odor and emotion-effects of essential oils on contingent negative variation.
In. Proceedings of the 12
th
International Congress on Flavours , Fragrances and Essential Oils,
Vienna, Austria. October 4–8, 1992; 456–461.
[23] Warm JS, Dember WN.
Effects of fragrances on vigilance performance and stress.
Perf Flav. 1990; 15: 15–18.
[24] Atsumi T, Tonosaki K.
Smelling lavender and rosemary increase free radical scavenging activity and decrease cortisol level
in saliva.
Psychiat Res. 2007; 150: 89–96.
doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2005.12.012
[25] Andreassi JL.
Psychophysiology: human behavior & physiological response.
London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated, 2000: 301–329.
[26] Hugdahl K.
Psychophysiology: the mind-body perspective.
England: University Press, 1995: 1–98.
[27] Goso Y, Asanoi H, Ishise H, Kameyama T, Hirai T, Nozawa T.
Respiratory modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure.
Circulation. 2001; 104: 418–423.
doi:10.1161/hc2901.093111
[28] Bernadi L, Porta C, Spicuzza L, Bellwon J, Spadacini G, Frey AW.
Slow breathing increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity inpatients with chronic heart failure.
Circulation. 2002; 105: 143–145.
doi:10.1161/hc0202.103311
[29] Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G
East Indian Sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in
humans.
Planta Med. 2006; 72: 792–800.
doi:10.1055/s-2006-941544
[30] Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G.
Chemical composition and stimulating effect of Citrus hystrix oil on humans.
Flavour Fragr J. 2007; 22: 443–449.
doi:10.1002/ffj.1820
Simultaneous Aromatherapy Massage with Rosemary Oil on Humans 387
Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 375–387.
[31] Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G.
Human behavioral and physiological reactions to inhalation of sweet orange oil.
Acta Hort. 2005; 679: 75–81.
[32] Sanders C, Diego M, Fernandez M, Field T, Hermandez-Reif M, Roca A.
EEG asymmetry response to lavender and rosemary aromas in adults and infants.
Int J Neurosci. 2002; 112: 1305–1320.
doi:10.1080/00207450290158214
[33] Heuberger E, Ilmberger J, Hartter E, Buchbauer G.
Physiological and behavioral effects of 1,8-cineole and (+/-)-linalool: A comparison of inhalation and
massage aromatherapy.
Nat Prod Commun. 2008; 3: 1103–1110.
[34] Eichholz F.
Lehrbuch der Pharmakologie..
Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1948: 304–306.
[35] Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jaeger W, Plank C, Dietrich H.
Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects upon inhalation.
J Pharm Sci. 1993; 82: 660–664.
doi:10.1002/jps.2600820623
[36] Kalat JW.
Biological psychology.
Washington: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1995.
[37] Hongratanaworakit T, Heuberger E and Buchbauer G.
Evaluation of the effects of East Indian Sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol on humans after
transdermal absorption.
Planta Med. 2004; 70: 3–7.
doi:10.1055/s-2004-815446
[38] Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G.
Relaxing effect of ylang ylang oil on humans after transdermal absorption.
Phytother Res. 2006; 20: 758–763.
doi:10.1002/ptr.1950
[39] Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Boehm C, Weber R, Buchbauer G.
Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation.
Chem Senses. 2000; 26: 281–292.
doi:10.1093/chemse/26.3.281
[40] Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G.
Evaluation of the harmonizing effect of ylang-ylang oil on humans after inhalation.
Planta Med. 2004; 70: 632–636.
doi:10.1055/s-2004-827186
[41] Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G.
Autonomic and emotional responses after transdermal absorption of sweet orange oil in humans:
placebo controlled trial.
Int J Essent Oil Ther. 2007; 1: 29–34.
[42] Hongratanaworakit T.
Relaxing effect of rose oil on humans.
Nat Prod Commun. 2009; 4: 291–296.
PMid:19370942
... This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2019. The sample size was calculated regarding the Hongratanaworakit's study (25) (1) ...
... Also, participants in the intervention group had more concentration and happiness than the control group after the end of intervention. finally, researchers said that massage with rosemary oil could be effective in reducing stress (25). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The prevalence of stress and anxiety in pre-hospital emergency personnel is high. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of inhaling the Aroma of Rosemary essential oil on stress and anxiety of emergency medical personnel. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 pre-hospital emergency stations affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences in Birjand city were randomly selected. Then, 4 stations were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 4 stations were assigned to the control group. In the next step, among personnel of each station about 8-10 participants were selected according to the inclusion criteria (39 participants in each group). Afterwards, these participants completed demographic and DASS-42 questionnaires (stress and anxiety subscales). Badges with 25% rosemary essential oil in the intervention group and badges impregnated with refined sweet almond oil were used in the control group for two hours in 3 shifts per week for one month. The anxiety and stress subscales of the DASS-42 questionnaire were completed by the participants one hour as well as 30 days after the last intervention in each group. In this study, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests were used. Results: The statistical analysisshowedthat themeanstressandanxiety scores in thetwogroups did nothave significant differences before intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the last intervention, statistical analysis showed that the mean of stress scores in the intervention group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (P < 0.05). One month after the intervention, no significant changes occurred in the mean scores of stress in intervention group (P > 0.05). In the case of anxiety, one hour after the intervention the mean scores in the intervention group were significantly decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). One months after the intervention, no significant changes occurred in the mean scores of anxiety in intervention group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Aromatherapy with rosemary essential oil can have positive effects in reducing stress and anxiety in pre-hospital emergency personnel.
... In fact, the rosemary's EO has several biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties (Ra skovi c et al. 2014), together with an anti-inflammatory activity (Sousa Borges et al. 2019) and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (Wang et al. 2012). The use in aromatherapy is also recommended (Hongratanaworakit 2009). A variability in the EO composition of rosemary varieties and cultivars was also observed (Pistelli et al. 2018). ...
Article
The hydrodistilled essential oils from eighteen samples of Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. collected in six localities of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy) during three different seasonal periods were analyzed by GC-MS for the first time. Fifty-five components were identified, representing 96.8-99.6% of the total chemical composition. All the tested essential oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenes (oxygenated 49.2-80.3%; hydrocarbons 18.7-48.3%). Among them, 1,8-cineole (26.4-49.1%), α-pinene (4.5-34.8%), camphor (1.1-18.8%) and borneol (1.7-16.2%) were the main constituents. The high amount of 1,8-cineole/α-pinene/camphor/borneol may suggest the presence of an intermediate rosemary chemotype. Statistical analysis was also performed on the essential oil (EO) composition evidenced an expected difference depending on the collection seasons, to the geographical areas and soil composition. A comparison with the essential oil composition from S. rosmarinus collected in all the other islands of Tuscan Archipelago (Italy) was also reported, together with a Multivariate Statistical Analysis.
... Rosmarinus officinalis L. of family Lamiaceae which is frequently used in diet formulations was also found to be a great source of EOs with strong antiradical, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties [38]. Rosemary EOs are also reported as neurostimulants, moderate AChE inhibitors, locomotor activity enhancers, vigor motivators, and cerebral cortex stimulators [39]. ...
... This suggests that inhalation of rosemary essential oil vapor can improve cognitive function and alertness. More recently, Hongratanaworakit [62], investigated whether similar effects are observed when rosemary essential oil is administered via the transdermal route. After topical application, significant increases in breathing rate, saturation of blood oxygen, and increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed in the rosemary group, indicating an increase in autonomic arousal. ...
... This is a novel finding, employing a scale widely used in Health research but not to the authors' knowledge in connection with Rosemary. The small effects are in keeping with the "alert" and "calm" mood scales and support the general reputation of Rosemary as an uplifting herb [25]; even if in this study it is not a consequence of inhaling the aroma. It may be the case that the physiological effects on heart rate and blood pressure at a time of stress mediate the subjective mood effects. ...
... It was also reported the aroma of rosemary essential oil enhanced secondary memory and attentional speed [24]. Additionally, Hon- gratanaworakit found rosemary oil increased alertness and atten- tiveness after transdermal administration to healthy subjects [25]. ...
Article
Objective To evaluate the effects of oral rosemary on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students. Methods In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, the 68 participating students randomly received 500 mg rosemary and placebo twice daily for one month. Prospective and retrospective memory performance, depression, anxiety and sleep quality of the students were measured using Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory at baseline and after one month. Results The scores of all the scales and subscales except the sleep latency and sleep duration components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory were significantly decreased in the rosemary group in comparison with the control group after one month. Conclusions Rosemary as a traditional herb could be used to boost prospective and retrospective memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve sleep quality in university students.
Article
Background Sleepiness during the night shift is a common complaint of shift workers, including the nurses. This study investigated the effects of inhaled rosemary oil on sleepiness and alertness of shift-working nurses. Methods Eighty shift-working nurses were selected and assigned randomly into control (n=40) and intervention (n=40) groups. Both groups completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Survey before the intervention. The intervention group received one drop of rosemary essential oil using a mask. The control group received a drop of distilled water instead, after which the questionnaires were completed for a second time. Results The sleepiness mean score in the intervention group reduced from 12.15 to 8.3, while it increased from 11.41 to 13.76 in the control group (P<0.001). The alertness mean scores changed from 4.45 to 3.25 and from 4.41 to 5.34 in intervention and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion Rosemary aroma decreased sleepiness and increased alertness in shift-working nurses.
Chapter
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of naturally occurring endogenous steroidal plant growth regulators (PGRs) which are hydroxylated derivatives of a 5α- cholestane ring structure. Both spectroscopy and X-ray based structural elucidation methods have revealed the structure of the first discovered BR, i.e. Brassinolide (BL) as (22R, 23R, 24S) - 2α,3α,22,23-tetrahydroxy-24-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5α- cholestan-6-one. Generally, the natural BRs are hydroxylated at the C-2, C-3, C-22 and C-23 positions. The most biologically active BRs differ from other BRs solely on the basis of either a 6-oxo functional group or a lactone structure at one of its rings. Presently, more than 60 types of BRs have been identified and isolated from a diverse range of plants. Recently, BRs have emerged as important PGRs that are a pre-requisite for growth and various developmental processes along with other PGRs namely auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid. Further, these BRs also provide protection to the plants under both biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, the present chapter highlights the structure, occurrence, mode of action, biosynthetic pathway, plant stress ameliorating properties of BRs and their interactions with other PGRs.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life and relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific validation is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation, the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Thirty nine healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate and skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, sweet orange oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate and pulse rate which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the sweet orange oil group rated themselves more cheerful and more vigorous than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation
Article
Full-text available
Although essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life as well as for the relief of various symptoms in patients, scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in healthy volunteers is rather scarce. Up to now, no experiments about the effects of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis) on human physiological parameters and on behavioral measures after inhalation have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on physiological parameters as well as selfevaluation in healthy human subjects following inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were blood pressure, breathing rate, skin temperature, and heart rate. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation, and vigour. Additionally, the fragrance was rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity, and effect. Sweet orange oil caused significant increases in heart rate as well as in subjective alertness, which are likely to represent a stimulating effect of the oil. These findings furnish scientific proof for the use of sweet orange oil in aromatherapy for the relief of mild forms of depression and stress in humans.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of fragrances on human arousal are not well understood. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of two monoterpenes, 1,8-cineol and (±)-linalool, on human sustained attention, physiological arousal and well-being. The substances, as well as appropriate placebos, were administered either by inhalation or by skin application to a total of 130 healthy subjects. We found that when the fragrances were applied to the skin 1,8-cineol improved speed of attentional performance in comparison to (±)-linalool, but not in comparison to peanut oil, which served as a placebo. Under the same conditions, 1,8-cineol increased respiration rate in comparison to both (±)-linalool and placebo. In the inhalation condition, neither attentional performance nor physiological arousal were affected by the fragrances, but both odorants influenced wellbeing, i.e., 1,8-cineol decreased activation and (±)-linalool increased it. In contrast, no such effects were observed in the skin application condition. Our results demonstrate that fragrances affect cognitive performance, physiological arousal and well-being as a function of the mode of administration.
Article
In this [textbook], Kenneth Hugdahl presents a comprehensive introduction to the history, methods, and applications of psychophysiology and explores other areas concerned with the "mind–body interface," such as psychosomatic medicine, behavioral medicine, clinical psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. By showing how social, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional events are mirrored in physiological processes, he gives us a clearer understanding of complex cognitive processes. This book illustrates psychophysiology's importance as a research and clinical tool and highlights its many contributions to the assessment and diagnosis of physical disorders. It also provides a framework for extending psychophysiological insights to other areas of psychology and neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments examined the relationship between time domain patterns of EEG activity and self-reports for individuals exposed to different odorants. In Exp 1, 3 odorants produced different patterns of EEG theta activity and self reports from 9 adults, suggesting that odor administration is a reliable variable in manipulating neurophysiological response systems and may influence performance and mood. In Exp 2, EEG activity was recorded while 10 adults smelled 5 similar commercial odorous chemicals and an unscented base. Ss also completed questionnaires on odor character and mood. Results indicate that few perceptual or mood differences were produced by the odors. EEG alpha and theta activity in the left and right hemispheres, however, differed depending upon the odor presented and was dissociated from self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Kaffir lime essential oil was obtained from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC–MS. The effects of kaffir lime oil on human autonomic and behavioural parameters after massage were investigated in this study. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Autonomic parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Behavioural parameters were assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS). The kaffir lime oil caused a significant increase in blood pressure and a significant decrease in skin temperature. Regarding the behavioural parameters, subjects in the kaffir lime oil group rated themselves more alert, attentive, cheerful and vigorous than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent stimulating/activating effects of the kaffir lime oil and provide some evidence for the use of kaffir lime oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief from depression and stress in humans. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects influence the motility of mice in inhalation studies under standardized conditions. A significant drop in the motility of mice was registered following exposure to these fragrances. The same results were achieved when the mice were artificially induced into overagitation by intraperitoneal application of caffeine and subsequently subjected to inhalation of fragrance compounds and essential oils. These results proved the sedative effects of these fragrants via inhalative exposure in low concentrations. Blood samples were taken from the mice after a 1-h inhalation period. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used to detect and characterize the actual effective compounds after solid-phase extraction. Serum concentrations of 42 different substances, including fragrance compounds, were found in low ranges (ng/mL serum). The results contribute to the correct interpretation of the term aromatherapy (i.e., a stimulating or sedative effect on the behaviour of individuals only upon inhalation of fragrance compounds).