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Some nutrients and antinutrients contents of mango (Magnifera indica) seed

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Abstract

Proximate composition, amino acid profile and antinutrients contents of mango seed were investigated. The results of proximate analysis show that mango seed contains (10.06 ± 0.12%) crude protein, (14.80 ± 0.13%) oil, (2.62 ± 0.02%) ash, (2.40 ± 0.01%) crude fibre, 70.12 ± 1.34%) carbohydrate and energy content (453.92 ± 4.32 KJ/100 g). The results also show that mango seed is very rich in glutamate (13.00 g/100 g of protein) while methionine has the lowest value (1.04 g/100 g of protein). Among the essential amino acids, leucine has the highest value (8.40 g/100 g of protein). This is followed by arginine which has the value of 5.17 g/100 g of protein. The results of antinutrient analysis show that mango contains alkaloid (0.01 ± 0.0 mg/100 g), tannins (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), phytate (1.44 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), cyanide (0 mg/100 g), saponin (0.04 ± 0 mg/100 g) and oxalate (1.49 ± 0.01 mg/100 g). Its trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be (18.42 ± 2.54 TIU/mg protein). The vitamin analysis showed that mango seed contained 15.27 (IU) vitamin A; (1.30 mg/100 g) vitamin E; (0.59 mg/100 g) Vitamin K; (0.08 mg/100 g) Vitamin B1; (0.03 mg/100 g) Vitamin B2; (0.19 mg/100 g) Vitamin B6; (0.12 mg/100 g) Vitamin B12 and (0.56 mg/100 g) Vitamin C. The result of mineral analysis showed that mango seed contained sodium (21.0 mg/100 g), potassium (22.3 mg/100 g), calcium (111.3 mg/100 g), magnesium (94.8 mg/100 g), iron (11.9 mg/100 g), zinc, (1.1 mg/100 g) and copper (0.1 mg/100 g). Therefore, mango seed is a nutritional promising seed.

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... This difference may be due to difference in the variety used and geographical location. The crude fibre content of orange peel flour (18.24 %) and pulp flour (22.03 %) showed higher crude fibre contents when compared to other fruits such as mango (2.40 %) [39]. The crude fibre content of the pulp was higher than that of the peel. ...
... However, wheat flour had the lowest calcium content of 43.67 mg/100g when compared with 44.67 mg/100g for each of the orange peel and pulp flours. The calcium contents of the orange peel and pulp flours were higher than 23.8 mg/100g reported for pomegranate [41] but lower than 111.3 mg/100g reported for mango seed flour [39]. Calcium is required for normal development and maintenance of bones and teeth, clotting of blood and normal heart action [34]. ...
... Calcium is required for normal development and maintenance of bones and teeth, clotting of blood and normal heart action [34]. Calcium is also essential for conducting nerve impulses and stimulating hormone secretions [39]. Values are means ± SD of 20 panelists. ...
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The synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles of 24 nm size from domestic chicken eggshell was used for production of liquid fuel (biodiesel) to test its catalytic behavior, whereas the yield of liquid fuel was also ascertained and it shows varying percentage yields base on different conditions used for the production. The highest yield was found to be 80% at catalyst concentration of 1.75 ww % and temperature of 60°C, followed by 69% yield at catalyst concentration of 0.5 and temperature of 60°C, whereas the lowest yield was found to be 58% which was found to be at the exact catalyst concentration of 0.5 and temperature of 60°C.
... Mango seed kernels contain various antinutrients which complexes essential nutrients thus decreasing their bioavailability (Fowomola, 2010). Reducing or eliminating these antinutrients is needed to prevent poisoning and improving the biological utilization of mango seed kernels. ...
... In the analyzed antinutritional factors, tannins were observed to have the lowest content (0.49mg/100g) while phytates had the highest content (2.91mg/100g) in the raw mango seeds. et al. (2017) and Fowomola (2010). The difference in the contents of antinutrients obtained in both studies may be attributed to differences in cultivars of the mango seed kernels studied and experimental procedures used. ...
... Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) content of raw mango seed kernels was 1.28 mg/100g. Similar results within this range was reported by Fowomola (2010). However, the insignificant results observed in this study was contributed by inactivation of lipoxygenase enzyme responsible for lipid peroxidation upon boiling and the nature of vitamin E as a fat soluble vitamin hence not leached or dissolved in water during fermentation, boiling and soaking (Kansson and Jagerstad, 1990). ...
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Mango seed kernels are considered as wastes although they are rich in essential nutrients and bioactive compounds for human health. Lack of commercial application (unlike oil seeds) presence of antinutrients, difficulty in processing and little information on nutritional and functional values contribute significantly to their underutilization. These factors underscore the need for processing these seeds to enhance their utilization as food or functional food. The purpose of this study was to investigate which processing technique was capable of improving selected nutrients and bioactive compounds, and reduction of the antinutritional factors to acceptable levels. Selected vitamins, minerals and antinutrients, antioxidant activity and total phenols were determined using standard methods. All the processing methods at different set conditions significantly (p<0.05) reduced the antinutritional factors of the mango seed kernels to above 38%. The results showed that, lactic acid fermentation had no significant differences in all analyzed minerals while boiling and soaking reduced the contents of the minerals except for potassium and zinc on soaked samples. The maximum percentage increase of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid was observed in samples fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and their values were 25%, 37% and 28% respectively. On contrast, boiled and soaked samples had a significant decrease in ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity and all employed processing techniques showed insignifant variations of α-tocopherol content. The results in this study indicated that lactic acid fermentation reduced the antinutrients to acceptable levels and improved the studied nutritional and bioactive compounds as compared to boiling and soaking methods, thus considered as a technique for processing mango seed kernels for functional foods.
... This difference may be due to difference in the variety used and geographical location. The crude fibre content of orange peel flour (18.24 %) and pulp flour (22.03 %) showed higher crude fibre contents when compared to other fruits such as mango (2.40 %) [39]. The crude fibre content of the pulp was higher than that of the peel. ...
... However, wheat flour had the lowest calcium content of 43.67 mg/100g when compared with 44.67 mg/100g for each of the orange peel and pulp flours. The calcium contents of the orange peel and pulp flours were higher than 23.8 mg/100g reported for pomegranate [41] but lower than 111.3 mg/100g reported for mango seed flour [39]. Calcium is required for normal development and maintenance of bones and teeth, clotting of blood and normal heart action [34]. ...
... Calcium is required for normal development and maintenance of bones and teeth, clotting of blood and normal heart action [34]. Calcium is also essential for conducting nerve impulses and stimulating hormone secretions [39]. Values are means ± SD of 20 panelists. ...
... Earlier, Dakare et al. (2014) reported 17 different AAs in MSK with nine essential AAs. In the current study valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine were found in higher amounts, which is in agreement with earlier reports on MSK (Fowomola 2010). The results indicated that variety 'Mallika' and 'Neelum' were lacking histidine, lysine and serine. ...
... The smallest amount of anti-nutritional factor is suitable for consumption. Fowomola (2010) reported on nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of the kernel in Nigeria. The results of anti-nutrient analysis showed that MSK contains tannins (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) and phytate (1.44 ± 0.01 mg/100 g). ...
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Mango is an important fruit with worldwide acceptance, extensive marketing, vast production, wide distribution, and benefits to human health. Mango wastes, namely, seed kernel (MSK) and peel, have high functional and nutritional potential. An investigation was undertaken on the mango with molecular analysis of 32 varieties to select genetically diverse genotypes followed by biochemical characterization of seed kernel of 10 varieties to assess the industrial potential of the kernel. Overall, 16 biochemical parameters and eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to characterize the varieties of mango. Proximate composition was studied for the different mango varieties. Lipid profile, amino acid profile, and mangiferin profile were also analysed. For molecular analysis, DNA was extracted from leaf tissues. Biochemical analysis of the kernel revealed significant variability for phytochemicals among the genotypes. The kernel was rich in minerals (1.15%), oil (9.235%), starch (50%), and crude protein (10.36%). Amino acid profiling through liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) suggested that kernels can be a source of eight essential amino acids. Steric and oleic acid represented the main fatty acids. Total phenol was in the range of 0.33–0.54%. Mangiferin content in the seed, analysed by LCMS, varied from 0.27 to 4.88 mg/g. Anti-nutritional factors were also detected in the kernel. The results of the current study suggest that significant varietal differences exist in mango for various phytochemicals. Based on the outcome of this experiment, it can be concluded that mango kernel is an economical source of valued food and nutraceutical components, which can be exploited in various food and feed industries.
... Despite the nutritive value of mango seed kernel, there are limitations to its use in monogastric nutrition. Fowomola (2010) reported that mango seed kernel contains anti-nutritional factors ANFs such as tannin, saponin, phytate, oxalate and cyanide. These anti-nutrients impair Keywords: broiler, performance, mango seed kernel, maize digestion and utilization of feed in livestock animals especially poultry birds. ...
... However, processing MSK by soaking has shown significant reduction in ANFs in mango seed kernel with consequent improvement in its utilization (Idris, 2012). Rocha et al. (2007);Fowomola (2010); Dakare et al. (2012) and Idris (2012) studied the effect of several processing methods on antinutritional factors in mango seed kernel. Their reports showed that animal nutritionists can bridge the gap in animal protein intake if more attention is paid to processing and utilization of mango seed kernel. ...
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The performance of broiler finisher chickens fed varied levels of mango seed kernel meal as replacement for maize was studied. Mango seed kernel was fed as replacement for maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% for treatments 1-6, respectively. 20% mango seed kernel showed the best result in feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed to gain ratio and feed cost per kilogram weight gain. This performance declined with increasing replacement levels of MSK. Thus, in the study, it is concluded that) mango seed kernel can replace maize at 20% in the diet of broiler chickens without negatively affecting performance. Higher inclusion levels beyond 20% resulted in declined feed intake and productive parameters.
... Mango seed (MS) as a potential feed ingredient and human feed byproduct, is considered a good source of soluble carbohydrate (80%, Dhingra and Kapoor, 1985), high quantities of proteins and fat (Diarra and Usman, 2008;Diarra et al., 2011), starch (58-80%, Sandhu and Lim, 2007), and high metabolisable energy in comparable to that of corn (Diarra et al., 2011). The MS contains 6-13% CP (Fowomola, 2010;Diarra et al., 2011), essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine (Fowomola, 2010;Jadhav and Siddiqui, 2010), 6-16% oil (Jadhav and Siddiqui, 2010;Medina et al., 2010;Diarra et al., 2011), and fatty acids like stearic (24-57%) and oleic (34-56%), which can be fractionated to yield olein and stearin (Gunstone, 2006). Although there are reports of the consumption of MS as porridge this by-product has limited food, feed or industrial uses in most mango producing countries thus making it readily available. ...
... Mango seed (MS) as a potential feed ingredient and human feed byproduct, is considered a good source of soluble carbohydrate (80%, Dhingra and Kapoor, 1985), high quantities of proteins and fat (Diarra and Usman, 2008;Diarra et al., 2011), starch (58-80%, Sandhu and Lim, 2007), and high metabolisable energy in comparable to that of corn (Diarra et al., 2011). The MS contains 6-13% CP (Fowomola, 2010;Diarra et al., 2011), essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine (Fowomola, 2010;Jadhav and Siddiqui, 2010), 6-16% oil (Jadhav and Siddiqui, 2010;Medina et al., 2010;Diarra et al., 2011), and fatty acids like stearic (24-57%) and oleic (34-56%), which can be fractionated to yield olein and stearin (Gunstone, 2006). Although there are reports of the consumption of MS as porridge this by-product has limited food, feed or industrial uses in most mango producing countries thus making it readily available. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of, replacing corn grains in concentrate feed mixture (CFM) with mango seeds (MS) in Damascus goat buck's diets, on productive and reproductive characteristics at prepubertal stage (weaning-prepuberty). Corn grains in CFM were replaced with mango seeds at levels of 0% MS (G1, control), 15% (G2) and 30% (G3). Results revealed that G3 showed the highest (P<0.05) LBW and average daily gain (ADG). Feed conversion ratio, all nutrients digestibility, feeding values, and economic feed efficiency were improved (P<0.05) in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Animals in G2 and G3 showed earlier (P<0.05) ages to produce the 1 st ejaculation than control. Testosterone concentration one-month prepuberty increased (P<0.05) in G2 compared with G1 and G3. Testicular measurements and scrotal circumference in G2 as well as only testicular length in G3 increased (P<0.05) in comparing with G1. Mediastinum width increased in G2, decreased in G3 compared with G1 (P<0.05). Tunica albuginea was thicker (P<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G1. Scrotal septum was wider (P<0.05) in G3 than in G2. Prostate and vascular gland were longer (P<0.05) and wider in G2 and G3 than in G1. This study concluded that replacement of corn grains with mango seeds at level of 30% in diets of Damascus goat bucks has a positive effect on productive performance. The replacement at a level of 15% MS improved reproductive characterization of bucks raised for semen production for breeding programs.
... Mango seed contains about 10.06% crude protein, and mango pulp contains about 17 types of amino acids. It was reported that the seed of mango had maximum glutamate, about 13.00 g/100 g protein), whereas methionine was found to be least in quantity (Fowomola 2010). ...
... Vitamin C and E content was estimated in dry peel to be 188-392 and 205-509 μg/g, respectively. It is assumed that in mango fruit vitamins A, C, and E constitute 25%, 76%, and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-g serving (Fowomola 2010). Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), and other B vitamins are also present in significant amounts. ...
Chapter
Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the biological constraints responsible for lowering the production and quality of stone fruit. They cause severe losses to stone fruits all over the world. These nematodes are soilborne microscopic organisms that attack plant roots. They puncture plant roots with the help of their stylet and remove cell contents, and as a result, the capacity of such damaged roots to uptake water and nutrients is drastically reduced. The symptoms exhibited by the affected plants include retarded growth, wilting, and predisposition to infection by other pathogens. The major nematodes of stone fruits are root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.), ring nematode (Criconemella spp.), dagger nematodes (Xiphinema spp.), spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.), and pin nematode (Paratylenchus spp.). The growth of peach can be suppressed by 5000 Criconemella xenoplax/100 g soil. Similarly, Pratylenchus vulnus can suppress the yield of peach by 16%. In cherry and plum, the damage threshold limit for Pratylenchus penetrans is 80/100 g soil and 320/100 g soil, respectively. Besides, nematodes such as Xiphinema sp. and Longidorus sp. are reported to transmit cherry leaf roll virus. Nematodes also aggravate the disease in the presence of other microorganisms. Meloidogyne javanica is reported to increase the incidence of crown gall of peach roots caused by bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Therefore, strategic management practices are advised to be adopted to overcome the menace of these tiny microorganisms. These include physical, cultural, biological, and chemical methods. However, the integration of all these methods has been found to yield better results in comparison to any individual practice.
... The fruit is greatly cherished for its succulence, exotic flavour and delicious taste in most countries of the world [14]. The fruit is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia widely cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world [15]. The tree reaches a height of 35 -40 m, with a crown radius of 10 m. ...
... The fruit takes from 3 -6 months to ripen naturally. The fruit in it's ripen form varies in size and colour, and may be yellow, orange, red or green when ripe, depending on the cultivar [15]. ...
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The natural process of fruit ripening is a combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular processes which can be activated or accelerated artificially by using different chemical agents. This study was carried out to examine the effects of three ripening process on the quality of avocado and mango fruits. Freshly unripe mango and avocado fruits were treated with calcium carbide powder, kerosene fumes and ripening in woven polypropylene bags. Calcium carbide treated fruits were stored for 48 hrs and all the samples were fully ripened except avocado fruit. The kerosene fumed fruits were stored for 24 hrs and then exposed to open air for another 24 hrs. Fruits ripened in empty plastic rice got ripened within 4 and 5 days for mango and avocado, respectively. The fruits were then analyzed for their physicochemical properties and sulphide and sulphate distributions using standard methods. The result revealed a decrease in TTA, pH, carbohydrate and vitamin C contents on ripening. On the other hand, moisture and TSS was observed to increase. However, accelerated ripening had no significant (p<0.05) effect on the moisture and vitamin C content of the fruits. Mango samples treated with calcium carbide recorded higher acidity (0.92%) and low pH (3.08) than those treated with kerosene (0.29% and 3.71%, respectively). Sulphide and sulphate distribution of avocado was found to increase after accelerated ripening with kerosene fumes. A decrease for sulphate (outer distribution) and increase for sulphate (inner) and sulphide (outer) was observed for mango fruits. The results also showed that ripening in woven polypropylene had no significant (p<0.05) effect on the TTA of the fruits while pH, moisture and TSS varied significantly (p<0.05) with fruit type. The use of calcium carbide for fruit ripening is not advisable.
... Mango fruit is the second most traded tropical fruit globally and fifth in terms of production (FAOSTAD, 2015;Reddy, Khan, Archana, Reddy, & Hameeda, 2016;Torres-León et al., 2016). Subject to its succulent taste and exotic flavor, mango is considered the king of fruits and is predominantly consumed by the human population in all stages of its maturity (Fowomola, 2010;Torres-León et al., 2016). Besides direct consumption, more than half of the harvested mangoes are utilized in the production of juice, nectar, puree, squash, slices, jam, and pickles, among other products (Nadeem, Imran, & Khalique, 2016). ...
... Mango kernel is rich in provitamin A (15.27 IU), vitamin E (1.30 mg/100 g db), vitamin K (0.59 mg/100 g db), and vitamin C (0.56 mg/100 g db). Other vitamins include vitamin B1, B2, B6, and B12 in quantities of 0.08, 0.03, 0.19, and 0.12 mg/100 g db, respectively (Fowomola, 2010). Vitamins C, E, and A are known as antioxidant vitamins because they reduce oxidative processes and hence vital for a healthy living. ...
Article
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit plant of family Anacardiaceae, widely grown all over the world, and is a very popular fruit in the world market. Mango fruit is the second most traded tropical fruit and fifth in terms of production globally. Large quantities of mango processing coproducts are generated (peels and seeds), which usually are discarded as waste, yet are a potential source of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and certain bioactive compounds. Mango kernel is a remarkably rich source of macronutrients and micronutrients including calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, E, K, and C. Phytochemicals with a notable therapeutic potential such as tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, polyphenols (gallotannins, flavonols, benzophenone derivatives, mangiferin, homomangiferin, isomangiferin, anthocyanins, kaempferol, and quercetin), and phenolic acids (4‐caffeoylquinic acids, caffeic, coumaric, ellagic, gallic, and ferulic acid) are reported. The phytochemicals have high antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and, antiproliferation activities and could be used for food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The nutritional composition of mango kernel constitutes 32.34% to 76.81% carbohydrate, 6% to 15.2% fat, 6.36% to 10.02% protein, 0.26% to 4.69% crude fiber, and 1.46% to 3.71% ash on a dry weight basis. The nutritional profile of the kernel suggests its usability as a food ingredient in the development of value‐added products such as mango kernel oil, mango kernel butter, mango kernel flour, and biofilms among other diverse products. This comprehensive systematic review explores mango kernel as a potential and novel food ingredient to meet the needs of a health‐conscious population. The review also provides a remedy to waste management and environmental pollution.
... Proximate Compositions of Mango Seed[18] ...
... Fatty acid composition of mango seed kernel lipid classes[20].Available Online at www.ijprbs.com Antinutrients content (mg/100 g) of mango seed[18].Each value is a mean of three determinations. ±SEM. ...
Article
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Mango ("Mangifera indica Linn.") is an extremely popular fruit which is known for its tempting taste and flavour around the globe. Several food industries produce different products of mango which results in generation of large quantity of seeds as by product which are disposed as waste. Scientific studies and ethno medicinal claims suggest that mango seeds possess broad spectrum of therapeutic and biological significance. It has been attributed to play remarkable role by virtue of its nutritional, antioxidant, antimutagenic, hypoglycaemic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal properties. These phenomenal potentials are due to the presence of many chemical constituents like macronutrients, micronutrients, polyphenols, phytosterols, fattyacids etc. It can be recognized as an easily accessible and cheap source of natural antioxidants and nutraceuticals. It is nature's wonderful gift and thus can be utilised as low cost antioxidant dietary supplements, medicines, bio preservatives and pharmaceuticals.
... Mango seed kernel is a good source of carbohydrates (58-80%), with moderate quantities of protein (6-10%), fat (6-16%) and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals [9,10]. The major problem affecting the nutritional value of MSK is that it contains various anti-nutritional factors [9]. ...
... Mango seed kernel is a good source of carbohydrates (58-80%), with moderate quantities of protein (6-10%), fat (6-16%) and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals [9,10]. The major problem affecting the nutritional value of MSK is that it contains various anti-nutritional factors [9]. Amongst these factors, tannins are largely responsible for the poor nutritional value of MSK [11]. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to evaluate effects of replacing maize with Boiled Mango Seed Kernel (BMSK) on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of Cobb 500 broiler chicken. A total of 180 unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly distributed to four dietary treatment groups in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 15 birds per replicate. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 0% BMSK+100% maize (T1), 40% BMSK+60% maize (T2), 60% BMSK+40% maize (T3) and 80% BMSK +20% maize (T4) for 48 experimental days. Feed intake, body weight change, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and mortality data were recorded. Feed offered and refused was determined daily, while body weight data was collected on weekly bases. The overall mean of daily Dry Matter Intake (DMI) were 73.8, 74.4, 64.1 and 60.9 g for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The DMI was the highest (P<0.001) in T1 and T2 as compared to T3 and T4 in the entire experimental period. The overall mean of daily body weight gain was 33.9, 34.7, 27.9, and 24.6 g for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Birds fed T1 and T2 diets were the highest (P<0.05) in body weight gain, but T4 had the lowest body weight gain performance. The overall mean of FCR were 2.18, 2.15, 2.29 and 2.48 for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively in the entire experimental period. The economic efficiency of treatment diets was 2.42, 2.76, 2.65 and 2.54 for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. In conclusion, BMSK can be used as energy source for replacing maize up to 40% as confirmed and indicated in T2 both in starter and finisher broiler diets without adverse effects on broilers performance.
... Mango seed contains about 10.06% crude protein, and mango pulp contains about 17 types of amino acids. It was reported that the seed of mango had maximum glutamate, about 13.00 g/100 g protein), whereas methionine was found to be least in quantity (Fowomola 2010). ...
... Vitamin C and E content was estimated in dry peel to be 188-392 and 205-509 μg/g, respectively. It is assumed that in mango fruit vitamins A, C, and E constitute 25%, 76%, and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-g serving (Fowomola 2010). Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), and other B vitamins are also present in significant amounts. ...
Chapter
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Stone fruits are emerging in the market in response to increased consumer desire for health-promoting foods. These fruits have an important role in mitigating nutritionally related diseases because of their high level of nutraceutical properties. They fulfill our nutritional requirements and enriching our healthy diet. These fruits are an abundant source of carbohydrates, lipids, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, phenolic, anthocyanins, and other secondary metabolites that enhance the defense-related systems in the body and help in curing different chronic diseases. This inherent potential is to be explored. The inherent level of nutrients may be affected by a number of preharvest factors including genotype, rootstock, canopy management, agronomic practices, and postharvest factors. There is an urgent need to adopt some good agricultural practices to maximize the quality and proportion. An integrated approach could reserve the quality of the fruits and their efficient use. This chapter presents the nutritional composition in different stone fruits.
... Low ash is usually an indication of low inorganic mineral content [22]. According to the study of Fowomola, [23], Mango seed kernel was found to be high in potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Potassium is an essential nutrient and has an important role in the synthesis of amino acids and proteins [23]. ...
... According to the study of Fowomola, [23], Mango seed kernel was found to be high in potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Potassium is an essential nutrient and has an important role in the synthesis of amino acids and proteins [23]. Calcium and magnesium play a significant role in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, nucleic acids and binding agents of cell walls [24]. ...
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Proteolytic enzymes are ubiquitous in occurrence and find multiple applications in various industrial sectors. Although there are many microbial sources available for producing proteases, only a few are recognized as commercial producers. Utilization and recycling of renewable resources that pose threat to the environment can be systematically carried out to bring about resource productivity needed to make human activity sustainable. In the present study, we evaluated the phytochemical, antimicrobial, and protease production ability of mango seed kernel and pineapple peels. The proximate compositions and antimicrobial analysis of Mango seed kernel and pineapple peels were evaluated using standard protocols. We evaluated the protease production of Bacillus megaterium using the mango seed kernel and pineapple peels as the carbon sources. Our results revealed that mango seed kernel has low moisture, ash and crude fibre content but has high oil and crude protein content while pineapple peels have high moisture and fibre content but low in ash, crude protein and oil content. Mango seed extract also demonstrated antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, less sensitive to B. megaterium and no activity against A. niger. However, the pineapple peel extracted is highly sensitive to B. subtilis and S aureus but demonstrated no activity against P. aeroginosa and A niger. The B. megaterium exhibited higher protease production ability when mango seed kernel was used as a carbon source at all tested concentrations. In conclusion, the information obtained from proximate and antimicrobial analysis of mango seed kernel and pineapple peels serves as a guide for the possible utilization as carbon sources for microbial enzyme production. Thus, both pineapple peel and mango seed kernel can be bio-remediated when used as carbon sources for protease production.
... The mango is known to have originated in Asia approximately 4000 years ago, and the tropical and subtropical environment favors the trees (Ubwa et al., 2014). It is native to the Indian and Southeast Asia region, particularly in Central America, Andaman Islands, Burma, China, and, Eastern India and has grown in prominence worldwide (Fowomola, 2010;Yatnatti et al., 2014). There are several varieties of this fruit across the world. ...
... basis are also available as amino acids (Mwaurah et al., 2020). As per, the kernel of the mango contains 4.45 mg/100g phenylalanine, 3.2 mg/100 g isoleucine, 3.8 mg/100 g valine, and 3.2 mg/100 g tyrosine, and 2.0 mg/100 g dry-matter methionine, respectively (Fowomola, 2010;Mwaurah et al., 2020). Conclusively, the index of essential amino acids and grade of protein is premium, which indicates good protein quality (Mwaurah et al., 2020). ...
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Mango seed kernel (MSK) is the prime by-product obtained during the processing of mango. The kernel exhibits a significant amount of valuable nutrients and bioactive compounds. The legitimate utilization of this waste can generate innumerable valuable and better-quality products, including mango kernel oils, biodegradable films, mango seed kernel flour (MSKF), bakery products, mango kernel butter, and appreciably more. This paper illustrates the corporeal, alchemical, and functional characteristics of mango seed kernel flour (MSKF) accompanying its extraction process, which is entirely empirical, and research based. This inclusive standardized review vocalizes the prominence of mango seed kernel in the livestock feed manufacturing industry, consumer packaged goods (CPG) companies, nutraceuticals, and polymer industries. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the utilization of mango seed kernel for producing various value-added products. KEYWORDS mango seed kernel (MSK); mango seed kernel flour (MSKF); waste; antinutrients; value-added products; animals
... Mango is a tropical fruit of the family Anacardiaceae and is grown in the whole tropical and subtropical areas of the world [1,2]. It is the second most traded tropical fruit and the fifth largest production globally [3][4][5][6]. In addition to direct consumption (80%), the remaining (20%) is used in the production of juices, nectars, purees, squash, slices, jams, and pickles [6]. ...
... The seed kernel is the residue left after fruit processing, such as juice extraction [7,8]. In the fruit processing industry, edible portions of mango fruits are processed into canned slices and juice, whereas seed kernels often are discarded as a waste since they have not been utilized for commercial purposes [4,5]. The disposal of mango seed waste induces ecological problems and environmental pollution which are directly related to the spreading of insects and rodents and economic problem [9,10]. ...
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Fillers improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties of bio-plastics. This research aims to synthesize and characterize biodegradable film from mango seed kernel starch reinforced with micro-pottery clay using glycerol as a plasticizer. The mango seed kernel starch was extracted and characterized in terms of solubility (75.01 ± 0.35%), swelling power (22.3 ± 0.24%), moisture content (10.33 ± 0.21%), ash content (0.41 ± 0.13%), and yield of starch (19.97 ± 0.021%). Pottery clay to starch ratios of 0, 5, 7, and 10% w/w, and glycerol to starch ratios of 0, 25, 30, and 35% w/v were evaluated. The film was analyzed for its physicochemical properties such as tensile strength, thickness, transparency, and biodegradability. Furthermore, the surface functional groups, morphology, and thermal properties of the film were analyzed using FT-IR, SEM, 3D optical surface profiler, and TGA. The control film has a tensile strength of 3.33 ± 0.008Mpa whereas the tensile strength of the reinforced film is 7.66 ± 0.012 MPa. The maximum biodegradation rate of the film is 74.38 ± 0.012 at 35% glycerol concentration. Increasing the amount of glycerol increased the solubility of the biodegradable film due to its strong affinity towards water molecules. Glycerol increases film thickness and reduces its transparency. The microstructure results indicate that clay particles are homogeneously dispersed with reduced surface roughness of reinforced films compared to the control. The mango seed kernel starch film reinforced with 5% pottery clay and 25% glycerol was selected based on tensile strength, thermal stability, and biodegradability properties. In summary, the addition of glycerol and pottery clay significantly affects the physicomechanical and thermal properties of films.
... The seed %age of different mango types varies from 9% to 23% of the fruit weight, with the kernel content ranging from 45.7 % to 72.8 % [2]. Moisture (5.9%), Ash (2.43%), crude protein (5.20%), carbohydrates (76.14%), and crude fibre (0.49%) are all contained in the mango seed kernel's proximate composition. ...
... The kernel of the mango seed is encased in a tough covering. The significance of the seed kernel Potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, and salt are abundant in mango seed kernels [2]. The current situation is Nigerian lying in the midst of abundant nutrient rich crops but suffering from malnutrition with high rate of importation, this partly stimulated investigation into alternative available crops. ...
Article
Production and quality evaluation of biscuits from mango seed kernel-Acha flour blend were studied. The biscuits were formulated with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50% of mango seed kernel (magnifera indica) flour with acha flour. The biscuits were prepared from the flour blends with other ingredient (fat, salt, baking powder and sugar) and evaluated for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The moisture, ash, protein and carbohydrate content decreased from 14.79-9.03, 2.37-2.17, 16.85-15.5 and 58.08-56.70, while the fat and fibre content increased from 5.67-8.99 and 0.40-0.90 respectively with increased in the level of mango seed kernel flour addition. Minerals and vitamins content result indicated increasing level of potassium, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin K (256.31-486.43, 11.26-12.35, 0.01-0.07 and 0.02-0.51mg/g) respectively with increased in mango seed kernel flour. While decreased level of calcium and vitamin C were 1.10-0.66 and 1.65-1.27 with increased mango seed kernel flour addition. Physical properties result indicated a decreased in the weight, height diameters, thickness and break strength 24.95-21.90, 3.15 - 2.85, 5.25 - 4.85, 1.15 - 0.75 and 1.45-0.30 respectively, spread ratio and volume 5.25-6.25 and 21.66-22.91 of the biscuit sample increased with increased in mango seed kernel flour addition. In sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 10% mango kernel flour had the highest sensory score for all sensory attribute. The biscuit blends were generally accepted up to 15% but most preferred and accepted blend biscuits is that of the 100% acha and 100% wheat flour. The mango seed kernel incorporation had significant effect and could contribute to the improvement of the flour blend biscuits.
... Despite the nutritive value of mango seed kernel, there are limitations to its use in monogastric nutrition. Fowomola (2010) reported that mango seed kernel contains anti-nutritional factors ANFs such as tannin, saponin, phytate, oxalate and cyanide. These anti-nutrients impair Keywords: broiler, performance, mango seed kernel, maize digestion and utilization of feed in livestock animals especially poultry birds. ...
... However, processing MSK by soaking has shown significant reduction in ANFs in mango seed kernel with consequent improvement in its utilization (Idris, 2012). Rocha et al. (2007);Fowomola (2010); Dakare et al. (2012) and Idris (2012) studied the effect of several processing methods on antinutritional factors in mango seed kernel. Their reports showed that animal nutritionists can bridge the gap in animal protein intake if more attention is paid to processing and utilization of mango seed kernel. ...
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The performance of broiler finisher chickens fed varied levels of mango seed kernel meal as replacement for maize was studied. Mango seed kernel was fed as replacement for maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% for treatments 1-6, respectively. 20% mango seed kernel showed the best result in feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed to gain ratio and feed cost per kilogram weight gain. This performance declined with increasing replacement levels of MSK. Thus, in the study, it is concluded that) mango seed kernel can replace maize at 20% in the diet of broiler chickens without negatively affecting performance. Higher inclusion levels beyond 20% resulted in declined feed intake and productive parameters.
... Potassium has been considered a most valuable constituent of cells that aids in controlling blood pressure and heart rate (Yatnatti et al., 2014). M. indica is also an active source of vitamin B 6 that aids in mainly brain production (Fowomola, 2010). Homocysteine level has been found to be controlled by M. indica in blood; otherwise, it may cause strokes and coronary artery diseases. ...
... M. indica also possesses a minor quantity of copper, which mainly is regarded as a cofactor in many valuable enzymes. To produce erythrocytes, copper has been utilized (Fowomola, 2010). M. indica is also highly rich in phytonutrients as pigments and antioxidants. ...
Chapter
Mango exhibits many pharmacological activities like antitumour, antibacterial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anti–bone resorption, antiallergic, hypolipidemic, immune-modulatory, and antipyretic activities. Mangifera indica's stem bark extract has been marketed in Cuba as a medicine. M. indica is a valuable medicinal herb that exhibits fruitful wound healing and hypotensive activities.
... Although MSK has low protein content, it possesses a majority of essential amino acids, higher than that of the "FAO reference protein" except for slightly lower methionine (1.2 g/100 g of protein) in MSK protein (Abdalla et al., 2007). Similarly, the presence of glutamic acid, leucine, alanine, aspartic acid, arginine, phenylalanine, valine, glycine, isoleucine, tyrosine, lysine, proline, serine, histidine, threonine, and methionine in the range of 13.0, 8.4, 6.4, 6.33, 5.17, 4.46, 3.8, 3.5, 3.23, 3.17, 3.13, 3.0, 2.93, 2.31, 2.04, and 1.04 g/100 g, respectively, in MSK proteins has been reported by Fowomola (2010). The MSK flour showed higher amounts of valine, isoleucine and lysine content as compared to other sources ( Table 2). ...
... The human body cannot synthesize all essential nutrients and vitamins (except vitamin D) and therefore must be supplemented through the diet. According to the study of Fowomola (2010), the MSK is a plentiful source of vitamins, including vitamin A (15.27 IU), vitamin C (0.56 mg/100 g), vitamin E (1.30 mg/100 g), and other essential vitamins such as vitamin K (0.59 mg/100 g), thiamine (0.08 mg/100 g), riboflavin (0.03 mg/100 g), pyridoxine (0.19 mg/100 g), and cobalamin (0.12 mg/100 g). Hence, MSK could serve as a good source of minerals and vitamins in the functional foods to defeat nutrient insufficiency. ...
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is grown worldwide and widely accepted by consumers for its sweet taste and exotic flavor. During consumption and processing of mango, a large quantity of by-products in the form of peel and seeds are generated and generally discarded as waste. Mango waste generated at domestic and industrial levels requires attention and proper solution for its disposal and value addition. In recent past, mango seed kernels and peel have received a great attention, considering their nutritional and pharmaceutical importance. Mango seeds and peel contain a significant amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and some specific bioactive compounds. The mango seed kernel contains 53.34 to 76.81% carbohydrates, 5.20 to 10.48% proteins, 9.84 to 18.0% fat/oil, and 0.26 to 10.60% crude fiber. Specifically, mango seed kernel is a remarkable source of phytochemicals having the potential to improve human health and prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Mango seed kernel possesses phytosterols, carotenoids, tocopherol, polyphenols (mangiferin, hesperidin, vanillin, penta-o-galloyl-glucoside, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, etc.), and phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, etc.). These phytochemicals are known for their high antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antiplatelet aggregation properties. Phytochemicals present in mango seed kernel showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio vulnificus, Candida albicans, and Xanthomonascampestris. This systematic review summarized the nutritional and bioactive compounds of mango seed kernel as a promising food and therapeutic agent including the methods and technologies used for the extraction of phytochemicals. Graphical abstract
... In addition, about 15 IU of vitamin A can be found in the MSK. The MSK is one of the rich sources of vitamin B12 (0.12 mg/100 g), which is higher than the recommended daily intake of the vitamin (2-3 µg); therefore, MSK can be used to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians (Table 1) [70,102]. ...
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Mango (Mangifera indica L.), known as the king of fruits, has an attractive taste and fragrance and high nutritional value. Mango is commercially important in India, where ~55% of the global crop is produced. The fruit has three main parts: pulp, peel, and kernel. The pulp is the most-consumed part, while the peel and kernel are usually discarded. Mango pulp is a source of a variety of reducing sugars, amino acids, aromatic compounds, and functional compounds, such as pectin, vitamins, anthocyanins, and polyphenols. Mango processing generates peels and kernels as bio-wastes, though they also have nutraceutical significance. Functional compounds in the peel, including protocatechuic acids, mangiferin and β-carotene are known for their antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The mango kernel has higher antioxidant and polyphenolic contents than the pulp and peel and is used for oil extraction; it’s possible usage in combination with corn and wheat flour in preparing nutraceuticals is being increasingly emphasized. This review aims to provide nutraceutical and pharmacological information on all three parts of mango to help understand the defense mechanisms of its functional constituents, and the appropriate use of mangoes to enhance our nutrition and health.
... Therefore this study is aimed at assessing the effect of locally available Mangifera indica (Duncan mango) and Citrus aurantiifolia (key lime) seeds (as fruit waste) on treatment of water turbidity. Previous studies show that these seeds contain proteins, carbohydrates (including starch), lipids, tannins and minerals (Elegbede et al., 1995;Fowomola, 2010). Since they are fruit wastes, they do not have to compete with food crops, hence they will be readily available and acquired at a low cost. ...
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Turbidity is one of the main problems associated with surface water treatment. Chemical coagulants are already being used for treatment but their enormous cost, human and environmental issues associated with their use have led to searching for alternatives like natural coagulants (plant-based). Although the use of natural coagulants for drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, the practice is still not employed in most poor developing countries, probably due to availability of materials and their usage as food crops. Therefore locally available fruit waste are now being evaluated for their suitability. Laboratory scale studies using jar test experiments were performed on river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite to analyze the effect of Mangifera indica (Duncan mango) and Citrus aurantiifolia (key lime) seeds as locally available fruit waste on treatment of water turbidity. Experiments were carried out using different turbidity levels classified as low, medium and high: 50, 100 and 150 NTU with pH kept constant at 7.25. Results indicated that the seed extracts of Duncan mango and key lime have coagulating potential. They were very effective for treatment of medium and high water turbidity. For treatment of high water turbidity using the seed extracts of Duncan mango and key lime as primary coagulants, 92.0 % and 91.1 % turbidity removal were achieved. Compared to alum, the turbidity removal effectiveness was: alum > Duncan mango seed extract>key lime seed extract for all water turbidity levels. The pH of the treated water were within neutral (basic) due to the buffering capacity of the seed extracts. Result further indicated that the seed extracts of Duncan mango and key lime have the potential for use as coagulant aids with alum as primary coagulant for treatment of low, medium and high water turbidity.
... Mango seed is a good source of vitamins. It contains 15.27 IU vitamin A and B1, B2, B6, B12 and C as 0.08, 0.03, 0.19, 0.12, and 0.56 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively (Fowomola, 2010). It can be used as an alternative source of these antioxidant vitamins. ...
... Mango is the most important tropical fruit distributed widely in the world and belongs to the genus angifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia (Fowomola, 2010), which is cultivated and grown enormously in tropical regions and distributed widely in the world. Mango fruit is well accepted by consumers because of its pleasant flavour and unique taste either as such fruit or juice. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop functional chicken patties with incorporation of mango peel powder as a fat replacer. Design/methodology/approach Low-fat chicken patties were developed by incorporating mango peel powder as fat replacer at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% level to replace 50% vegetable oil in the formulation. The product was evaluated for various physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes. Findings There was a significant difference ( p < 0.05) between control and treatments for all physico-chemical properties except product pH and protein content. The emulsion pH, emulsion stability, water activity, fat and cholesterol content of mango peel treated chicken patties were significantly ( p < 0.01) lower, however, cooking yield, moisture content, fat retention and moisture retention values were significantly ( p < 0.01) higher than control. All mineral content decreased significantly ( p < 0.05) in treatments except potassium and phosphorous content. Incorporation of mango peel powder had a significant ( p < 0.05) effect on textural and colour parameters. Sensory scores decreased significantly ( p < 0.05) in treatments, however, the product was well acceptable up to 2% of mango peel powder incorporation. Originality/value Fat has an important role in comminuted meat products, its reduction results in rubbery and dry textured products and poses difficulties in terms of flavour and texture. Meat products with high-fat content may exert a great harmful effect on human health such as obesity and high blood cholesterol level. Hence, there is a need for using suitable ingredient, which is able to replace fat without affecting quality. Mango peel may be used as suitable fat replacer at 2% to replace 50% added vegetable fat without affecting quality parameters.
... Mango is rich in nutrients; phytochemicals; polyphenolic complexes; vitamin C, E and A; carotenoids; prebiotic dietary fiber; etc. Apart from these; varying quantities of vitamins B and other essential nutrients like amino acids, copper, potassium, vitamin K and vitamin B6, pyridoxine are also present in mango (Fowomola, 2010) possibly due to varietal difference (Rodriguez et al., 2006). Bioactive complexes in mango assist human well being health by slowing carcinogenic, atherosclerotic, oxidative, angiogenesis and mutagenic actions (Cao and Cao, 1999). ...
Article
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Peel, pulp and kernel extracts of seven mango fruit (varieties) were analyzedsubjected for antibacterial and antioxidative potential. Langra peel showed good activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. aerogenes. Good zone of inhibition by chaunsa kernel (28mm) and pulp (22mm) against Streptomyces stipulate its potential as anticarcinogencancerous. Dosehri and almashil pulp and sindhri peel asserted free radical scavenger (upto 79%) determined through DPPH assay. The peel and kernel of almashil contained maximum (total) flavonoids contents (58 & 43μgQE/100mg, respectively) while; total phenolics were higher in kernel of sindhri, chaunsa, langra and hujra and almashil pulp. Reducing power potential demonstrated variation from 300 to 554μgAAE/100mg. Total antioxidant potential was maximum in hujra pulp (512μg AAE/100mg). Concluded This study concludes that mango has vast beneficial potential for prone to human health and may also be used for isolation of antioxidative and antimicrobial as well as a protein kinase inhibition agent.
... Maximum iron content was observed in ' Amrapali' and 'Bombay green' (Figure 5). This is in agreement with content (11.9 mg 100 g -1 ) reported by Fowomola (2010). Calcium is an important mineral responsible for bone development and muscle contraction in human body. ...
Article
Introduction – Mango kernels contribute to a major segment of waste from mango processing industry. Utilization of these resourceful kernels can alleviate problems of environment and sustainability. Materials and methods – Kernels sourced from 14 mango varieties were analyzed for their protein, fat, tannins, antioxidant activity and minerals. Mango kernel flour (MKF) after pre-treatment was incorporated at 5 to 10% in semolina-based fusilli pasta. Results and discussion – The protein content amongst the varieties ranged from 5.40 to 7.29%. Dehydrated mango kernels were found to possess very high phenolics (309.66–535.16 mg GAE 100 g-1) and antioxidant activity (5.00–27.28 μmol TE g-1). They were found to be a rich source of potassium (519.0–912.4 mg 100 g-1), magnesium (114.0–198.0 mg 100 g-1), iron (3.8–12.8 mg 100 g-1) and calcium (106.6–263.6 mg 100 g-1). Hydrothermal treatment was found effective in minimizing the bitter taste perceived on consuming the mango kernel flour (MKF). Incorporation of MKF in pasta was found acceptable on sensory, textural and cooking parameters. Ten percent MKF pasta was enriched in both phenolics (220 mg GAE 100 g-1) and antioxidant activity (100.68 μmol TE g-1). Conclusion – Hydrothermally treated mango kernel can be successfully used as functional ingredient for enhancing phenolics and antioxidants in food.
... Mango seed waste in Indonesia reaches 1 million tons per year, while it can be used at least around 200 thousand tons per year. Mango seeds contain crude protein, oil, ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrates [8] [9]. Based on the problems above, brake pad needs to be made by utilizing mango seeds as a natural fiber material with a mixture of magnesium oxide and brass. ...
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The problem of brake pads are too hard cause a short-lived drum or discs. Whereas, if they are too soft, the brake pads life will be short. This study aims to analyze the specific wear and hardness properties of the composite with mango seed powder, brass powder, and magnesium oxide reinforced with epoxy resin matrix. The variable of this study used the mass fraction of mango seed powder: brass powder: magnesium oxide. The wear test used the ogoshi method, while the hardness test used the vickers hardness test tool concerning the ASTM E384- 17 standard. The results showed that the specific wear and composite hardness values were close to the mechanical properties of KEV-2700 brake pads, namely composites with a composition of 35% mango seed powder, 35% brass powder, 20% magnesium oxide, and 10% epoxy resin at 3.29 × 10 ⁻⁷ mm ² /kg, and 214.38 N/mm ² . This composition recomended for manufacture brake pads.
... The phytate content of the flours containing modified acha flour (CMS and EMS) decreased compared with the flours containing native acha flour (NMS). Echendu et al. (2009) reported 0.0122 mg/g phytate content for 100% acha flour while a range of 0.054 and 4.87 mg/g was reported by Fowomola (2010) for mango kernel seed flour. Anti-nutritional factors such as phytates form complexes with metal ions such as zinc, iron and calcium in the human system hence inhibiting their bioavailability and the proteins needed for growth and development (Soetan and Oyewole, 2009). ...
Article
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Gluten-free flours that are nutritionally balanced with appropriate functional characteristics were developed by supplementation of native and modified acha flours with protein, dietary fiber and antioxidants-rich mango kernel and soy cakes flours. Acha flour was subjected to chemical and enzymatic modifications. The proximate, mineral compositions, bioactive and antinutrients properties of the composite flours were evaluated. The water content of the composite flours with native and chemically modified acha flour was between 7.62 and 9.30%, while that of enzymatic acha flour was between 10.12 and 10.79%. However, samples made with 20 and 30% incorporated mango kernel flour had around 13 and 19% increase in the protein content respectively, others including sample with enzymatically modified acha flour had lower protein content. On the other hand, all samples with enzymatically modified acha flour had between 83 and 100% increase in fibre content. The Na/K ratio of all the samples were less than one, as nutritionally required. Samples with enzymatically modified acha flour had best total flavonoid (0.03-0.77 mgGAE/g), total phenol (2.35-11.99 mgTAE/g) and DPPH radical scavenging activities (58.29-94.02%) contents. In addition, samples with enzymatically modified acha flour had the least antinutritional values. Although all the samples had values that were significantly (p ≥ 0.05) different, the samples had significant protein, dietary fiber, minerals and antioxidants contents, while the antinutritional contents were well lower than the standard.
... Globally, the mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important tropical fruit (Ibarra et al., 2015). Mango belong to the genus Angifera, comprising of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae (Fowomola, 2010). 44.14% of the total world production of mangoes comes to the credit of India, making it the largest producer of mangoes. ...
Article
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Mango is known as "king of fruits". During its processing, major byproducts like peels and seeds kernel are generally dumped as waste. The mango kernel contributes about 15-20% of the fruit weight. The macronutrients present in it are starch, fat and protein. These seed kernels do contain ample amount of polyphenols, phytosterols as campesterol, sitosterol and tocopherols. It contain high levels of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds, thus could be used as a functional food ingredient. To determine the potential use of it, the study was planned to assess the proximate composition, functional properties and shelf life of mango seed kernel flour and develop value added product by incorporating it. The study revealed that mango seed kernel flour possesses good amount of fiber and Energy. The functional properties of mango seed kernel flour reported that it can be used to develop value added food product. In the present study, mango seed kernel flour was used in different variations to develop value added Rusk. The Rusk developed by substituting 5 per cent of mango seed kernel flour for refined wheat flour was found to be highly acceptable by all the panelists. The shelf life study indicated that it can be stored safely for a period of 30 days with the microbial load within the permissible limit. The food cost of the rusk was calculated as Rs. 11.92/lO0g which indicates that it can be consumed by people of all socioeconomic status.
... The carbohydrate level in mango kernel flour meaning they can be exploited as energy source foods. Findings of present investigation related to the values of mango kernel were in close conformity with values described in literature with slight differences by Fowomola [12].The observed differences may be due to varietal variations, environmental factors like climate and location and method of preparation etc. ...
Article
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The study focused on the production of muffins incorporated with mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel flour, replacing some of the refined wheat flour. Several formulations were developed at levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent of Mango kernel flour in preparation of muffins while maintaining all other ingredients as constant. The prepared mango kernel flour was first evaluated for proximate composition and then prepared muffins were evaluated for proximate composition and sensory properties to select the best acceptable formulation. Proximate Composition of Mango kernel flour (variety: Karthakolommaban) revealed that the moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber content and carbohydrates as 7.79 ±0.20, 9.36 ±0.07, 9.59 ±0.04, 1.76 ± 0.16 and 70.69 % respectively. Organoleptic parameters of prepared muffin samples revealed that mango kernel flour in the muffin formulation significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected the acceptance of the product. Overall scores indicated highly acceptable for F1-10%, F2-20% and F3-30% comparable to control (F0). Thus, considering the acceptance, muffins with 30 % mango kernel flour incorporation stood as the optimized product. According to the color characteristics, the amount of darkness in the samples increased as the polyphenol content of the muffin increased due to the addition of mango kernel flour. Comparison of the proximate compositions of organoleptically accepted muffins (30% mango kernel flour) and control muffin samples revealed an increase in moisture content, protein, fat, and ash in the mango kernel incorporated muffin sample. The study concluded that incorporating 30% mango kernel flour results in an acceptable muffin with improved nutrient profile and sensory properties
... MSKM waste contain nutrient of importance (Fowomola, 2010) which can be utilised in aquaculture. Processing methods have been adopted to reduce the effect of anti-nutritional factors of MSKM on livestock (Diarra and Usman 2008;Diarra et al., 2010;Dakare et al., 2010). ...
... Sisa lebihan buah-buahan boleh menimbulkan masalah dalam komuniti kerana menghasilkan bau yang kurang menyenangkan (Kong et al. 2018). Biji buah mangga merupakan sisa pemprosesan yang terbesar daripada keseluruhan buah mangga iaitu hampir 40-50% daripada berat basah mengikut varieti (Fowomola 2010). Kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa biji buah mangga mempunyai potensi dalam pembangunan produk makanan. ...
Article
Buah mangga boleh dimakan segar atau diproses menjadi jus dan jeruk tetapi hanya isi digunakan dan bijinya dibuang. Kajian terdahulu mendapati bahawa biji mangga mempunyai lemak seperti lemak koko. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan komposisi pemakanan dalam sisa biji jeruk mangga (SBJr) dan sisa biji jus mangga (SBJs); jumlah lemak antara SBJr dan SBJs melalui pengekstrakan bendalir lampau-genting (SFE); serta komposisi asid lemak dan takat lebur gelincir (SMP) terhadap lemak koko komersil (LK). Analisis proksimat menunjukkan bahawa SBJr dan SBJs mengandungi karbohidrat, lemak, protein, abu dan kelembapan. Pengekstrakan lemak SBJr dan SBJs menggunakan SFE (suhu 72 °C; tekanan 42.4 Mpa; 60 min; 4 mLmin-1 CO₂) menunjukkan lemak SBJr lebih tinggi(p<0.05) (6.4%) berbanding SBJs (3.37%). Lima jenis asid lemak ditemui dalam SBJr, SBJs dan LK iaitu asid palmitik, stearik, oleik, linoleik dan linolenik dengan kandungan (%) yang berbeza(p<0.05) bagi semua sampel. SMP bagi lemak SBJr (34.2 °C) lebih tinggi (p<0.5) diikuti oleh SBJs (32.17 °C) dan LK (30.27 °C). Walaupun ciri-ciri kimia lemak SBJr dan SBJs berbeza dengan LK, tetapi kedua-duanya berpotensi sebagai pengganti LK yang lebih baik kerana mengandungi asid lemak tak tepu yang lebih tinggi(p<0.05) dan asid lemak tepu yang lebih rendah(p<0.05) daripada LK. Penggunaan SBJr lebih praktikal kerana kandungan lemaknya tinggi dan SMP lemak ini sesuai dengan keadaan cuaca tropika.
... The biscuits had high crude fiber contents (8.15-8.89%) when compared to mango-based biscuit that contained 2.40% [37]. Thus, the biscuits are good source of fiber which is significant in human nutrition. ...
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Objective: The broad objective of the study was to determine the effects of microwave and sun drying on the chemical composition, functional, and biscuit making properties of sweet orange peel flour. Methods: Peels were prepared from sweet orange fruits and cut into thin pieces. The peel pieces were dried in a domestic microwave oven at power outputs of 200, 400, 600, and 800 W. Flour samples were prepared from the dried peel pieces, evaluated for chemical composition and functional properties, and compared with of the sun dried sweet orange peel flour. Each of the flours was used to substitute 10% wheat flour in biscuits, which were assessed for the chemical composition, physical, and sensory properties. Results: The microwave oven dried sweet orange peel flour contained higher amounts of ash, fat, fiber, and carbohydrate than the sun dried peel flour. The microwave drying decreased the total phenol content of the flour from 2.04 to 0.78 mg/g and the flavonoids content from 1.17 to 0.71 mg/g. The water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling capacity increased with the intensity of the microwave drying. The ash, crude fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and total phenol and flavonoids contents of the biscuits containing microwave dried peel flour were slightly (p>0.0.5) higher than those of the biscuits containing sundried peel flour. The diameter and height of the biscuits were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the microwave oven drying. The spread ratio of the biscuit containing sun dried peel flour was 9.15 and decreased to a range of 7.530-5.595 for the biscuits containing microwave oven dried flour. The break strength and the weight of the biscuits increased with the power output of the microwave oven. The scores for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the biscuits containing sweet orange peel flour dried at 200 and 800 W were not significantly different (p>0.05). However, the scores for color and taste were higher for the biscuit containing the peel dried at higher power out puts (600 and 800 W) than the biscuits containing the peels dried at low power outputs (200 and 400 W). Conclusion: It is concluded that microwave oven drying at 200 W improved the proximate composition and phytochemical contents but decreased the functional properties of the sweet orange flour. The biscuit containing sweet orange peel flour dried at 200 W was preferred to the others for the chemical composition, physical, and sensory properties.
... Moreover, the MSK contains around 15 IU of vitamin-A. MSK is a source of vitamin-B12 (0.12 mg/100 g), which is more than the recommended daily intake of the vitamin (2-3 μg); hence, MSK can be used to prevent vegetarians from developing vitamin B12 insufficiency (Fowomola, 2010;Njiru et al., 2014). However, these vitamins can be influenced by a variety of pre-and post-harvest conditions, as well as the maturity stage, because vitamin-B production is related with the state of cell differentiation (Aslam et al., 2010). ...
Article
Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the most popular fruits in the world. During processing, the byproducts such as peel, seed and kernel are produced, which are high in bioactive components. There is a need to utilize them to formulate food products or extract the functional components. This paper provides an overview about the nutritional composition of mango byproducts besides discussing the bioactive compounds (BACs). The manuscript also explores the existing evidences on the biological activity of BACs and the potential of mango peel and seed kernel to develop value-added foods and beverages. Mango kernel is a great source of macronutrients and micronutrients with a relatively high antioxidant and polyphenolic content, whereas mango peels are rich in protocatechuic acids, mangiferin and β-carotene. These BACs demonstrate numerous biological activities including anti-oxidant antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. One of the promising strategies to utilize these byproducts is the development of different value-added food products such as bakery products, meat products, and dairy-based products for improving their phenolic compounds, fiber content, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity. This review thus illustrates the nutraceutical and pharmacological properties of mango byproducts and their appropriate use to enhance nutrition and health.
... The iron content (90.66 mg/100 g) in the Mangifera indica seed kernel was higher than, hence not comparable with, that (11.90 mg/100 g) reported by Fowomola [15] but for mango (M. Value presented as mean ± SEM of sample size, n = 4 rats. ...
... Mango (Mangifera indica) is a globally important fruit that is grown in over 100 countries, particularly in Asia. Mangoes belong to the Mangifera genus, which has a vast variety of tropical fruiting tree in the Anacardiaceae family of flowering plants (Fowomola, 2010). Due to its chemical composition, it is popular as the "King of Fruits" and it is the world's second most traded tropical fruit as well as fifth in overall production. ...
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Many fruits and vegetables are processed, resulting in a considerable amount of waste that could contaminate the environment. The most important fruits farmed and processed in Egypt are apricot, peach, and mango. This work aimed to study the proximate composition, functional characteristics, and mineral content of seed kernel flours from apricot, peach, and mango. According to the results, oil makes up the majority of the apricot and peach kernels (48.52 and 41.26 %, respectively), followed by protein (27.67 and 25.51 %, respectively), while carbohydrates was the majority in the mango kernel (74.10 %), followed by oil (12.70 %). The removal of lipids from apricot, peach, and mango kernels increased the protein amount significantly (47.37, 43.34 and 13.31 %; respectively). Defatted apricot, peach, and mango kernel flours were shown to have high functional qualities during the study. All of the defatted kernel flour samples included significant quantities of minerals making them viable food supplements in the future.
... The seed is regarded as a biowaste due to its physicochemical and nutritional profile. The presence of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, and dietary fiber were reported by the authors of [160,193]. Vitamins A, C, and E are considered to be antioxidant vitamins, suggesting that due to their presence in mango seeds, the seeds could act in reducing oxidative processes/stress, directly conferring health benefits. This was confirmed and reported by the authors of [194], who listed the ethanolic extract from mango seed as one of the top four extracts with increased antioxidant potential. ...
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The utilization of mango by-product is a good source of potentially valuable for food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The large amount of waste disposed by the food industries cause serious environmental problem. Food preservation and processing become vital in order to utilized and maintain its organoleptic properties like taste, flavor, and appearance. It is a great source to utilize the mango by-products by the processing of different product formation as mango breakfast cereal, mango dried chutney and mango shrikhand. The aim of this present review is to summarize the current information about the utilization of mango by-Products to reduce the disposal problem and enhance the organoleptic properties which can be used as food fortification.
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Premature Totapuri mangoes (Mangifera indica L. var. Totupura) often drop during strong winds, while star gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) fruits are often underutilized and/or considered as agricultural waste, resulting in the huge loss of agricultural revenue. Thus, the present study aimed to develop new value-added star gooseberry (SGFSS), and Totapuri mango fruit sugar syrup (TMFSS) and evaluated for microbial, nutritional, organoleptic, and functional characteristics. TMFSS displayed higher amount of total sugars (722.66 mg/mL), polyphenols (4.51 ± 0.21 GAE mg/mL), flavonoids (0.48 ± 0.02 QE mg/mL), and tannins (4.87 ± 0.09 TAE mg/mL) and have better antioxidant activity compared to SGFSS. Contrary to this SGFSS have a higher amount for minerals (11287.55 ± 13.39 mg/L) and yeasts and molds (2.97 ± 0.03 Log CFU/mL). Both TMFSS and SGFSS possess diverse volatile compounds and are free form pathogenic microorganisms with an acceptable amount of biogenic amines 38.60 ± 0.06 mg/L and 45.31 ± 0.83 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, 1:5 and 1:3 dilution of TMFSS and SGFSS displayed high hedonic scores for color, aroma, and flavor. The findings collectively suggest the effective preparation of TMFSS and SGFSS that may deliver significant nutrition and value, counteracting the issues of malnutrition and revenue loss.
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Mango kernel oil was extracted using methanol and hexane solvent. The physicochemical properties, oxidative stability parameters, fatty acid composition, and chemical properties for the extract were determined experimentally. The free fatty acid, peroxide, iodine and saponification value obtained are (2.30 ±0.28 % oleic acid, 2.40 ± 0.07Meq/KOH, 85 and 178) and total oil yield (8.64±0.19%,), refractive index at 37 o C (1.45 ±0.00), p H (0.91 ± 0.00g/dm 3), specific gravity (4.62g/m 3) and color (4.62±0.01mg/L). The fatty acids constituents are stearic acid (44.99%) and oleic acid (39.42%), while the percentage of saturated to unsaturated are 55.51% and 39.91% respectively.
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Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a Ca(2+)-dependent, cyclosporine A-sensitive, non-selective inner membrane permeabilization induced by a wide range of agents or conditions, which has often been associated with necrotic or apoptotic cell death. When mitochondria isolated from livers of rats treated with the natural occurring glucosyl xanthone mangiferin (40 mg/kg body weight) were exposed in vitro to Ca(2+), they underwent CsA, NEM, and ADP-sensitive high amplitude swelling and associated membrane potential dissipation, release of pre-accumulated Ca(2+), oxidation of thiol groups, and depletion of GSH, without changes in the NAD(P)H redox state. The same treatment reduced the phosphorylation rate of mitochondria and the resting respiration by around 4 and 11%, respectively, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organelle. The in vitro exposure of untreated mitochondria to mangiferin plus Ca(2+) also resulted in oxidation of thiol groups, in the same way that the compound inhibited the Ca(2+)-induced peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane lipids. The spectrum of mangiferin during its oxidation by the H(2)O(2)/HRP system showed a characteristic absorption peak at 380 nm, which decreased immediately after reaction was started; two isosbestic points at around 336 and 412 nm, with a blue shift in the position of the maxima absorption of mangiferin were observed, suggesting their conversion into one oxidation product. Glutathione abolished this decrease of absorbance, suggesting that the oxidation product of mangiferin forms adducts with GSH. We propose that Ca(2+) increases levels of mitochondria-generated ROS, which reacts with mangiferin producing quinoid derivatives, which in turn react with the most accessible mitochondrial thiol groups, thus triggering MPT. It seems probable that the free radical scavenging activity of mangiferin shifts its anti-oxidant protection to the thiol arylation. An interesting proposition is that accumulation of mangiferin quinoid products would take place in cells exposed to an overproduction of ROS, such as cancer cells, where the occurrence of MPT-mediated apoptosis may be a cellular defence mechanism against excessive ROS formation.
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Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) consists of a defined mixture of components (polyphenols, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids and microelements). It contains a variety of polyphenols, phenolic esters, flavan-3-ols and a xanthone (mangiferin), as main component. This extract has antioxidant action, antitumor and immunemodulatory effects proved in experimental models in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The present study was performed to investigate the genotoxicity potential activity of Vimang assessed through different tests: Ames, Comet and micronucleus assays. Positive and negative controls were included in each experimental series. Histidine requiring mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains for point-mutation tests and in vitro micronucleus assay in primary human lymphocytes with and without metabolic activation were performed. In addition, genotoxic effects were evaluated on blood peripheral lymphocytes of NMRI mice of both sexes, which were treated during 2 days with intraperitoneal doses of M. indica L. extract (50-150 mg/kg). The observed results permitted to affirm that Vimang (200-5,000 microg/plate) did not increase the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test in presence or not of metabolic activation. Results of Comet assay showed that the extract did not induce single strand breaks or alkali-labile sites on blood peripheral lymphocytes of treated animals compared with controls. On the other hand, the results of the micronucleus studies (in vitro and in vivo) showed Vimang induces cytotoxic activity, determined as cell viability or PCE/NCE ratio, but neither increased the frequency of micronucleated binucleate cells in culture of human lymphocytes nor in mice bone marrow cells under our experimental conditions. The positive control chemicals included in each experiment induced the expected changes. The present results indicate that M. indica L. extract showed evidences of light cytotoxic activity but did not induce a mutagenic or genotoxic effects in the battery of assays used.
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Following oxidative stress, modifications of several biologically important macromolecules have been demonstrated. In this study we investigated the effect of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L (Vimang), its main ingredient mangiferin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on energy metabolism, energy state and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in a red blood cell system. Analysis of MDA, high energy phosphates and ascorbate was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under the experimental conditions, concentrations of MDA and ATP catabolites were affected in a dose-dependent way by H2O2. Incubation with Vimang (0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 microg/mL), mangiferin (1, 10, 100 microg/mL) and EGCG (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 microM) significantly enhances erythrocyte resistance to H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production. In particular, we demonstrate the protective activity of these compounds on ATP, GTP and total nucleotides (NT) depletion after H2O2-induced damage and a reduction of NAD and ADP, which both increase because of the energy consumption following H2O2 addition. Energy charge potential, decreased in H2O2-treated erythrocytes, was also restored in a dose-dependent way by these substances. Their protective effects might be related to the strong free radical scavenging ability described for polyphenols.
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This work was carried out to investigate the pulp composition of four mango cultivars (Haden, Tommy Atkins and Ubá) at the ripening stage in relation to three components with antioxidant potential (total phenolics, carotenoids and ascorbic acid). Total phenolic compound content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and total carotenoid content by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. The contents of beta-carotene and total vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences were found among the four mango cultivars in all the components analyzed. The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 48.40 (Haden) to 208.70 mg/100 g (Ubá); total carotenoid from 1.91 (Haden) to 2.63 mg/100 g (Palmer); beta-carotene from 661.27 (Palmer) to 2,220 microg/100 g (Ubá) and total ascorbic acid ranged from 9.79 (Tommy Atkins) to 77.71 mg/100 g (Ubá). These results corroborated previous information that mangoes are a good source of antioxidants in human diet.
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Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Cameroon. Data on the bioavailability of carotenoid in fruits currently consumed in Cameroon are scarce. To assess the systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed as juice, fresh or dried slices. Two groups of seven healthy volunteers (24 and 25 years of age; body mass index: 21 and 22 kg/m(2) respectively for subjects fed mango and papaya), were submitted to three types of meal treatments (juice, fresh and dried fruit). On the experiment day, meals served to fasting subjects during breakfast, included bread, yogurt and one of the three forms of fruit. All the treatments lasted only one day during which blood samples were collected three times; during fasting (T(0)), 4 h (T(4)) and 8 h (T(8)) after the test meal. The carotenoids and retinol contents were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. From the major carotenoids present in papaya and mangoes, lutein, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were found in considerable amounts. Lycopene and cryptoxanthin that were the major carotenoids in papaya samples appeared in low amounts in the chylomicrons. Significant correlations were observed between these carotenoids (at T(0), T(4) and T(8)). The three forms of consumption contributed to the rise of serum retinol levels. A comparison between the three forms revealed that papaya and mangoes consumed in form of juice or fresh fruit are the best forms because they had higher bioavailability values. Association of these different forms of consumptions could lead to a better availability of these fruits throughout the year and therefore efficiently contribute to improve vitamin A status of the population.
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A series of studies was conducted to determine the biochemical attributes food value and possible and uses of the seed kernels of the following mango varieties: Edward, Haden, Julie, Madoe, and Sherry. Raw mangoes were found to be composed of about 69-78% mesocarp, 5-32% endocarp and 2.65-6.96% seed kernels. Raw mango seed kernels contain about 3- 9% protein, 4-10% fat, 2-7% ash and antinutritional factors of about 2-5 g/kg DM phytic acid and 5-16 mg/kgDM hydrocyanogen. Although these antinutritive factors were reduced in both roasting and boiling treatments, boiling was more effective than roasting in Haden where it was reduced by only 4%. In Edward where roasting was more effective reduction by 13% was only achieved. Levels of reduction of cyanogens using cooking method ranges between 33-72% while for phytic acid it was between 5-41%. Roasting and boiling do not completely remove the antinutritive effects of the raw mango seed kernels.
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Cassava has attained the status of either dominant staple or co-staple in certain parts of the world where it contributes more than 50 per cent of the energy requirements of a bulk of the population. The nutritional hazards of cassava dependency require careful attention. It is necessary to adopt a systems approach and study the whole, often complex, food/nutrition system so as to understand it and arrive at a more realistic appraisal of the problems of cassava-dependence However, increasing dependence on cassava may result in gradually increasing quantities of its products being fed to young children. Replacement of more protein-rich weaning foods by cassava products should be avoided in order to safeguard young children from cassava toxicity and protein deficiency. Increased production of cassava as part of a food system should also involve the production of complementary foods to be consumed with cassava. Alternatively, the strategy should involve farming systems that ensure enough increases in cassava production to allow the resulting profit to be used to purchase all of the food that the farmer needs. A systems approach to the study of a cassava-dependent culture reveals many intervention opportunities in production, harvesting, processing, storage, marketing, home preparation, and transportation that can significantly minimize nutritional hazards while holding high potential for improving human welfare.
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Condensed tannins and related phenols in 13 samples of red Guatamalan common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined by four chemical assays. The results were highly correlated although the degree of variation among the samples differed greatly according to the assay. In rat feeding trials, tannin content was negatively correlated with net protein ratio, a measure of protein quality, and positively correlated with protein digestibility. Neither correlation was statistically significant due primarily to the low tannin content of the diet. Methionine supplementation not only improves the protein quality but may also play a role in metabolic detoxification of tannin.
Article
The nutritive potentials of some cowpea varieties such as Ife Brown, Ife Bimpe, IT84E-124, K59 and TVX716 and some under-utilized edible legumes grown in Nigeria such as pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), lablab bean (Dolichos lablab), mucuna bean (Mucuna sp.) and Sphenostilis sternocarpa have been evaluated with respect to their proximate chemical composition, mineral content and some endogenous toxic constituents. The cowpea varieties contained on the average 22.5 g crude protein (CP), 2.60 g crude fibre (CF), 5.89 g either extract (EE) and 3.36 g ash/100 g DM while the under-utilized legumes contained 21.7, 6.10, 2.86, and 3.56 g/100 g DM for CP, CF, EE and ash respectively. Distinct varietal differences were observed for EE values as indicated by the coefficients of variation (CV) of 102% for cowpea and 60.8% for the under-utilized legumes. The CF content of the under-utilized legumes were generally higher than those of the cowpea varieties. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in both the cowpea varieties and the under-utilized legumes with mean values of 1.45 and 1.66% respectively, while P was the least abundant with 13.1 and 8.50 ppm, respectively. There were marked intra-varietal differences in the P content as shown by the high CV of 84.0 and 73.9% for the cowpea varieties and the other legumes. The cowpea varieties generally had higher levels of thioglucosides, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and lower haemagglutinating activity (mean values of thioglucosides: 3.86%, of TIA: 13.9 mg/g protein and of haemagglutinating activity: 13.0 HU/mg N respectively), than the under-utilized legumes with mean respective values of 1.22%, 9.84 mg/g protein and 22.7 HU/mg N. The nutritional implications of these anti-nutritional components were discussed and some reasons adduced for the under-utilization of some of these legumes inspite of their apparent similarity in nutritional quality to the more commonly consumed grain legumes.
Article
There is no longer any doubt that high plasma levels of LDL are atherogenic and that lowering them can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, but the specific events induced by high levels of LDL in the artery wall are only now being elucidated. Once these processes are understood, we may find that there are ways to intervene at the level. Recent advances have brought us closer to being able to do this with regard to the uptake of LDL by macrophages and the development of the fattty streak, the earliest lesion in atherogenesis. Studies both in vitro and in vivo support the hypothesis that LDL undergoes an oxidative modification that targets it for uptake by the macrophage through a specific receptor - the acetyl LDL or scavenger receptor. Intervention studies in the LDL receptor-deficient animal model for atherosclerosis (the WHHL rabbit), using probucol as an antioxidant, show that the progression of the fatty streak can be slowed under conditions that do not lower plasma cholesterol levels. Much more remains to be done to establish the clinical relevance of these findings. Nevertheless, the experimental data available to date encourage aggressive additional research on the oxidative modification of LDL. This review has emphasized the oxidative modification of LDL because the evidence for its occurrence in vivo and for its role in atherogenesis is already persuasive. However, we recognize that with further study additional modifications may prove to be equally important or even more important. For example, the glycation of LDL may help explain the increased susceptibility of diabetic subjects to atherosclerotic complications. If so, rigid control of hyperglycemia may reduce such complications. As we learn more about these and other postsecretory modifications of LDL, we can hope to find ways of preventing them. To the extent that modifications of these kinds play an important part in atherogenesis, we may be able to intervene and obtain protection beyond that obtained by lowering plasma LDL levels.
Article
The food intake depression and subsequent decrease in growth of rats fed tannic acid was determined at the 4, 5 and 8% level. Pair feeding and supplementation with additional casein, choline or methionine were used to investigate the mechanism of growth depression. Depression of growth occurred due to factors in addition to those which reduce feed intake. No anemia or fatty livers were observed with 5% tannic acid in the diet. Supplementation with choline or methionine had no effect but supplementation with casein improved growth. The toxicity of the tannin decreased with increase in age and weight of rat. Older and heavier rats were able to recover and adjust to tannin in the diet.
Article
Quantitative thin layer chromatography was used to estimate the saponin content of 20 common food plants and also of foods prepared from some of them. The food plants found to be richest in saponins were chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), soya beans (Glycine max), lucerne (alfalfa) sprouts (Medicago sativa) and varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (navy beans, haricot beans, kidney beans). Saponins were not destroyed by processing or cooking. They were present in falafels (prepared from chickpeas), canned baked beans, canned broad beans and protein isolate from faba beans. However, the saponin content of a fermented soya bean product (tempe) was only half that of whole soya beans. Guar meal (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) contains saponins but only a trace could be detected in samples of guar gum.
Article
Raw seed kernels of local mango varieties (Magnifera indica L.) were analyzed for composition, levels of trypsin inhibitors, tannins, cyanogenetic glucosides, in vitro protein digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) as being effected by boiling, autoclaving as well as irradiation at 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The air-dry mango seed kernels (MSK) contained CP 70 g kg-1, EE 128 g kg-1, and tannins 67 g kg-1. Compared with raw kernels the contents of trypsin inhibitory activity (30 TIU g-1) and cyanogenetic glucosides, measured as hydrocyanic acid (71 mg kg-1), were lowered by boiling, autoclaving and radiation treatments. Tannin content (67.2 g kg-1 in raw kernels) was decreased only by boiling or autoclaving, but irradiation did not introduce any effect. The low in vitro protein digestibility and AMEN values of raw MSK were enhanced by processing. The improvements were paralleled to reductions in trypsin inhibitory activity, cyanogenetic glucosides and tannin contents. Greater improvements were noticed with boiling and autoclaving than with irradiation alone. Autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation treatment up to 20 kGy increased the in vitro protein digestibility and AMEN by 139% and 72%, respectively. These results indicate that tannins, trypsin inhibitors and cyanogenetic glucosides are responsible for the poor nutritive value of MSK. The effects of feeding 200 g kg-1 raw or processed MSK on the performance of broiler chicks were examined. The inclusion of raw kernel affected body weight gain and feed consumption, while weight gain of birds fed the autoclaved (30 min) plus irradiated (20 kGy) kernels was significantly more improved than by the other treatments. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly different between groups fed the processed MSK. The results showed that the combination of autoclaving for 30 min plus irradiation up to 20 kGy upgraded the nutritive value more than the other tested treatments and that this method is most effective in processing MSK to be used as animal feed.
Article
The structure and rheological properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from industrialized mango pulp were investigated. Soluble fraction (SF) 2 was heterogeneous on high performance size exclusion chromatography, giving two peaks as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detectors. The presence of starch in SF2 was demonstrated by a positive iodine reaction and by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The presence of pectic polysaccharides was shown by a calorimetric method, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and carboxyl reduction. The main pectic polysaccharide was polygalacturonic acid; type I rhamnogalacturonan was also detected. Analysis of the rheological properties of SF2 showed a pseudoplastic behavior up to 3 g x l(-1). 'Creep and recovery' tests and analysis performed under a dynamic state revealed a weak gel character for solutions at concentrations of 15, 20 and 30 g x l(-1).
Article
Quantitative determination of amino acids is made simpler and more rapid by an instrument for automatically recording the ninhydrin color value of the effluent from ion exchange columns. The influent buffer, freed of air, is pumped at a constant rate through a column of sulfonated polystyrene resin. The effluent is met by a capillary stream of ninhydrin reagent delivered by a second pump. The color is developed by passing the mixture of reagent and effluent through a spiral of capillary Teflon tubing immersed in a boiling water bath. The absorbance of the resulting solution is measured continuously at 570 and 440 mμ as it flows through a cylindrical glass cell of 2-mm. bore. The peaks on the recorded curves can be integrated with a precision of 100 ± 3% for loads from 0.1 to 3.0 μmoles of each amino acid. A hydrolyzate of a protein or peptide may be analyzed in less than 24 hours. The more complex mixtures characteristic of blood plasma, urine, and mammalian tissues can be analyzed in 2 days. The instrument is applicable in principle to detection of ninhydrin-positive constituents in the effluent from various types of Chromatograph columns.
Article
Chemoprevention has become an effective cancer control modality; however, the search for novel agent(s) for the armamentarium of cancer chemoprevention continues. We argue that agents capable for inhibition of promotion stage of tumorigenesis with the ability to intervene at several critical pathways in the tumorigenesis process will have greater advantage over other single-target agents. Lupeol, a triterpene, is the principal constituent of common fruit plants such as olive, mango, fig and medicinal herbs that have been used to treat skin aliments. Lupeol has been reported to possess a wide range of medicinal properties that include strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects. In the present study, we show that Lupeol possesses antitumor-promoting effects in a mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical application of Lupeol to CD-1 mouse against 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel markers of skin tumor promotion. We found that topical application of Lupeol (1-2 mg/mouse) 30 min prior to TPA (3.2 nmol/mouse) application onto the skin of CD-1 mice afforded significant inhibition, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, against TPA-mediated increase in (i) skin edema and hyperplasia, (ii) epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, and (iii) protein expression of ODC, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase. As of the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in tumor promotion, we next determined the effect of topical application of Lupeol to mouse skin against these signaling pathways. We found that Lupeol treatment to mouse skin resulted in the inhibition of TPA-induced (i) activation of PI3K, (ii) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr(308), (iii) activation of NF-kappaB and IKKalpha, and (iv) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. The animals pretreated with Lupeol showed significantly reduced tumor incidence, lower tumor body burden and a significant delay in the latency period for tumor appearance. At the termination of the experiment at 28 weeks, 100% of the animals in TPA-treated group exhibited seven to eight tumors/mouse, whereas only 53% of the mice receiving Lupeol prior to TPA treatment exhibited one to three tumors/mouse. These results for the first time provide evidence that Lupeol possesses antiskin tumor-promoting effects in CD-1 mouse and inhibits conventional as well as novel biomarkers of tumor promotion. We suggest that Lupeol is an attractive antitumor-promoting agent that must be evaluated in tumor models other than skin carcinogenesis.
Article
An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g).
Article
Mangoes (Mangifera indica) are rich in phenolic acids as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The phenolics have prominent medicinal properties. Among six important commercial mango cultivars (Deshi, Langra, Chausa, Mallika, Dashahari and Amrapali) tannic acid was maximal in Mallika, while gallic acid was maximal in Chausa and all other varieties. Caffeic acid was maximal in Langra followed by Chausa and Amrapali. Many of the pharmacological properties attributed to mango might be due to the presence of phenolic acids in fairly significant amounts.
Article
We searched for the protective effect of a natural extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on age-related oxidative stress. Healthy subjects were classified in two groups, elderly (>65 years) and young group (<26 years). The elderly group received a daily dose of 900 mg of extract (three coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, before meals) for 60 days. Serum concentration of lipid peroxides, serum peroxidation potential, extracellular superoxide dismutase activity (EC-SOD), glutathione status (GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH ratio)) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined before (both experimental groups) and 15, 30, and 60 days after treatment (only elderly group). We confirmed the existence of an age-associated oxidative stress in human serum as documented by an age-related increase in serum lipoperoxides and GSSG and a decrease in serum antioxidant capacity and EC-SOD activity. Vimang tablet supplementation increased EC-SOD activity (p <0.01) and serum TAS (p <0.01). It also decreased serum thiobarbituric reactive substances (p <0.01) and GSSG levels (p <0.05). We suggested that the antioxidant components of the extract could have been utilized by the cells (especially blood and endothelial cells), sparing the intra- and extracellular antioxidant system and increasing serum peroxil scavenging capacity, thus preventing age-associated increase in GSH oxidation and lipoperoxidation. Vimang tablets prevent age-associated oxidative stress in elderly humans, which could retard the onset of age-associated disease, improving the quality of life for elderly persons.
Article
The mango, Mangifera indica L., is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals, suggesting that it might have chemopreventative properties. In this study, whole mango juice and juice extracts were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activity. Antioxidant activity of the mango juice and juice extracts was measured by 3 standard in vitro methods. The results of the 3 methods were in general agreement, although different radicals were measured in each. Anticancer activity was measured by examining the effect on cell cycle kinetics and the ability to inhibit chemically induced neoplastic transformation of mammalian cell lines. Incubation of HL-60 cells with whole mango juice and mango juice fractions resulted in an inhibition of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase. A fraction of the eluted mango juice with low peroxyl radical scavenging ability was most effective in arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Whole mango juice was effective in reducing the number of transformed foci in the neoplastic transformation assay in a dose-dependent manner. These techniques provide valuable screening tools for health benefits derived from mango phytochemicals.
Article
Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.
Article
Antinutrient, proximate, mineral, fatty acid, vitamin, and amino acid analyses of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) seeds were carried out. The results of antinutrient analysis showed that H. crepitans seed contains alkaloid (5.0 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g), tannins (5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g), phytate (53.0 +/- 6.0 mg/100 g), cardiac glycoside (1890.0 +/- 1.5 mg/100 g), and saponin (2.2 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g). Its trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be 30.27 +/- 1.86 TIU/mg of protein. The results of proximate analysis showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in crude protein (25.16 +/- 0.22%), crude oil (51.43 +/- 0.22%), and energy content (2,621.891 +/- 6.357 kJ/100 g). H. crepitans seed also contains 1.85 ppm Na, 3.4 ppm K, 0.088 ppm Ca, and trace amounts of Mg, Fe, and Zn. The results also showed that H. crepitans oil contains 20.12% oleic acid, followed by stearic acid (3.0%), while linoleic acid is present at the lowest level (0.03%) among the other acids. The Hura oil has a high saponification value (127.16 +/- 0.18 mg/g) and low acid value (3.56 +/- 0.16 mg/g). The results also showed that the average molecular weight of glycerides is higher in the oil as reflected by the ester value (123.6 +/- 0.73 mg/g). The iodine value of Hura oil was found to be 65.62 +/- 0.73%. A low peroxide value (6.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g) was observed in Hura oil. The results showed that H. crepitans seed contains 328.1 IU of vitamin A/100 g, 0.398 mg of vitamin E/100 g, and 0.26 mg of vitamin K/100 g. The results also showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in glutamate (14.41 g/100 g of protein) and deficient in cysteine (0.78 g/100 g of protein). Among the essential amino acids, arginine has the highest value (5.97 g/100 g of protein). This is followed by leucine, at 4.16 g/100 g of protein. Therefore, H. crepitans seed is a nutritionally promising seed.
Article
Mutations that occur through DNA strand breaks are the precursors of the variety of genetic disorders including cancer. Life style and dietary habits are considered as major determinants in causation and prevention of genetic diseases. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that plant derived compounds have the potential to prevent a number of genetic diseases. Therefore, use of nutraceuticals can be an important and convenient tool for chemoprevention. Polyphenolic phytochemicals such as epigallocatechin gallate flavonoids quercetin, genistein, curcumin and resveratrol constitute a class of nutraceuticals with notable efficacy in preclinical models of carcinogenesis. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene present in mango, is a biologically active compound that has been reported to possess a number of pharmacological properties in the in vivo and in vitro studies. In the present study, we investigated the effects of lupeol on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), induced DNA strand breaks in mouse skin, using an alkaline unwinding assay. Increasing doses of lupeol (50-200 microg/mouse) were given topically, prior or after the single topical application of DMBA (100 microg/mouse) with the sampling time of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Both pre and post treatment of lupeol showed significant (p<0.001) preventive effects in DMBA induced DNA strand breaks in dose and time dependent manner. The pre-treatment of lupeol at the dose of 200 microg/mouse showed 56.05% prevention, and post-treatment at the same dose showed 43.26% prevention, at 96 h time interval, against DMBA induced DNA strand breakage. The results suggest preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in Swiss albino mice.
Article
Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product.
Article
To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight) consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.
Article
The perception of chemoprevention lies still in its infancy. Intervention, to slow down, arrest or reverse the process of carcinogenesis, by the use of either natural or synthetic substances individually or in combination therapy has emerged as a promising and pragmatic medical approach to reduce cancer risk. Pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes exemplified by lupeol [lup-20(29)-en-3b-ol], are principally found in common fruit plants such as olive, mango, fig, etc. Although, lupeol exhibits an array of biological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-mutagenic and anti-malarial activity both in in vitro and in vivo systems yet, extensive exploration in regard to establish its role as chemopreventive compound is warranted. Interest in developing lupeol based potent anti-neoplastic agents, has led to the discovery of a host of highly active derivatives exhibiting greater potencies and better therapeutic indices. This review asserts on the chemopreventive prospects of lupeol and reveals potential chemoprevention drug targets, central to which are the cell cycle regulatory pathway genes and tries to explain the mechanism operating behind its action.
Article
The contents of secondary plant substances in solvent extracts of various byproducts (barks, kernels, peels, and old and young leaves) in a range of Brazilian mango cultivars were identified and quantitated. The results show that the profiles of secondary plant substances such as xanthone C-glycosides, gallotannins, and benzophenones in different byproducts vary greatly but are fairly consistent across cultivars. The free radical scavenging activity of the solvent extracts was evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay and revealed dose-dependent antioxidant capacity in all extracts. Four (mangiferin, penta- O-galloyl-glucoside gallic acid, and methyl gallate) of the major phenolic compounds detected were also evaluated in additional in vitro bioassay systems such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric reducing ability of plasma. Mangiferin in particular, detected at high concentrations in young leaves (Coite = 172 g/kg), in bark (Momika = 107 g/kg), and in old leaves (Itamaraka = 94 g/kg), shows an exceptionally strong antioxidant capacity.