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Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization as it is in the natural world. Just like plants and animals, organizations and the individuals in them inevitably encounter changing conditions that they are powerless to control.Change within the organization/company can be influenced by external factors (which can be controlled to a lesser extent by managers such as: changes in technology, increasing complexity of life that generates complex communication systems and social changes). Internal factors through which changes act within the organization are actually represented by processes of making decisions, communication, interpersonal relations, leadership, management style etc. In addition to the factors listed, there are a multitude of factors which, by nature of their content, are generating change.

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... There are unforeseen external factors that can prevent organizational change. These are beyond the organization's control, such as political, economic, and social factors and even competition (Chirimbu, 2011;Jiang, Muhanna & Klain, 2000) and consultants/advisers' influence. These factors bring uncertainty, which has been recognized as a source of RC (Waddell & Sohal, 1998). ...
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Purpose: This article addresses the main concerns of existing literature about resistance to change (RC) in organizations, namely the limited interpretative position regarding RC focusing mainly on negative aspects and excluding potential benefits, and the poor consensus or even understanding of RC sources in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: To approach our goal, a systematic literature review will be carried out. The initial sample, obtained using reproducible search algorithms on Scopus and Web of Science, comprises 65 papers. After applying five inclusion/exclusion criteria supported by previous systematic reviews, the final sample consists of 30 papers. Findings: This article demonstrates the prevalence of a negative position toward RC and reveals efforts to harness the potential benefits of RC. In addition, from 126 specific RC sources extracted from the analyzed papers, it discovers and discusses 22 sub-typologies of RC sources, which are grouped into five typologies. Practical implications: The paper enables the future identification of, evaluation of, and intervention in 22 potential RC sources in organizations distinguished into five typologies. The taxonomy also enables researchers to organize and summarize study topics/subtopics regarding RC in the organizational arena. Social implications: This paper draws attention to the need to recognize the meaning and implications of three alternative positions relating to RC in organizations (positive, negative, and neutral). Originality/value: The paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of RC sources beyond the traditional classification of individual/organizational factors.
... Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization. by nature of their content, are generating change [24] . However, senior managers spend lot of time trying to change their organizations to move from the status quo to a desired future situation [136] . ...
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If you question yourself what may be the only certainty that you will face in the near or far future, you will find a simple answer, which is “Change”; it is the only certainty, endless and constant in life. Projects are also one of the sources of change in this world; however, they are not safe from it. Project change is unavoidable, whether that change is motivated from a strategic perspective or in response to an operational imperative, the delivery mechanism for the project change is the same, and that is project management. During the last twenty years there has been intensive research about project change. There exist now several results that describe and classify these changes based on project characteristics, the causes and the effects. Most researches indicate that change should always be avoided and project team should be proactive in dealing with it. However, change is not always deleterious; some changes are beneficial and can also lead to new opportunities. The focus in this thesis is more about change in large scale engineering project. These projects are known for their large scope, high cost, long duration, with high complexity and uncertainty; those are the reasons why also they are exposed to continuous change in their scope, cost, plan, etc.; also they are open to dynamic environment that makes them more vibrant and exposed to change. Most of these projects are famous for their bad efficiency (cost overrun, time delays, and quality defect) and even occasionally fail to meet the desired outcomes measured in their effectiveness. Frequent changes often lead to that bad efficiency; however, to meet the desired effectiveness, changes are more than needed. A number of scholars have argued that flexibility is necessary to face the change and uncertainty to be able to adjust projects as they gain knowledge about their needs and changes in the project context. Others argue that underestimating projects complexity is also the reasons for failure. In addition to that uncertainty increases the project complexity and vice versa. It seems all the concepts are twisted in this system called project, where also the stakeholders are main actors of it, contributing in its complexity; the reason why in this report all aspects are considered to understand their contribution in project change.
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The study was a replication of a previous study which investigated the level of job satisfaction of male and female administrative staff in South West Nigeria Universities. Using cross-sectional ex-post facto research design and multi-stage sampling procedure, 200 participants were sampled for the purpose of the study. Validated scale was used for data collection and result of data analysis showed that there is no significant difference in the level of job satisfaction of male and female. It was also discovered that more administrative staff had low job satisfaction as against the previous findings. It was recommended that more study should be conducted on a wider pedestal in order to be able to ascertain the level of j ob satisfaction among this set of population as well as to know the factors that predict their level of job satisfaction.
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