Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This introductory article situates the contributions that comprise this special issue within the field of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) studies. After a brief review of the policy history surrounding SCP, we organize our discussion and the subsequent collection of articles into two groups. The first suite of articles views the environmental impacts associated with household consumption from the perspectives of different consumer groups, income levels, and geographic areas. This work confirms and refines several insights that have been developing over the past several years, namely that food and beverages, mobility, housing, and energy-using products are the most critical consumption domains from the standpoint of environmental sustainability and that higher household income leads to greater (but less than proportional) impacts. The second subset of articles analyzes the potential for mitigating these impacts through behavioral changes and innovation strategies. Although the contributions to this special issue describe several noteworthy examples of information- and team-based initiatives to catalyze behavioral changes, the state of knowledge pertaining to this aspect of the consumption problem is much more inchoate. Research on the formulation and implementation of effective “change management for sustainable consumption” should be treated as an area of priority attention for industrial ecologists.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Around 2006, some of the first major consumption-based accounting studies had been conducted, summarized, and completed with new work in the EIPRO (Environmental Impacts of Products) study commissioned by the EU (Tukker & Jansen, 2006). Mainly using GMRIO, such studies concluded that food, housing, the use of appliances and transport drive some 70% of the impacts of final consumption, regardless of whether this concerns carbon emissions, blue water extraction, resource use or land use (Tukker et al., 2010). This finding has consistently been confirmed by later studies including a 2010 review of the International Resources Panel (e.g., Hertwich et al., 2010;Ivanova et al, 2016, Wood et al., 2018. ...
... The use of energy using appliances such as fridges, lighting, TV sets and computers is crucial, too. Around 50% of the impacts of food consumption are driven by meat and dairy, followed by other food products (Tukker & Jansen, 2006;Tukker et al, 2010). For mobility, car transport is dominant, followed by air transport and public transport. ...
... Determinants of the height of impacts include the following (Tukker et al, 2010). First, higher income leads to higher expenditure and hence higher impacts, but since usually, the surplus is spent on quality rather than quantity, the impacts per monetary value drop (Scherer et al, 2019). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Dominant unsustainable consumption patterns in developed countries have led to increasing climate and biodiversity issues. Through consumption-based accounting, at least 70% of the environmental footprint (carbon emissions, blue water extraction, resource use, land use) can be attributed to food, housing, the use of appliances and transport. Total consumption of dominant consumer goods such as clothing and electronics is only on the rise, also leading to increasing levels of waste. Given these adverse trends, and the key role of business in society, this chapter focuses on a potential positive role by business and investigates the following question: Can business have a positive role in supporting or even driving sustainable consumption, and if so, how? First, a Business for Sufficiency framework is introduced-based on the top strategies in the waste hierarchy and the four 'lessens'-to map possible business-driven strategies. Second, this framework is applied to the sectors of food, housing, appliances, and transport. Based on this analysis, it was found that business indeed has a plethora of options, including green alternatives, service-driven business models, platforms, and strategies to moderate consumption. However, green alternatives were most prevalent. While some businesses also operate in the refuse (do not overconsume) option, it is likely that new policies are needed to drive sustainable consumption. The EU Circular Economy Package is an important lever for policy change, but a specific focus on sufficiency may help guide even more stringent policies to curb unsustainable consumption patterns that are detrimental to the environment and ultimately society itself.
... Consequentially, consumers demanding food according to its place of origin, production process, or producers plays an important role in the sustainability discourse [6,7]. As such, individuals choosing to eat locally harvested, seasonal, and/or organic food and follow a vegetarian diet have a lower per capita environmental impact than those relying on more customary diets [8]. The transition towards sustainable diets basing on organic, local, and seasonal foods, thus, presents an opportunity to advance commitments to sustainable development [9,10]. ...
... We believe that a reason for the lack of relevance of environmental motives could lie in the complexity of understanding which and how environmental benefits result from a seasonal food choice. As Tukker et al. [8] conclude, the assessment of the environmental impact gets more complicated when comparing local fruits and vegetables produced in energy-intensive greenhouses with the "food miles" that are accrued by alternatives grown on the field in distant locations. As a consequence, one has to consider not only the carbon but also the land, material, and water footprint for a holistic evaluation of possible impact reductions related to seasonality. ...
... As a consequence, researchers could investigate whether a certain level of environmental knowledge is positively related to the preference for and choice of food that is not only local but also seasonal. As the assessment of the environmental impact of food choice gets increasingly complicated [8], and the impact of an out-of-season production might be underestimated [32], a high level of environmental knowledge could facilitate this understanding and followingly drive consumers to opt for an environmentally friendly option. As a further avenue, future research could assess amongst others to what degree a consumer's connectedness to nature [110], environmental identity [111], or ecological identity [112] influences his or her preference for and choice of seasonal products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Local seasonal food choices are environmentally relevant behaviors and a promising opportunity for enhancing sustainable food consumption. Therefore, we need a more integrated understanding of motives driving consumers to opt for food that is produced locally and also in its natural growing season. The aim of this study is to (i) identify which motives for local food choices are also relevant for local seasonal food choices and (ii) investigate whether environmental motives become (more) relevant for these environmentally friendly choices. To assess consumer perceptions of socioeconomic, health, and environmental aspects, a survey in combination with a choice-based conjoint experiment to measure consumer preferences for seasonal (apples) and non-seasonal choices (tomatoes) was conducted. The data were collected by means of an online-panel survey (n = 499) and analyzed using two structural equation models. Results revealed that while the support of the local economy presents the most relevant driver, consumers’ price sensibility is even more relevant as a barrier. What differs is the relevance of authenticity and local identity. While local seasonal food provides environmental benefits to consumers, these benefits have no implications for the relevance of environmental motives. Based on these findings, we derive evidence-based recommendations for policymakers and marketers and propositions for future research regarding additional drivers and barriers for local seasonal food consumption.
... The supply side looks at the sectors where emissions directly occur, for instance in the conversion of fossil fuels to CO 2 . Energy and transport dominate the sectors contributing to direct emissions, with waste, forestry, and agriculture coming in on the next tier [23]. Nationally determined contributions tend to align well with these identified priorities with most outlining actions addressing energy, transport, and forestry. ...
... They also enable quantification of demandside climate mitigation measures [24]. The findings are consistent and "unambiguous", with food, mobility, and housing accounting for 70-80% of life-cycle carbon emissions [23]. On the demand side, buildings feature prominently as drivers of indirect emissions from electricity use and are also frequently included in nationally determined contributions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current commitments in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are insufficient to remain within the 2-degree climate change limit agreed to in the Paris Agreement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that lifestyle changes are now necessary to stay within the limit. We reviewed a range of NDCs and national climate change strategies to identify inclusion of low-carbon lifestyles. We found that most NDCs and national climate change strategies do not yet include the full range of necessary mitigation measures targeting lifestyle change, particularly those that could reduce indirect emissions. Some exceptional NDCs, such as those of Austria, Slovakia, Portugal and the Netherlands, do include lifestyle changes, such as low-carbon diets, reduced material consumption, and low-carbon mobility. Most countries focus on supply-side measures with long lag times and might miss the window of opportunity to shape low-carbon lifestyle patterns, particularly those at early stages of development trajectories. Systemic barriers exist that should be corrected before new NDCs are released, including changing the accounting and reporting methodology, accounting for extraterritorial emissions, providing guidance on NDC scope to include the menu of options identified by the IPCC, and increasing support for national level studies to design demand-side policies.
... In recent years, governmental and nongovernmental organizations have implemented different policies and tools to encourage companies to implement environmental management practices (Nikolaou, Chymis, and Evangelinos 2013), such as (1) market-based instruments (e.g., environmental taxes, subsidies, and tradable permits), (2) command and control instruments, and (3) some voluntary tools (e.g., environmental management systems). Furthermore, the growing consumer concern about the origin of products and their environmental impact has played a critical role in influencing the producers' decision to adopt sustainable practices (Jackson 2005;Tukker et al. 2010). All this has increased the focus on the sustainability of the seafood industry but, at the same time, it has made clear the need for procedures to eliminate the confusing and asymmetric information about the environmental impact of products (King, Lenox, and Terlaak 2005). ...
... To overcome this problem, an increasing number of organizations, both public and private, are actively working toward sustainable change with new production models, policies, and even legislation (FAO 2018). Nevertheless, to succeed in this challenge and make the added costs and risks worthwhile, stakeholders, and especially consumers, have to be the real drivers of that shift (Jackson 2005;Tukker et al. 2010). With this idea in mind, environmental certifications and ecolabels were created to provide market-based incentives for sustainable practices (UN 2015) and help producers to communicate the adoption of those practices to consumers through reliable and credible labels (Asche et al. 2015). ...
Article
In a context of a pressing need for more sustainable practices, the fishing industry still has doubts about whether the benefits resulting from adopting them outweigh the associated costs. With the aim of providing insights to answer that question, this study presents an analysis of the “it pays to be green” hypothesis by measuring the stock market reaction to the public announcements of compliance with voluntary environmental standards. To this end, an event study has been carried out to investigate whether the announcement that a seafood company has been certificated by the Marine Stewardship Council Chain of Custody Standard influences its shareholders’ decisions and, therefore, the company’s market value. Results show positive average abnormal returns following that event; these returns are greater in the case of those companies with larger size or lower profitability.
... Apart from income, household size and location (rural versus urban) are often analysed as factors influencing household behaviours and associated environmental impacts (Baiocchi et al., 2010;Hertwich, 2011;Tukker et al., 2010). The economy of scale originating from household size appears in many studies: the larger the household, the lower its per capita footprint. ...
... In contrast to household size, the impact of location is less distinct. In general, households in dense urban areas tend to have lower impacts, especially in the domains of mobility (shorter distances) and housing (smaller apartments) (Baiocchi et al., 2010;Tukker et al., 2010;Wiedenhofer et al., 2018). This, however, is partially offset by smaller household sizes and higher incomes in cities (Jones & Kammen, 2014;Wiedenhofer et al., 2018), although the latter greatly depends on the national context (Baiocchi et al., 2010) . ...
... Second, we tested only one possible mechanism of communicating environmental product performance to consumers, namely, by presenting the relative amount of CO2 emissions caused. Further research should investigate the effects of different kinds of communicating such information, for instance as absolute figures (Daziano et al., 2017;Tukker et al., 2010). O' Rourke and Ringer, 2016). ...
... Second, only one possible mechanism of communicating environmental product performance to consumers was tested, namely, by presenting the relative amount of CO2 emissions caused. Further research should investigate the effects of different kinds of communicating such information, for instance as absolute figures (Daziano et al., 2017;Tukker et al., 2010). ...
Thesis
The overall research goal of this doctoral thesis is to better understand the determinants of sustainable purchase behaviour. By approaching several context-specific subgoals in a series of four quantitative empirical studies, major research gaps in the field of sustainable consumption are addressed. The first article examines the market potential for social banking in Germany. By means of an experimental survey using adaptive conjoint analysis, a sample of 2896 German social banking customers and a population-representative sample of 641 German conventional banking customers are compiled. Logistic regression modelling reveals that social banking customers differ significantly from their conventional counterparts regarding several consumer characteristics. The results further indicate a large untapped market potential ranging between 10 and 26% of the German population in 2011. The second article investigates the phenomenon of the attitude-behaviour gap in the context of sustainable clothing. Based on survey data of 1085 female German consumers, a structural equation model is estimated to assess how large the possible gap between a positive attitude towards sustainable clothing and the corresponding purchase behaviour is. Apart from a considerable attitude-behaviour gap, the article indicates that a positive attitude, self-transcendence values, as well as an affinity to online and catalogue shopping, significantly enhance sustainable clothing purchases. Self-enhancement values and, remarkably, a preference for durability constitute purchase barriers. The third article studies the influence of product lifetime labelling by the example of electrical appliances. Using choice-based conjoint analysis, experimental survey data is collected from a population-representative sample of 499 German consumers. Hierarchical Bayes utility modelling suggests a decreasing positive effect of the label on purchase decisions and a deterioration of the purchase influence of existing brands. Structural equation modelling indicates, for instance, that the preference for a long product lifetime is fostered by a respective positive attitude and subjective norm. However, the attitude only exerts a significant influence if it is driven by personal rather than environmental gains. The fourth article sheds light on the effects of favourable and unfavourable environmental product information. The analysis draws on data gained from a survey-based experiment conducted among a population-representative sample of 524 German consumers. Using a two-level structural equation model, the results document that the negative effect caused by unfavourable product carbon footprint information on consumers’ willingness to pay is significantly stronger than the positive effect caused by respective favourable information. Furthermore, consumers tend to not substantially differentiate between different high-range degrees of positive or negative environmental information.
... Steffen et al [1] as well as Hoegh-Guldberg et al [2] impressively reveal that environmental impacts of current human activities exceed the carrying capacity of the Earth system, posing a severe risk for nature and mankind. A change in today's consumption patterns and production systems is thus imperative [2,3]. Thereby, policymakers can assume a key role by devising targeted policies to create conditions incentivising sustainable consumption and production [3][4][5][6]. ...
... A change in today's consumption patterns and production systems is thus imperative [2,3]. Thereby, policymakers can assume a key role by devising targeted policies to create conditions incentivising sustainable consumption and production [3][4][5][6]. Given the complexity of economy and human behaviour, policymakers are in need of tailored, highly resolved information for developing effective environmental strategies [7][8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Modelling frameworks that aim to support policymakers in deriving effective measures to reduce environmental impacts should provide both: quantitative information on locally occurring consumption patterns and production systems as well as assessment of policy scenario outcomes. Regionalised models that can deliver on these aims are emerging, but are currently limited in resolution or have other restrictions. An advanced model can be achieved by exploiting the advantages and overcoming the limitations of top-down and bottom-up approaches. In this article, we describe a highly detailed, spatially-resolved modelling framework that quantifies local activities and simultaneously analyses system-wide environmental and economic effects of planned interventions. We combined an existing, highly detailed bottom-up model for Switzerland (focusing on individual households) with a macro-economic top-down approach by developing a new Swiss sub-national, multi-region input-output model. We conducted two case studies to demonstrate its abilities and to highlight its usefulness. First, production-based greenhouse gas emissions and consumption-based carbon footprints were computed for all Swiss cantons and regional differences, interdependencies as well as embodied carbon flows among regions were investigated. We find that rural cantons have higher production-based emissions per gross domestic product than more urban cantons because of different economic structures. In contrast, certain ‘city-cantons’ entail highest consumption carbon footprints per inhabitant due to high per-capita gross capital formation. Furthermore, this case study discusses the importance of providing regionalised information on effects of measures along the economic value chains. Second, a detailed scenario assuming a realistic lifestyle change for an actual household and a thorough physical retrofit of its home was set up. Regionalised environmental and economic consequences along the supply chains were evaluated. This case study exemplifies how the modelling framework can be used to inform policymakers about expected benefits and downsides of detailed scenarios and emphasises the importance of considering rebound effects.
... Apart from income, household size and location (rural versus urban) are often analysed as factors influencing household behaviours and associated environmental impacts (Baiocchi et al., 2010;Hertwich, 2011;Tukker et al., 2010). The economy of scale originating from household size appears in many studies: the larger the household, the lower its per capita footprint. ...
... In contrast to household size, the impact of location is less distinct. In general, households in dense urban areas tend to have lower impacts, especially in the domains of mobility (shorter distances) and housing (smaller apartments) (Baiocchi et al., 2010;Tukker et al., 2010;Wiedenhofer et al., 2018). This, however, is partially offset by smaller household sizes and higher incomes in cities (Jones & Kammen, 2014;Wiedenhofer et al., 2018), although the latter greatly depends on the national context (Baiocchi et al., 2010) . ...
... The term 'sustainable consumption' is commonly thought to have been established in the early 1990s after it was outlined as an important issue in Chapter 4 of Agenda 21, and was subsequently discussed at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit (Fuchs and Lorek, 2005;Tukker et al., 2010). Sustainable consumption was also given prominence in the Rio Declaration, where Principle 8 advocates that: "States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption […]" (United Nations, 1992, p.2). ...
... The commitment outlined in the aftermath of the Rio Earth Summit to engage in more sustainable patterns of consumption and production was later reaffirmed at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (Tukker et al., 2010). During the period between the two summits, the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment formulated a common strategy to resolve the issues of unsustainable production and consumption. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Various researchers have pointed out that avoiding further catastrophic consequences related to the deteriorating ecological state of the planet, brought about by unsustainable production and consumption patterns, requires not only technological innovation and efficiency in production processes, but also absolute reductions in energy and material use (i.e., sufficiency). The rapid expansion of research on ideas such as sufficiency and post-growth indicate an increasing realization that fundamental societal change is needed if we are to avoid devastating environmental effects and social inequities. Using a theoretical perspective consisting of the literature on sustainable consumption, sufficiency politics and policies, and scaling sustainability initiatives, this thesis aims to contribute to our knowledge about social-ecological transformations from the perspective of sufficiency, specifically addressing (un)sustainable consumption. Sweden serves as the case with, on the one hand, its strong civil society, policy and business promotion of sustainable development and, on the other, high per-capita levels of unsustainable consumption of resources. This thesis comprises four separate articles and a cover essay. Article one explores how environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) are framing different sufficiency activities—ranging from those that can be applied within the current market arrangements to others that deal with social relations and non-commercial values beyond market exchange—as a way to attract a wider audience. Article two analyses the individual motives for working less and the socio-ecological outcomes of Gothenburg City’s ‘right to part-time’ policy. The third article contrasts the visions and discourses of ‘community repair’ with the mainstream circular economy discourse by analyzing the ENGO campaign ‘Fix the Stuff’ and the open Do-It-Yourself repair spaces ‘Fixotek’ in the City of Gothenburg. Article four explores how different business forms impact upon the social and ecological sustainability dynamics of the changing Swedish second-hand clothing market. Sufficiency is an approach that remains peripheral in the public debates on how to enable social and ecological sustainability. Nevertheless, the research in this thesis provides concrete examples of how sufficiency practices can be scaled, not only through bottom-up and grassroots movements, but also via more conventional actors, such as municipalities, established ENGOs and firms (Papers I–IV). It therefore contributes to knowledge about how sufficiency can extend beyond an individual strategy towards low-impact lifestyles, and thus can involve various societal actors and amplification processes, ranging across scaling out, scaling deep and scaling up. In addition, I illustrate how the scaling of sufficiency practices is also coupled with various challenges and tensions, which risk undermining some of the key aspects of the sufficiency approach. Furthermore, through the lens of the sufficiency approach, this thesis also advances the debate on sustainability transitions and circular economies (Papers III and IV). In particular, it draws attention to how the mainstream circular economy discourse has overlooked questions relating to the roles and powers of citizen-consumers and corporations, as well as the control of materials, skills and resources. Moreover, there are social-ecological issues related to which market actors have access to used clothing, how these materials flow and how profits are eventually distributed that have yet to receive much attention in the current circular economy debate. Together, these issues have important implications for who benefits from the transition to a circular economy and in what ways.
... There are at least two reasons for studying the relation between household characteristics and GHG emissions by households, also called the household carbon footprint (HCF). First, a better understanding of household characteristics associated with emissions will help to identify behavioural patterns and household groups to be targeted by carbon mitigation policies (Tukker et al., 2010). Besides supply-side climate policy for technological innovation and efficiency, demand-side policies may be equally necessary to dis/encourage harmful/beneficial types of consumption, for instance with regard to the energy source used for heating the dwelling, red meat consumption and emission-intensive private transport vs. the use of public transport (Vita et al., 2019;Wood et al., 2018). ...
... Similarly, additional data collection would be required to directly link attitudes, habits, routines, or symbolic meanings of consumption to households' observed consumption patterns (cf. Tukker et al., 2010). Insight into these dynamics is a crucial complement to deepen our understanding of how consumption patterns can evolve to more sustainable outcomes. ...
Article
Understanding the demand-side drivers and the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions is key to designing fair and effective environmental policies. In this study, we quantify the relationship between the carbon footprint of consumption and socioeconomic characteristics of Belgian households. We use a dataset that combines household-level consumption data with an environmentally extended input-output model which quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions embedded in the supply chain of goods and services that households consume. We find that income and household size are the most important determinants of household consumption-related emissions. We also find the emission intensity of household consumption in the lower part of the income distribution is higher than that of richer households because poorer households spend a higher share on emission intensive products, especially energy.
... However, there has been very little evidence of the possible environmental outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic from a micro-level or consumer perspective, for example, by quantitatively exploring shifts in consumption patterns due to changes in the lifestyles of individuals and/or households. In the past, many studies have used such a lens to explore the direct links between the lifestyles of individuals and households, their consumption choices, and the impact on the environment, 18,19 e.g., carbon footprints of current and future lifestyles in the UK, 20 USA, 21 China, 22,23 and Japan, 24 among others. Other studies have identified the very diverse factors mediating the environmental impacts of lifestyles and consumption practices, such as household type, 25 income and wealth (and related inequalities), [26][27][28][29][30] and demographic processes (e.g., aging). ...
Article
The rapid and extensive changes in household consumption patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can serve as a natural experiment for exploring the environmental outcomes of changing human behavior. Here, we assess the carbon footprint of household consumption in Japan during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic (January–May 2020), which were characterized by moderate confinement measures. The associated lifestyle changes did not have a significant effect on the overall household carbon footprint compared with 2015–2019 levels. However, there were significant trade-offs between individual consumption categories such that the carbon footprint increased for some categories (e.g., eating at home) or declined (e.g., eating out, transportation, clothing, and entertainment) or remained relatively unchanged (e.g., housing) for others. Furthermore, carbon footprint patterns between age groups were largely consistent with 2015–2019 levels. However, changes in food-related carbon footprints were visible for all age groups since March and, in some cases, since February.
... In addition, location is a strong predictor of direct energy use, due to the higher use of fuels for private transportation and heating in rural areas [1,13,14]. Non-income factors such as age, gender, household composition and size, population density, education and diet have been shown to have mixed effects on energy use that depend on the country context [1,10,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial literature exists on household lifestyles and related energy use and emissions in the global north, but little is known for many countries the global south. We estimate household-level energy footprints for Zambia covering direct (traditional and modern energy carriers) and indirect energy use, and adopting energy extended multiregional input–output. We employ final energy consumption, as it is closer to energy services and thus the purpose of energy use than the total primary energy use. The inequality in energy footprints differs from the inequality in incomes: the poorest half of the households have similar energy footprints and only high-income urban households have significant indirect energy footprints, associated with spend on goods and services. We examine the association between energy footprints and basic well-being measured in terms of physical health, education, nutrition and access to clean water using logistic regression, for a sub-sample of households with children under the age of five. We find that access to provisioning systems is more important than income for need satisfaction. Rural households have limited access to modern energy and provisioning systems and as a result fewer of them attain desirable well-being outcomes. We conclude that access to collective provisioning systems such as education, electricity and indoor sanitation is more important for household need satisfaction than individual provisioning in the form of ownership of durables, or even income. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the association between energy use and needs satisfaction as it is crucial for addressing decarbonisation and human development agendas.
... passenger car manufacturing) (Weber and Matthews 2008). In a review, Tukker et al (2010) examined income level, household size (number of family members per household), geographic location, house type, automobile ownership, food consumption patterns, international (and interregional) trade, and social and cultural differences as the key determinants of the household CF. In addition, they found that for economically developed nations, the most critical consumption categories affecting the household CF were food and beverages, mobility, housing, and products that use energy, such as household appliances. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have investigated the hotspots for reducing carbon emissions associated with household consumption, including reducing household carbon footprints and greener lifestyle choices, such as living car-free, eating less meat, and having one less child. However, estimating the effect of each of these actions requires the simultaneous consideration of lifestyle choices and household characteristics that could also affect the household carbon footprint. Here, we quantify the reduction in household carbon footprints for 25 factors associated with individual lifestyle choices or socioeconomic characteristics. This study linked approximately 42,000 microdata on consumption expenditure with the Japanese subnational 47 prefecture-level multi-regional input-output table, which are both the finest-scale data currently available. We improved the accuracy of household carbon footprint calculations by considering regional heterogeneity, and successfully estimated the magnitude of household carbon footprint reduction associated with individual lifestyle choices and socioeconomics. For example, it was found that moving from a cold region to a region with mild climate would have considerable potential for reducing the CO2 emissions of a household, all other factors being equal. In addition, a household residing in a house that meets the most recent energy standards emits 1150 kg less CO2 per year than if they reside in a house that meets previous energy standards. Ownership and use of durable goods also had the potential for reducing the CO2 emissions of a household; a normal-sized car, a personal computer, a compact car, and a bidet were associated with CO2 emissions of 922 kg, 712 kg, 421 kg, and 345 kg per year, respectively. The findings therefore have important implications for climate change mitigation and policy measures associated with lifestyle.
... Някой автори посочват като слабост, че фокусът на изследванията в тази посока попада основно върху конкретни области като рециклирането или енергийната ефективност, докато встрани остават останалите области на потребление (Caeiro, Ramos and Huisingh, 2012). Според други изследователи, обаче, критичните области, оказващи най-силно въздействие върху устойчивото развитие са свързани с оценка на това потребление по отношение на консумацията на храни и напитки, мобилността, пазара на жилищата и потреблението на енергийни ресурси (Tukker et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether Bulgarian households are a key agent in the use of the monitored resource groups. Interpreting their role in environmental impact is an important key point in this study. The analysis of secondary data on household expenditure by product groups and the consumption of basic resources are the main research tasks. The main method used here is desk research. The following methods are used to analyze and evaluate the data collected: relative proportions of basic statistical indicators, time series analysis and deriving consumption trends. The research is funded by the Science Research Fund and is part of the 2019 scientific project Sustainable Urban Consumption - Regional Diversity. Keywords: resource consumption, Bulgarian households, sustainable development, consumer behavior JEL Code: R2; Q010; M30
... Moreover, the consumption of durable and non-durable goods determines human satisfaction (Hirsch, 2005). Therefore, it can be decided that there is a relationship between consumption expenditure and societies' welfare (Tukker, et al., 2010;Attanasio, et al., 2013;Witt, 2016). In the meantime, the consumption expenditure of society in a country is decided by income (Diacon & Maha, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the empirical relationship between remittances and consumption expenditure in India over the period of 1975-2018 using the annual time series data. In this study, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds cointegration technique, the Granger Causality test, and the Impulse Response Function analysis are employed as the analytical tools. The ADF and PP unit root test results indicate that the variables are stationary at 1 st difference. The ARDL Bounds cointegration test result shows that remittances in India have a long-run reciprocal relationship with consumption expenditure. The error correction term shows that 15percent of disequilibrium error is corrected every year and the response variable of consumption expenditure moves to the long-run equilibrium path. The Granger Causality test results indicate that remittances Granger Cause the consumption expenditure. The impulse response analysis shows that a positive shock to remittances has an immediate significant positive impact on consumption expenditure.
... We use organic food as the case of study because organic food is the most successful representative of the emerging category of sustainability-differentiated products (Jackson et al., 2020;Willer et al., 2019) and has thus generated relatively many and engaged online expressions. Given that food consumption accounts for a large proportion of the environmental footprint of households (Poore & Nemecek, 2018;Tukker et al., 2010), understanding and promoting sustainable food consumption is of societal interest in its own right. Furthermore, despite increasing availability and familiarity and decreasing price premiums, the sales of more sustainable foods have remained relatively low, thereby suggesting a gap between the positive attitudes and the actual purchases of consumers (e.g., Aschemann-Witzel & Niebuhr Aagaard, 2014;Chekima et al., 2017;Janssen, 2018;Schäufele & Hamm, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers are increasingly sharing their opinions on societal issues and products online. We studied the implications of such online word‐of‐mouth for consumer judgment and decision‐making. The use case is organic food, which is the most successful among the currently emerging, sustainability‐differentiated food product categories. We first analyzed the online discussion on organic food by conducting a text‐mining study of reader comments (N = 63,379) from the comments section of a major German online news outlet. Topics therein are discussed with differing frequency, thereby indicating the salience of the various issues to online readers and consumers. Based on the text‐mining study, one organic food topic of high salience (animal welfare) and one of low salience (biodiversity) were selected for a priming experiment in a subsequent study. We then conducted an online survey of German consumers (N = 1118). The priming experiment investigated the behavioral relevance of salient online topics. In particular, we tested whether the relative online salience of the two topics used as primes influenced the likelihood of choosing organic instead of conventional eggs and milk in a choice experiment and the acceptance of policies supporting organic farming. While ineffective for the choice of milk, the priming worked as hypothesized with respect to the choice of eggs as well as policy acceptance. Priming the topic with high online salience (animal welfare) is more effective at promoting pro‐organic behavior than priming the topic with low online salience. Priming effects also depended on prime strength, attitude strength, and experience with buying organic food. Implications for policy and research, including how insights from text mining of online word‐of‐mouth can be employed to promote sustainable consumption behavior, are discussed.
... Um dieser dramatischen Entwicklung entgegenzutreten, hat sich die internationale Staatengemeinschaft im Rahmen der Agenda 2030 zur Förderung einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Staatengemeinschaft verpflichtet (United Nations, 2015). In der Auseinandersetzung mit der Frage, wie eine nachhaltige Entwicklung erreicht werden kann, herrscht weitgehender Konsens, dass neben technologischen Entwicklungen und gesellschaftspolitischen Maßnahmen, die Transformation gegenwärtiger, oftmals nicht-nachhaltiger Konsummuster in einen sozial-ökologisch verträglichen Konsum eine hierfür zentrale Voraussetzung darstellt (Gifford et al., 2011;Shukla et al., 2020;Shwom & Lorenzen, 2012;Swim et al., 2011;Thøgersen, 2014;Tukker et al., 2010). Die zugrundeliegende Forderung lautet, dass die Art und Weise der Erstellung von Gütern und Dienstleistungen sowie deren Inanspruchnahme durch Konsumenten nicht zu einer Bedrohung der Lebensgrundlage zukünftiger Generationen führt oder durch unverhältnismäßige Belastung des Wohles gegenwärtiger Gesellschaften realisiert wird (Thøgersen, 2005, S. 143). ...
Book
Das Buch beschäftigt sich mit der gesellschaftlich relevanten Frage, wie Konsumenten stärker zu einem nachhaltigeren Konsumverhalten motiviert werden können. Die fokussierte Analyse von Einflussfaktoren der Gewissensaktivierung zeigt dabei auf, unter welchen Bedingungen sich diese moralisch stärker bzw. weniger stark bewegt fühlen, ihre Kaufentscheidungen an sozial-ökologischen Kriterien auszurichten. Die Erkenntnisse liefern Handlungsempfehlungen für Anbieter nachhaltiger Produkte und verbraucherpolitische Akteure. Der Autor Sven Kilian ist am Fachgebiet Marketing der Universität Kassel als Postdoktorand angestellt und betreut dort Forschungsprojekte im Bereich des nachhaltigen Konsumverhaltens.
... Companies were identified through the literature review, recommendations from other researchers and an additional online search. This online search was undertaken in the Google search engine, with searches based on key terms representing sufficiency paired with synonyms for business ('business', 'enterprise' or 'company') and key words for five high impact sectors: construction, electronics, food and mobility ( Tukker et al., 2016( Tukker et al., , 2010 as well as clothing (exemplary search: 'transport overconsumption business' ). For each of the 459 separate search strings, the first ten results of the Google search were checked for relevant entries. ...
Article
Full-text available
The breaching of planetary boundaries and excessive extraction of natural resources requires a revisited approach to consumption and production. The concept of sufficiency, which advocates meeting human needs within the planetary limits by curbing excessive consumption levels, is gaining increasing attention. Businesses are drivers of consumption, yet they have been largely overlooked as potential leaders towards a sufficiency-based economy and research on businesses driving sustainable consumption strategically is still a niche. The methods applied here are a literature and practice review and interviews to understand the state-of-the-art in sufficiency-oriented business strategies and develop a framework for future research and practice. Merging English- and German-language research, a base matrix of the waste hierarchy and the four lessens is presented. This matrix is populated with business sufficiency strategies, condensing existing work and creating the ‘Business for Sufficiency’ (BfS) framework. Empirical research with businesses already employing sufficiency strategies refines and validates the framework and sheds light on the viability, desirability, feasibility and sustainability of such offers, highlighting barriers and opportunities. The most prevalent strategies fall into the Rethink framework dimension which require the least radical changes. In addition, interviewees highlighted obstacles in reconciling more radical strategies such as Moderating sales with their financial sustainability. Yet, all interviewees stressed the need for reduced consumption and the role that business should play in enabling sufficiency, demonstrating the relevance of this topic for future research and practice.
... Many reports, papers in special issues, and books have been published by them (see e.g., J. of Cleaner Production, 16,2008, and J. of Industrial Ecology, 14 January 2010). To change individual consumers' behavior, 200 stakeholders proposed to increase consumers' knowledge, shift their attitudes through awareness campaigns, and change sustainability values, consumer habits, and behaviors [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review paper examines the past, present, and future of sustainable consumption and production (SCP). The history of the Sustainable Development Goal No. 12 (i.e., to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns) is presented and analyzed. A definition of the sustainable consumption is given and the role of education is explained. The present status and existing trends of SCP are introduced by analyzing unsustainable behavior and the existing dilemma, namely sustainable growth or degrowth. A very broad range of methods is used for measuring and evaluating SCP within sustainable development. To forecast the future of SCP, important trends are presented. The future development of SCP will follow several megatrends and it will require reduced personal and collective consumption (degrowth). Energy usage in buildings, renewable energy sources, and energy storage will be important in that respect. Transportation emissions will continue to be lowered. Waste, especially food waste, shall be reduced, and consumer products shall become more durable. All waste must be collected and separated to be reused. SPC is elaborated in view of the two approaches—Industry 4.0 (smart factory), and the “Sixth Wave” evolution. Net-zero greenhouse gas emissions, resource efficiency, and zero waste will be at the forefront of future activities. A circular economy requires extension of product lifetimes, and the reuse and recycling of products. Reducing emissions, pollution and specific energy, water, and raw material usage (especially critical raw materials), as well as the role of digitalization, will be important.
... The target sectors were the furniture, clothing, food, built environment, energy-using appliances, mobility, and consumer goods sectors. These sectors were chosen because of their high environmental impact reduction potential ( Tukker et al., 2010( Tukker et al., , 2016. Business consultants who assist companies in measuring their environmental impact were also considered relevant and included in the sample. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many companies have innovated their business models in their attempts to transition towards a circular economy. However, the label ‘circular’ does not necessarily mean better for the environment. How do companies measure the environmental performance of their business models? And as they alter them for a circular economy, how do they forecast the potential environmental impacts? These questions are important to better understand the impacts of circular business models. This study sets out to answer these questions through 29 semi-structured interviews and 39 survey responses, with business developers, managers, product designers and consultants from more than 10 industries. The results reveal that while most participants measure the impact of their current business models, they do not forecast the future impacts of their circular business ideas before implementation. The most popular measurement method was rules of thumb, followed by life-cycle assessment (LCA) or LCA-based tools. A lack of data, increased uncertainty during experimentation and a lack of knowledge are the common barriers that keep the participants from measuring environmental impacts. We also found that startups give a lower priority to measuring impacts than large corporates. However, despite the latter having more resources to measure impacts, results from impact assessment might not lead to direct design improvements in the same design cycle. An overarching finding was that the extent of positive impact of circular business models remains uncertain for many participants. Future research can work on developing methods or frameworks that resolve these issues.
... In addition, also allowing non-humans to request need satisfiers improves the usual reasoning of the CE indicators carbon footprint (CF) and material footprint (MF). Up to now, a nation's CF and MF are calculated based on multiregional input-output tables containing import and export data of countries (Hertwich, 2005;Tukker et al., 2010). The footprints are then often associated with household consumption domains based on national or regional consumer expenditure surveys, e.g., Christis et al. (2019), Steen-Olsen et al. (2016), or Smetschka et al. (2019. ...
Article
To date, the methods of compiling policy monitors for the circular economy (CE) often focus on recycling heavily and neglect higher circular strategies and environmental and social impacts. With 17 stakeholders from different domains meeting in several workshops, we developed a holistic method to compile indicators for policymakers steering the CE transition. Our method derives from a societal needs perspective and describes the manufactured, social and natural capital via the established Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. We also provide a case study where the holistic method was applied in the CE monitor of Flanders (Belgium). As a result, our method and framework can be a guide for working groups setting up a CE policy monitor. Applying the method ensures including, besides material flow, also environmental and social indicators in the monitor. The method can be used on different policymaker levels, highlights valuable indicators, and provides direct feedback on enacted policies.
... The sustainability of rural Malawi households' energy consumption practices amidst prevailing socio-economic conditions 76 wood can be obtained for free, but it is quite popular among higher income urban households because it is lightweight and relatively smokeless (Brouwer and Falcão, 2004). The type and amount of energy eventually used by households is influenced by affordability and availability, household size and type, food consumption patterns (Gram-Hanssen, 2010), the geographic location of the householdwhether rural or urban (Ekholm, Krey, Pachauri and Riahi, 2010) -and the presence of interregional trade, as well as social and cultural factors (Tukker, Cohen, Hubacek and Mont, 2010;Waitt, Caputi, Gibson, Farbotko, Head, Gill and Stanes, 2012). ...
... SCP on the consumption side, connects product and the producer with the consumer, allowing more sustainable choices to be made. Some traditional examples are eco-labeling, management in supply chain, minimization in waste, recycling, sustainable procurement and resource efficiency measures [28]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Utilization of food/agricultural waste is having challenge and necessity in day to day life. It’s an important aspect for all the industries (food) for the process of modification and recovery. The main aim is to minimize deterioration and maximize utilization of food which will lead to less problems in waste management and environment pollution. In some of the meat packaging and food processing industries, waste utilization treatment has been implemented for successful and substantial processing. In need of growing demands of high nutritive and cheap price foods, requirements are getting high simultaneously with increasing world population. So, there is urgent need of nutrient recovery from wasted utilization and sources of food/feed will help to reduce the shortage of world food supplies to the coming generation.
... According to the findings in some pieces of research, in these areas more than 70% of the resource extraction, 70% of electricity consumption and more than 90% of the appropriated land (Holden, 2004;Lorek & Spangenberg, 2001b;Tukker, 2006) are used. It has been proved that these consumption areas also have the most serious imprint on greenhouse emissions, on the oxidizing and ozone-depleting substances, as well as the usage of resources and energy (EEA, 2005(EEA, , 2010(EEA, , 2019Tukker, 2006;Tukker et al., 2010bTukker et al., , 2010aUNEP, 2011a). What further transpires as a priority area is waste management and recycling (OECD, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at examining the sustainable urban consumption (SUC) of households in three Bulgarian cities and determining whether there are significant differences between their sustainable consumption patterns. A conceptual model for measuring SUC is developed with an emphasis on the behavioral component of the attitudes. As part of this, four indexes to study different dimensions of SUC are constructed, namely: Housing Index (provision of the housing with conditions for sustainable consumption); Electricity and Water Index; Food Index; Transportation Index. А Composite Behavioral Index (CBI) was also constructed from the four aforementioned indexes. The model was tested in an empirical study covering a total of 1049 households in the cities Sofia (403 households), Varna (342 households) and Svishtov (304 households). The results reveal that a relatively small portion of the households in the three cities tend to have sustainable lifestyles. Overall, the households from Varna perform the most sustainable behavior. The efficient use of electricity and water prevails the investments in sustainable housing conditions, which signals for orientation towards short term savings rather than reduction of costs in the long run. With no significant differences between the cities, the sustainable transportation practices are least popular among the households. Sustainable food consumption, normally related to preparing at home fresh and locally produced food of mainly vegetable origin, was more widespread among the households from Varna and Svishtov. The proposed research methodology for measuring SUC can be applied both in comparative analyses of SUC for households from different settlements and regions, and for tracking the changes of SUC for households in a given settlement.
... The main recommendations attempt to direct consumption towards increasing the intakes of fruits, vegetables, and nuts, lowering meat and fat consumption, and reducing calorie intake. This is the case that is discussed by Tukker et al. (2010) and Tukker et al. (2011), who found a potential reduction of approximately 9% in CO 2 e emissions when the population moves to a vegetarian diet, while Pairotti et al. (2015) and Cazcarro et al. (2012) showed potential reductions of 12.7% in CO 2 e emissions and 9% in the water footprint, respectively, due to shifts to healthy diets. Behrens et al. (2017) showed that the recommended diets in the richer countries, when compared to the usual diets, imply reductions in greenhouse gases, eutrophication, and land use (e.g., approximately 13- 24%, 9,8-21.3%, and 5.7-17.6%, ...
Article
What would the effect on the employment and environmental footprint be if Spanish households substituted imported fresh fruits and vegetables with local production? Are the impacts similar over the entire year? Is it possible to find a general pattern that allows for straightforward household consumption decisions promoting sustainability? In this paper, we answer these questions using an innovative concept, the seasonal avoided footprint by imports (SAFM), to understand the interactions among carbon emissions, scarce water use, and employment linked to imports and domestic production. Our study shows that decisions regarding local and seasonal consumption of fruits and vegetables by citizens in rich regions of the global economy, such as Spain, can lead to a conflict of objectives between the environment and social development in poor regions. The inter-country trade of fruits and vegetables generates relevant negative environmental hotspots, as the imports from developing countries are often more carbon- and water-intensive. However, the substitution of imports by local production implies vast job losses in these developing countries. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of certification systems that jointly consider the appropriate levels of social, economic, and environmental development and provide a useful guide for consumer decisions that reinforce social and environmental synergies.
... The researchers in the yellow cluster have explored and proposed system-level measures to bring consumption within the realm of sustainability. By analyzing consumption practices at the household [139], city-dwelling [140], and global tourism [141] levels, the researchers have demonstrated the global scale and impact of the sustainability issue [142]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a causal relationship between existential dangers to our biosphere and our unsustainable consumption practices. For more than three decades, academics and researchers have explored ideas to make consumption practices sustainable. Still, a practical and widely accepted solution to the problem is missing. This review aims for a theoretical and structural understanding of the literature to identify future avenues for marketing, to explore and increase its contribution to consumption sustainability research. The review used bibliometric and integrative review methods to synthesize knowledge. The review found that sustainable consumption research has proliferated since 2015, indicating a heightened interest in the field. There are four major schools of thought in sustainable consumption research, employing three interdependent micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis to understand consumption practices. By focusing on individual consumption behaviors, this review recommends that consumption sustainability be repositioned as a means of attaining a better quality of life for consumers. It involves reforming the consumer mindset toward progress based on pro-social and pro-ecological choices, training consumers in mindful consumption practices, and providing them with an infrastructure for consuming with a mindful mindset. It is recommended that marketing should refine itself as a pro-social discipline, with consumer well-being as its primary goal, and to become a leader in reshaping quality of life in terms of non-financial standards.
... Amongst households with fewer assets, lower income, and lower financial literacy and households in small-and medium-sized cities, digital inclusion has a greater effect on consumption (41). Although residents' income and consumption habits will affect residents' consumption behavior, food, cash, housing, and energy will remain the key consumption areas (42). In the context of the development of a circular economy, residents have begun to pay increasing attention to green consumption under the influence of consumer values and behavior habits. ...
Article
Full-text available
Risk attitude is a vital component of public mental health. Thus, the public should be guided to fully comprehend risks to improve public mental health. Using panel data from China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) in 2017, this study examined the impact of risk attitudes on household consumption behavior by constructing a micro-econometric model. Results suggest that risk attitude can promote household consumption, with multiple robustness tests supporting this conclusion. In addition, after dividing the consumption types into subsistence consumption, development consumption, and enjoyment consumption, we show risk preference promotes all three types of consumption and has the greatest impact on enjoyment consumption. Concurrently, risk neutrality can promote household survival consumption, but its promotion effect is smaller than that of risk preference. Moreover, risk aversion has an inhibitory effect on total consumption behavior, but this inhibitory effect does not show heterogeneity for different consumption behaviors. Heterogeneity analysis found that for male households, risk attitude remains an important factor in consumption behavior. When men's risk attitude is more risk averse, it can promote more survival consumption, whereas women's risk attitude is more risk averse. With increasing age, risk attitude remains a crucial factor in the occurrence of consumer behavior. However, education level has no bearing on the effect of risk attitude on household consumption behavior. This research holds theoretical and practical significance for improving public mental health, optimizing residents' consumption structure, and achieving high-quality economic development.
... In addition, also allowing non-humans to request need satisfiers improves the usual reasoning of the CE indicators carbon footprint (CF) and material footprint (MF). Up to now, a nation's CF and MF are calculated based on multiregional input-output tables containing import and export data of countries (Hertwich, 2005;Tukker et al., 2010). The footprints are then often associated with household consumption domains based on national or regional consumer expenditure surveys, e.g., Christis et al. (2019), Steen-Olsen et al. (2016), or Smetschka et al. (2019. ...
Preprint
The concept of circular economy (CE) promises sustainability while economic growth. Such a fundamental economic shift from the established linear to the circular economy implies the challenge of how to assess this new economic form. To date, the methods of compiling CE monitors often focus on recycling heavily and neglect higher circular strategies and environmental and social impacts. In this study, we present a holistic method to compile indicators for policymakers steering the CE transition. Our method derives from a societal needs perspective and describes the manufactured, social and natural capital via the established Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. We also provide a case study where the holistic method was applied in the CE monitor of Flanders (Belgium). The method can be used on different policymaker levels, highlights useful indicators, considers the material, social, and environmental aspects, and provides feedback on enacted policies.
... Desde diversos ámbitos (v. g., Albert, 2019;de Young, 2000;Ivanova et al., 2016;Paddock, 2017;Tukker et al., 2010) se ha sugerido que, además de incrementar nuestros comportamientos ambientalmente responsables, la sostenibilidad ecológica y social requiere que se produzca una modificación en los patrones conductuales, particularmente, una reducción relevante en los niveles de consumo. ...
Article
Full-text available
La conducta frugal es un comportamiento centrado en la reducción voluntaria del consumo como resultado del uso ingenioso de los recursos con los que la persona cuenta y de la restricción voluntaria del gasto en nuevos productos y servicios. No obstante, para que el comportamiento frugal sea una alternativa realista, debe estar asociado con elementos psicológicos positivos en lugar de un esfuerzo constante. En este estudio, se analiza la relación entre la conducta frugal, la autoeficacia en el ahorro y la satisfacción con la vida, teniendo en cuenta los recursos económicos de las personas. Se realizaron dos estudios correlacionales con 186 estudiantes universitarios y con 154 participantes de población general, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos en ambos estudios señalan que la realización de conductas de frugalidad requiere que las personas perciban que son capaces de ahorrar y competentes en el aprovechamiento de recursos. También se observaron relaciones significativas entre la conducta frugal y la satisfacción con la vida, no obstante, en el segundo estudio se advirtió que esta relación está moderada por el nivel de ingresos. La conducta frugal se relaciona con mayor satisfacción con la vida en personas con ingresos más altos, pero se relaciona con menor satisfacción con la vida en personas con ingresos más bajos. En conclusión, el consumo frugal puede ser una alternativa positiva de consumo asociada al bienestar, en la medida en que los recursos percibidos y objetivos sean suficientes para que la persona pueda elegir su estilo de consumo.
... The link between available income and environmental impacts of household consumption has been underlined in the literature (e.g. Ivanova et al. 2016;Kalbar et al. 2016;Tukker et al. 2010;Büchs and Schnepf 2013;Duarte et al. 2010), including potential rebound effects driven by individual behaviour (Font Vivanco et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Current patterns of household goods consumption generate relevant environmental pressures and impacts. Environmental impacts are not only limited to the European territory but also to third countries from where products are imported. Assessing the entire life cycle of products enables considering trade-related transboundary effects along supply chains. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the assessment of the environmental impacts of household goods consumption in Europe, modelled through the consumption footprint indicator. Methods The consumption footprint indicator was designed to assess the environmental impact of household consumption by covering five areas of consumption (food, mobility, housing, household goods and appliances), each of them modelled as a basket of products (BoP) representing the most consumed products by EU citizens. This paper focuses on the BoP household goods, entailing a large variety of products from clothes to personal care products. Consumption intensity was obtained from consumption statistical data for years 2010 and 2015. Life cycle inventory data for 30 representative products were obtained from EU Ecolabel background reports, screening reports of the Product Environmental Footprint pilots and literature. The 16 impact categories of the Environmental Footprint 3.0 method were employed for the impact assessment. Results and discussion Main impacts generated by household goods in EU (calculated after normalization and weighting) were on climate change, fossil resource use and water use. Components’ manufacture was the most impacting stage for several impact categories. Paper products, detergents, furniture and clothes were the product groups contributing the most due to a combination of consumption intensity and environmental profile of products. Environmental impacts due to household goods consumption were higher in 2015 than in 2010. Conclusions The impacts of EU household goods consumption are driven by both consumption intensity and the environmental impact profile of products. Therefore, sustainable actions should focus not only on the environmental profile of products, but also on consumer choices and behaviours. Recommendations The BoP household goods model can be used as a baseline to assess the effect of consumer choices, by creating and comparing consumers’ profiles that differ in the composition of the BoP and in the apparent consumption (defined as Production—Exports + Imports). The availability of detailed inventories for all the life cycle phases allows for modelling scenarios to assess the potential effect of innovations in the production phase and of the choice of alternative raw materials and ingredients.
... In addition, socioeconomic characteristics such as household income, residential area (rural or urban), climate conditions, household size, and demographic factors (age, sex, population density, type of house) also affect the emissions produced [5]. Meanwhile, Tukker et al [14] explained factors that explain the diversity of environmental impacts by households including income, household size, location, vehicle ownership, diet, international and interregional trade, socio-cultural differences, geographical locations, and housing type. Druckman and Jackson [11] studied the characteristics of households that drive carbon emissions namely income, household size, employment status, location, housing characteristics, construction of the house, food, education, and socio-cultural differences. ...
Article
An increase in the working age population causes an increase in consumption which in turn will have an impact on increasing CO? emissions. The household is an element that must be responsible for increasing emissions of greenhouse gases because of their fossil fuels consumption. This study aims to observe the relationship of the working age population and the CO? emissions in households. This study use data from National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) 2019 with households consuming gasoline / diesel / kerosene for transportation, and LPG / kerosene for cooking as a unit of analysis. Apart from working age population as the main independent variable, socioeconomic characteristics (household size, income, residential area, poverty, age, sex, education, employment status, and access to modern fuels) are also used as control variables. Multiple regression analysis was used in this study. The results show that the working age population variable is positively correlated to total CO? emissions, transportation-related emissions, and cooking fuels emissions. Respectively, households dominated by members of working age (15-64 years) emitted 8.7%, 12.7%, 3.2% higher than households dominated by non working age (0-14 years and/or 65+ years). Providing sustainable transport system can be the best solution to reduce CO? emissions.
... They are close to their inhabitants and often directly provide essential infrastructure, such as energy supply systems, roads or waste disposal schemes. This renders them particularly well-positioned to incentivize green production systems or guide households towards more sustainable consumption behaviours within their jurisdiction (Adua & Clark, 2019;O'Rourke & Lollo, 2015;Tukker et al., 2010). Therefore, operationalising planetary boundaries to a municipal scale is of high importance. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Planetary Boundaries framework provides guidance to global sustainability and can be applied to inform the implementation of national environmental policies. Initial results from this analysis show that Switzerland is not living within its "safe operating space". Swiss climate change and biodiversity impacts are higher than the allocated fair share of the global safe operating space, while for the freshwater use PB the allocated SOS has not been exceeded. However, given the experimental state of some of the underlying allocation methods, as well as the continued scientific development of the Planetary Boundaries for biodiversity and water, these results should be treated as indicative that require further research and refinement. There are several important aspects that need to be addressed and improved. First, more work is needed on defining PBs and their control variables. Second, since allocation/downscaling involves normative choices, there is a need for a dialogue involving different actors (academia, policy, government) on the acceptable procedures. Third, regional boundaries need to be established for assessments
Chapter
Sustainability is an important issue, and there are growing concerns on what could be done to achieve it better. Beverage packaging materials have an important task to safely hold its content and allow for convenience in consuming drinks by the consumer. However, after consumption, it becomes an environmental sustainability concern. This paper investigated university-educated young consumers’ awareness, and perception of the impact different beverage packaging material choices have on environmental sustainability through a mixed methods action research approach. Prospective participants of the study were invited through the students' network and contact. The participants were requested to complete a survey with multiple choice answers and an opinion scale on various areas related to the environmental sustainability of beverage packaging. Conventional plastic-based beverage packaging materials were in the opinion of the majority of the surveyed consumers, to be most detrimental to the environment. However, that might not be the real case, as evident from the results of life cycle analysis (LCA) studies on several different beverages and packaging materials. It was noted that the students and alumni do care about environmental sustainability. However, there is some confusion among the respondents on how they could contribute effectively in their daily activities to the sustainability goal. Some still lack practical knowledge that can guide their purchasing decisions and disposal practice for consumed packaging. Some propositions for future actions and research on improving awareness and actions were provided.KeywordsSustainabilityPackaging materialsEngineering educationLCA
Article
This study examined the proposition that a subnational region with a low dependence on an external supply of goods and services has low environmental impacts based on consumption-based accounting. Thus, we investigated the relationship between the level of economic dependence of Japanese prefectures on domestic and international imports of goods and services and the environmental footprints (EFs) of their residents. EFs were calculated for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and use of land, water, and materials using datasets for the year 2015. We estimated the EFs through an environmentally extended input–output analysis using multi-regional input–output datasets, EXIOBASE3. We conducted linear regression analyses of the prefectural household EFs with their socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical factors, including import ratios representing the import dependence of prefectures. The results indicated that the prefectures with a low import ratio, all other factors being equal, had low indirect GHG, land, water, and material footprints. In addition, we found that food and food-related consumptions were dominant contributors to these footprints. When the GHG emissions from household fuel combustion, electricity use and household waste incineration were included in the GHG footprint, the emissions from household energy use were the largest contributor to the footprint. The results indicate that substituting locally sourced foodstuffs and renewable energy for internationally imported food products and non-renewable energy/fuels could reduce multiple environmental impacts of households in the prefectures.
Chapter
Many studies have reported that individuals behave differently toward the environment depending on the context in which they find themselves. This chapter aims to describe “the border model” (as developed by Clark, Human Relations 53: 747–770, 2000) and to apply the model to the greening of workplaces with a view to examining the principles for understanding how organizational and non-organizational settings exert different pressures on individuals. The chapter also discusses the few studies that have sought to explain how organizations looking to reduce their environmental impact are able to take advantage of the individual habits and skills developed by their employees outside the boundaries of their organization.
Chapter
While ecological criticism focused on industry at the beginning of the environmental debate, it is now the consumers that are increasingly considered to play a central role in causing a thropogenic environmental pollution. This is often associated with the assumption that the ecological impacts of consumption are largely researched and well known. The article there fore addresses the question of which statements and findings in this respect can be regarded as reliable knowledge and how the impacts of consumption relate to those of production. This shows that production and consumption (or their impacts) are often intermingled and that the investigation of causal relationships is mixed with attributions of responsibility and economic assumptions. This also applies to the calculation of emissions and footprints of consumption, which – according to the thesis – reveals more about the impacts of production and the ecological preconditions of consumption than about its impacts. Thus, some assumptions and terms common in the literature as well as related interpretations and conclusions, which are understood and summarized as part and expression of a specific “Footprint thinking”, prove to be problematic and partly misleading.
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness which is based on one’s acceptance of the current situation and state without judging has recently manifested itself in various field studies of marketing. Similarly, in today’s changing conditions, the importance of ecological balance has made consumers and businesses more sensitive to sustainable product production and consumption. In this context, the aim of the study is to explore the relationship between consumer mindfulness and sustainable consumption behavior. In order to test relationships, 200 usable questionnaires were collected and tested through linear regression analysis. Findings indicated that consumers’ mindfulness has a significantly positive effect on consumers’ sustainable consumption behavior.
Book
Full-text available
This report continues the science-based approach of linking concrete changes in lifestyles to measurable impacts on climate change in order to keep with the 1.5-degree aspirational target of the Paris Agreement on climate change. The 1.5-degree lifestyles approach examines GHG emissions and reduction potentials using consumption-based accounting, which covers both direct emissions in a country and embodied emissions of imported goods while excluding emissions embodied in exported goods. It analyses lifestyle carbon footprints of ten sample countries, representing high-, middle-, and low-income countries, and identifies hotspots, or consumption domains with the highest impact on the environment. The report also fills the knowledge gap arising from most prevailing climate scenarios that underplay the potential contributions of lifestyle changes to climate change mitigation and focus entirely or mainly on developing new technologies and on changes in production. For each country in the report, the footprint gap between current and sustainable target levels are determined for the years 2030, 2040, and 2050. To bridge these gaps, options for reducing footprints in each country are introduced, estimating potential impacts from various adoption rates in each country. Finally, two scenarios are developed for each country, one focused on systems change and another on behaviour change, showing indicative pathways for achieving the 2030 target.
Article
The homogeneity assumption, inherent to input–output (IO) analysis, implies that every euro spent within one product group is assigned the same environmental burden. We address this assumption applied to price conversion of household expenditures from purchasers’ to basic prices when the carbon footprint of consumption is calculated for specific household segments by linking the IO table and micro-level household consumption data. We perform a sensitivity analysis of the different allocations of the retail trade margin of two consumption groups (Food and Goods) across household expenditure deciles. While a differently allocated retail trade margin influences the carbon footprint of household segments, it does not challenge the general finding that households with higher expenditures are responsible for higher footprints. This finding holds also for different emission intensities of retail trade margins.
Article
Aim In a series of pre-registered online studies, we aimed to elucidate the magnitude of the effect of general sustainability labels on U.K. consumers’ food choices. Methods Four labels were displayed: ‘Sustainably sourced’, ‘Locally sourced’, ‘Environmentally friendly’, and ‘Low greenhouse gas emissions’. To ensure reliable results, contingency valuation elicitation was used alongside a novel analytical approach to provide a triangulation of evidence: Multilevel-modelling compared each label vs. no-label; Poisson-modelling compared label vs. label. Socioeconomic status, environmental awareness, health motivations, and nationalism/patriotism were included in our predictive models. Results Exp.1 Multilevel-modelling (N = 140) showed labelled products were chosen 344% more than non-labelled and consumers were willing-to-pay ∼£0.11 more, although no difference between label types was found. Poisson-modelling (N = 735) showed consumers chose Sustainably sourced and Locally sourced labels ∼20% more often but were willing-to-pay ∼£0.03 more only for Locally sourced products. Exp.2 was a direct replication. Multilevel-modelling (N = 149) showed virtually identical results (labels chosen 344% more, willingness-to-pay ∼£0.10 more), as did Poisson-modelling (N = 931) with Sustainably sourced and Locally sourced chosen ∼20% more and willingness-to-pay ∼£0.04 more for Locally sourced products. Environmental concern (specifically the ‘propensity to act’) was the only consistent predictor of preference for labelled vs. non-labelled products. Conclusions Findings suggest front-of-pack ‘green labels’ may yield substantive increases in consumer choice alongside relatively modest increases in willingness-to-pay for environmentally-sustainable foods. Specifically, references to ‘sustainable’ or ‘local’ sourcing may have the largest impact.
Book
In this Element, the authors develop an account of the role of behaviour change that is more political and social by bringing questions of power and social justice to the heart of their enquiry in order to appreciate how questions of responsibility and agency are unevenly distributed within and between societies. The result is a more holistic understanding of behaviour, as just one node within an ecosystem of transformation that bridges the individual and systemic. Their account is more attentive to questions of governance and the processes of collective steering necessary to facilitate large scale change across a diversity of actors, sectors and regions than the dominant emphasis on individuals and households. It is also more historical in its approach, looking critically at the relevance of historical parallels regarding large-scale behaviour change and what might be learned and applied to the contemporary context action.
Article
The in-use material stocks (MS) of durable household goods provide various functions or services, reflecting society's well-being. However, research on rural households is scarce. This study attempts to bridge this gap by analyzing rural households’ long-term in-use stock dynamics using follow-up survey data of more than 2000 rural households in five provinces in China from 2007 to 2018. Results reveal that by 2018, the MS of durable goods in rural China households reached 230.8 t per household, with an average annual growth rate of 5.3%, with residential buildings accounting for the largest proportion. From 2007 to 2015, the MS of buildings and home appliances revealed a trend of rapid growth initially, and then witnessed a slowdown. However, the MS of transportation tools is still growing rapidly. The east-west gap has been replaced by the north–south gap of MS. Moreover, high inequality exists between different rural household groups.
Article
Investigating drivers of energy use and its associated CO2 emissions changes is important for sustainable development. Using input-output structural decomposition analysis, this paper decomposed the energy use and resulting CO2 emissions drivers of changes in Egypt's wide economy, particularly in its agricultural sector, between 1972 and 2014. Fuel sources dominating energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions in the agriculture sector were explicitly identified. Affluence and demographic effects were the dominant drivers at both investigation levels. Household and government final consumption changes and exports expansion were important determinants behind changes in energy use and resulting CO2 emissions at the aggregate level from the final demand destination perspective. In the agricultural sector, petroleum and oil were the dominant fuel types. The technological effect was the main driver restraining energy use growth at the aggregate level. However, technological improvements have not been sufficient to make up for the evolving economy and consumption levels. Conversely, technological changes adversely impacted energy-related CO2 emissions at the economy-wide level, and both considered environmental indicators in the agricultural sector. Overall, upgrading technology and improving the final demand structure will be critical for Egypt to promote decoupling in the future.
Article
Full-text available
A gap in carbon accounting within the global south and particularly in Africa is the una-vailability of ordinary emission factors which may be a factor of the unavailability of activity data required to work out emission factors. The purpose of the study is to assess the carbon footprint of one of the oldest universities in West Africa and the oldest in Nigeria, the University of Ibadan. The methodology used for this is the GHG protocol by the World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development framework. The activities of the higher institution as presented in this study still require greater attention in the reduction emission campaign and transitioning to renewable alternative energy. This study reports the emissions on the University of Ibadan campuses that are related to Scopes 1 and 2 (direct and indirect emissions). The total CF is 5,270.952 t/CO 2 eq (met-ric tons of CO 2 equivalent), and the CF in Scope 1 and Scope 2 was estimated at 4% and 90%, respectively. Scope 2, which measures indirect emissions generated via purchased electricity, produced the highest contribution of 4,757.83 tCO 2 e. The activities of higher institutions as presented in this study still require greater attention in the reduction emission campaign. Higher institutions should make a conscious effort to ensure that they are at the forefront in the fight against global warming by looking closely into their activities and ensuring that they limit their carbon emission to the barest minimum.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an approach for assessing lifestyle carbon footprints and lifestyle change options aimed at achieving the 1.5 °C climate goal and facilitating the transition to decarbonized lifestyles through stakeholder participatory research. Using data on Finland and Japan it shows potential impacts of reducing carbon footprints through changes in lifestyles for around 30 options covering food, housing, and mobility domains, in comparison with the 2030 and 2050 per-capita targets (2.5–3.2 tCO2e by 2030; 0.7–1.4 tCO2e by 2050). It discusses research opportunities for expanding the footprint-based quantitative analysis to incorporate subnational analysis, living lab, and scenario development aiming at advancing sustainability science on the transition to decarbonized lifestyles.
Article
Full-text available
Rapid technological advances in the natural gas industry raised access to natural gas reserves, related to increased greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2 and CH4. This study calculates greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and CH4) according to sources (direct and indirect) in one of the largest gas Refinery Companies in the Middle East to analyze the carbon footprint for the first time. All computational frameworks for estimating carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and CH4) in different sectors were carried out after determining direct sources (combustion, processes, and fugitive) and indirect ones (import from National Grid’s electricity) according to the requirement guide and organizations’ report involved in the operational activities of the oil industry. The carbon footprint for this refinery, leading to the emission of CO2 and CH4, is in the range of 1507.1 Gg CO2/yr and 0.003 Gg CH4/yr. The highest CO2 emissions are related to the gas-sweetening unit from GHG direct emission sources, and the lowest CO2 emissions are related to fugitive ones. For methane gas, the highest CH4 emissions are related to fugitive emissions. In addition, the emission of CH4 from the gas sweetening unit and waste combustion equipment is estimated to be very small and close to zero. This study showed that it is necessary to carry out more studies in different regions to give a more comprehensive insight into gas emissions and their adverse health effects on human populations.
Article
Sustainable consumption behaviors are embedded in a consumption system. Their uptake is influenced by personal characteristics and the context. Feedback loops reinforce extant behavior and path dependencies enable or hinder additional sustainable consumption. This study applies a cross-national approach to reveal the influence of structural characteristics on the pattern of sustainable consumption, comparing results from Austria and New Zealand. Using Rasch Modelling, we test five propositions and find that most of the 26 behaviors investigated are taken up in the same order in both countries. Government regulations, business initiatives, and geographic characteristics influence the uptake of some sustainable behaviors, including recycling, consumption of organic food or use of public transport in the two countries. Consumers experience structural feedback loops and historic government foci have created path dependencies. The results demonstrate that a systemic view of sustainable consumption behaviors is required, to foster and increase sustainable behavior.
Article
Meeting international climate targets will require deep and rapid shifts in urban demand patterns. While the literature has emphasized the role played by cities in the response to climate change, it remains unclear whether or how urban-level interventions actually affect possibilities for low-carbon living, and contribute to the re-configuration of everyday practices. In this paper, we use a social practice lens to understand how, and to what extent a range of Nordic cities target everyday demand patterns in the development of low-carbon policies. Contemporary demand-side approaches have been critiqued for their focus on the provision of low-carbon technologies and individual-level interventions. Instead, we argue that understanding how measures target and intervene in everyday practices provide a relevant lens for approaching the success of low-carbon interventions. Using an intervention-in practice-framework to understand urban interventions, we find that current measures rely heavily on non-committal measures in the domains of mobility and housing and forms of household self-governance. This paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of taking a practice view in developing climate interventions in urban setting, arguing that such perspective broadens the range of governance approaches adopted by cities to govern a reduction of urban emissions.
Article
What are the agenda-setting effects between the news media and its audience regarding organic food? This longitudinal text-mining study investigates the relationship between topics mentioned in news articles and reader comments published the online news outlets nytimes.com (USA) and spiegel.de (Germany) from 2007 to 2020. Topics are modeled using a neural network approach based on clustered multilingual sentence embeddings. Results show that the salience of topics in news articles significantly influences their salience in reader comments but not vice versa. Metrics for agenda distance and agenda diversity confirm the media’s agenda-setting role and additionally point out periods of time when events caused the media and public attention to diverge. The news media drives public opinion on organic food in the US and Germany by determining the discussion topics and is thus an important player in the promotion of organic food consumption to be considered by marketers and policy makers.
Article
This study aims to create a classifiable and comparable carbon footprint map of Turkey on the basis of cities with the provincial data inventory and data standard. Therefore, the basic parameters of carbon footprint change were determined by conducting the literature review. The carbon footprint change of each province was modeled using artificial neural networks for 2015 due to data availability. The performance metrics of the model created are (R2 0.97622, MSE 3.19809, RMSE 1.78832). The carbon footprint values of each province were predicted with the lowest error for the years 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, for which access data were available with the help of modeling. The spatial distributions of the prediction values were mapped using the geographic information system (GIS). An increase of 7 Mt on average was detected in the carbon footprint change of Turkey in 4 years. Furthermore, it was determined which parameter had a weighted effect in determining the carbon footprint values using the RReliefF algorithm, the feature selection method based on the established model’s prediction values. Accordingly, the parameters affecting the carbon footprint change on Turkey’s model were determined according to their weight as follows (income level 0.057, housing 0.029, the number of motor vehicles 0.028, sectoral industry size 0.025, population density 0.024, energy consumption 0.017, infrastructure 0.005, agricultural area 0.004, and agricultural production value 0.0008), respectively. This study draws a way for local governments to model their climate action plans with a standard data inventory, considering the parameters with weighted effects on carbon footprint change.
Article
Full-text available
Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
Book
Full-text available
Report by the Sustainable Development Commission; later published as https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849774338. Prosperity without Growth? analyses the complex relationships between growth, environmental crises and social recession. In the last quarter of a century, as the global economy has doubled in size, increases in consumption have caused the degradation of an estimated 60% of the world's ecosystems. The benefits of growth have been distributed unevenly, with a fifth of the world's population sharing just 2% of global income. Even in developed countries, huge gaps in wealth and well-being remain between rich and poor.
Article
Full-text available
Individuals and households make many decisions that are critical in shaping our energy future. As citizens , people favor some policies and oppose others, support some candidates for elective of½ce and not others, write op-eds, comment on blogs, and otherwise engage in political action. They attempt to influence decisions that help determine which kind of local, state, federal, and international policies are adopted, and such policies in turn shape the energy system of the future. People sometimes engage in more direct politics by organizing to support or oppose proposed technological changes, especially the siting of new facilities. For example, the use of nuclear power in the United States stopped expanding in the 1980s largely as a result of massive public opposition to new nuclear power plants. 1 Current proposals for developing wind power facilities often face serious local opposition, as do efforts to develop unconventional shale gas deposits and to implement smart electrical grids and smart home metering. 2 Such political actions are critically important to the energy futures of democracies. We focus here, Abstract: Actions by individuals and households to reduce carbon-based energy consumption have the potential to change the picture of U.S. energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the near term. To tap this potential, however, energy policies and programs need to replace outmoded assumptions about what drives human behavior; they must integrate insights from the behavioral and social sciences with those from engineering and economics. This integrated approach has thus far only occasionally been implemented. This essay summarizes knowledge from the social sciences and from highly successful energy programs to show what the potential is and how it can be achieved.
Book
Full-text available
This is the main report of the project “Prioritisation within the integrated product policy” commissioned by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency in the years 2003-4. The main objectives of the project was to: • Establish a detailed and well-documented method for prioritising product areas and product groups where Danish measures will provide most environmental improvement. The data basis shall be easy to maintain and update, so that it can be used in future prioritisation as well. • Apply the developed method on products that are currently used in Denmark (own production as well as imported products) and on products that are currently produced in Denmark (export-products), at a level of detail justified by the method, and hereby establish a prioritised list of product areas and product groups where Danish measures will have largest importance for the environment. In addition, the project has: • Analysed the prioritised product groups with the aim of identifying new product groups suited for environmental labelling. • Further analysed and presented the project results in the areas covered by the four product panels (agriculture/foods, electronics, retail trade and textiles). • Further developed the project’s database, to increase its applicability as a Danish reference-database for life cycle assessment. This includes an addition of physical units where possible, and a further disaggregation of selected product groups. The project furthermore provides data and tools applicable for everyone who performs lifecycle assessments of products produced and/or used in Denmark.
Article
Full-text available
The report is a scientific contribution to the European Commission's Integrated Product Policy framework, which seeks to minimise the environmental degradation caused throughout the life cycle of products. This report first presents an overview of the environmental impact cause by current dietary habits in EU27. It then develops three alternative diets on the basis of health recommendations from EFSA, WHO and other organisations, and calculates the changes in environmental impacts achievable through a shift towards these diets. Finally the report analyses policy measures which stimulate the uptake of healthy diets by consumers. The report shows that current dietary habits in Europe are responsible for 27% of all environmental impacts in Europe. A shift to healthier diets shows that the contribution to overall environmental impacts in Europe can be reduced to 25% in case of reduced consumption of red meat. The contribution reduces to just 26% if indirect effects such as household budget re-distribution and price and substitution effects in the agricultural sector are taken into account. Because food and nutrition are strongly rooted in traditions and habits, policy measures aiming at stimulating a change towards healthy diets need to include a combination of different instruments, ranging from consumer awareness raising to public procurement activities.
Article
The developed world, increasingly aware of "inconvenient truths" about global warming and sustainability, is turning its attention to possible remedies-eco-efficiency, sustainable development, and corporate social responsibility, among others. But such measures are mere Band-Aids, and they may actually do more harm than good, says John Ehrenfeld, a pioneer in the field of industrial ecology. In this deeply considered book, Ehrenfeld challenges conventional understandings of "solving" environmental problems and offers a radically new set of strategies to attain sustainability. The book is founded upon this new definition: sustainability is the possibility that humans and other life will flourish on Earth forever. There are obstacles to this hopeful vision, however, and overcoming them will require us to transform our behavior, both individually and collectively. Ehrenfeld identifies problematic cultural attributes-such as the unending consumption that characterizes modern life-and outlines practical steps toward developing sustainability as a mindset. By focusing on the "being" mode of human existence rather than on the unsustainable "having" mode we cling to now, he asserts, a sustainable world is within our reach.
Article
How serious are the threats to our environment? Here is one measure of the problem: if we continue to do exactly what we are doing, with no growth in the human population or the world economy, the world in the latter part of this century will be unfit to live in. Of course human activities are not holding at current levels-they are accelerating, dramatically-and so, too, is the pace of climate disruption, biotic impoverishment, and toxification. In this book Gus Speth, author of Red Sky at Morning and a widely respected environmentalist, begins with the observation that the environmental community has grown in strength and sophistication, but the environment has continued to decline, to the point that we are now at the edge of catastrophe. Speth contends that this situation is a severe indictment of the economic and political system we call modern capitalism. Our vital task is now to change the operating instructions for today's destructive world economy before it is too late. The book is about how to do that.
Article
Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events such as the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of the dollar. Occasionally, beliefs concerning uncertain events are expressed in numerical form as odds or subjective probabilities. In general, the heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors. The subjective assessment of probability resembles the subjective assessment of physical quantities such as distance or size. These judgments are all based on data of limited validity, which are processed according to heuristic rules. However, the reliance on this rule leads to systematic errors in the estimation of distance. This chapter describes three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty. The first is representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event belongs to a class or event. The second is the availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development, and the third is adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
Article
'Frank Geels's book gives us a new perspective on how society moves from one technological regime to another. Understanding these transitions is essential if we are to get to grips with what we need to do to switch our societies to more sustainable states and how technologies figure in that switch.' - Ken Green, Institute of Innovation Research, The University of Manchester, UK This important book addresses how long term and large scale shifts from one socio-technical system to another come about, using insights from evolutionary economics, sociology of technology and innovation studies. These major changes involve not just technological changes, but also changes in markets, regulation, culture, industrial networks and infrastructure.
Article
The two schools of economic thought which have prevailed in the Latin American setting, neo-liberal monetarism and the more interventionist state-centered developmentalism promoted by the Economic Commission for Latin America, have not been able to satisfy the legitimate needs of the Latin American masses. A new perspective is called for which aims at an adequate satisfaction of human needs. Furthermore, if future development cannot be sustained through the expansion of exports or through substantial injection of foreign capital, an alternative development must generate a capacity for greater self-reliance. We are proposing an orientation which would enable us to create conditions for a new praxis based on Human Scale Development. Such development is focused and based on the satisfaction of fundamental human needs, on the generation of growing levels of self-reliance, and on the construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology, of global processes with local activity, of the personal with the social, of planning with autonomy, and of civil society with the state. -from Author
Article
Problem: Localities and states are turning to land planning and urban design for help in reducing automobile use and related social and environmental costs. The effects of such strategies on travel demand have not been generalized in recent years from the multitude of available studies.Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis of the built environment-travel literature existing at the end of 2009 in order to draw generalizable conclusions for practice. We aimed to quantify effect sizes, update earlier work, include additional outcome measures, and address the methodological issue of self-selection.Methods: We computed elasticities for individual studies and pooled them to produce weighted averages.Results and conclusions: Travel variables are generally inelastic with respect to change in measures of the built environment. Of the environmental variables considered here, none has a weighted average travel elasticity of absolute magnitude greater than 0.39, and most are much less. Still, the combined effect of several such variables on travel could be quite large. Consistent with prior work, we find that vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is most strongly related to measures of accessibility to destinations and secondarily to street network design variables. Walking is most strongly related to measures of land use diversity, intersection density, and the number of destinations within walking distance. Bus and train use are equally related to proximity to transit and street network design variables, with land use diversity a secondary factor. Surprisingly, we find population and job densities to be only weakly associated with travel behavior once these other variables are controlled.Takeaway for practice: The elasticities we derived in this meta-analysis may be used to adjust outputs of travel or activity models that are otherwise insensitive to variation in the built environment, or be used in sketch planning applications ranging from climate action plans to health impact assessments. However, because sample sizes are small, and very few studies control for residential preferences and attitudes, we cannot say that planners should generalize broadly from our results. While these elasticities are as accurate as currently possible, they should be understood to contain unknown error and have unknown confidence intervals. They provide a base, and as more built-environment/travel studies appear in the planning literature, these elasticities should be updated and refined.Research support: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Article
Acknowledgments Introduction The Communities and Their Contexts House Contents and Fuel Consumption Household Activities Consumer Awareness: Energy, Self-Image, and Conservation Energy Consumption: Cultural Mandates and Individual Rationales Energy Conservation: Cultural Sanctions and Individual Motives The New Environmental Focus Consumerism Worldview Conclusion Appendix Bibliography Index
Article
A case–control study of the car-free model housing project in Vienna was conducted to evaluate whether people living in this settlement have more ‘sustainable lifestyles’ than people living in comparable buildings in Vienna. Another aim was to identify the lifestyle characteristics and household activities which significantly influence the environmental impact of the residents of the car-free housing project and a control group. The control group, referred to as the reference settlement, was chosen from a nearby building complex, with similar characteristics, but without the car-free feature. Household consumption patterns were estimated based on interviews in combination with data from the Austrian consumer expenditure survey and the national accounts. The evaluation of household environmental impacts uses emissions estimates from the Austrian national accounting matrices including environmental accounts and data from life-cycle assessments. Households from the car-free settlement have substantially lower environmental impacts in the categories of ground transportation and energy use; their CO2 emissions of these two categories are less than 50% of those living in the reference settlement. The households in the car-free settlement have somewhat higher emissions in the categories air transport, nutrition, and ‘other’ consumption, reflecting the higher income per-capita. As a result, the CO2 emissions are only slightly lower than in the reference settlement, but the emissions intensity is 20% lower. Both household groups have significantly lower environmental impacts than the Austrian average reflecting less car use and cleaner heating energy in Vienna.
Article
The climate change issue imposes us not only to change the way we produce and convert energy but also to modify current energy consumption patterns. A substantial body of literature has shown that our behavior is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behavior - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as it is difficult to expect consumers to be capable of exercising control over their consumption of energy in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in our perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constrains and shapes consumers' choices through structural, cultural, social and institutional forces. Habits being potentially "counterintentional," can be considered as a form of behavioral lock-in that may explain continued increase of energy consumption. Policies should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. © 2009, Journal of Economic Issues / Association for Evolutionary Economics.
Article
From the concept of sustainable consumption appears to now, over 14 years, the academic community on how to achieve sustainable consumption has done a lot. To sum up, process towards sustainable consumption needs efforts: First, improve the efficiency and the second is to change consumption patterns, lower consumption level. In China moving towards sustainable consumption, in addition to the barriers of improving efficiency and changing consumption pattern, there are still other difficulties: First, consumption growth and impacting on the environment. Second, the demonstration effects of developed country and Consumerism are popular in China. Third, improve efficiency of resource and the rebound effects.
Article
Summary This article explores the intrinsic role of context in shaping the course and outcomes of interventions aimed at changing environmentally significant behavior in home and workplace settings. Drawing on sociological theories of symbolic interactionism, we evaluate the social dynamics and mechanisms of two similar, team-based behavior change interventions at work (Environment Champions) and at home (EcoTeams). The analysis shows that the interventions open up different levels of opportunity for reviewing and renegotiating new environmentally friendly behaviors against the reactions and expectations of the immediate peer group, existing workplace or domestic roles, and the situation-specific definitions of what counts as appropriate behavior in the home and the workplace. We argue that policy studies should pay greater attention to the processes of behavior change, or the contextually sensitive relationship between interventions and outcomes, as a step toward refining or streamlining interventions aimed at changing environmentally significant behavior.
Article
Von Hippel and colleagues have highlighted the crucial role of users in innovation in different industries and types of products. They describe the innovation process in terms of the distinct domains of knowledge that producers and users possess. Producers have knowledge about technical solutions and users about their needs, the context of use, and their own capabilities as users. Both sets of knowledge are characterized by “stickiness”: They move relatively freely within their own domain but are difficult to transfer outside of it. In the case of radical innovations for sustainable consumption, the problem of “sticky information” is compounded. Both producers and consumers need to reach out of their conventional competencies and search for new solutions. “Societal actors,” such as government bodies or environmental experts, can show the way to such solutions, but this new knowledge needs to be integrated with the “sticky” knowledge about everyday practices in production and consumption. In the present article we attempt to conceptualize the role and interaction of user and producer knowledge with the knowledge of environmental experts in housing energy innovations. We do so by applying the user−producer interaction framework to a case study on the introduction of low-energy housing concepts in Finland. On the basis of this analysis, we draw conclusions on the potential and limitations of today's practices in the field. For example, we suggest that user involvement can help to enhance the acceptance of low-energy solutions but that the methods for involving users need to be adapted to the particular circumstances in each industry.
Article
Summary This article links databases on household consumption, industrial production, economic turnover, employment, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions into a spatially explicit model. The causal sequence starts with households demanding a certain consumer basket. This demand requires production in a complex supply-chain network of interdependent industry sectors. Even though the household may be confined to a particular geographical location, say a dwelling in a city, the industries producing the indirect inputs for the commodities that the household demands will be dispersed all over Australia and probably beyond. Industrial production represents local points of economic activity, employment, water use, and emissions that have local economic, social, and environmental impacts. The consumer basket of a typical household is followed in Australia's two largest cities—Sydney and Melbourne—along its upstream supply chains and to numerous production sites within Australia. The spatial spread is described by means of a detailed regional interindustry model. Through industry-specific emissions profiles, industrial production is then translated into local impacts. We show that annually a typical household is responsible for producing approximately 80 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions, uses around 3 million liters of water, causes about A$140,000 to circulate in the wider economy, and provides labor worth just under three full-time employment-years. We also introduce maps that visually demonstrate how a very localized household affects the environment across an entire continent. Our model is unprecedented in its spatial and sectoral detail, at least for Australia.
Article
In this article we apply geodemographic consumer segmentation data in an input−output framework to understand the direct and indirect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with consumer behavior of different lifestyles in the United Kingdom. In a subsequent regression analysis, we utilize the lifestyle segments contained in the dataset to control for aspects of behavioral differences related to lifestyles in an analysis of the impact of various socioeconomic variables on CO2 emissions, such as individual aspirations and people's attitudes toward the environment, as well as the physical context in which people act. This approach enables us to (1) test for the significance of lifestyles in determining CO2 emissions, (2) quantify the importance of a variety of individual socioeconomic determinants, and (3) provide a visual representation of “where” the various factors exert the greatest impact, by exploiting the spatial information contained in the lifestyle data. Our results indicate the importance of consumer behavior and lifestyles in understanding CO2 emissions in the United Kingdom. Across lifestyle groups, CO2 emissions can vary by a factor of between 2 and 3. Our regression results provide support for the idea that sociodemographic variables are important in explaining emissions. For instance, controlling for lifestyles and other determinants, we find that emissions are increasing with income and decreasing with education. Using the spatial information, we illustrate how the lifestyle mix of households in the United Kingdom affects the geographic distribution of environmental impacts.
Article
This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.
Article
Abstract Nine families with teenagers were interviewed in depth about their habits of showering and clothes washing. Environmental concern and statistics about energy and water consumption,are introduced, but primarily this article is a description of norms and variations on the daily habits of cleanliness among,teenagers. The analysis of the interviews are structured along a line of different questions known from discussions about theories of consumption, including questions of modern versus late-modern theories of lifestyle, conspicuous versus routine consumption as well as the influences of technologicalchanges,and fundamental,symbolic systems of hygiene.