Article

Blue Ocean Strategy: From Theory to Practice

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Abstract

By focusing on strategies of competition in established industries, companies and researchers have overlooked the value of creating new market spaces where there are no competitors.These market spaces are called “blue oceans.” Although established industries (“red oceans”) are growing increasingly cluttered, few companies are currently attempting to create new markets. The U.S. wine industry provides an example of how various tools and frameworks can be applied in the creation of blue oceans.One such framework, the strategy canvas, captures the current states of play in the known market space.The four actions framework reconstructs buyer value elements by posing four key questions that challenge an industry's strategic logic and business model.When a particular wine manufacturer applied the four actions framework to the strategy canvas, it created a wine whose strategic profile broke from the competition and created a blue ocean. A third tool, the eliminate-reduce-raise-create grid, pushes firms to act on all four questions posed by the four actions framework and to create a new value curve.When expressed through a value curve, an effective blue ocean strategy has three complementary qualities: focus, divergence, and a compelling tagline. Embedded in the value curves of an industry is a wealth of strategic knowledge on the current status and future of a business. For example, when a firm's value curve zigzags, it means that the firm does not have a coherent strategy.(SAA)

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... In addition to the competitive strategy chosen by the organization, it is necessary to consider the competitive environment of the market to which it belongs, whether it is blue ocean or red ocean [23]. The red ocean represents situations in the market where several companies have the same offer, making the competition constant. ...
... On the other hand, blue ocean is the opposite market situation, given that it allows companies to offer their products with reduced competitive presence [31]. However, blue ocean situations are generated from red oceans of other industries, that is, the organization from a large market area chooses a more specialized branch and invests in the creation of new products, thus managing to unlock new spaces in the market [23]. ...
... It was then that the already CEO, Dr. Lisa Su made the decision not to compete in the mobile market at all. This market filled with opportunity would quickly become a gigantic red ocean, a space full of competitors [23]. On the other hand, the company redirected its efforts and time towards what they were fundamentally good at, the chip market. ...
... Bu alanlar kırmızı ve mavi okyanuslar olarak düşünülmektedir. Kırmızı okyanus mevcut piyasa olarak adlandırılan tüm endüstrileri temsil etmektedir (Kim ve Mauborgne, 2004;2005a;2005b;2005c). Kırmızı okyanusta endüstri sınırları tanımlamış ve kabul edilmiştir. ...
... Sayfa 247 | 2020; 18 (2); İktisadi İdari Bilimler Sayısı Kırmızı okyanusta rakipleri alt ederek başarılı bir şekilde yol almak her zaman önemli bir unsurdur ve iş hayatının bir gerçeği olarak da kalacaktır (Kim ve Mauborgne, 2005a;2005b). Ancak, 21. yüzyılda teknolojinin ilerlemesi sayesinde ürün çeşitliliği artmış, çok çeşitli ürünler piyasaya sürülmeye başlamıştır. Ticari bariyerlerin ortadan kalkması ile birlikte, ürün ve ürün fiyatları global olarak aynı anda ulaşılabilir olmuştur. ...
... Bu durum ürünlerin metalaşması, fiyat savaşlarının artması ve kar marjının küçülmesini kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır (Kim ve Mauborgne, 2004;2005a). Sonuç olarak arz talebi aşmıştır ve işletmelerin rekabet ettikleri var olan endüstrilerin daha ötesine gitmeleri gerekmektedir (Kim ve Mauborgne, 2005b). ...
... Further on this study is analyzed only the differentiation strategy through its instruments and their impact on organizational success. Pursuing differentiation strategy is considered as the most important strategy to achieve sustainable competitive advantage for an organization (Porter, 1996;Kim & Mauborgne, 2005;Banker, Mashruwala, & Tripathy, 2014), and to increase the firm's performance (Islami et al., 2020). It is worth mentioning that, despite the advantages of using differentiation strategy (Lapersonne, 2017) determined its limitations. ...
... Answering on these three basic questions makes enable to create a distinctive value proposition, and as a result, company and buyers will achieve (win-win game). Kim and Mauborgne (2005) showed that value proposition of the blue ocean strategy makes buyers win. Attending principles of this strategy approach create conditions for a firm to differentiate its product or service with low-cost. ...
Article
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Considering pursuing the differentiation strategy makes enable the organization to earn its success and to create, capture and sustain economic value. Despite this importance, it is relatively absentminded in empirical studies at the conceptual level. In response to this gap, the purpose of this paper is conceptualizing differentiation strategy model, developing the instruments of differentiation strategy, and testing the relationship between dimensions of the value chain, differentiation in the supply, competitive advantages, and organizational performance, using data from a sample of 123 manufacturing organizations. On this study, quantitative methods were applied to measure the proposed relationships, and questionnaires were used as a tool in gathering primary data. Relationships proposed in the framework were tested using structural equation modeling. The results of this study indicated that pursuing the differentiation strategy leads on increasing competitive advantage and improving organizational performance. Also, it pointed out that the manufacture organizations' success is determined by their ability to be flexible on strategic planning and on integrating internal and industrial settings factors on differentiation strategy creating. This research contributes to strategic literature clarifying a successful differentiation model helping the practitioners on increasing the ability and knowledge on pursuing the differentiation strategy.
... Market creation relates to the extent to which an innovation has the potential to create a new market (Hamel & Prahalad, 1991) and introduces a different set of features compared to existing products and services that is attractive to a new class of customers (Christensen et al., 2015;Darroch & Miles, 2011;Govindarajan & Kopalle, 2006). It refers to the degree to which a consortium's innovation can unlock untapped demand (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005) or address a new customer segment (Gilbert, 2003), thereby creating the potential to develop and expand an entirely new market or market segment. It relates to the magnitude of change in customer value propositions achieved through differences in features and performance characteristics relative to established products and services (Charitou & Markides, 2002;Govindarajan & Kopalle, 2006). ...
... • Blue ocean strategy as an alternative manifestation of high market creation that creates uncontested market space and complements existing offerings. Hamel and Prahalad (1991); Govindarajan and Kopalle (2006); Christensen et al. (2015); Kim and Mauborgne (2005); Charitou and Markides (2002) Ecosystem embeddedness The extent to which the development and commercialization of an innovation is embedded in a community of organizations and individuals who can affect or are affected by the innovation (e.g. suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders). ...
Article
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Plain English Summary SMEs in publicly funded research consortia often benefit from the diversity of partners but diversity also influences how partners write up the grant proposal. They put more emphasis on embeddedness in the ecosystem but less on technological novelty. SMEs often collaborate with organizations of different institutional backgrounds, such as other firms, universities, or research organizations, in publicly funded innovation projects. While these collaborations are often beneficial, SMEs need to coordinate with their project partners about how to set priorities in the grant proposal. Our analysis, which is based on the proposal texts of 207 EU-funded research consortia, reveals that increasingly diverse consortia put more emphasis on the embeddedness into an innovation ecosystem but less on achieving technological novelty. Our research has implications for SMEs that seek to collaborate for innovation and for public funding bodies that can better assess the likely innovation impact of a grant proposal.
... Since competition tends to become increasingly cut-throat in mature markets, firms respond by introducing new products designed to attract new markets (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005;O'Connor & Rice, 2013). For example, Amazon was originally an online bookseller, quickly turned into an e-retailer and e-platform provider, and then expanded into developing technical devices (e.g., Alexa and Kindle). ...
... We define market-creating innovations as innovations that do not cater to the mature market segment in which the firm is currently active. Such innovations open up a firm's new product development (NPD) to new target groups by enabling the firm to enter an industry, product category, or market segment in which it has not yet been active, or that do not as yet exist (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005;Molner, Prabhu, & Yadav, 2019;Sethi, Iqbal, & Sethi, 2012). ...
Article
Paradoxically, mature firms facing competition in mature markets attempt to enter new markets, yet often pursue incremental ideas in their new product development process (NPD), abandoning ideas with market-creating potential in the idea evaluation phase at the fuzzy front end of NPD. We assume that idea evaluators' information-processing style (rational or intuitive) plays a dominant role in this context. Previous research has shown that the holistic information-processing style of intuitive individuals helps them with tasks that involve generating creative ideas, and we expect it to also be beneficial during idea evaluation for sensing an idea's potential to create new markets. In addition, we predict that the systematic procedure to be followed in formalized NPD idea evaluation will stifle this ability. Drawing on data from 138 corporate idea evaluators, we show that evaluators with an intuitive cognitive style are more likely to emphasize new market creation than those with a rational style, and that leeway serves as a moderator. By linking information-processing style and leeway we provide a potential explanation for why highly formalized organizations find it difficult to develop innovations with a high market-creation potential, and we discuss the practical implications of this.
... Client focus encourages PGN to continue to provide precision services with customer needs in accordance with the characteristics of each customer segments and industrial sectors. Kim and Mauborgne (2005) agree with Mintzberg that states that companies need to develop in checking out market area that has not been exploited by other industrial competitors, the aim is to compete in surpass within these limits. Therefore strategic thinking is to question the standing in an innovative way in developing product offerings, to provide these Page 596 ...
... Depart from understanding the next customer experience poured with the fulfillment of needs and based (customer needs and expectation) the use of technology is a form of innovation PGN services in order to increase satisfaction (customer satisfaction) and customer engagement (customer engagagment). Client focus encourages PGN to continue to provide precision services with customer needs in accordance with the characteristics of each customer segments and Kim and Mauborgne (2005) agree with Mintzberg that states that companies need to develop in checking out market area that has not been exploited by other industrial competitors, the aim is to compete in surpassing those who are within these limits. Therefore strategic thinking is to question the standing in an innovative way in developing product offerings, to provide these offers to target markets by creating sustainable competitive blessings in the process. ...
Article
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Natural gas is currently not only used for transportation and households, but has entered the world of industry. Currently, PGN and Pertagas are working along to improve gas infrastructure that is more efficient with maximum standards. PGN understands the needs and satisfaction of Customers throughout the natural gas supply chain to get optimal added value for all customer segments, the company provides products and services tailored to the needs of customers ranging from Residential and Small Businesses, Commercial and Industrial (Business) Customers and Transportation Customers. PGN develops through the development and rotation of the national economy. The company's business is aimed at creating good value for the internal company, stakeholders, to the nation and the wider community. Currently PGN's business is able to improve the quality of life from the use of gas which is more efficient and efficient compared to fuel oil. Economic value is also obtained from various empowerment and community development programs. With professional qualifications for business partners based on qualification standards and specifications, service standards, and time standards for the supply of goods and or services, which are based on clean, transparent, and mutually beneficial business ethics. The company conducts periodic evaluations to ensure the quality of cooperation contracts carried out with goods or services obtained in accordance with the requirements and specifications at competitive prices and on time. With the number 99% of current PGN customers are the household customer segment, using SWOT and Five Forces Porter Model, writer wants to analyze marketing strategy, to know if PGN's can increase more number by analyze the opportunities, expand the possibitlities segmentation, adjusting price by creating competitive marketing startegic.
... This definition correlates with the definition provided by Gartner's IT Glossary [63], focusing on the fact that digitalization is much more than just the adoption of various digital technologies. Thus, digitalization and digital technologies can take organizations to a new level and open up untapped markets [64] [65]. Therefore, companies must capture this opportunity and adjust any kind of business model to the digitalization trend. ...
Conference Paper
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Almost every industry is facing a real risk of disruption from cutting-edge technologies. New technologies drive the Digital Transformation (DT), which induces significant changes in the business landscape. This reality forces companies to change and adapt their business models to remain competitive. While transforming digitally, companies also face the challenge of complying with sustainability aspects. There is a growing understanding by politicians, managers, investors, and scholars that it is not enough for companies to be concerned with short-term profits because natural disasters, social unrest, and economic inequality can affect long-term prosperity. This paper explores publications related to sustainable business models (SBM) and digital transformation (DT) to uncover common ground between the underlying concepts of sustainability and digitalization. A science mapping approach is applied to review Scopus indexed articles and conference papers related to SBM and DT. This paper aims to reveal the size, growth path, and geographic distribution of the knowledge base and trends in the common SBM and DT literature. It is the first attempt of a bibliometric review for this merged research field and shall guide practical implications and future research possibilities.
... Firstly, it reflects the current state of affairs in a known market space. This allows us to understand where the competitors are investing, what are the characteristics of products that are the subject of competition within the industry, which is service, delivery, and what competing offers customers receive in the market [16]. Fig. 1 shows a strategic outline for Ukrainian movie market actors providing movie screening services. ...
Article
The subject matter of the article is ukrainian film distribution market. In today's world, the movie rental market is a sector of the economy that has recently shown a trend of stable growth. This process in most European countries is associated with the introduction of the latest digital cinema technology, increasing the level of wealth of the population and the high popularity of multi-screen cinemas. Film distribution is a mechanism to support the development, promotion of national cinema, one of the main forms of leisure and intercultural dialogue. The goal of the article is to determine the feasibility of applying the blue ocean strategy by Ukrainian cinema networks to support the trend of dynamic development of the industry. After all, an effective concept of management in uncertain conditions can be a strategy of "blue ocean", the principles of which are considered in the article on the example of market participants in market cinemas of Ukraine. The following tasks were solved: construction of a new strategic canvas for state cinemas of Ukraine; search for new value for cinema visitors; analysis of the foreign market of cinemas. The following methods used are: methods of analysis and synthesis, systemic, structural method in the article were summarized approaches to choosing a methodology for strategic enterprise management, taking into account the contemporary challenges of economic change in the world. The following results were obtained – the directions and possibilities of application of the "blue ocean" strategy by Ukrainian cinema networks as a tool of strategic success in the field of cinema were developed; the paper proposes a new strategic outline of cinema networks of Ukraine on the basis of a survey of 160 cinema spectators; а strategic plan for state and municipal cinemas has been developed, based on an updated four-action model; benchmarking of the world's leading cinemas was conducted, on the basis of which practical recommendations for the development of Ukrainian cinemas of various forms of ownership were formed; proposals for the creation of a "blue ocean" for companies engaged in the provision of services for the demonstration film products in Ukraine were presented. Conclusion: studies of the use of the "Blue Ocean" strategy have shown that this process is impossible without creating a new value for the consumer.
... İkincisi ise tamamen yeni bir endüstri yaratarak mavi okyanus oluşturmaktır (Kim ve Mauborgne, 2005c). Kim ve Mauborgne (2005a;2005b;2005c) mavi okyanus oluşturmanın etkisini değerlendirmek için 108 şirketin yeni iş girişimleri üzerine bir araştırma yürütmüşlerdir. Bu araştırmanın sonucunda, firmaların bu girişimlerinin %86'sının mevcut kırmızı okyanus içinde var olan işlerin devamı niteliğindeyken yalnızca %14'ünün yeni pazarları veya mavi okyanusları hedeflediğini tespit etmişlerdir. ...
Chapter
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In this study, considering all these conditions, interviews were realized with 13 academicians working at different state universities in Turkey, who have 15-30 years of experience in their profession. Interviews were conducted with them that were not structured on their daily work routines, the time they devoted to administrative and academic affairs, and their teaching methods. As a result, I completed the study by presenting various suggestions and ideas about the research. I hope that the research will contribute to both the academic world and professional business life.
... When Figure 1 is placed within a more comprehensive model of innovation development, as displayed in Figure 2, the use of prototyping quickly becomes circumscribed. By putting the first model in the context of a larger process, specifically linking new product development with the earlier stages of corporate visioning [7] and research and strategy [8], then it appears that prototyping offers limited value, or at least, is rarely used before project definition. This interpretation raises an interesting research question. ...
Conference Paper
Prototyping has long been a popular method in engineering and design practice. The continued use of physical prototyping is based on its strength in helping teams to make ideas tangible, iterate quickly at a low cost, and develop a shared language. Over the past seven years, our team has used prototyping in an industry-research program focused on foresight engineering—the development of new products and services that are three or more product cycles in the future. Through the discussion of three international cases drawn from India, Europe and the United States, this paper offers insight into the value and application of physical prototypes earlier in the innovation process and before the traditional handoff from strategy to product design. In summary, physical prototypes are exemplary tools for envisioning complex systems; prototypes serve an unmet need in helping teams explore potential service applications; and prototypes help reveal the path of progression from today’s solutions to tomorrow’s opportunities.
... This market is not established today and is not supported by any type of industry label or specific policy measure. In turn, the firm draws on elements of a blue ocean strategy (Kim and Mauborgne, 2005), as it seeks to position itself differently than current products on the market and extend the boundaries of the current industry by engaging new rules for production, sourcing and purchasing decisions. While vertical farming in controlled environments is indeed new, critics may question whether this actually leads to a new type of market or simply provides another local product. ...
Article
Traditionally, the innovation literature has viewed product innovation as the key competitive driver for firms in the market. But as demands for sustainability increase and technology is advancing sustainability-oriented innovation across industries, there is an opportunity to reconsider the role of process innovations. This study follows the market development process of a start-up founded on the principle of sustainability-oriented innovation and explores how the process innovation itself is used to shape the external market. This paper considers the relationship between process innovations and external market development through a longitudinal case study of a vertical farm start-up in Stockholm, Sweden. Findings show that through a number of representational practices, process innovation can also serve external objectives and play a role in external market development for firms incorporating the principles of sustainability-oriented innovation.
... Kaynak: Kim, W. C. & Mauborgne, R. (2005). Blue ocean strategy: From theory to practice. ...
... In terms of how circular economy principles are infused into luxury fashion brands and the luxury fashion value chain, the luxury brand operators interviewed demonstrated good knowledge and skills in sustainability in the luxury value chain in the London area, not as their UVP, but either as a matter of necessity due to regulatory compulsion, or as cost-saving measure. The possibility of using either new technology or sustainability in the value chain as a Blue Ocean strategy (see Kim and Mauborgne 2005) in the luxury fashion market is being influenced by operators whose main clients are generation Z and the millennials. Such changing consumer taste is traceable to the increasing awareness of nature from a deep ecological perspective as opposed to the system of placing higher value on people over planet (i.e., Anthropocene perspective), emanating from the fear that consumption of irreplaceable natural resources may in turn affect the survival of the ecosystem and human beings. ...
Article
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This exploratory work investigates the burgeoning integration of ‘cradle to cradle’ practices into primary strategic activities of procurement, production and sales by ten London based fashion businesses, analysing how profits are derived from offsetting the high costs of sustainable inputs against savings from innovative strategic choices in the production value chain. This research was influenced by the background knowledge that in the global fashion industry, less than 1 per cent of the recycled textiles are converted into new wearable materials, and even more of these textiles end up in landfills. However, this unsustainable tradition in the fashion industry may gradually give way to a mainstream circular economic best practice in the fashion industry, even as the Mckinsey Report found that sustainability will be a significant factor for consumer purchasing mass market apparels by 2025. Based on the semi-structured interview of the ten fashion business owners and the analyses of internal strategic policy documents including budgets, we adopted Garret Hardin’s ‘Tragedy of the Commons’ and Ulrich Beck’s risk society as the lens view through which the qualitative data derived from these fashion businesses were discussed in order to bring out the illustrative extracts and sub-themes. Through the application of interpretive methodological approach, we were able to generate the themes suggesting the ‘Becksian’ reflexive modernization and dis-embedding mechanisms in analysing the issue of trust in luxury fashion environment. We were able to demonstrate the multidisciplinary and multifaceted nature of the use of modern technology in achieving a closed-loop circular economy in luxury fashion business(es) and its interconnectedness within the concentric layers of the value-chain, which is part of the economy, which is in turn a subset of the society and the environment. As businesses are expected to adapt their strategies to the changing environment, we argue that dematerialization in fashion is still at its infancy, and some deliberate actions on the part of economic policy-makers may be required in due course as this is connected to social sustainability amongst others. This article contributes new empirical data to the understanding of luxury fashion business in a circular economy, which is a departure from the linear economy with its attendant externalities. The adoption of a sustainable fashion business model may be pivotal to combating the inefficiency costs built into the fashion industry, and if successful, may be replicated in other jurisdictions in due course.
... Specifically, matching a firm's assets and capabilities to industry KSFs provides a way to assess how valuable they are, whereas comparing them relative to competitors provides insights into whether they are rare and inimitable. Visual tools, such as an industry perceptual/market map (Kruskal & Wish, 1978) and/or the Strategy Canvas (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005), can prove helpful in comparing and illustrating company differences. Figure 1, the first decision point to determine a firm's opportunities and threats involves evaluating whether PESTEL trends are likely to positively or negatively impact a firm, based on its assets, capabilities, and current competitive position. ...
Article
Strategy educators have employed SWOT analysis for decades as a means of teaching strategy formulation to students. Despite this well-established practice, many scholars and practitioners have called for discontinuing it as a pedagogical tool for several reasons, including that traditional undergraduate students may lack the practical experience to employ SWOT correctly, the framework presents “messy” strategic problems as overly rational, or it represents as an ambiguous and/or atheoretical classification system. We suggest possible remedies for SWOT analysis problems that may help improve its usefulness and promote its continued use. After briefly reviewing its original formulation, current textbook descriptions, and frequent criticisms, we present a refined and enhanced SWOT framework, anchored in extant strategy research and learning theory. We then demonstrate the efficacy of this enhanced framework with examples and preliminary data. Our fundamental conclusion is that SWOT analysis, when properly employed, remains a useful overarching framework that, among other advantages, helps bridge the “theory versus practice” pedagogical debate on how best to teach strategy formulation.
... As the project revolved around deploying a new analytics tool to optimize miner's workflows and mining parameters, the miners where asked for input in the design of the user interface (UX). This gave the miners ownership of part of the process and made it easier for them to own the changes in their modus operandi (Kim 2005). Note here that a typical mistake would have been, (again in the last step of the DIKW hierarchy), to show the miners the same chart that was shown to the board and then tell them why they should use the new software that was being deployed without asking any input from them. ...
... According to the Blue Ocean Strategy Model, a market universe is divided into two parts: red oceans and blue oceans [9]. Red oceans represent the existing industries or the known market space. ...
... La volonté de se lancer dans un espace de besoins nouveau et non couverts, type « océan bleu » (Kim, Mauborgne, 2005), la méconnaissance de la solution technologique qui pourra répondre aux attentes initialement formulées ou même le manque de précision sur les objectifs de conception. ...
... The BOS involves the simultaneous pursuit of differentiation and low cost for the purposes of opening up a new market space and creating new demand (Osterwalder and Pygneur 2010). It is "a consistent pattern of strategic thinking behind the creation of new markets and industries where demand is created rather than fought for and the rule of competition is irrelevant" (Kim and Mauborgne, 2005). The strategy provides companies guidelines on how to escape from intense competition in the same market space, where there are limited customers with an increasing number of competitors, by creating a new market space (Kim et al. 2008;Kim and Mauborgne 2015). ...
Book
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The European Union’s regional and interregional policy places the promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation (E&I) high in the agenda, anticipating that it may boost sustainable growth and social welfare. In this respect, the present volume delves into E&I issues that are important to Western Greece and Apulia (Puglia), by bringing together statistics, models, analyses, reviews, practical experiences, tools, and ideas, which, understandably, may be of interest or use to other parts of the world as well.
... The combination of such strategies can be explained with a biomimicry illustration as Gannets' strategy, which explains the precise and powerful action of sea diving birds in catching fish. Most SMEs are unable to create blue ocean strategy with the pursuit of differentiation and low-cost to open new market space and create new demand because these companies enter into the red ocean full of competition and face complexities to survive (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005). Nonetheless, some frugal innovative products that are capable to adapt to Gannets' strategy are able to survive the red oceans. ...
Chapter
Companies utilized manufacturing prowess, scale, innovation, R&D and partnerships to defend their unique selling proposition. Earlier, competitive advantage once created lasted longer. However, in the present days context companies are finding it difficult to defend a position for long because of aggressive competition from players who are often able to match the features or benefits of the product or services. Global nature of competition, access to financial capital and human resources from other countries have also ensured that differentiations are imitated quickly and don’t last long. Nevertheless, few companies like Intel, Marriott International and Disney have used marketing capabilities to sustain competitive advantage over decades and continue to be category leaders in their respective industry sector. This paper presents insights from the successful marketing strategies adopted by Intel, Marriott and Disney that will inspire practitioners across industry sectors to consider marketing as a tool to build sustainable competitive advantage for their companies.
... Due to the tremendous difficulties and costs of exploring the ocean, more than 80% of the oceanic area, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), remains under-surveyed or unmonitored. (Kim and Mauborgne, 2005). Owing to the increasing pressure of climate change (Rahmstorf, 2002), overfishing (Jackson et al., 2001) as well as the overpopulation of human society (Samir and Lutz, 2017), effective management of the remaining oceanic resources (e.g. ...
Article
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Unlike land, the oceans, although covering more than 70% of the planet, are largely unexplored. Global fisheries resources are central to the sustainability and quality of life on earth but are under threat from climate change, ocean acidification and over consumption. One way to analyze these marine resource is through remote underwater surveying. However, the sheer volume of recorded data often make classification and analyses difficult, time consuming and resource intensive. Recent developments in machine learning (ML) have shown promising application in extracting high level context with near human performance on image classification tasks. The application of ML in remote underwater surveying can drastically reduce the processing time of these datasets. In order to train these deep neural networks used in ML, it is necessary to create a series of large-scale benchmark datasets to test any proposed algorithm for this kind of specific imaging classification. Currently, none of the publicly available datasets in the marine vision research domain have sufficiently large data volumes to reliably train a deep model. In this work, a publicly available large-scale benchmark underwater video dataset is created and used to retrain a state-of-the-art machine vision deep model (MaskRCNN). This model is in turn applied into detecting and classifying underwater marine lives through random under-sampling (RUS), and achieves a reasonably high average precision (0.628 mAP), indicating great applicability of this dataset in training instance segmentation deep neural network for detecting underwater marine species.
... Brynnjolfsson and McAffee (2014) acknowledge in their book The Second Machine Age the importance of digitalization and the beneficial character it can unfold. Digital technologies can uplift organizations to new levels and discover as Johnson (2010) says white spaces or as Kim and Mauborgne (2005) state blue oceans -untouched markets. Therefore, it is vital for companies to seize this opportunity and adapt their business model to the digitalization trend. ...
Conference Paper
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Roadmapping is a structured approach to analyze an organization’s business environment for potentially disruptive changes. Traditionally termed Technology Roadmapping (TRM) the approach is used as a management tool for planning, forecasting and administration. More recently firms apply the technique with a more general mindset to formulate business strategies for innovation that can address such disruptive changes. As part of their business strategy and to survive the intense competitive market environment an organization also needs to have an appropriate business model in place. However, to incorporate constantly changing market dynamics an organization needs to evolve and thus change their business model. This paper introduces a structured approach to business model innovation roadmapping (BMI-R) that defines the transition path from a current to a desired business model in the context of digitalization. The purpose of the paper is to validate through the Delphi technique the BMI-R and to identify what structure (layers, components & time horizon) should be incorporated in the approach. The BMI-R approach is proposed to serve an organization as a forecasting and planning tool that can identify potential digital technologies and also to recognize and act on events that require a change of direction in the actual business model components.
... Madden (2009) mentioned that blue ocean strategy has an advantage in identifying more clearly market since simply better approach is lack of thinking of impacts from consumers' demands". Kim and Mauborgne (2005) demonstrate that blue ocean strategy help organizations to innovate and bring new products to market thereby acquiring more market share ...
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The objectives of the study were to; examine the effect of blue ocean strategy application on the market share in the Nigerian telecommunication firms and identify the impact of blue ocean strategy on customer satisfaction in the Nigerian telecommunication industry. The study adopted cross-sectional descriptive research design. Data was obtained from 225 respondents working in telecommunication firms in South East Region of Nigeria through the use of a questionnaire. The data collected for the study were presented in tables comprising of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression with the aid of statistical package for social sciences (IBM, SPSS version 23). The findings revealed that blue ocean strategy has a positive significant effect on market share in the Nigerian telecommunication industry (r = .680 a; F = 223.971; T = 14.966; p-.000) and that blue ocean strategy has a positive significant effect on customer satisfaction in Nigerian telecommunication organizations (r = 727; F = 292.079; T = 17.090; p-.000). It was concluded that the formulation of blue ocean strategy is quite an accomplishment and dynamic process as it affects, market shares and customer satisfaction. It was recommended that management of various telecommunication firms should strive to develop innovative products and services that are beyond the traditionally known services in order to improve their profitability and as a matter of urgency, innovatively deliver cutting edge services that can beat their competitors so as to attract more customers. Introduction The rapid pace of innovation and change in recent years has led scholars and executives to search for a strategy that is more dynamic to achieve organizational performance. Blue ocean strategy as opined by Chan-Kim and Mauborgn (2004) denotes all the industries that are not in existence today-the unknown market spaces, untainted by competition. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is an ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. Brady (2005) notes that blue ocean strategy is presumably based on the use of value innovations. These are actions which drive costs down while simultaneously driving value up for buyers. It is how a leap in value for both the company and its buyers is achieved. As the scale of business increases, the company can reduce costs. Other features of the blue ocean strategy are: creating uncontested market space, making the competition irrelevant, creating and capturing new demand, and breaking the value-cost tradeoff.
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“Create. Don't Compete.” Kim said. Based on that, he and his colleague Mauborgne in 2005 developed a completely new theory – the so-called blue ocean theory. The fight for the market shares has never been the same competitive-based struggle. A disruptive change was presented to the world. The following report aims to systematically describe, thoroughly analyse, and critically evaluate the blue ocean strategy. First, describing the theoretical aspects and what a blue ocean strategy is and how it is possible to carry out; then giving an idea of what Tesla is doing and how it is changing the automotive industry.
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Thesis
This research aims to better understand and define some characteristics and conditions of innovation theory and practice in relation to mobile technology. Mobile technology is seen as a potential actor and new model for transforming ideas into action and for managing creativity and organisational management in the realm of the Creative Industries. Based on a qualitative approach, this research highlights three salient elements associated with mobile technology. The first is an enrichment of the fluidity of innovation processes filling a gap in the literature on mobile technology, organisational and knowledge management, and collaborative and innovative practices within SMEs. Secondly, this research contributes to a new vision of the concept of ba (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995) beyond organisational boundaries, and the definition of the ba mobile. Finally, it also providesa new perspective on the work of Cohendet et al. (2010) regarding 'creative slack' and associated notions of value creation and capture for SMEs.
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يتناول هذا البحث موضوعة الانعكاسات الذاتية لقيم المستهلك على تصميم الأزياء. اذ ان ذات المستهلك تتحدد بفكرة المستهلك عن نفسه، على وفق قيم فكرية وروحية واجتماعية، وتأخذ هذه القيم انعكاسها الفكري بصورة قيم مادية يجدها المستهلك في تصميم الأزياء. وهذه القيم تنطلق من اعتبارات بين ما هو فكري يتمثل بقيم المستهلك، وبين ما هو مادي يتحدد بتصميم الزي، والتي تنطلق أيضا من قيم تكون ظاهرة او ضمنية في تصميم الزي، كالوظيفة والجمال والرمز. وتتمثل ذات المستهلك صورتها المادية في تصميم الزي عندما تكون القيم العيانية الظاهرة ممثلة لقيمة او أكثر من قيم المستهلك.
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Chapter
Nachdem in Kap. 2 unternehmensbezogene Tools und in Kap. 3 marktbezogene Tools der Opportunity Recognition dargelegt wurden, widmet Kap. 4 sich den Tools, die aus der den eigenen Markt überschreitenden Umwelt Opportunities generieren.
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Uber Technologies Incorporated in 2009 in San Francisco, USA commonly known as Uber can be considered as an example to discuss Blue Ocean Strategy. Uber is considered the largest taxi company in the world with over 110 million users as of 2019 but the company does not own any cars or vehicles for the services they offer (muchneeded.com, 2020). The four-action framework is applied to Uber and discussed below to understand how Uber achieved quantum leap through value innovation.
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Preprint
This paper reports on an evaluation of the strategy process of IMA International Ltd (IMA), a small enterprise that specialises in training and consultancy in the international development sector. External and internal environmental analysis were supported by frameworks such as 5-Force, PESTEL and SWOT to mention a few. Blue Ocean Strategy framework is applied to guide IMA’s strategic positioning. Given the size of the organisation, this paper recommends that IMA’s strategy process should be open to all staff and a Blue Ocean Strategy approach is taken to find new winning formulas. Investigations that look at small and medium enterprises operating in the consultancy and training industry that supports international development are virtually non-existent. This analysis offers a starting point for future investigations.
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Although tea is the leading cash crop in Kenya, the industry faces significant challenges. Although application of blue ocean strategy (BOS) could redress some of its problems, few studies have explored the question. This study investigated the relationship between BOS and sustainable performance of the Kenyan tea industry. The study applied the Four Action Framework (FAF) together with elements of Six Searching Paths-Frameworks (SSPF). The strategies resulting from SSPF were fashioned into the FAF, and validated by employees of tea estates in Nandi County. The sample consisted of 240 workers, selected from a target population of 1150, by stratified random sampling. The study found that all predictors in the regression model, eliminate (β=0.291), reduce (β=0.314), raise (β= 0.435), and create factors (β=0.344) had a significant and positive effect on sustainable performance. Thus, implementation of the four factors could lead to sustainable performance of Kenya's tea industry. The study concluded that branding tea, adding value to it, increasing domestic consumption, productivity and eliminating long and inefficient supply chain would lead to sustainable performance. The study recommends that the tea industry should add value and brand its tea.
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Uluslararası Akademik Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2017, Cilt 3, Sayı 4 Özet Hızlı değişimlerin yaşandığı dinamik ve çalkantılı çevrede faaliyet gösteren işletmeler, pazarın kalabalık ve rekabetin yoğun olması nedeniyle büyüme faaliyetlerinde güçlüklerle karşılaşmaktadır. Bu sorunun çözümü için işletmelerin yenilikçi yaklaşımlar geliştirmek ve yeni büyüme fırsatları elde etmekten başka seçenekleri yoktur. Bu bağlamda işletmeler mevcut pazarda rakipleri ile yarışmaktan ziyade rekabete gerek duymadan inovasyonlar yaparak yeni ve tartışmasız bir pazar alanı oluşturma yaklaşımını benimseyebilirler. Mavi Okyanus Stratejileri olarak adlandırılan bu yaklaşım, farklılaşma ve düşük maliyeti birlikte ele alarak, işletmelerin rekabetçi olmayan yeni pazarlarda faaliyet göstermesini önermektedir. İşletmelerin bu stratejileri tasarlaması ve yürütmesi için etkili bir liderlik anlayışına ihtiyacı vardır. Mavi Okyanus Liderliği sayesinde bir yandan her kademedeki çalışanların motivasyon ve iş sonuçlarını yükseltmek için hangi davranış ve eylemlerin gerekli olduğu belirlenirken, öte yandan liderliğin tüm yönetim kademelerine dağıtılması sağlanmaktadır. Ayrıca liderlik faaliyetleri Yok Et-Azalt-Yükselt-Yarat Tablosu'yla ele alınmakta ve yeni lider profilleri oluşturulmaktadır. Bu araştırmada güncel bir liderlik yaklaşımı olan Mavi Okyanus Liderliği konusu ele alınacaktır. Araştırmanın liderlik ve rekabet konusunda çalışma yapanlar ile güncel gelişmeleri yakından takip eden işletme sahiplerine ve yöneticilerine katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir.