Scaling-Up of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Isolated from Multiple Niches

University of Freiburg, Germany
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2012; 7(6):e39885. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039885
Source: PubMed


Dental pulp (DP) can be extracted from child's primary teeth (deciduous), whose loss occurs spontaneously by about 5 to 12 years. Thus, DP presents an easy accessible source of stem cells without ethical concerns. Substantial quantities of stem cells of an excellent quality and at early (2-5) passages are necessary for clinical use, which currently is a problem for use of adult stem cells. Herein, DPs were cultured generating stem cells at least during six months through multiple mechanical transfers into a new culture dish every 3-4 days. We compared stem cells isolated from the same DP before (early population, EP) and six months after several mechanical transfers (late population, LP). No changes, in both EP and LP, were observed in morphology, expression of stem cells markers (nestin, vimentin, fibronectin, SH2, SH3 and Oct3/4), chondrogenic and myogenic differentiation potential, even after cryopreservation. Six hours after DP extraction and in vitro plating, rare 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells were observed in pulp central part. After 72 hours, BrdU positive cells increased in number and were found in DP periphery, thus originating a multicellular population of stem cells of high purity. Multiple stem cell niches were identified in different zones of DP, because abundant expression of nestin, vimentin and Oct3/4 proteins was observed, while STRO-1 protein localization was restricted to perivascular niche. Our finding is of importance for the future of stem cell therapies, providing scaling-up of stem cells at early passages with minimum risk of losing their "stemness".

Download full-text


Available from: Irina Kerkis, Feb 03, 2014
  • Source
    • "Apical papillae have a responsibility to form and extend tooth roots at the developing stage [53], [54], indicating that apical papillae are an active tissue biologically. Cryopreserved deciduous teeth stem cells can also maintain the stem cell property and multipotency [22], [23]. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation of deciduous dental pulp did not affect the biological and immunological properties of SHED. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25-30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "A reduction of doubling time was strongly correlated to the increase of the in vitro age. This important result for the future of stem cell therapies is supported by the important work of Lizier et al. [31], who found that they could scale up the stem cell production at early passages with minimum risk of losing their stemness. This could be explained by the intriguing results of Mokry et al [30] that correlated the in vitro aging–related doubling time changes to telomere shortening. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work is to study how biological properties, such as proliferation and commitment ability, of human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) relate to the age of the donor. Human dental pulps were extracted from molars of healthy adult subjects aged 16 to >66 years. DPSCs were isolated and cultured in the presence of osteogenic, neurogenic, or vasculogenic differentiation medium. Proliferation ability was evaluated by determining doubling time, and commitment ability was evaluated by gene expression and morphological analyses for tissue-specific markers. The results confirm a well-defined proliferative ability for each donor age group at an early in vitro passage (p2). DPSCs from younger donors (up to 35 years) maintain this ability in long-term cultures (p8). Stem cells of all age donor groups maintain their commitment ability during in vitro culture. In vivo tests on the critical size defect repair process confirmed that DPSCs of all donor ages are a potent tool for bone tissue regeneration when mixed with 3D nanostructured scaffolds.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In response to intense stress, the tumor protein p53 (p53) tumor suppressor rapidly mounts a direct mitochondrial death program that precedes transcription-mediated apoptosis. By eliminating severely damaged cells, this pathway contributes to tumor suppression as well as to cancer cell killing induced by both genotoxic drugs and non-genotoxic p53-reactivating molecules. Here we have explored the role had in this pathway by the prolyl-isomerase Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1), a crucial transducer of p53's phosphorylation into conformational changes unleashing its pro-apoptotic activity. We show that Pin1 promotes stress-induced localization of p53 to mitochondria both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we demonstrate that upon stress-induced phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46 by homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2, Pin1 stimulates its mitochondrial trafficking signal, that is, monoubiquitination. This pathway is induced also by the p53-activating molecule RITA, and we demonstrate the strong requirement of Pin1 for the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis by this compound. These findings have significant implications for treatment of p53-expressing tumors and for prospective use of p53-activating compounds in clinics.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 31 August 2012; doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.112.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Cell death and differentiation
Show more