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The Voluntary Simplicity Movement: Reimagining the Good Life Beyond Consumer Culture

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Abstract

Voluntary simplicity - otherwise known as ‘downshifting’ or just ‘simple living’ – is an anti- consumerist way of life that opposes the high consumption lifestyles prevalent in consumer societies today and voluntarily embraces ‘a simpler life’ of reduced consumption. As a practical matter, this living strategy characteristically involves providing for material needs as simply and directly as possible, minimizing expenditure on consumergoods and services, and generally seeking non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and meaning. Variously defended by its advocates on personal, social, human- itarian, and ecological grounds, voluntary simplicity is predicated on the assumption that human beings can live meaningful, free, happy, and infinitely diverse lives, while consuming no more than an equitable share of nature. That, at least, is the challenging ideal which seems to motive and guide many of its advocates and practitioners. This paper examines the nature of the Voluntary Simplicity Movement, including its various definitions, justifications, and practices.

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... A related line of research focuses on voluntary simplicity-a programmatic and sophisticated form of frugality in the context of a wholesome lifestyle [8]. Although one of the core values of voluntary simplicity is ecological responsibility [9], to date, green consumption and voluntary simplicity have never been considered as part of the same groundwork according to our knowledge. ...
... As already stressed, voluntary simplicity entails-among many other things-concerns related to sustainability and the environment [17,18]. It makes perfect sense to infer that a voluntary reduction in one's level of consumption is also accompanied by awareness about the need to move towards green consumption [8]. One is therefore justified in assuming that voluntary simplicity would have an effect on buying behavior [20]. ...
... Although ecological responsibility has been traditionally associated with voluntary simplicity [18], we decided to treat it as a stand-alone variable to bridge the interaction with green consumption values and green buying behavior. Ecological responsibility is the linchpin that connects two important dimensions that have been developed in parallel but never connected in this way before: green consumption values and voluntary simplicity [3,4,[8][9][10]. In other words, this paper asks about the role of ecological responsibility, either as a direct influence on green buying behavior or as a mediator for green consumption values and/or voluntary simplicity. ...
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Green consumption is usually understood in the context of green consumption values and receptivity to green communication. Voluntary simplicity, a related yet distinct construct that relies on ecological responsibility, has not been included in the same framework. This paper bridges this gap and extends the original model to consider green consumption and voluntary simplicity in a unified structure. Based on a study conducted in Romania, it was found that 70% of the variation in buying behavior is explained by a combination of direct and mediated influences. The main takeaway is that any serious attempt to encourage responsible buying has to rely on a reduction in the absolute level of consumer demand. This result has far-reaching implications because the current paradigm of economic growth and prosperity is tributary to consumerism. The question is not how to avoid curtailing consumption and substitute green products for those harming the environment, but rather how to make voluntary frugality palatable.
... In literature, studies examining the relationship between consumerism (Iwata, 2006), religiosity (Chowdhury, 2016), sustainability (Oates et al., 2008, consumer communities (Bekin et al., 2005), attitudes (Iwata, 1997), social movements and politics (Alexander, 2011), business ethics (Hellore, 2008), environment (Craig-Lees andHill, 2002), self-control (Sertoğlu et al., 2016) and voluntary simplicity stand out. When studies in the field of marketing with voluntary simplicity lifestyle are examined, it has been observed that relations between purchasing habits (Craig and Hill, 2002), renunciation of materialism (Moisander and Pesonen, 2002), consumer attitude and behavior (Iwata, 1997), consumer perception (Iwata, 1999), consumption ethics (Zavestoski, 2002), sustainable consumption (Özgül, 2010), conspicuous consumption (Babaoğul and Buğday, 2012), innovation tendency (Köker and Maden, 2012), hedonic consumption (Özgül, 2011) and voluntary simplicity lifestyle being examined. ...
... By choosing a spiritual wealth lifestyle that aims to minimize consumption and addiction, consumers also aim to maximize direct control over their daily activities (Iwata, 2006). According to this philosophy of life, personal and social progress is possible not by material wealth or the striking appearance of status, but by increases in the qualitative richness of daily life, the development of relationships and the existence of social, intellectual, aesthetic development and / or spiritual potentials (Alexander, 2011). In postmodern societies where consumption is glorified and a luxurious life is appreciated, and brands stand out in expressing people's selves and identities, it can be stated that it symbolizes a material, private and different lifestyle. ...
... When the literature on voluntary simplicity lifestyle is examined, it is seen that studies examining the relationship between consumerism (Iwata, 2006), religiosity (Chowdhury, 2016), sustainability (Oates et al., 2008), consumer communities (Bekin et al., 2005), attitudes (Iwata, 1997), social movements and politics (Alexander, 2011), business ethics (Hellore, 2008), environment (Craig-Lees and Hill, 2002), self-control (Sertoğlu et al., 2016) and voluntary simplicity stand out. When studies in the field of marketing with voluntary simplicity lifestyle are examined, it has been observed that relations between socio-demographic characteristics (Kızılderili,2020), consumer decision styles (İrge and Karaduman,2018), consumer value structures (Kurtuluş et al., 2019), moral identity (Bayat and Sezer, 2018;Shaw and Moraes, 2009), shopping motivations (Uygun et al., 2018), brand experiences (Uygun et al., 2018), purchasing habits (Craig and Hill, 2002), renunciation of materialism (Moisander and Pesonen, 2002), consumer attitude and behavior (Iwata, 1997), consumer perception (Iwata, 1999), consumption ethics (Zavestoski, 2002), sustainable consumption (Özgül, 2010), conspicuous consumption (Babaoğul and Buğday, 2012), innovation tendency (Köker and Maden, 2012;Demireli, 2014), hedonic consumption (Özgül, 2011) and voluntary simplicity lifestyle being examined. ...
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The main purpose of this study is to examine the tendency of consumers towards voluntary simple lifestyle in the period of Covid-19. Within the scope of this purpose, in the study, firstly the literature on the subject has searched and then, through the online survey method, it has been tried to reveal the tendency of the consumers towards the voluntary simplicity lifestyle in the Covid-19 period. As a result of the study, it can be stated that consumers have been in a positive tendency in planned shopping, simple life and longevity since the Covid-19 period. In addition, according to the results from the study, it can be claimed that planned shopping, simple life, longevity, self-sufficiency and material wealth factors differ statistically significantly according to some demographic variables.
... The VSL is defined as "an oppositional living strategy that rejects the high-consumption, materialistic lifestyles of consumer cultures" [23] (p. 2) and involves a conscious shift towards intrinsically satisfying pursuits [2,24]. To successfully pursue such a conscious shift, VSPs aim to provide for material needs as simply and directly as possible, minimising expenditure on consumer goods and services, and directing more time and energy towards pursuing non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and meaning [25,26]. ...
... To successfully pursue such a conscious shift, VSPs aim to provide for material needs as simply and directly as possible, minimising expenditure on consumer goods and services, and directing more time and energy towards pursuing non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and meaning [25,26]. In real life, this often means accepting a lower income and a lower level of consumption in exchange for more free time, which is also the general VSL criterion agreed upon by many researchers [19,23,24,[27][28][29]. Attempts by researchers to segment or determine the VSL in more detail did not generate a consensus within the academic debate yet. ...
... Existing research either lacks strong underpinning data [30] (as in e.g., [28,31]) or diverges from the general VSL criterion (as in e.g., [32][33][34]). Further, the terms "downshifting" or "the simple life" [35] are often used interchangeably for the VSL [23]. Individuals who adopt a VSL primarily live in Western societies, have met their basic needs and are often well educated [23,28]. ...
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Adopting a voluntary simplicity lifestyle (VSL) contributes to a change in consumption patterns towards more sustainable ones, which is urgently needed. This study defines the VSL as a voluntary reduction of income and consumption in exchange for more free time. Our research aims to contribute with more detailed VSL criteria. A literature review develops initial VSL criteria, which are validated against and enriched by data gathered through in-depth interviews with nine voluntary simplicity practitioners. This study contributes with: (1) more detailed insights into the value changes during lifestyle adoption of a VSL, (2) a detailed perspective on significant aspects in VSL adoption as well as how they tend to happen in sequence, and (3) insight into how consumption reduces or changes and how free-time is spent when adopting a VSL. A conceptual framework for more detailed VSL criteria, as proposed in this study, is valuable to characterise the VSL lifestyle and differentiate it from other lifestyles. In sum, the study contributes to clearer perspectives on the VSL and provides detailed VSL criteria. Finally, we reaffirm the potential of VSL to contribute toward changing dominant unsustainable consumption patterns and indicate directions for future research.
... The major criticisms of voluntary simplicity center around the notion that it is being practiced only by the affluent (Baudrillard, 1998;Rudmin & Kilbourne, 1993), its fundamental opposition to the symbolic function of consumption (Douglas, 1976), and its apolitical nature (Grigsby, 2012). Voluntary simplicity is occasionally considered as luxury consumption (Baudrillard, 1998) or a "leisure expansion movement" (Alexander, 2011). Voluntary simplicity has even been described as an ethic professed and practiced by well to do individuals, who are free to choose their standard of living (Alexander, 2011). ...
... Voluntary simplicity is occasionally considered as luxury consumption (Baudrillard, 1998) or a "leisure expansion movement" (Alexander, 2011). Voluntary simplicity has even been described as an ethic professed and practiced by well to do individuals, who are free to choose their standard of living (Alexander, 2011). Considering broad-based affluence in developed countries and rising affluence in developing countries (Myers & Kent, 2003), for the vast majority of the population, voluntary simplicity is available to some extent (Alexander, 2011). ...
... Voluntary simplicity has even been described as an ethic professed and practiced by well to do individuals, who are free to choose their standard of living (Alexander, 2011). Considering broad-based affluence in developed countries and rising affluence in developing countries (Myers & Kent, 2003), for the vast majority of the population, voluntary simplicity is available to some extent (Alexander, 2011). Furthermore, voluntary simplicity is more than "leisure expansion," considering its diverse motivations, such as environmentalism and social justice. ...
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With the burgeoning of consumer culture and materialism on a global scale, a counter‐culture movement, namely, voluntary simplicity, is slowly gaining currency. Extant research reveals a degree of disparateness in the relationship between materialism and voluntary simplicity. Drawing on the value‐basis theory and anti‐consumption research, the current study attempts at an unorthodox study of the fledgling culture of anti‐consumption in urban India. The paper empirically examines the relationship between materialism and voluntary simplicity in India. This research, through an experimental study followed by a sample survey, conducted among urban Indian consumers, examines how satisfaction with life, self‐efficacy, and individualism interact with materialistic values to eventually influence voluntary simplicity attitudes. In Study 1 (N = 74 working professionals), we experimentally triggered materialistic aspirations and evaluated their effects on voluntary simplicity in comparison to a control condition. In Study 2 (N = 315), individuals self‐rated their materialistic values, satisfaction with life, self‐efficacy, cultural orientation, and voluntary simplicity attitude. Our study, contrary to the suggestions in the existing literature, demonstrates that materialists espouse voluntary simplicity attitudes when environmental degradation around them directly impacts their health, wealth, and well‐being. In addition to the positive direct effect, satisfaction with life and self‐efficacy serially mediate the relationship between materialism and voluntary simplicity, providing a welcome divergence from dark‐sided conceptualizations of materialism. Our results help global marketers, and public policymakers better understand the interaction between materialistic values and sustainable consumption attitudes, in the developing country perspective.
... In this regard, some studies consider voluntary simplicity-downshifting or just simple livingas a voluntarily anticonsumerist way of life that opposes the high-consumption lifestyles prevalent in current consumer societies (Alexander, 2011). Others have shown that many people are making consumer choices, among producers and products, based on justice, fairness, and ethical and moral values (Micheletti, 2003;Stolle, Hooghe, & Micheletti, 2005). ...
... This means that lifestyle politics does not seem to be replacing other forms of collective action, but actually complementing them. Considering that most participants are committed to lower levels of consumption and usually accept a lower income, they may actually have more time and freedom to pursue life goals, such as engagement in social/ community projects and political participation (Alexander, 2011). On the other hand, collective action emerges as a way of regulating social relationships. ...
Article
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In this article, we assume an interdisciplinary approach to the study of why and how people transpose political considerations to their lifestyles. Our aims are threefold: to understand the meanings and perceptions of people engaged in lifestyle politics and collective action; to examine the motives guiding individual change; and to explore the linkage processes between lifestyle politics and collective action. Identity Process Theory is considered as a lens to examine the processes and the motives of identity via a thematic analysis of 22 interviews. This study combined interviews with people seeking social change through their lifestyles with interviews with members of action groups and social movements. We found that each participant’s identity is guided by identity motives such as distinctiveness, continuity and psychological coherence. Besides, lifestyle politics is evaluated as an effective way to bring about social change, depending on the individual experience of perceived power to bring about change through collective action. Overall, lifestyle politics states the way in which the participants decided to live, to construct their identities, and to represent their beliefs about the right thing to do. Lifestyle politics complements collective action, as a strategy to increase the potential of bringing about social change. The implications of this research are discussed in relation to the importance of understanding the processes of identity and lifestyle change in the context of social, environmental, and political change.
... Sustainable actions are motivated by hedonistic desires for pleasure and self-realization. In our study, we discovered a subtype of this hedonistic frame, which Samuel Alexander terms 'alternative hedonistic' or 'voluntary simplicity' (Alexander, 2011). The core message put forward by alternative hedonism is that the simple things in life (e.g. ...
... These insights raise important questions about the scale and character of policies and interventions that aim to develop a new culture of decent lifestyles. Building what Alexander defines as 'voluntary simplicity' (Alexander, 2011) requires much more customized processes of physical interaction for existing ecological communities, not yet more standardized plans for technological investments across city-regions. ...
... The "voluntary simplicity" (VS) movement has gathered strength in the USA and Western Europe in the past two decades (Aidar and Daniels, 2020). VS refers to a lifestyle movement (Alexander, 2011), which is chosen by individuals who are seeking to consume less and have a higher quality of life (Rebouças and Soares, 2020). The central premises of VS include: actively limiting expenditure on consumer goods and services (Etzioni, 1998), and attempting to accumulate less possessions to free up resources, predominantly time and money (Huneke, 2005), with the ultimate intention of cultivating non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and fulfillment (McDonald et al., 2006). ...
... For some individuals, the initial motivation to transition into the VS lifestyle (i.e., the process of downshifting) may be more self-centered (Chhetri et al., 2009). Whereas research that addresses motivations for VS has focused predominantly on environmental values (Alexander, 2011, Huneke, 2005, we argue that perhaps new motivations develop as a consequence of the trajectory of adopting a VS lifestyle, and ultimately tend to be more ethically or environmentally motivated. ...
Article
Although there is an increase in research on different aspects of voluntary simplicity (VS), there is less understanding of the trajectories that individuals follow when adopting a voluntary simplicity lifestyle, and how transitioning to this lifestyle relates to inner growth. The aim of the paper is to examine the role of inner growth on differentiating voluntary simplicity from other lifestyles. We draw on the framework of resonance by Rosa (2019), who claims the need to move from a state of permanent search for material resources, to develop a resonant relationship with the world. Resonance is a way of relating to the world, where individuals and the world mutually affect each other in an interactive way. Seventeen in-depth interviews were held with voluntary simplifiers living in Chile. The findings propose a model that identifies three different trajectories that people follow to achieve a voluntary simplicity lifestyle and the implication for inner growth as a result of more resonant relationships with the world.
... Identifying the unique attribute of VS -the importance of inner growth VS is often associated with a voluntary reduction in income and/or work hours in exchange for more time with family, more time for oneself, contemplation, sustainable living and spiritual (though not necessarily religious) practice (Alexander, 2011;Hamilton & Mail, 2003;Schor, 1998). This is sometimes called 'downshifting' (Chhetri et al., 2009). ...
... This argument can be illustrated by research who asked their participants about their motivations for 'downshifting' and yielded predominantly self-centered motives and a very small percentage of environmental drivers (Chhetri et al., 2009;Hamilton & Mail, 2003). Whereas research that asked about motivations for living 'more simply' yielded predominantly environmental values (Alexander, 2011;Huneke, 2005). ...
Article
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Voluntary simplicity (VS) is the contemporary version of an ancient notion where inner growth is prioritized over riches and material accumulation. The VS lifestyle is often discussed as a more sustainable lifestyle, which has been a primary factor for attracting interest from a range of research disciplines. However, definitional inconsistencies plague VS. This has resulted in incompatible research methodologies in identifying the different categories of participants that can be associated with this lifestyle. This article addresses the main definitional issues of VS and provides a set of ‘VS criteria’ that can be useful for future empirical work and for discussing the different levels of simplicity. VS has also been criticized for lacking political teeth and the inability to influence structure change. The extent that VS can be considered a social movement is also discussed and suggestions for further research on this topic are provided.
... It is useful in resource reduction and consumption control and generating life satisfaction with limited resource use (Bekin et al., 2005). The adoption of VS lifestyle has gained momentum over the last few decades as a movement towards intentional non-consumption and well-being (Alexander, 2011;Cherrier et al., 2011;Range and Smale, 2002). The corollary was drawn through the shared similarity of selective non-consumption and the inter-relationship of globalisation and commoditisation to the individual self. ...
... It is useful in resource reduction and consumption control and generating life satisfaction with limited resource use (Bekin et al., 2005). The adoption of VS lifestyle has gained momentum over the last few decades as a movement towards intentional non-consumption and well-being (Alexander, 2011;Cherrier et al., 2011;Range and Smale, 2002). The corollary was drawn through the shared similarity of selective non-consumption and the inter-relationship of globalisation and commoditisation to the individual self. ...
... The voluntary simplicity movement nicely illustrates the kind of rhetoric I'm recommending environmentalists adopt. Voluntary simplifiers are people who choose to work and consume less, and to do both more thoughtfully (Alexander, 2011;Elgin, 2010;Gambrel & Cafaro, 2010). There are a number of very similar movements going by other names, including: minimalism (Millburn & Nicodemus, 2014), enoughism (Naish, 2008), and 'downsizing' or 'downshifting' (Juniu, 2000). ...
Article
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Awareness and concern about climate change are widespread. But rates of pro-environmental behaviour are low. This is partly due to the way in which pro-environmental behaviour is framed-as a sacrifice or burden that individuals bear for the planet and future generations. This framing elicits well-known cognitive biases, discouraging what we should be encouraging. We should abandon the self-sacrifice framing, and instead frame pro-environmental behaviour as intrinsically desirable. There is a large body of evidence that, around the world, people who are living more environmentally lifestyles are happier than those not doing so. This is the message we should be spreading.
... However, it also seems unmanageable to be able to totally escape the market as long as the individual is not totally isolated from society. For example, a different reaction to market culture, voluntary simplicity has been more about creating healthier lives than seeking an escape from the market (e.g., Alexander, 2011;Elgin, 1981;Shaw & Moraes, 2009). Voluntary simplicity is a search for meaning in life through the enrichment of nonmaterial life (Elgin, 1981). ...
Article
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Consumption practices that are environmentally and socially more conscious have been studied previously; however, consumers who entirely reject market society and the ideologies associated with it in search for alternatives have received little attention. The participants in this study have had the means to enjoy all of the privileges of market society, yet chose to drop out of their well‐paid corporate positions in search of more meaningful lives. A framework to understand their motivations for this choice, the alternatives they present, and the challenges they face is developed through a qualitative inquiry using in‐depth interviews, secondary data sources, and observation. To these individuals, living in market society represents an eventually dreaded path leading to a vast emptiness, contrarily their departure appears to be a decision of ‘choosing life.’ In their alternative lives, they find meaning in sharing with and helping others, also through an existence with, not against nature. Choosing to have only occasional marketplace interactions, they exhibit a willingness to exist within and navigate multiple organizations of life, even if preference for the one experimented with is strong. The practices of such members of society show potentials for greater change to alleviate the shortcomings of a solely market‐driven way of life.
... Voluntary simplicity is a 'mindful approach to consumption … to meet basic material needs as … sustainably as possible and [direct] time and energy away from limitless material pursuits in favour of exploring 'the good life' in non-materialistic sources of meaning and fulfilment' (Read et al., 2018, np; see also Alexander, 2012a, andAlexander, 2012b, on degrowth per se, and Rees, 2010, on unsustainability). Thus, our second premise is thatwhere choice is lacking or limited and in lieu of shared visionsindividuals and social groups find ways to act, for example by challenging and shaping the contours of effective housing policies and systems. ...
Article
Housing is a caring act prompting individuals and groups to challenge the contours of housing policies and systems as they pursue housing aspirations, shape housing pathways, and secure housing provision. In this article, we think critically about housing as part of an infrastructure of care and about how housing aspirations, pathways, and provisioning inform moral and caring acts known as voluntary simplicity. We focus on housing aspirations, pathways, and provisioning to document how those three ‘rub up’ against four specific provision processes (preparation, purchase, design, and permissions and implementation) and conclude that voluntary simplicity could be a powerful tool by which to shape more caring housing futures – if it was troubled by fewer contradictions and compromises in its application and if those subscribing to it were supported by a few key resources. Findings point to general and widespread opportunities to think more about the relationship of voluntary simplicity to housing studies, including in small-scale studies in regional centres.
... Frugality, "being frugal", or "frugal living" are being mottos in these lifestyles. Alexander (2011) define voluntary simplicity as a living strategy that rejects the high-consumption, materialistic lifestyles of consumer cultures and involves providing for material needs as simply and directly as possible, minimizing expenditure on consumer goods and services, and directing progressively more time and energy towards pursuing non-materialistic sources of satisfaction and meaning. Alexander (2011) sees these fundamental lifestyle changes in respect to private consumption as one of the main preconditions for ecological sustainability and a contribution to sustainable development. ...
Article
Frugal innovation is often associated with (ecological and social) sustainability because it is characterized by minimizing the use of resources (raw material, production resources, energy, fuel, water, waste, financial resources), it is more affordable, and better accessible than conventional innovations. My paper contributes a comprehensive literature overview on the connection between frugal innovation and sustainability. I address the used definitions of frugal innovation and sustainability, and outline the potentials and threats of frugal innovation for sustainability. My research approach is a two-step procedure, consisting of a literature review according to Cooper (focusing on the steps of data collection and data evaluation) and a qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. For data collection and data evaluation, I searched various databases with selected keywords. The 14 identified texts were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis in the type of inductive category development. All texts examined describe a positive connection between frugal innovation and sustainability and/or potentials of frugal innovation for sustainability. Just under half of the authors outline negative connections between frugal innovation and sustainability and/or threats of frugal innovation for sustainability. Based on the results it can be noted, that frugal innovation is inherently socially and economically sustainable. In view of the empirical negations of the inherence of ecological sustainability in frugal innovation, I recommend the use of the term “ecological sustainable frugal innovation” for frugal innovation with a positive connection to ecological sustainability. Research implications and issues for future research relating to ecological sustainable frugal innovation, like voluntary simplicity, degrowth, (alternative to) planned obsolescence, and circular economy are presented.
... Therefore, it becomes essential to reduce material consumption and remove superfluous or useless things (Ballantine and Creery 2010;Cherrier 2009;Cherrier and Murray 2007;Gopaldas 2008;Jackson 2005;Leonard-Barton 1981;Zavestoski 2002). In the same vein, VS is almost automatically considered as or partly explained by anti-consumption movements or/and counterculture (Alexander 2011;Maniates 2002;Witkowski 2010). Such an understanding comes from a long-lasting anti-materialistic ideology inherited from the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, which promoted the idea of freedom from the directive capitalist system and its materialistic values (Etzioni 1998;Zavestoski 2002). ...
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At a time when it is critically important to preserve natural resources and reduce the amount of man-made pollution, this article explores other potentials for materialism in today's market economies. Based on a two-year ethnography in Poland, we learn from simplifiers who denounce current materialism-while remaining inside the market-about what materialism could potentially become (or already is). Our study shows that materialism can take on other less studied but more eco-friendly expressions. In particular, we highlight an alternate expression of materialism, which we call "appreciative materialism" (in contrast to "accumulative materialism"). Appreciative materialism still ascribes a great deal of importance to objects in the lives of consumers but does so through the voluntary non-possession and/or non-accumulation of these objects, as well as a caring ethics that extends to non-humans. These findings call not only for the refinement of scales to measure materialism but also for a revision of the role of materialism in our lives. They suggest that, in order to trigger more sustainable practices, policymakers and managers should put greater emphasis on appreciative materialism.
... Voluntary simplicity is therefore closely related to concepts such as sustainable consumption, which involves acting or behaving in a way that will protect the environment by using fewer resources for personal gain [42][43][44]. It can also be defined as removing all the clutter from one's life and choosing to limit the expenditures on consumer goods, rather than being forced by poverty or government programs [45,46]. Various research has suggested that voluntary simplifiers have higher levels of life satisfaction and are often happier [15,47,48]. ...
Article
Adopting voluntary simplistic lifestyles with practices that are socially and environmentally responsible remain key issues in the quest toward saving the planet. This research explores the prevalence of voluntary simplistic clothing consumption practices among female consumers in South Africa, where dramatic increases in consumption must be curbed. Keywords: voluntary simplicity, clothing consumption, emerging market, sustainability
... Voluntary simplicity is therefore closely related to concepts such as sustainable consumption, which involves acting or behaving in a way that will protect the environment by using fewer resources for personal gain [42][43][44]. It can also be defined as removing all the clutter from one's life and choosing to limit the expenditures on consumer goods, rather than being forced by poverty or government programs [45,46]. Various research has suggested that voluntary simplifiers have higher levels of life satisfaction and are often happier [15,47,48]. ...
Article
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Consumers’ clothing consumption is the cause of many social and environmental consequences, especially in emerging economies where consumption continues to escalate. It is therefore vital that consumers adopt more voluntary simplistic lifestyles with sustainable clothing practices. This study relies on the self-determination theory to explore the influence of basic psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy, and connectedness) and self-determined motivation (i.e., identified- and integrated regulation as well as intrinsic motivation) on female consumers’ voluntary simplistic clothing practices. Data were derived from 469 online questionnaires and structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypotheses. Competence was identified as the most influential basic psychological need, followed by the need for connectedness and autonomy. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is the strongest predictor of voluntary simplistic clothing practices, while integrated regulation is deemed insignificant and identified regulation has a negative association with the practices in question. In summary, it would seem that female consumers are keen on adopting voluntary simplistic clothing behaviors. This may be due to their intrinsic motivation and competence rather than their exposure to extrinsic influences. This study provides valuable insight into the motivational determinants of voluntary simplistic clothing consumption in South Africa and may thus serve as a platform for further investigation into other emerging markets.
... Voluntary simplicity is therefore closely related to concepts such as sustainable consumption, which involves acting or behaving in a way that will protect the environment by using fewer resources for personal gain [42][43][44]. It can also be defined as removing all the clutter from one's life and choosing to limit the expenditures on consumer goods, rather than being forced by poverty or government programs [45,46]. Various research has suggested that voluntary simplifiers have higher levels of life satisfaction and are often happier [15,47,48]. ...
... In contrast, green citizenship is an approach that promotes behaviours based on different motivations and a longer-term time horizon. Recent work suggests that green citizens identify alternate paths of engaging with environmental stewardship that are not limited to the consumptive, product-centric actions defined by green consumerism (Alexander 2011). By moving beyond a consumption focus, green citizens enjoy a broad set of benefits embedded within alternative life patterns. ...
Chapter
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Techno-industrial societies face biophysical limits and the consequences of disrupting Earth’s ecosystems. This creates a new behavioural context with an unmistakable demand: Citizens of such societies must turn from seeking new resources to crafting new living patterns that function well within finite ecosystems. This coming transition is inevitable, but our response is not preordained. Indeed, given the complex, multi-decade-long context, the required pro-environmental behaviours cannot be fully known in advance. Furthermore, the urgency to respond will necessitate that whole clusters of behaviour be adopted; incremental and serial change will not suffice. Thus, a culture of small experiments must be nurtured. The process of change will seriously tax social, emotional and attentional capacities. Thus, priority is placed on emotional stability and clear-headedness, maintaining social relationships while stressed, pro-actively managing behaviour and a willingness to reskill. These aspects of coping share a common foundation: the maintenance of attentional vitality and psychological well-being. Changes also must occur in how pro-environmental behaviours are promoted. We must move beyond interventions that are expert-driven, modest in request, serial in implementation and short-term in horizon. New interventions must create the conditions under which citizens become behavioural entrepreneurs, themselves creating, managing and sharing successful approaches to behaviour change.
... Several researchers explain that overconsumption and a high material desire may lead to greater stress, fatigue, disillusionment and other undesirable consequences (Alexander, 2009(Alexander, , 2011Black & Cherrier, 2010;Borgmann, 2000;Iwata, 1997;Leonard-Barton, 1981;Zavestoski, 2002aZavestoski, , 2002b. Lee and Ahn (2016) describe how anti-consumers exhibit a lower level of material desire than materialists simply because their minds are set against consumption. An essential motivation is to "reduce clutter in one's life, eliminating burdensome time commitments, and creating peaceful personal space to enjoy life" (Zavestoski, 2002b, p. 150). ...
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Although consumption is a symbol of an individual's socio‐economic status, an increasing number of individuals voluntarily prefer to consume less. This phenomenon is called anti‐consumption and it mainly occurs in developed countries where consumption levels have reached excessive amounts. One of the main aims of individuals following an anti‐consumption lifestyle is to increase their own well‐being. However, researchers have yet to investigate whether anti‐consumption, indeed, leads to greater positive consumer well‐being. Hence, through this paper this gap in research is addressed by first deriving a conceptual framework and hypotheses, followed by developing an anti‐consumption scale, and then by testing the impact of anti‐consumption on consumer well‐being. The insights of our analysis highlight the implications for both academia and consumers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Em segundo lugar, no que diz respeito à adoção do conceito, foi constatado que as entrevistadas utilizam armários anuais, semestrais ou trimestrais com um número de peças flexível, desde que reduzido, dando ênfase à usabilidade e durabilidade das peças, elementos vinculados à simplicidade voluntária (ALEXANDER, 2011;EL-GIN, 2010). A opção por ter menos roupas evidenciou o valor foco na sociedade, de Johnston e Burton (2003), uma vez que elas manifestaram um traço típico do estilo de vida simples: a redução do consumo (MC-DONALD et al., 2006). ...
... A conscious reduction of consumption could also mean adopting simpler living habits. This lifestyle is called voluntary simplicity (VS), and it complies with the requirements of sustainable consumption due to its main principles: an economically sustainable future, balanced relationships inside societies and a particular concern for environmental protection [30]. ...
Article
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Characterizing consumers in terms of their propensity to practice sustainable consumption represents an interesting research challenge in which a crucial role is played by the questionnaire in terms of its structure and classification criteria. Various classification rules have been proposed in the literature, which can be used to identify consumer types and signify their propensity to practice the principles of sustainable development in daily life. In this paper, we based our approach in designing a classification tool on a combination of two elements: the concept of voluntary simplicity as a pillar for consumer characteristics and the idea of assessing consumers by using filters, in a modified form introducing many new aspects of life-cycle thinking. The tool proposed provides insight into the relationship between the consumer’s typology and behavior during purchasing decisions in daily life. The main function of the proposed tool is to assign respondents to one of the proposed consumer types distinguished and characterized in terms of many aspects of life cycle thinking. A pilot survey has been performed in order to verify the proposed tool, and the survey results have been presented in the paper, as well.
... The concept of simplicity has been adopted in destination marketing and branding (Ren and Blichfeldt, 2011). The simplicity movement (simple living) (see Alexander, 2011) could make a destination characterized by simplicity appealing to tourists aligned with the movement. Simplicity can be found in small towns or rural villages. ...
Article
Purpose: A multidimensional scale was developed to measure the cuteness experience a destination can offer. In doing so, this paper attempts to explore the implications of the cuteness aesthetics for destination marketing. Design/methodology/approach: The procedure of scale development was followed. A survey was administered to a college student sample. The scale of cuteness experience was validated. A four-point scale turned out to be effective in terms of measurement. Findings: The results show that cuteness experience of a destination consists of five dimensions: smallness, irregularity, roundness, lightness and creativity. Research limitations/implications: The cuteness attributes have significant implications for promoting destinations to the East Asian markets, which have seen the rise of the cute culture in recent decades. Originality/value: This study identified a unique selling point of destinations, namely, cuteness as a destination attribute. The study results also contribute to understanding of destination personality by drawing attention to the childlike personality trait: cuteness.
... The first barrier is the powerful combination of two belief systems in industrial societies: anthropocentrism, the idea that humans are the centre of all things and are superior to or more important than all other elements of life, and the belief in the necessity of unlimited economic growth. The idea that unlimited growth is critical for the health of national economies developed during the Industrial Revolution and continues to dominate modern political, economic and cultural life (Alexander 2011). The combination of these two world-views has been a significant barrier to the mind shift necessary to accept and act on the reality of our ecological limits . ...
Chapter
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Without a new land opportunity that would free people from a lifetime of participation in an unsustainable market economy, we are socially, politically and economically constrained from achieving low-impact lifestyles consistent with planetary limits. We believe that experiments with ways to broaden access to land are indispensable to any degrowth transition, and since degrowth in some form is necessary to the ongoing inhabitability of Earth, we maintain that land access ought to be given far more attention by all those seriously concerned about sustainability, social and ecological justice, and the flourishing of the community of life on Earth.
... On the other hand, slowness emerges as a response to the rhythm imposed by fastness. Its principles have been rediscovered and explored by contemporary social movements such as Slow Living (Parkins 2004;Parkins and Craig 2006), Citt aslow (Miele 2008;Pink 2008), Simple Living (Grigsby 2004;Samuel 2011) or the Degrowth movement (Latouche 2010), which call for deceleration, sustainability, and a better quality of life. Slowness is anchored in local economies and a culture of place and values the singular, tradition, terroir products, small businesses, and local knowledges (Pink 2008;Warf 2008). ...
Article
This article discusses the enactment of conflicting time regimes in contemporary urban retail and consumer services. We draw on the theories of time–space compression, social acceleration, and the fast–slow dichotomy to argue that retail and consumer services act on urban life by enacting two apparently conflicting time regimes: fast time and slow time. Although retail and consumer services are not able to establish urban time regimes by themselves, they enact time regimes in their stores by offering the temporal resources that consumers need to perform their preferred timestyles. These temporal resources stem from the store’s concepts, sales model and management strategies, and ambiances. We draw on our ongoing field research in Colinas do Cruzeiro, an upper middle-class suburban neighborhood in greater Lisbon, Portugal, which has included field surveys, nonparticipant observation, and semistructured interviews. Our findings identify three time regimes that retail and consumer services in Colinas do Cruzeiro enact in their stores. This finding allows us to understand the processes through which retail, consumer services, and urban rhythms tend to synchronize. We discuss the geographical implications of understanding the processes that underpin the enactment of time regimes in contemporary urban retail and consumer services.
... A voluntarily simple and self-sufficient life may be a remedy. People who adopt a VSL mainly reject consumer cultures' high-consumption, materialistic lifestyles (Alexander, 2011) and pursue intrinsic satisfaction. Voluntary simplifiers are not necessarily against consumerism; preferably, they use consumption as a way to actualize their goals, like environmental appeals (Chieh-Wen et al., 2008), and to improve their life quality (McArthur & Stratford, 2020) and do shopping from authentic stores (Özgen, 2012). ...
Article
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Urban and town life, which has begun to disappear due to globalization, has been replaced by megacities, people's lifestyles are changing day by day, food culture, daily social activities, and many other areas are under the influence of speed. The slow city movement has emerged as a new movement against this speed and uniformity. The primary purpose of this research is to develop a scale to determine the perceived slowness level of slow cities from the tourist perspective. It is also aimed to analyze the level of slowness perceived by tourists regarding slow cities and the variance of these evaluations according to their willingness to adopt a voluntarily simple life and environmental sensitivities, in the case of Seferihisar, Turkey. It has been revealed that the perceived slowness level of Seferihisar is high, and there is a positive relationship between the slowness perceptions of the tourists and their voluntary simplicity (VS) lifestyles and environmental sensitivities. Also, it has been determined that the profiles of people who have different perceptions of slowness levels differ in their VS levels, environmental sensitivity, and socio-demographic characteristics. Determining the slowness levels of slow cities from the tourists’ eyes will help reveal the cities’ deficiencies and successes.
... Some studies report that voluntary simplification has a positive impact on personal well-being (e.g., Alexander and Ussher 2012;Boujbel and d'Astous, 2012;Iyer and Muncy 2016), while other studies do not find this relationship (e.g., Brown and Kasser, 2005;Seegebarth et al., 2016;Hüttel et al., 2018). Voluntary simplifiers can be described as people who cultivate a nonmaterialistic and ethical mindset and who intend to make their decisions in a self-determined way so that they do not buy things they do not need (Alexander, 2011;Etzioni 1998). The theoretical approaches to explain the positive effects of a simple lifestyle on personal well-being are often based on the following characteristics of voluntary simplifiers: non-materialism, decision control, self-determination and pro-ethical/pro-social behavior. ...
Article
Enhancing consumer satisfaction and well-being is an important objective of companies, retailers and public policy makers. In the current debate on climate change, a consistent theme is that consumers in developed countries must learn to consume less. The present study (based on representative data sets from the US, N=1,017, and Germany, N=1,030) addresses these issues by using a scenario-based experiment to analyze how satisfied voluntary simplifiers (people who voluntarily abstain from consumption) are with their purchase decisions in the case of a muesli brand. The research question is whether people who follow a sustainable, simple lifestyle are more satisfied with their daily consumption choices than people who have a more consumerist lifestyle. If so, it would be easier for many people to change their lifestyles and consume less. In addition, this scenario experiment manipulates consumer empowerment and decision complexity since both factors are supposed to influence purchase satisfaction. The results are consistent across both countries and indicate that voluntary simplifiers experience a higher level of purchasing satisfaction than non-simplifiers, whereby empowerment and decision complexity play different roles.
... Tüketicilik kavramının zıttı olarak literatürde yerini alan yetercilik; tüketim toplumunda tüketmek için vaktimiz olmadığı halde sahip olma arzusu ile satın aldığımız ürünlerin gün sonunda kullanamadığımız için, psikolojimiz üzerinde olumsuz etki yaratması üzerine kurulu bir kavramdır (Nurtanış-Velioğlu, 2013:125). Tüketim kültürüne karşı çıkan ve daha iyi bir dünya fikrine dayanan, yaşam tarzı olarak da benimsenebilecek "yetercilik" kavramı, hem ideoloji hem de pratikte tüketimciliği yenmeye adanmıştır (Alexander, 2011). Aşırı tüketimi eleştiren ve basit yaşamı tercih edenlerin benimsediği bu kavram, yeşil düşüncenin bir dalı olarak düşünmek yanlış olmayacaktır. ...
Conference Paper
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Coğrafi İşaretli Ürünlerin Destinasyon Tanıtımındaki Yeri: Hayrabolu Tatlısı Örneği
... The current definition of sustainable consumption is very broad. Some researchers give different terms related to sustainable consumption, such as: responsible consumption, attentive consumption (Kreuzer, Weber, Mona, Hackenberg, & Birk, 2019;Schlaile, Klein, & Bock, 2018), anti-consumption (Martı, 2018), voluntary simplicity (Alexander, 2011;Peyer, Balderjahn, Seegebarth, & Klemm, 2016;Zra, 2016;Shaw, 2017); and socially responsible consumption (Prothero et al., 2011;Schlaile et al., 2018). This research covers several aspects of sustainable consumption and disposal practices supported in this approach, and focuses on the sustainable behavior of individual consumers (Kwai, Lee, Sheau, Yap, & Levy, 2016;Prothero et al., 2011). ...
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Pro-environmental self-identity (PESI) is an individual’s tendency to see himself as an individual who has a pro-environment perspective and action. The aim of this study is to purify the measurement scale of the construct of PESI and to get a scale of measurement which is valid, reliable, and truly able to measure the variable of the PESI in the context of sustainable consumption behavior (SCB). This research consisted of Study 1 and Study 2. Study 1 aims to test whether the construct measurement has really been valid which is able to measure the variable that is to be measured. A series of steps for purification of the measurement scale were carried out in Study 1. The first study used 240 as sample size. In the second study, researchers conducted further purification by improving the scale of item measurement, and it was tested on 205 respondents. The results of the purification of the measurement scale were retested in Study 2. These results prove that the PESI instrument is valid and reliable in the context of sustainable consumption behavior research. Other findings in this study state that sustainable consumption behavior is divided into two dimensions or types of behavior.
... The current definition of sustainable consumption is very broad (Table 1). Some researchers give different terms related to sustainable consumption, such as, responsible consumption, attentive consumption (Kreuzer et al. 2019;Schlaile et al. 2018), anticonsumption (Martı 2018), voluntary simplicity (Alexander 2011;Peyer et al. 2016;Zra 2016;Shaw and Newholm 2002), and socially responsible consumption (Prothero et al. 2011;Schlaile et al. 2018). This research covers several aspects of sustainable consumption and disposal practices supported in this approach and focuses on the sustainable behavior of individual consumers (Kwai et al. 2016;Prothero et al. 2011). ...
Chapter
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The aim of this article is to characterize and analyze the possibilities of investing in wine and champagne. The object of our research is the investment wine market, which accounts for approximately 0.1% of all wines produced. This wine comes mainly from the French regions of Bordeaux, Burgundy, the Rhone Valley, and Champagne. World wine production in 2018 was more than 282 million hectoliters, while in 2017 there was a significant decline, to 250 million hectoliters. The object of our interest of the wine production gives us a fundamental research question into the analysis, namely, the examination of the benefits and risks of investment wine and its properties, which makes it a suitable investment commodity. The increasing decline of the world’s wine-growing regions and changes in their area over the last century, as well as changing climatic conditions, presuppose a review of another aspect of our analysis, namely the originality and value of investment wine with an advantage or threat compared to other investment opportunities on the market. Our findings show that wine is the most efficient alternative to gold and stock investment during the minimum of 10-year investing period. In our research we used data based on London Liv-ex stock exchange, wine investment portal data, and data from several relevant sources based on previous research.
... In other words, the rea-sons behind sustainable actions are motivated by the quest for hedonistic pleasure and self-realization. In my study, I discovered a subtype in this hedonistic frame, termed "alternative hedonism" or "voluntary simplicity" by Samuel Alexander (2011). Its core message is that the simple things in life (e.g., spending time with friends and family, experiencing nature, etc.) are the ones that bring the most pleasure. ...
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There is an urgent need to reduce the energy consumed by urban households. Despite current investments in energy efficient technologies, energy consumption continues to increase in cities. This thesis moves beyond the efficiency paradigm and its emphasis on reducing energy consumption, to understand instead how urban households’ energy demand can be challenged and reduced. How people frame their energy practices (driving, eating a hamburger, flying for work or leisure, etc.) and how these practices bundle configuring different lifestyles is strongly shaped by the social contexts where the individuals live and interact. This research investigates one specific social context, that of the community, in order to unpack how the social interactions within community members lead to the activation of discursive processes that can challenge current energy intensive lifestyles. Despite the routinised character of most daily practices people still have the ability to verbally reflect on and alter their actions. The activation of this “energy discursive consciousness” is at the center of this work. An ethnographic action research with three Amsterdam-based communities helped to unpack how energy discursive consciousness is “cultivated” at the community level and how it ultimately may lead to the contestation and reduction of energy needs. The notion of “decency”, which entails considering standards of morality and appropriateness that go beyond the individual and affect society in general, serves as a trigger for community reflection on lifestyle choices and contributes to the shift from efficiency to decency.
... Voluntary simplicity is an oppositional life strategy that rejects materialistic lifestyles and is often referred to as "the simple life" or "downshifting." This approach, sometimes called "the silent revolution", argues that material needs should be met as simply and directly as possible (Alexander, 2011). Voluntary simplicity is defined as "an externally simple but internally rich lifestyle" (Elgin, 2010).This concept was first introduced to the literature in a philosophical essay by Gandhi's student Gregg (1936). ...
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This study primarily seeks to identify the reasons of the hedonic consumption of gastronomy tourists and to explore their lifestyle of voluntary simplicity. It also aims to determine the correlation between the reasons of hedonic consumption and lifestyle of voluntary simplicity behaviours, and demographic variables. The study population consists of gastronomy tourists who visited Istanbul, Turkey in 2019. The data were collected from local gastronomy tourists who visited Istanbul between February, 20th and March 10th, 2019 and had gastronomy experiences during their visits based on purposeful sampling method. Accordingly, the study analyzed the data obtained from 440 surveys through loss data analysis, multi-slope analysis, multiple normal distribution tests. The data were examined using descriptive statistics as well as factor, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analyses. The reasons of the hedonic consumption of the gastronomy tourists were identified as consumption for togetherness, consumption for having an idea, consumption for relaxing, consumption for having an adventure and consumption for creating value. On the other hand, the lifestyle of voluntary simplicity was grouped under the dimensions of conscious purchasing behaviour, desire for self-sufficiency, durability of products, desire for simple products and desire for a comfortable life. The study lastly carried out analyses on the correlation between the reasons of the hedonic consumption and the lifestyle of voluntary simplicity trends. It consequently reported statistically significant findings between the reasons of the hedonic consumption and the lifestyle of voluntary simplicity behaviours.
Chapter
This chapter presents an argument against the core features of ‘ecomodernism,’ i.e., a school of thought which presents itself as a form of sustainable/environmental philosophy while being in reality the new Trojan Horse of neoclassical economics in the field of environment. In effect, ecomodernists offer a new momentum to the capitalist agenda, its rejection of ecological limits, and its support to the techno-optimist and neoliberal rearrangement of the world. The first shortcoming of this theory lies in its denial of ecological boundaries which makes ecomodernists support a robust conception of substitutability (substitution of human capital for natural capital) and a correlative weak version of sustainability. Secondly, ecomodernism is flawed in its conception of unlimited economic growth (supported by the myth of decoupling) as a sustainable pattern for human societies, as well as in its conception of human nature understood under the reductionist concept of Homo Oeconomicus. Contrary to those views, this chapter presents the reconstructive components of a sound ecological economics (strong sustainability, weak substitutability, degrowth/post-growth and post-capitalism) as being the only sustainable alternative to the dominant forms of ecological modernisation (e.g., ‘green capitalism’). This new ecological economic paradigm considers the economy, broadly defined as the system of management and allocation of existing resources, as a dependent subsystem of earth’s ecosystem and emphasizes, therefore, the irreplaceability of the natural capital, as well as the pressing necessity to restore/protect/preserve natural processes wherever and as much as possible. The general aim of this chapter is to propose a constructive agenda for an ecological economics in the Anthropocene.
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Modern çağın ev-iş-tüketim ekseninde devam eden hayatından bunalan bireylerin bir anlam arayışı içine girdikleri görülür. Tüketime dayalı bir anominin çözümü olarak ortaya çıkan minimalizm, günümüzde popüler bir yaşam felsefesi haline gelmektedir. Kısaca minimalizm, kişinin hayatından fazlalıkları çıkartarak sade bir yaşam sürdürmeyi ifade eder. Kavrama dair akademik çalışmalara bakıldığında, konunun çoğunlukla tüketimle ilgili olarak ele alındığı görülür. Fakat minimalizm bundan daha geniş bir kapsama sahip olup, “maddeye farklı bir yaklaşımla, ona bir değer atfetme” gibi daha subjektif konuları da kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, anomiye dönüşen modern hayatın bunalımından çıkmak isteyen bireylerin, çıkış yolu olarak gördükleri minimalist yaklaşımın onların değerleri üzerindeki değişim süreçleri incelenmiştir. Nitel araştırma deseni ve bu desende uygulanan tekniklerden biri olan odak grup görüşmesi tercih edilmiştir. Katılımcılara minimal hayatı tercih etmeden önceki ve sonraki yaşantılarına dair sorulardan elde veriler değerlendirilmiştir. Genel olarak minimalistler, bu düşünce ve yaşam tarzına yöneldikten sonra kendilerini pek çok konuda özgürleştiklerini, ruhsal dinginlik kazanarak stresten kurtulduklarını belirtmişlerdir.
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Minimalismus prägt den Alltag von immer mehr Menschen. Für jüngere Generationen erscheint Minimalismus als neues Phänomen, das - häufig vermischt mit einer ökologischen Lebensweise - die Kultur in Deutschland verändert. Dass diese Diskussion über Wohlstand, Besitz und menschliche Grundbedürfnisse eine lange Tradition besitzt, ist bisher im populären Diskurs nicht sichtbar. Der Minimalismus-Reader eröffnet erstmals die Vielschichtigkeit des Phänomens durch verschiedene wissenschaftliche Perspektiven aus der Kulturanthropologie, Soziologie, Ethnologie, Kulturpsychologie, Katholischen Theologie, Ostasiatischen Kunstgeschichte und Designgeschichte.
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We all share a common responsibility for planet earth and a collective action is warranted towards reaching the targets of sustainable development goals on behalf of all the countries. Sustainable behaviour includes within itself the inclusive approach to extend compassionate care to inhabitants of planet earth. The concept of Frugality having origin in Asian countries is a central and distinctive feature of a sustainable lifestyle warranting reduced consumption and thereby reduced impact of behavioural practices on the ‘availability and renewability of natural resources’. It has the potential to redefine our life priorities and helps us to move towards a more inclusive and sustainable society. It also establishes harmony between living systems of planet earth, which acts as the pre-condition for sustainable development. However, there is a need for transdisciplinary perspective to appreciate and apply this concept for the betterment of lives of a sizable population across the globe. The synergy between countries, disciplines, and professions can help embrace frugal innovation in a more meaningful manner as an enabling ‘driver of progress in achieving sustainable solutions’.
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O consumidor exercita a frugalidade na medida que é cuidadoso com o seu dinheiro. Compreender o perfil destes consumidores é de suma importância para os varejistas, pois o comportamento daquele que compra de maneira frugal pode ser influenciado também por motivações externas, ou seja, pode oscilar de acordo com a economia, por exemplo, e pode se manifestar como parte relevante do público alvo do varejo. O Modelo Conceitual utilizado neste estudo busca explicar o comportamento frugal de compra por meio de um conjunto de características do consumidor. Este artigo buscou acrescentar ao esforço de melhor compreender o consumidor quanto às características que podem incentivar a pratica da frugalidade no consumo. O estudo realizado, então, pôde demonstrar diferenças entre consumidores por meio de características nem sempre abordadas ou tratadas em estudos do comportamento de consumo. A relevância dessas características e os grupos que as possuem evidencia diferenças no comportamento frugal.
Chapter
The main purpose of individuals in purchasing goods and services is to gain ego satisfaction and prestige, and the consumption style in which they believe that they will live a more comfortable life by consuming more and not content with what they have is explained as overconsumption and conspicuous consumption. This consumption style is accepted as a behavior that is among the barriers to sustainable living, distancing individuals from their selves, and causing social and environmental problems. It is recognized that voluntary simplicity movement develops along with the sustainable consumption tendency in order to prevent the personal and environmental negative effects of increasing consumption amounts as a necessity of the increasingly modernized world and business practices. Voluntary simplicity is also important as a way of life that has the potential to produce solutions to environmental losses, global problems, various economic problems, and consumer dissatisfaction due to overconsumption. The aim of this study is to consider the voluntary simplicity movement as the consumption dimension of sustainability, which is accepted as a solution to the consumption frenzy and adopted by individuals who want to reduce consumption as much as possible and to make changes in consumption habits.
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Capsule hotels have increased in popularity among both tourists and business travelers. This study aims to understand how minimalistic lifestyle appeals affect tourist responses (i.e., attitudes and booking intentions) to capsule hotels from the perspective of brand personality. In particular, Study 1 (N = 186) demonstrates that competent hotel brands benefit from using egoistic minimalistic lifestyle (EML) appeals, whereas sincere hotel brands benefit from biospheric minimalistic lifestyle (BML) appeals when marketing capsule hotels to tourists. Moreover, Study 2 (N = 202) identifies two underlying mechanisms driving these effects, such that the need for autonomy mediates the relationship between an EML appeal and a competent hotel brand while connectedness to nature mediates the relationship between a BML appeal and a sincere hotel brand with respect to tourist responses to capsule hotels. Beyond their theoretical implications for the existing literature, our findings encourage hospitality and tourism managers to enact certain strategies (e.g., minimalistic lifestyle appeals or brand personality positioning) in capsule hotel marketing.
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Gastronomi turistlerinin hedonik tüketim ve gönüllü sade yaşam tarzı davranışlarını belirlemek, bu araştırmanın amacını oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada ayrıca, gastronomi turistlerinin sosyo-demografik değişkenleri de belirlenmek istenmektedir. Araştırmanın evrenini, 2019 yılında İstanbul'u ziyaret eden gastronomi turistleri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmadaki veriler, alan yazına bağlı olarak geliştirilen anket aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Geliştirilen anket, 20 Şubat ile 10 Mart 2019 tarihleri arasında İstanbul'u ziyaret eden ve ziyareti esnasında gastronomi deneyimi yaşayan yerli gastronomi turistlerine kasti örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak online olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada 440 anketin verileri analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda; gastronomi turistlerinin çoğunluğunun kadın, 23-37 yaş aralığında, lisans mezunu, özel sektör çalışanı, iyi bir gelire sahip, bekar bireyler oldukları bulgulanmıştır. Ayrıca gastronomi tursitlerinin hedonik tüketim ve gönüllü sade yaşam tarzı eğilimleri gösterdikleri ve bu eğilimleri arasında aileleri için tüketimde bulundukları zaman mutlu olurken, gelecekte kendilerine yetebilecekleri bir yaşam sürmeyi istedikleri tespit edilmiştir.
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On the topic of sustainability in the foodservice industry, there is no simple indicator to tell whether their preparations of cuisines are green from the perspective of a restaurant manager. The purpose of this study is to propose a new approach to measure the level of sustainability. By collecting data from forty-eight recipes, we apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) to yield a set of common weights for evaluating the level of sustainability. The results show that the recipe without meat, food additive, and processed food may not obtain the highest value of the sustainability index.
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Enhancing consumer satisfaction and well-being is an important objective of companies, retailers and public policy makers. In the current debate on climate change, a consistent theme is that consumers in developed countries must learn to consume less. The present study (based on representative data sets from the US, N=1,017, and Germany, N=1,030) addresses these issues by using a scenario-based experiment to analyze how satisfied voluntary simplifiers (people who voluntarily abstain from consumption) are with their purchase decisions in the case of a muesli brand. The research question is whether people who follow a sustainable, simple lifestyle are more satisfied with their daily consumption choices than people who have a more consumerist lifestyle. If so, it would be easier for many people to change their lifestyles and consume less. In addition, this scenario experiment manipulates consumer empowerment and decision complexity since both factors are supposed to influence purchase satisfaction. The results are consistent across both countries and indicate that voluntary simplifiers experience a higher level of purchasing satisfaction than non-simplifiers, whereby empowerment and decision complexity play different roles.
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Voluntary simplicity (VS) is a lifestyle focused on seeking a simple life by reducing consumption and other practices. This systematic literature review aims to analyse and critically discuss the state of the art of VS. This review provides a categorization scheme of VS and analyses: the number of studies and year of publication; journals, number of citations and research areas; study location; VS definitions; types of studies; and research methods. By providing a map of existing research, the paper contributes to the clarification of the VS construct and to the assessment, synthesis and identification of research gaps, and opportunities for further research. VS implications for theory, practice and policy are discussed within the context of consumption/anti‐consumption.
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In this paper, we reflect on and explore what remains to be done to make the concept of supportive environments— one of the Ottawa Charter's five core action areas—a reality in the context of growing uncertainty about the future and accelerated pace of change. We pay particular attention to the physical environment, while underscoring the inextricable links between physical and social environments , and particularly the need to link social and environmental justice. The paper begins with a brief orientation to three emerging threats to health equity, namely ecological degradation, climate change, and peak oil, and their connection to economic instability, food security, energy security and other key determinants of health. We then present three contrasting perspectives on the nature of social change and how change is catalyzed, arguing for an examination of the conditions under which cultural change on the scale required to realize the vision of 'supportive environments for all' might be catalyzed, and the contribution that health promotion as a field could play in this process. Drawing on sociological theory, and specifically practice theory and the work of Pierre Bourdieu, we advocate rethinking education for social change by attending more adequately to the social conditions of transformative learning and cultural change. We conclude with an explication of three key implications for health promotion practice: a more explicit alignment with those seeking to curtail environmental destruction and promote environmental justice, strengthening engagement with local or settings-focused 'communities of prac-tice' (such as the Transition Town movement), and finding new ways to creatively 'engage emergence', a significant departure from the current dominant focus on 'risk management'.
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The increased levels of consumption that have accompanied our consumer-oriented culture have also given rise to some consumers questioning their individual consumption choices, with many opting for greater consumption simplicity. This link between consideration of actual consumption levels and consumer choices is evident among a group of consumers known as ethical consumers. Ethical consumers consider a range of ethical issues in their consumer behavioral choices. Particularly prevalent is voluntary simplification due to concerns for the extent and nature of consumption. Through the presentation of findings from two qualitative studies exploring known ethical consumers, the relationship of consumer attitudes to consumption levels, and how these attitudes impact approaches to consumer behavior, are discussed. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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As house size increases, resource use in buildings goes up, more land is occupied, increased impermeable surface results in more storm-water runoff, construction costs rise, and energy consumption increases. In new, single-family houses constructed in the United States, living area per family member has increased by a factor of 3 since the 1950s. In comparing the energy performance of compact (small) and large single-family houses, we find that a small house built to only moderate energy-performance standards uses substantially less energy for heating and cooling than a large house built to very high energy-performance standards. This article examines some of the trends in single-family house building in the United States and provides recommendations for downsizing houses to improve quality and resource efficiency.
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In this paper we explore material simplicity, defined as the virtue disposing us to act appropriately within the sphere of our consumer decisions. Simplicity is a conscientious and restrained attitude toward material goods that typically includes (1) decreased consumption and (2) a more conscious consumption; hence (3) greater deliberation regarding our consumer decisions; (4) a more focused life in general; and (5) a greater and more nuanced appreciation for other things besides material goods, and also for (6) material goods themselves. It is to be distinguished from simple-mindedness, a return to nature, or poverty. Simplicity overlaps with traditional virtues such as temperance, frugality, and wisdom, and sustains and enables traditional virtues such as justice and generosity. Simplicity is a virtue because it furthers human flourishing, both individual and social, and sustains nature’s ecological flourishing. For analytic purposes, we consider six areas in which simplicity can make important contributions: (1) basic individual flourishing, (2) basic societal flourishing, (3) individual freedom or autonomy, (4) the acquisition of knowledge, (5) living meaningfully, and (6) preserving and protecting nonhuman beings. The proven failure of materialism to secure subjective happiness or objective flourishing argues for the practice of voluntary simplicity and for the radical reform of modern consumer societies.
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This article draws on research into the development and growth of ethical consumption in the UK to suggest why consumerism and citizenship are not necessarily opposed practices. Consumer-oriented activism offers important pathways to political participation for ordinary people. The organisations involved in this field embed consumer-oriented activism in wider programs of mobilisation, activism, lobbying and campaigning, enrolling ordinary people in active political engagement.
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Excerpt from Prologue: This is a book about hope. To me, 'hope' is about a certain generosity and gratefulness that we all need in life. If life is a series of encounters and chance meetings, events and social relations, then hope lies across all of these. It is a basic human condition that involves belief and trust in the world. It is the stuff of our dreams and desires, our ideas of freedom and justice and how we might conceive life. In this book, hope is also about a spirit of dialogue, where generosity and laughter break open a space to keep spontaneity and freedom alive - the joyful engagements possible with others. For in any conversation - individual or political, written, spoken or read - there needs to be the ability to hear, listen and give. If we shut down a discussion through resentment, fear or unwillingness - through adversity or polarised individual or political positions - generosity ceases, and the openness of real discussion and debate is diminished. When a dialogue is not permitted there can be no space for exchange - words and ideas become self-enclosed and the exchange becomes a kind of monologue, a type of depression and narcissism where territories are defended and the stakes raised are already known. Reflections, conversations and dialogues build new social and individual imaginaries - visions of the world that create possibilities for change. They lift us out of despair and let us take new risks in our encounters with each other. What I pose here is the ethical and political responsibility we can share in writing and thinking about hope. This is about collaboration - in writing, in thinking, in politics - how working ideas together, across different styles and traditions, can let new ideas, views and expressions emerge. This involves a sense of trust and a 'faith without certitudes' about where hope may lie in thinking about the future. In secular times, when hope has moved out of the religious sphere, the turn towards the future may be found in struggles for individual justice, and in political activity across the globe.
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This article presents the analysis of two dominant anti-consumption discourses (the voluntary simplicity discourse and the culture jammer discourse) to show the importance of anti-consumption practices in the construction of consumer identities. Specifically, two consumer-resistant identities are presented: a hero identity and a project identity. Each resistant identity is produced by, and produces, overreaching cultural discourses against consumer culture, namely resistance to exploitative consumption and resistance to positional consumption. In addition, each identity expresses resistance either in terms of political consumption for an outer change or in terms of creative consumption directed toward an inner change. By stressing the importance of hero resistant identities and project resistant identities, this article offers the concept of identity formation as central rather than peripheral to the development of consumer resistance.
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We test for whether, once "basic needs" are satisfied, there is happiness adaptation to further gains in income using three data sets. Individual German Panel Data from 1985-2000, and data on the well-being of over 600,000 people in a panel of European countries from 1975-2002, shows different patterns of adaptation to income across the rich and poor. We find evidence that for wealthy Germans, and for the rich half of European nations, higher levels of per capita income don't buy greater happiness. The reason appears to be adaptation. However even for the rich half of European nations such habituation may take over 5 years so the happiness gains that they experience, whilst not permanent, can still be relatively long-lasting. Finally we study a cross section of nations in 2005 from the World Gallup Poll and find that the past 45 years of economic growth (from 1960-2005) in the rich half of nations has not brought happiness gains above those that were already in place once the 1960s standard of living had been achieved. However in the poorest half of nations we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the happiness gains they have experienced from the past 45 years of growth have been the same as the gains that they experienced from growth prior to the 1960s.
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Twenty years ago, Tibor Scitovsky questioned the assumption, embedded in neoclassical economics, that human happiness will be augmented if the level of consumption either rises or becomes more uniform over time. Evidence from the 1990–1993 World Values Survey suggests that his doubts were well‐founded: although economic gains apparently make a major contribution to subjective well‐being as one moves from societies at the subsistence level to those with moderate levels of economic development, further economic growth seems to have little or no impact on subjective well‐being. This transition seems to reflect a basic cultural change that results in the diminishing marginal utility of economic growth.
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Postmodern explanations of consumer behaviour stress social and psychological factors to the neglect of explanations based on structural issues such as the working life conditions which favour a work-and-spend lifestyle, the conditions of urban living or the effects of pervasive marketing. This paper argues that consumers may not be so keen and willing but are rather locked-in by circumstances. Some of these circumstances are deliberately created by other interests, and a policy to limit consumption must look for adequate means over a large and varied field. In the end shorter working hours may be an important key to a more sustainable future.
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Taking a longer view than most literature on economic development, Richard A. Easterlin stresses the enormous contrast between the collective experience of the last half century in both developed and developing countries and what has gone before. An economic historian and demographer, the author writes in the tradition of the "new economic history," drawing on economic theory and quantitative evidence to interpret the historical experience of economic theory and population growth. He reaches beyond the usual disciplinary limits to draw, as appropriate, on sociology, political science, psychology, anthropology, and the history of science. The book will be of interest not only to social scientists but to all readers concerned with where we have been and where we are going. ". . . Easterlin is both an economic historian and a demographer, and it is the combination of these two disciplines and the fine balance between theory and experience that make this well-written, refreshingly optimistic book excellent reading." --Population and Development Review "In this masterful synthesis, Richard Easterlin draws on the disciplines of economic history, demography, sociology, political science, psychology, and the history of science to present an integrated explation of the origins of modern economic growth and of the mortality revolution. . . . His book should be easily accessible to non-specialists and will give them a sense of why economic history can inform our understanding of the future." --Dora L. Costa, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, EH.Net and H-Net "Growth Triumphant is, simply, a fascinating book. Easterlin has woven together a history of economic growth, economic development, human mortality and morbidity, the connections each has with the others, and the implications of this nexus of forces on the future. . . . This book deserves a wide audience." --Choice "In what must surely be the most fair-minded, well-balanced, and scrupulously reasoned and researched book on the sensational subjects implied in its title--the Industrial Revolution, the mortality and fertility revolutions, and the prospects for future happiness for the human race--Professor Easterlin has set in place the capstone of his research career." --Journal of Economic History Richard A. Easterlin is Professor of Economics, University of Southern California.
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Missouri-Columbia, 2000. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 386-402). Microfilm.
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Thomas Princen's The Logic of Sufficiency argues for a radical change in the way we think about the relationships among resource use, production, and consumption. It is a hugely ambitious book, offering a comprehensive indictment of the logic of efficiency, a detailed discussion of the logic of sufficiency that he argues should replace it, and three case studies of the latter logic in action. The book is a must-read for those scholars who look at the relationship between human society and the natural environment at the macro scale. Whether or not it is ultimately convincing, this insightful and engaging book will get the reader thinking. Princen's book is part of a growing literature in the study of environmental politics on consumption, and the need to relate patterns of human consumption to the carrying capacities of the natural environment. Its particular target, however, is not modern consumer society, but rather modern producer society, and in particular the idea of efficiency that drives modern production. Efficiency is central not only to how we think of about production; it is also the core concept in the way we think about environmental management, and Princen is equally critical of the concept in both instances. His concept of sufficiency is not based on ratios of input to output, as is the case with efficiency. Rather, it is based on the absolute size of inputs and outputs. Sufficiency means we do not take out of the environment more than it can support, and we do not take in to our economies more than we need. The book itself provides both a detailed social history of the concept of efficiency, and a critique of the concept as a tool both for managing the environment, and for managing our own working lives. The three case studies of the logic of sufficiency focus on renewable forestry in California, sustainable lobstering in Maine, and automobile-free transportation in Toronto. The book concludes with a set of "what ifs" that provide a guide to how a sustainable future might look rather than a guide for how to get there per se. A book this ambitious, one that tries to rewrite the very underpinnings of the economy and society more broadly, will inevitably have weaknesses. A weakness of this one is that the logic of efficiency, while an effective rhetorical foil for Princen's argument about sufficiency, might not be quite up to all of the opprobrium that he heaps upon it. Efficiency may in fact be quite a useful tool in a world of limited resources and considerable human need. The environmental and social problems that we face are certainly related to the goals toward which we use efficiency, but the goals themselves, driven as they are by a consumerist capitalist society, are not necessarily as inherent in the logic of efficiency as he claims. Furthermore, production-oriented societies that are not as focused on efficiency as ours (the Soviet Union and China in their processes of industrialization come to mind) do not seem to treat their natural environments any better. A second weakness in the argument is a tension that is never quite worked out between human needs and environmental capacities in the logic of sufficiency. According to this logic we should draw no more resources than we need, and no more than can be used sustainably. Ideally the former quantity will be smaller than the latter. But what if it is not? How do we know what is enough from the human end? Does environmental carrying capacity always trump human need in the logic of sufficiency? The argument is not always clear on these issues. The case studies are not particularly good guides to these questions either. All three of them look at people who may not be wealthy by contemporary North American standards, but who are enormously wealthy by both global and historical standards. Can the planet support more than six billion people at the standard of living enjoyed by Toronto Islanders, or even Maine islanders? Probably not. In this sense, Princen's examples are in a way quite politically conservative. They are all examples of decisions by those who control natural resources to limit...
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This article presents a contextualized treatment of the current configuration of self, some of the pathologies that plague it, and the technologies that attempt to heal it. Of particular interest is the historical shift from the Victorian, sexually restricted self to the post-World War II empty self. The empty self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming "filled up" with food, consumer products, and celebrities. Its historical antecedents, economic constituents, and political consequences are the focus of this article. The two professions most responsible for healing the empty self, advertising and psychotherapy, find themselves in a bind: They must treat a psychological symptom without being able to address its historical causes. Both circumvent the bind by employing the life-style solution, a strategy that attempts to heal by covertly filling the empty self with the accoutrements, values, and mannerisms of idealized figures. This strategy solves an old problem but creates new ones, including an opportunity for abuse by exploitive therapists, cult leaders, and politicians. Psychology's role in constructing the empty self, and thus reproducing the current hierarchy of power and privilege, is examined.
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The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the relationship between values (understood as principles guiding behaviour), choices and their final outcomes in terms of life satisfaction, and use data from the BHPS to assess whether our ideas on what is important in life (individual values) are broadly connected to what we experience as important in our lives (life satisfaction).
Our country is set up to oppose voluntary simplicity
  • Michael Jacobson
  • It
Michael Jacobson puts it, 'Our country is set up to oppose voluntary simplicity.' See Michael Jacobson, Marketing Madness (1995), as quoted in de Graaf et al, Affluenza, above n 5, 221.
Towards a Concrete Utopian Model of Green Political Economy' (2006) 35 Post- Autistic Economics Review 5-25
  • E G See
  • John Barry
See, e.g., John Barry, 'Towards a Concrete Utopian Model of Green Political Economy' (2006) 35 Post- Autistic Economics Review 5-25; John Barry, Rethinking Green Politics: Nature, Virtue, and Progress (1999).
The Population Explosion (1990) (discussing the 'I = PAT' identity, which holds that environmental impact (I) is a product of population
  • Paul See
  • Anne Ehrlich
  • Ehrlich
68 See generally, Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich, The Population Explosion (1990) (discussing the 'I = PAT' identity, which holds that environmental impact (I) is a product of population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T)).
157 (discussing their Australian survey which reports on the diversity of motivations downshifters have for adopting voluntary simplicity lifestyles)
  • See Denniss
See Denniss and Hamilton, above n 9, 157 (discussing their Australian survey which reports on the diversity of motivations downshifters have for adopting voluntary simplicity lifestyles).
156 (reporting that 29 per cent of downshifters surveyed practise voluntary simplicity by reducing their working hours)
  • Denniss Hamilton
49 Hamilton and Denniss, above n 9, 156 (reporting that 29 per cent of downshifters surveyed practise voluntary simplicity by reducing their working hours).
Life without Principle The Portable Thoreau (1982) 636. 97 Segal
  • Henry David
Henry David Thoreau, 'Life without Principle,' in Carl Bode (ed), The Portable Thoreau (1982) 636. 97 Segal, above n 27, 13.
The term voluntary simplicity was coined by Richard Gregg, an American lawyer and committed follower of Gandhi. See Richard Gregg, 'The Value of Voluntary Simplicity
  • Juliet Schor
  • The Overspent American
Juliet Schor, The Overspent American: Upscaling, Downshifting, and the New Consumer (1st ed, 1998). The term voluntary simplicity was coined by Richard Gregg, an American lawyer and committed follower of Gandhi. See Richard Gregg, 'The Value of Voluntary Simplicity,' in Samuel Alexander (ed), Voluntary Simplicity: The Poetic Alternative to Consumer Culture (2009) 111-126.
Stepping Lightly: Simplicity for People and the
  • Burch
Burch, Stepping Lightly: Simplicity for People and the Planet (2000) 65 (emphasis omitted).
Agenda 21 72 Ibid 74 There is also a growing recognition that ecological and humanitarian issues are closely linked
71 See United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 'Agenda 21,' Sect. 4.3, <http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21/> at 10 October 2010. 72 Ibid, Sect. 4.7. 73 United Nations, 'World Summit on Sustainable Development' (2002) <http://www.un-documents.net/jburgdec.htm> at 10 November 2010. 74 There is also a growing recognition that ecological and humanitarian issues are closely linked. See Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being (2005) 2 (acknowledging that 'the degradation of ecosystems services is already a significant barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals').
The New Middle Classes: Globalizing Lifestyles
  • Hellmuth Lange
  • Lars Meier
Hellmuth Lange and Lars Meier, The New Middle Classes: Globalizing Lifestyles, Consumerism and Environmental Concern (2009).
Toward a Philosophy and Politics of the Alternative American Dream
  • Jerome Segal
  • Graceful Simplicity
Jerome Segal, Graceful Simplicity: Toward a Philosophy and Politics of the Alternative American Dream (1st ed, 1999).
Relative Poverty, Relative Communication
  • Mary Douglas
Mary Douglas, 'Relative Poverty, Relative Communication' [1976], in Jackson (ed), Sustainable Consumption (2005) 243
Voluntary Simplicity: A New Social Movement?' in William Halal and Kenneth Taylor, Twenty-First Century Economics: Perspectives of Socioeconomics for a Changing World
  • Amitai Etzioni
Amitai Etzioni, 'Voluntary Simplicity: A New Social Movement?' in William Halal and Kenneth Taylor, Twenty-First Century Economics: Perspectives of Socioeconomics for a Changing World (1999).
The Logic of Sufficiency Gambrel and Cafaro, above n 25. 33 See generally Less is More: An Anthology of Ancient and Modern Voices
  • See Thomas Princen
See Thomas Princen, The Logic of Sufficiency (2005); Gambrel and Cafaro, above n 25. 33 See generally, Goldian Vanenbroeck (ed), Less is More: An Anthology of Ancient and Modern Voices Raised in Praise of Simplicity (1991).
The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (Rev See also Psychology and Consumer Culture: The Struggle for a Good Life
  • Juliet Schor
Juliet Schor, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (Rev. ed, 1993). See also, Tim Kasser and Allen Kanner (eds), Psychology and Consumer Culture: The Struggle for a Good Life in a Materialistic World (2003).
The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies See also, Yiannis Gabriel and Tim Land, The Unmanageable Consumer (describing the " Fordist Deal " – the trade-off in which workers obtain greater material enjoyment in exchange for alienation and loss of autonomy in the workplace)
  • Putnam
Putnam, above n 16; Robert Lane, The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies (2000). See also, Yiannis Gabriel and Tim Land, The Unmanageable Consumer (2 nd ed, 2006) 10 (describing the " Fordist Deal " – the trade-off in which workers obtain greater material enjoyment in exchange for alienation and loss of autonomy in the workplace).
Are Happier People Better Citizens?' (2009) available at <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers (providing evidence that happier people tend to create more social capital, are more likely to vote, volunteer, and participate in public activities
  • E G See
  • Cahit Guven
See, e.g., Cahit Guven, 'Are Happier People Better Citizens?' (2009) available at <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1422493> at 10 October 2010 (providing evidence that happier people tend to create more social capital, are more likely to vote, volunteer, and participate in public activities).