Article

Predicting Entrepreneurship From Ideation and Divergent Thinking

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Abstract

In order to find out why certain entrepreneurs are successful we administered two measures of ideational skill to 47 successful entrepreneurs. The first asked about the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) to their own businesses; it assessed the participants' ideational productivity (i.e. fluency) and originality. The second measure was a self-report of ideational tendencies in the natural environment. Statistical analyses indicated that the more successful entrepreneurs did indeed have particular ideational tendencies. This was especially apparent in the self-report measure of ideation. The two groups did not differ in terms of secondary criterion questions (e.g. profitable years within the last five, number of employees), nor in their SWOT scores. This last finding with the SWOT was unexpected but easy to understand, given the paper-and-pencil format of the test. The significant difference that were uncovered suggest that ideation is an important talent for entrepreneurs. Predictions about entrepreneurial success may, for example, be improved if an individual's ideational skills are assessed. Furthermore, it would be reasonable to encourage and support entrepreneurial potentials via programmes that target ideation.

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... We use the RBV as theoretical ground for developing arguments that explain creative process of entrepreneurs. Our proposal is based on the literature that indicates substantial creative behaviours of entrepreneurs in constructing their resources base, overcoming resource constraints, and exploiting opportunities (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000, Shane, 2012, Senyard et al., 2011b, Ames and Runco, 2005. The implication of this paper is to help build the corresponding pedagogy for nurturing creativity specific to the entrepreneurial process and contexts in order to lead to enhanced EC of students and to effectively introduce EC training in EE. ...
... In other words, the creativity for business ideas or the ideation process to discover opportunities is actually not enough in the venture creation process if we consider that entrepreneurs have to create new means and relationships by creatively re-combining resources to exploit the opportunity (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000, Shane, 2012). These behaviours to recombine and construct resources can be seen more as coming up with novel solutions to the resources-constraints problems which entrepreneurs usually encounter (Ames andRunco, 2005, Senyard et al., 2011b). Indeed, in EE practice, we are calling for these kind of creative problem solving skills in the opportunity exploitation stage or context, and not just the ideation skill for business opportunity in the opportunity discovery stage or context alone. ...
... Senyard (2011b) empirically concluded that innovations in sourcing, production, and promotion enable entrepreneurs to utilize limited resources to produce a desirable outcome in nascent and young firms. In a word, these seemingly detrimental resource constraints can be beneficial for entrepreneurs who tend to think creatively and out of the box, free from the constraints of organizational rules, formality, and culture (Ames and Runco, 2005). ...
Article
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ABSTR ACT: For entrepreneurs creative problem solving and innovation are key capabilities that can be built through experience and entrepreneurial learning. Unfortunately en-trepreneurial education has received increased criticism over the past decade suggesting that entrepreneurship courses do not sufficiently emphasize development of creative capabilities. Although several scholars and educators emphasize the need for nurturing creativity in entrepreneurial education it remains unclear how to efficiently stimulate the creativity pertinent to entrepreneurial contexts. The aim of our study is to show how the logics of RBV theory can be used to explain the creative behaviours of entrepreneurs in which EC is manifested in resource construction. The contribution of this paper is that it initiates the analysis of EC from a resource-based view and provides a foundation for building the corresponding pedagogy for nurturing creativity specific to the entrepreneurial process to effectively introduce EC training in EE.
... Furthermore, characteristics and expertise of entrepreneurs can be compared to personality traits of individuals, who are distinguished as highly creative (Whiting, 1988). A study by Whiting (1988) identified comprehensive similarities between creativity-relevant characteristics and characteristics of entrepreneurs, whereas Ames and Runco (2005) specifically found a relation between divergent thinkers and successful entrepreneurs. Divergent thinkers are individuals who can produce a high number of unique ideas from a single starting point (e.g. a problem or a task) (Brophy, 2001). ...
... This idea generation process can be regarded as the lifeblood of entrepreneurship (Ward, 2004), which points out the necessity of creativity for entrepreneurship (Zhou, 2008). Through creativity, valuable and even beneficial products and services, that lead to a competitive advantage, can be generated (Ames and Runco, 2005) . Enhancing creativity can therefore help to reach this competitive advantage. ...
... In our research, we developed a computer-based system to enhance entrepreneurial creativity. The system automatically generates creativity stimulating content that aims to support divergent thinking, which has been identified as particularly important for entrepreneurs (Ames and Runco, 2005;Gielnik et al., 2012). Our objectives are to create a system that can be beneficial for the generation of the initial idea of a start-up and subsequently improve the overall creativity support in entrepreneurial activities. ...
Thesis
Companies and organizations must constantly evolve in order to stay competitive in the marketplace. An important role is played by innovations that ensure this continuous corporate success. Producing innovations depends strongly on creativity, which is why active support makes sense and is worthwhile. Creativity can be supported by information technology and is most effective in teams and groups. Collaboration and the consideration of different collaboration mechanisms play an equally important role in this context as the active support by information technology. This dissertation deals with the question of how information systems can be designed in order to use information technology to actively support creativity and that collaborative creativity processes are promoted. With the help of a systematic literature review, current creativity support systems were examined and the necessity of research was explained. A design-oriented approach was then used to develop and evaluate various approaches that address the research question. A total of 25 scientific articles were produced, five of which are included in this dissertation. Various conducted studies show the additional value of active support through information technology and provide design guidelines for better support of collaborative creativity.
... In our research, we developed a computer-based tool to enhance entrepreneurial creativity. The tool automatically generates creativity stimulating content that aims to support divergent thinking, which has been identified as particularly important for entrepreneurs (Ames and Runco, 2005;Gielnik et al., 2012). Our objectives are to create a tool that can be beneficial for the generation of the initial idea of a start-up and subsequently improve the overall creativity support in entrepreneurial activities. ...
... In addition, the personal experience in entrepreneurial activities influences the creativity of individuals. Entrepreneurs who have already founded more than two companies show a higher level of creativity (Ames and Runco, 2005;Gielnik, 2013). This relation between entrepreneurship and creativity can be defined as bilateral. ...
... In addition to that, training on divergent thinking, like forming associations, conceptual combining, analogous reasoning and out-of-the-box thinking, has been identified to promote entrepreneurial activities (Gielnik et al., 2012). Ames and Runco (2005) also support this statement, as they identified that divergent thinking enhances the generation of business models. However, Gielnik et al. (2012) point out to the interplay between divergent and convergent thinking and state that both processes are needed for the creation of a comprehensive business idea. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship requires creative approaches to tackle many challenges faced in establishing a new business. A necessary precursor is the recognition and development of ideas in order to establish a beneficial business model. Recognizing opportunities and developing ideas requires entrepreneurs to be creative. Actively supporting the creative process can therefore result in enhanced ideas, leading to successful new products or services. Within this article, we discuss the relevance of creativity support and the use of information technology to support entrepreneurial creativity. As a part of the applied Design Science Research Methodology, we developed a Creativity Support Tool, which aims to support the divergent thinking process, which has been identified to be especially important for entrepreneurial ideation. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of our artifact. The results indicate that the artifact, which automatically presents external word stimuli to the idea generator, is able to enhance creativity, expand the entrepreneurs solution space and supports the recognition of more idea aspects.
... That, of course, is the "T" in SWOT. The other tasks (strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities) could also be used as exercises or even assessments (Ames & Runco, 2005), and it would be good to give all four tasks to any examinees. Occasionally only one task is given when testing people, but one task is not reliable. ...
... Thus, there is support for the predictive validity of DT tests, in various populations, including leaders. Recall also the research cited earlier that used the SWOT DT test with entrepreneurs (Ames & Runco, 2005). Before turning from DT and reviewing other relevant abilities, one last strength of the DT approach to creative problem-solving should be noted, namely, that DT is compatible with other views of the creative process. ...
... Findings show that these two factors cannot be separated (Gilad 1984). Through creativity, entrepreneurs are able to generate valuable and useful products or services in order to create competitive advantages (Ames and Runco 2005). Therefore, creativity is crucial for the discovery of an innovative idea and thus particularly important for the first steps of a start-up. ...
... A study by Ames and Runco (2005) also shows that successful companies can generate more ideas through divergent thinking (as a part of the creative process). Divergent thinking can be described as the ability to build up an assortment of unordinary and original ideas (Guilford 1950). ...
Conference Paper
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Successful start-ups require a range of organizational and systematic activities. Not only do the acquisition and the successful use of resources play a decisive role in the success of a start-up, but also the development of a business idea. Creativity is an essential part in this context and both creativity techniques and creativity support systems prove to be fundamental to the success of the start-up. In this paper, we present the results of an exploratory study with 105 entrepreneurs, to deeper understand the impact of creativity techniques and creativity supporting information technology (IT). With a literature review and the results of our study, we furthermore highlight the importance of knowledge and teaching about creativity enhancing methods and the right application of creativity supporting IT. Additionally, we show the influence and environmental factors of creativity within the different stages of entrepreneurship.
... Innovativeness can be a motivator that leads an individual to enter upon an entrepreneurial career and be a facilitator that drives entrepreneurs to take entrepreneurial action in improving their businesses (Dai et al., 2014). Ames and Runco (2005) state that successful entrepreneurs consistently produce more original ideas than unsuccessful entrepreneurs. The ideas might be in the form of new products that offer alternative solutions to existing problems, or might create new products or services that complement products that are already out there in the market (Ames & Runco, 2005). ...
... Ames and Runco (2005) state that successful entrepreneurs consistently produce more original ideas than unsuccessful entrepreneurs. The ideas might be in the form of new products that offer alternative solutions to existing problems, or might create new products or services that complement products that are already out there in the market (Ames & Runco, 2005). A study by Rauch and Freese (2007) showed that there was a positive relationship between innovativeness and venture success. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, individual entrepreneurial orientation will be investigated to find the influence it has on entrepreneurial action of post graduate students. Individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) can help post-graduate students, teachers, investors and organisations better understand an individual's personal orientation towards taking risks, openness to new ideas and consciousness in the business environment. IEO is commonly understood as signifying the processes and decision-making activities that lead to entrepreneurship. In a systemic context, an individual constitutes a micro system and is closely linked to the various processes at differing levels of systematic development.
... There has been considerable research into innovativeness, but almost none of it has focused specifically on engineers in terms of behavioral characteristics [13][14][15]. Instead, research on innovativeness and competency skills for engineers tends to focus on whether engineers are creative [16], good problem solvers [14], and/or whether they possess design skills [15] and entrepreneurial skills [8,17,18]. In fact, both the research community and society continue to link innovativeness with creativity and entrepreneurial behavior, often using the terms in the same phrase, but rarely providing a unique and clear definition of innovative behavior [8,19]. ...
... ''Largest engineering disciplines-' was based on the number of engineering degrees issued in 2009-2010, as reported by the American Society for Engineering Education [42]. Additional engineering innovator target designations (selecting from corporate R/D, disruptive entrepreneurs, and research-focused academics) were chosen, because these professional job categories are also commonly associated with individuals considered to be innovative engineers [15,17,43]. Interviewees were nominated and recruited from large and small entities by sales and employee size, from diverse populations, and from corporate, entrepreneurial, and academic organizations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past four years, fifty-three peer-nominated engineering innovators were interviewed about the process of creating innovations and the personal characteristics of engineers who do so successfully. These interviewees were drawn from across all engineering disciplines and all types and sizes of organizations where they were employed. Our main objective was to better understand the behavioral characteristics that lead engineers to discover, develop, and implement innovations in products, processes, or concepts. We call this behavior engineering innovativeness. This paper describes our rigorous process for discovering the essence of engineering innovativeness and its characteristics. As portraits of engineering innovativeness, we present 10 unique personas of engineering innovators gathered from our interviews. Identifying the behavioral characteristics of innovative engineers and their personas is important to both the education of student engineers and the professional development of practicing engineers. If engineers are expected to behave in an innovative manner in their academic and professional endeavors, then understanding the behavioral characteristics and personas of 'expert' or 'master' innovative engineers is an essential first step in learning to behave in an innovative manner or to become more innovative as an engineer. We discovered that there is not one type of engineering innovator or a single group of characteristics that define engineering innovativeness; rather, there are many different types of engineering innovators, as evidenced by the unique groupings of engineering innovativeness characteristics identified by our experts.
... "Success is stimulated through the use of juxta positioning and bisociations of ideas from diverse and often unrelated domains" (Fillis & Rentschler, 2010, p. 73). In a study of ideation skills of successful entrepreneurs, the more successful entrepreneurs had higher scores on divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005). Luckily, ideation skills can be increased through training and practice (Karimi, et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Across time, geographies and industries, HR experts have discussed the endless issue of the best way to acquire, retain, engage, develop and succeed talents, whilst most notably, to achieve ROI on talent management activities. Millennials are increasingly covering a large part of the worldwide workforce, as well as, progressively focusing on selecting careers that provide meaning and purpose, based on a strong vision and direction; opting to join organizations that generate products and services positively impacting social concerns through innovation and entrepreneurial agility. Responding to the HR accountability on talent management, we propose organizations to alert to how social innovation and social impact are becoming that meaningful purpose at work for many. To sustain organizational vitality through purpose, leadership, as well as, entrepreneurial mindset and skillset are crucial. Social entrepreneurial leadership is becoming a practical role deserving more attention in organizations of all sizes and governing statuses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss four key foundational ingredients for social entrepreneurial leaders to thrive: self- mastery, social networks, work values and competence curricula.
... They tend to appreciate novelty and explore new ways of doing things, making them creative and innovative (Schumpeter, 1934). As ES is based on creativity, ingenuity, and the capacity to discover innovative ways, a positive association can be underlined between this personality trait and ES (Ames, Runco, 2005). Barrick and Mount (1991) highlighted that individuals high in openness to experience may have positive attitudes towards learning experiences. ...
Article
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This study provides a conceptual and empirical clarification of the extent to which the Big Five personality traits of openness to experience, extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness affect entrepreneurial success in an emerging country context. We also examine whether gender moderates the association between these five personality traits and entrepreneurial success. 174 Tunisian entrepreneurs were surveyed by using a questionnaire and the partial least squares method and multi-group analysis were piloted to test the six research hypotheses. The results clearly demonstrate that entrepreneurial personality traits that relate significantly to business success are characterized by high emotional stability, openness to experience, and conscientiousness. Further, the results illustrate that gender moderates the association between personality and entrepreneurial success. Government agencies that promote and encourage entrepreneurs and business creation may find the presented findings useful in helping to recognize future successful entrepreneurs on the basis of their personality traits. https://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-of-innovation-economics-2018-0-p-art32I.htm
... Opportunities in organizations have been traditionally measured by the SWOT analysis as an analytical tool or a checklist, usually completed by individuals about the organization (Helms and Nixon, 2010;Puyt et al., 2020). Ames and Runco (2005) interviewed entrepreneurs about their self-reported opportunities using the SWOT model. Scheaf et al. (2020) developed a 14-item self-report measure of opportunity evaluation in which entrepreneurial opportunities are rated in three domains: gain estimation (e.g., I see large potential gains for myself in pursuing the opportunity), perceived feasibility (e.g., I have what it takes to create opportunities), and loss estimation (e.g., For me, the potential for loss in pursuing the opportunity is high). ...
Article
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Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results (SOAR) is a strengths-based framework for strategic thinking, planning, conversations, and leading that focuses on strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results. The SOAR framework leverages and integrates Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to create a transformation process through generative questions and positive framing. While SOAR has been used by practitioners since 2000 as a framework for generating positive organizational change, its use in empirical research has been limited by the absence of reliable and valid measures. We report on the reliability, construct validity, and measurement invariance of the SOAR Scale, a 12-item self-report survey organized into four first-order factors (Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results). Data from a sample of 285 U.S. professionals were analyzed in Mplus using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. The Four-Factor first-order exploratory structure equation modeling (ESEM) had the best model fit. Measurement invariance tests found the scalar invariance of the SOAR Scale across gender and education groups. Implications are discussed for using the SOAR Scale to build resilience at the individual, the team, and the organizational levels.
... Fluency can be established by simply counting the number of ideas (Cropley, 2000), meaning it is relatively non-subjective. Examples of studies which include evaluating creativity based on fluency include Adánez (2005); Ames and Runco (2005); Belski, Hourani, Valentine, and Belski (2014); Bouchard (1972); Del Missier, Visentini, and Mäntylä (2015); Dewett and Gruys (2007) ;Hao, Wu, Runco, and Pina (2015); Nazzal (2015); Reiter-Palmon and Arreola (2015); Saad, Cleveland, and Ho (2015); Shaw, Arnason, and Belardo (1993). ...
... Creativity has been considered as a component of entrepreneurship as it entails recognizing opportunities, generating ideas, and innovating (Schumpeter, 1934). In entrepreneurship, creativity refers to the generation of the novel ideas (Amabile, 1996;Ames and Runco, 2005) as "novel and useful ideas are the lifeblood of entrepreneurship" (Ward, 2004, p.174). ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship is important for developed countries to sustain their welfare levels and for developing countries to increase their level of welfare. Many entrepreneurs contribute significantly to the national economy of their countries. The purpose of our research is to determine how graduate students' entrepreneurial intentions are related to emotional intelligence and what role creativity plays in this process. This quantitative research study was conducted with graduate students at a private university in the southwest region of the USA. The data were collected from 399 participants via an online survey and analyzed by completing a Structural Equation Modelling. The results showed that entrepreneurial intentions are affected directly and positively by problem-solving skills, emotional self-awareness, and impulse control. Additionally, we found that problem-solving skills affect creativity directly and positively while creativity does not have a direct effect on entrepreneurial intentions.
... We know that innovation positively influences firm performance for smalland medium-sized enterprises (Rosenbusch, Brinckmann, & Bausch, 2011). To mitigate costly failures for small enterprises, senior leaders need to be fluent and capable in ideation and/or creativity skills because entrepreneurs who are creative and possess strong ideational skills are more successful than those who do not (Ames & Runco, 2005). ...
Article
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The focal article (Reynolds, McCauley, Tsacoumis, and the Jeanneret Symposium Participants, 2018) reviewed and discussed the challenges, practices, and opportunities for the assessment and development for senior leaders. They summarized a set of accepted wisdom for assessing senior leaders in the areas of assessment criteria, contexts, and implementation, and meanwhile, pointed out what should be explored and done in the future. One of the central premises of the focal article seems to be built on the assumption that organizations may have sufficient resources to follow the accepted wisdom to ensure the quality and effectiveness of assessment and development for senior leaders. In addition, most, if not all, of the research findings summarized and discussed in the focal article may be based on the studies under the context of established companies. Hence, whether the implications and suggestions from the focal article can generalize to small enterprises remain an open question. For example, a typical small enterprise in the United States is a company capitalized with about $25,000 (Shane, 2009). Most of these enterprises are highly centralized, have negative cash flow, and have troubles in securing cash and in obtaining customer acceptance (Rutherford & Buller, 2007). Thus, these companies may not be able to follow the accepted wisdom as recommended in the focal article. We realize that some small businesses and start-ups are extremely well funded, so our following comments apply only to those small enterprises with scarce resources.
... Creativity is one of the components of entrepreneurship as it involves recognizing opportunities, generating ideas, and innovating (Schumpeter, 1934). In the context of entrepreneurship, creativity is about generating novel ideas as novel and useful ideas are crucial to entrepreneurship (Amabile, 1996;Ames & Runco, 2005). Creativity is not only about presenting novel ideas or outputs, but also to connect two seemingly unrelated events or concepts to reveal a new perspective or outcome (Goodman, 1995;Jones, 2004). ...
Conference Paper
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The form of seyahatname (book of travel) which goes back to ancient history has adapted to the necessities of the XXI. Century. There are many websites, blogs, channels, and social media accounts that include travel articles. One of these websites that is popular is rotasizseyyah.com. Mehmet Genc, the owner and the writer of the website, updates his social media accounts and youtube channel actively and publishes books on his travel experiences. This article examines the rotasizseyyah.com and suggests to name websites producing similar contents as e-seyahatname.
... Unique reasoning or adaptability gives off an impression of being pivotal for entrepreneurs who are looking for new chances and trying them (Nyström, 1993) with the goal that it tends to be respected a critical determinant of advancement (Heunks, 1998) and a continuous chain for entrepreneurship (Ames and Runco, 2005). Large amounts of human capital have been observed to be related with entrepreneurship (Block, Hoogerheide and Thurik, 2011), knowledge is by all accounts just unassumingly identified with imagination (Batey and Furnham, 2008). ...
Article
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This paper has attempted to set out the key issues related to entrepreneurship in the context of its relationship with the role of cultural support with the qualification of the entrepreneurs The study is then widened to comprehend the determinants of entrepreneurship and its location for its improvement. Subsequently the arrangements that are important to make this situation conducive have been examined in detail. The non-specific imperatives that are looked by entrepreneurs have been conferred down. The paper additionally stresses the significance of entrepreneurship in Odisha. The conclusion reflects that for economic development entrepreneurship is very important. . Entrepreneurial introduction depends on the cultural support and consequent development of indigenous organizations. This thusly would make employments and increase the value of a locale, and in the meantime it will keep scarce resources within the community.
... Psychological factors also influence an individual's likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur (Shane 2003). In particular, extraversion (Babb and Babb 1992), need for achievement (Hornaday and Aboud 1973), risk-taking propensity (Astebro 2003), self-efficacy (Zietsma 1999), overconfidence (Arabsheibani et al. 2000), and creativity (Ames and Runco 2005) have all been shown to be significantly related to an individual's likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur. ...
... Runco (2013) also found that those who score high on the RIBS often generate and derive enjoyment from ideas as well as think frequently about strategies for solving problems. Previous studies also showed that the RIBS is suitable as a criterion of original and divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005;Paek & Runko, 2018;Plucker, Runco, & Lim, 2006). A more detailed explanation of previous research on the RIBS can be found in Runco (2013). ...
Article
The question of how individual features affect the development of design expertise has yet to be thoroughly researched. While some works acknowledged the importance of design abilities and creative ideation for design expertise, there is no theoretical framework that explicates their relationships and supports it empirically. The present research proposes a conceptual model and examines these relationships while integrating temporal experience as a moderating factor. Data were collected using a survey distributed among web community groups of designers and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Findings showed that design ability was positively related to design expertise, and design creative ideation was positively related to design ability. Moreover, the positive relationship between design creative ideation and design expertise was mediated by design ability. Additionally, design experience moderated the relationship between design ideation and design ability, indicating that the relationship between ideation and design ability was stronger for less experienced designers. This study facilitates a deeper understanding about the contribution of design ability, creative ideation, and temporal experience to design expertise.
... While there is prior research on innovativeness characteristics, almost none of the research has focused on engineers [6][7][8] . Instead, research on innovativeness for engineers tends to focus on whether engineers are creative 9,10 , good problem solvers 7 , and/or whether they possess design skills 8 and entrepreneurial skills 1,[11][12][13] . Both the engineering research community and society link innovativeness with creativity and entrepreneurial behavior, often joining the terms, but not providing a clear definition of innovative engineering behavior 1,14 . ...
... However, to date, entrepreneurship researchers have applied a between-person approach, focusing on creativity as a trait of entrepreneurs (e.g., Ardichvili et al., 2003;Baron and Tang, 2011). Studies have analyzed creative personality profiles (DeTienne and Chandler, 2004;Shane and Nicolaou, 2015), and divergent thinking capabilities (Ames and Runco, 2005;Gielnik et al., 2012a;Gielnik et al., 2014). The latter are composed of different measures of idea fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration (Guilford, 1950). ...
Article
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Prior research has shown that trait creativity is important for becoming an entrepreneur and successful in business. We explore a new perspective by investigating how recovery from work stress influences entrepreneurs' daily idea generation, a key aspect of creativity. Physiological and mental recovery enables the cognitive processes of creative problem-solving. Moreover, differences in mental recovery processes help to explain age-related changes in entrepreneurs' creativity. Multilevel analyses based on 415 daily data from 62 entrepreneurs support our predictions. Our study introduces a new “state” perspective to understanding entrepreneurs' creativity, and highlights the critical role of recovery processes for idea generation.
... Our research suggests that by selecting individuals with strong creative capabilities (using established creativity tests) to perform the filtering of early-stage innovation concepts within an organisation, a company may be able to boost their growth through innovation substantially. As a final note, Ames and Runco (2005) and Dyer et al. (2008) performed research in which they showed that successful entrepreneurs produce more creative ideas in comparison to less successful entrepreneurs, and that successful entrepreneurs draw more upon their own thinking to find solutions, instead of using routine ones. Combined with our findings, this would suggest that creative capabilities of entrepreneurs could similarly be used as selection criterion for whom to support. ...
Conference Paper
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Selecting innovative design concepts for further development entails decision making under conditions of sometimes extreme uncertainty pertaining to technical feasibility and market potential. In such situations, decision makers all too often become risk averse and reliant on known metrics that are inherently based on deductive and inductive logics. In prior research, however, good decision making on innovation has been linked with the complementary use of another form of logic: abductive reasoning. Abductive reasoning changes the mind-set of decision makers to become intrinsically forward thinking and explorative towards innovation opportunity. In this paper, we present an experimental study suggesting that the cognitive, creative capabilities of humans correlate positively with their use of abductive reasoning in decision making. We are further able to show that a higher level of abductive reasoning leads to significantly better, i.e. more accurate, decisions in selecting successful innovation concepts. These findings have strong implications for companies seeking to improve their innovative performance, specifically, how and by whom decisions on innovation should be made.
... The RIBS is a self-report designed to assess ideation with a Likert format ( as can be treated as the products of creative thinking (Runco, 2013). A number of studies have demonstrated that the RIBS is statistically unrelated to GPA and is useful as a criterion of original and divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005;Plucker, Runco, & Lim, 2006). For the present study, the RIBS contained 50 items. ...
Article
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Divergent thinking (DT) tests are probably the most common-ly used measures of creative potential. Several extensive batteries are available but most research relies on one or two specific tests rather than a complete battery. This may limit generalizations because tests of DT are not equivalent. They are not always highly inter-correlated. Additionally, some DT tests appear to be better than others at eliciting originality. This is critical because originality is vital for creativity. The primary purpose of the present study was to determine which test of DT elicits the most originality. Seven measures of DTwere administered on a sample of 611 participants in eight Arabic countries. The tests were Figural, Titles, Realistic Pre-sented Problems, Realistic Problem Generation, Instances, Uses, and Similarities. The Quick Test of Convergent Think-ing, Runco’s Ideational Behavior Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were also administered. A linear mixed model analysis confirmed that the originality scores in the DT tests differed by test. Post-hoc tests indicated that the Titles and Realistic Problem Generation tests produced the highest mean originality scores, whereas the Realistic Presented Problems test produced the lowest mean originality scores. These differences confirm that research using only one DT test will not provide generalizable results.
... The RIBS uses a 0–4 Likert scale as follows: 0 (never), 1 (approximately once a year), 2 (once or twice each month, approximately), 3 (once or twice each week, approximately), and 4 (just about every day, sometimes more than once each day;Runco et al., 2014). A number of studies have demonstrated that the RIBS is useful as a criterion of original and divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005;Plucker, Runco, & Lim, 2006). Although the RIBS is a relatively new measure of creative behavior, it has been used in many studies in the last 15 years (e.g.,Kim & Hull, 2012;Kim & VanTassel-Baska, 2010;Kuan Chen, 2015;Pannells & Claxton, 2008;Plucker et al., 2006). ...
Article
With creativity now being emphasized in schools, it is important for teachers to understand what it is and how it is measured. This review of the literature is an attempt to make sense of the many definitions and measures of creativity. As a result, this comprehensive review shows that most definitions agree that there are at least two criteria to judge whether a person or a product is creative or not, originality and usefulness. Organized according to Rhodes’s 3 P conceptualization of creativity—person, process, product, and press—more than 40 assessments used in creativity research were reviewed. Familiarity with the definitions, views of, and measurement of creativity can help teachers recognize and foster creativity in their students.
... The RIBS uses a 0–4 Likert scale as follows: 0 (never), 1 (approximately once a year), 2 (once or twice each month, approximately), 3 (once or twice each week, approximately), and 4 (just about every day, sometimes more than once each day;Runco et al., 2014). A number of studies have demonstrated that the RIBS is useful as a criterion of original and divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005;Plucker, Runco, & Lim, 2006). Although the RIBS is a relatively new measure of creative behavior, it has been used in many studies in the last 15 years (e.g.,Kim & Hull, 2012;Kim & VanTassel-Baska, 2010;Kuan Chen, 2015;Pannells & Claxton, 2008;Plucker et al., 2006). ...
Conference Paper
With creativity now being emphasized in schools, it is important for teachers to understand what it is and how it is measured. This review of the literature is an attempt to make sense of the many definitions and measures of creativity. As a result, this comprehensive review shows that most definitions agree that there are at least two criteria to judge whether a person or a product is creative or not, originality and usefulness. Organized according to Rhodes’s 3 P conceptualization of creativity—person, process, product, and press—more than 40 assessments used in creativity research were reviewed. Familiarity with the definitions, views of, and measurement of creativity can help teachers recognize and foster creativity in their students.
... While there is prior research on innovativeness characteristics, almost none of the research focused on engineers [9][10][11]. Instead, research on innovativeness for engineers tends to focus on whether engineers are creative [12,13], good problem solvers [10], and/or whether they possess design skills [11] and entrepreneurial skills [14][15][16][17]. Both the engineering research community and global societies link innovativeness with creativity and entrepreneurial behavior but do not use a clear definition of innovative engineering behavior [16,18]. ...
... When teams consist of members with different knowledge and skills, especially their overall performance can be improved, since the process of exploration and exploitation requires a high degree of diversity (Bunderson and Sutcliffe 2002;Horwitz and Horwitz 2007). Furthermore, studies show that diversity is important for developing new innovations, creating new business practices, and exploring new products and services (Bouncken 2004;Ames and Runco 2005). However, the effectiveness of teams depends on many aspects, such as the task to be solved, the boundary conditions such as the time the team works together, and the relevance and influence of the decisions (Cohen and Bailey 1997;Bunderson and Sutcliffe 2002;Belbin 2012;Katzenbach and Smith 2015). ...
Article
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The increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in everyday work also means that new insights into team collaboration must be gained. It is important to research how changes in team composition affect joint work, as previous theories and insights on teams are based on the knowledge of pure human teams. Especially, when AI-based systems act as coequal partners in collaboration scenarios, their role within the team needs to be defined. With a multi-method approach including a quantitative and a qualitative study, we constructed four team roles for AI-based teammates. In our quantitative survey based on existing team role concepts (n = 1.358), we used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to construct possible roles that AI-based teammates can fulfill in teams. With nine expert interviews, we discussed and further extended our initially identified team roles, to construct consistent team roles for AI-based teammates. The results show four consistent team roles: the coordinator, creator, perfectionist and doer. The new team roles including their skills and behaviors can help to better design hybrid human-AI teams and to better understand team dynamics and processes.
... "Success is stimulated through the use of juxta positioning and bisociations of ideas from diverse and often unrelated domains" (Fillis & Rentschler, 2010, p. 73). In a study of ideation skills of successful entrepreneurs, the more successful entrepreneurs had higher scores on divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005). Luckily, ideation skills can be increased through training and practice (Karimi, et al., 2016). ...
... While mixed modality works for reducing the correlations of fluency with both originality and flexibility, the use of multiple tasks may have a unique reverse effect. The use of multiple DT tasks seems to inflate the correlations between fluency and flexibility, although it is generally a good practice for reliability and validity (Ames & Runco, 2005;Kim, 2011). There is a positive relationship between the number of items used and the reliability of composite scales involving these items (Nunnally, 1978). ...
... Marrying creativity and entrepreneurial behavior in order to create innovations and new businesses is a theme found in entrepreneurship literature. 17 Bruce positions creativity as a part of the innovation process: ...
... Though we did not find studies reporting on the evidence of relations between test scores and distal outcomes, studies of relations with other variables found evidence of concurrent validity (r = 0.47, p b 0.001) with the measure of Creative Activity and Achievement Checklist and one theoretically related scale and one theoretically divergent subscale of Basadur's behavior scale (Runco et al., 2001) and discriminant validity (no correlation detected) between RIBS scores and college grade-point averages (Runco et al., 2001). RIBS scores have been associated with more successful entrepreneurship (Ames & Runco, 2005), fluid intelligence, happiness, locus of control (Pannells & Claxton, 2008), and higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness (Batey, Chamorro-Premuzic, & Furnham, 2010). In total, these findings show promise for the RIBS' concurrent validity. ...
Article
Responding to a groundswell of researcher and practitioner interest in developing students' interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, we evaluated three measurement approaches for creativity and global citizenship. We designed a 10-criteria evaluative framework from seminal and cutting-edge research to compare extant self-reports and situational-judgment tests (SJTs) from each construct and to design two discrete-choice experiments (DCEs). Our evaluation detailed opportunities, challenges, and tradeoffs presented by each approach's design considerations, possibilities for bias, and validity-related issues. We found that researchers rely heavily upon self-report instruments to measure constructs, such as creative thinking and global citizenship. We found evidence that the self-report instruments evaluated were susceptible to some biases more than others. We found that SJTs and DCEs may mitigate some concerns of bias and validity present in self-report when measuring interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. We make recommendations for future development of these formats.
... In the case of academic entrepreneurship, this aspect is even more reinforced, as the academic entrepreneur develops goods or services based on research and knowledge, which usually involves products that either are novel or have expansive uses previously unknown (Walter et al., 2006). This characteristic is usually related to intelligence (Zhao & Seibert, 2006), especially with what is known as divergent intelligence (Ames & Runco, 2005). Indeed, this type of innovative thinking is one of the basic requirements for entrepreneurship, insofar as it deals with the ability to explore new solutions to existing problems and develop new ideas, methods, or strategies (Clausen & Rasmussen, 2013;Martin, 1994;Miranda et al., 2018). ...
... Under this point of view, creativity can be seen as an indispensable factor regarding business achievements (Clapham, Cowdery, King, & Montang, 2005) and as a key aspect of innovation success (Brem et al., 2017b). Ames and Runco (2005) discovered in that context that a better creative ability in organizations might also lead to a higher business performance, while employee involvement directly supports this creative performance (Volmer, Spurk, & Niessen, 2012). ...
Article
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The major concern of employees during times of war and conflict is apparently physical survival. But how are top managers of small‐sized companies enhancing the generation of novel and useful ideas by their employees in such physically dangerous business environments? In Afghanistan, as a war‐torn country, this research examined for the first time how getting closer to employees—which is conceptualized as internal marketing orientation culture in our study—directly affects the generation of novel and useful ideas by employees in the workplace. Our analysis is based on survey data from 81 newly established small‐sized companies in Afghanistan. Results indicate a mediating role of employees' perceived psychological safety on the relationship between internal market orientation culture and employees' creative work involvement. Moreover, we discuss the impact of employees' creative work involvement on small‐sized firm competitiveness improvement in general. Finally, we extend our implications in the context of the componential theory model of creativity, which might also serve as a framework for future research.
... In the case of academic entrepreneurship, this aspect is even more reinforced, as the academic entrepreneur develops goods or services based on research and knowledge, which usually involves products that either are novel or have expansive uses previously unknown (Walter et al., 2006). This characteristic is usually related to intelligence (Zhao & Seibert, 2006), especially with what is known as divergent intelligence (Ames & Runco, 2005). Indeed, this type of innovative thinking is one of the basic requirements for entrepreneurship, insofar as it deals with the ability to explore new solutions to existing problems and develop new ideas, methods, or strategies (Clausen & Rasmussen, 2013;Martin, 1994;Miranda et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The promotion of academic entrepreneurship through the creation of university spin-offs (USOs) as a transfer system has been enhanced during the last two decades. This commitment of universities and public policy makers has been based mainly on the use of investments of public funds in universities and the capacity for such investments to create employment and economic growth. In this sense, entrepreneurial skills are one of the strongest determinants of intention. For this reason, the present study proposes the use of the paradigm known as Big Five, which proposes as personality variables those recognized by the acronym OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) to recognize if they are determinants of entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial intent, all through the application of Theory Planed Behavior (TPB). To study the influence of entrepreneurial skills, a self-administrated questionnaire was sent to more than 33,000 Spanish academics. The responses yielded a sample size of 799. The results show that entrepreneurial skills are the prime determinants of attitude and perceived control, and attitude is the decisive factor that determines the intention to go into business. Therefore, investment in training and the cultivation of skills and attitudes constitute the most relevant factors for achieving an increase in the creation of USOs.
... On the one hand, findings show that selected skills, which are related to cognitive ability, influence entrepreneurial status and performance. For instance, the ventures of entrepreneurs with higher practical intelligence show better annual growth rates (Baum et al., 2011) and entrepreneurs with higher divergent-thinking skills report more success and venture creation (Ames and Runco, 2005). On the other hand, cognitive ability might be vital for entrepreneurs in dealing with the relatively high complexity of their job (Busenitz and Barney, 1997). ...
Article
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Three separate studies demonstrate that socio-emotional skills add incremental validity beyond cognitive ability when predicting leadership and entrepreneurship intention, emergence as well as success. Study 1 uses a longitudinal approach and tests the cognitive ability and vocational interests of 231 students to predict their leadership and entrepreneurship intention. It demonstrates that cognitive ability predicts their intention to become a business leader or entrepreneur 2 years in the future. Importantly, the vocational interests “enterprising” and “social” increase this ability-driven prediction of leadership and entrepreneurship intention (ΔR2Lead.Intent. = 15%, ΔR2Entre.Intent. = 9%). Study 2 investigates 123 business leaders and shows that those with higher cognitive ability more likely emerge as top-level leaders, receive more income and get slightly better supervisor-ratings on their performance. The leaders’ Big Five traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability) added validity beyond cognitive ability when predicting these criteria (ΔR2Income = 9%, ΔR2Lead.Level = 8%, ΔR2Perform. = 15%). Finally, Study 3 includes 155 participants and demonstrates that cognitive ability predicts a person’s entrepreneurial status but not performance. Additionally, considering the Big Five traits improves the prediction of who becomes an entrepreneur and successfully performs as such (ΔR2Status = 7%, ΔR2Perform. = 18%). Importantly, selected Big Five traits and vocational interests boost the importance of cognitive ability in the field of leadership and entrepreneurship. Concluding, this series of studies suggests that it is the combination of personality traits or interests with cognitive ability which is most powerful when predicting leadership and entrepreneurship intention, emergence and success.
... The SWOT analysis is a business analysis technique that an organization can perform for each of its products, services, and markets when deciding on the best way to achieve future growth. Ames and Runco (2005), state thatSWOTanalysisframeworkisusefultodeterminewhycertainentrepreneursare successful.HaiandTsou(2009)usedSWOTtodevelopastrategyfortheDepartment ofInformationManagementofShihChienUniversity'sKaohsiungcampusinTaiwan. Dyson(2004),studiedthestrategicdevelopmentprocessattheUniversityofWarwick (UK)bylinkingSWOTanalysistoresource-basedplanninginaniterativeprocess, embedded within overall strategic planning. ...
Article
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a pivotal role in fostering socioeconomic development especially in developing countries. They create employment opportunities, empower communities, and make positive contributions towards GDP. The objective of this study is to understand the influence of business competitiveness on SMEs performance through a case study of auto body repairs SME enterprise in Namibia referred to as ABR for confidentiality. The methodology is mixed methods with in depth literature review, and detailed multiple case studies on eleven medium sized auto-body repair enterprises. The analysis is through strategy tools supported by secondary and published data and reports. The findings reflect that although ABR has a sound credit rating with local financial institutions and there are opportunities for growth, ABR also needs to invest in equipment to become more competitive and strengthen its market.
... The SWOT analysis is a business analysis technique that an organization can perform for each of its products, services, and markets when deciding on the best way to achieve future growth. Ames and Runco (2005), state thatSWOTanalysisframeworkisusefultodeterminewhycertainentrepreneursare successful.HaiandTsou(2009)usedSWOTtodevelopastrategyfortheDepartment ofInformationManagementofShihChienUniversity'sKaohsiungcampusinTaiwan. Dyson(2004),studiedthestrategicdevelopmentprocessattheUniversityofWarwick (UK)bylinkingSWOTanalysistoresource-basedplanninginaniterativeprocess, embedded within overall strategic planning. ...
Chapter
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a pivotal role in fostering socioeconomic development especially in developing countries. They create employment opportunities, empower communities, and make positive contributions towards GDP. The objective of this study is to understand the influence of business competitiveness on SMEs performance through a case study of auto body repairs SME enterprise in Namibia referred to as ABR for confidentiality. The methodology is mixed methods with in depth literature review, and detailed multiple case studies on eleven medium sized auto-body repair enterprises. The analysis is through strategy tools supported by secondary and published data and reports. The findings reflect that although ABR has a sound credit rating with local financial institutions and there are opportunities for growth, ABR also needs to invest in equipment to become more competitive and strengthen its market.
... Entrepreneurship, for example, depends on creativity and always leads to innovation (Ames & Runco, 2005). Many companies that serve society daily and make everyday life easier, such as Google and Amazon; were created by entrepreneurs. ...
Research
In this study, the effect of three types of physical activity on creativity was compared to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying divergent thinking. Every participant completed all three sessions (N = 58). For eight minutes, participants had to either walk comfortably, climb stairs, or walk as fast as possible without running. Immediately after, divergent thinking was measured with the Guilford's Alternate Uses task (GAU). A significant difference between the effects of fast walking and stair-climbing on creativity was found (p = .04). No significant differences were found for the effects of normal walking and both stair-climbing (p = 1.00) and fast walking (p = .26) on GAU scores. It is concluded that even more demanding forms of physical activity, such as climbing stairs, do not impair creativity. Therefore, creativity does not necessarily arise solely in comfortable states. Lastly, explanations for a common mechanism underlying the equal effects of stair-climbing and normal walking on creativity are discussed.
... Among these were studies that proposed a prevalence of high scores on intelligence scales in depressive patients, especially emotional intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2009;Downey et al., 2008;Fernández-Berrocal, Salovey, Vera, Extremera, & Ramos, 2005;Salguero, Extremera, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2012). Other studies associated success in psychometrical tests with a strong relationship between intelligence combined with several creative personality traits (Ames & Runco, 2005;Batey et al., 2010;Batey & Furnham, 2006;Runco & Basadur, 1993). While depression and creativity were both associated with high scores on psychometrical tests, several studies went on to specifically asses the relationship between mental illness and creativity using psychometrical tests measuring divergent thinking, creative self-concepts and creative problemsolving among people with mental illness. ...
Article
A strong relationship between creativity and major depression has been attested to in many past studies. These suggest a correlation between high creative propensity and the prevalence of depression as well as attribute the implementation of creative tasks in therapy with the facilitation and reduction of depressive symptoms. This article supports the hypothesis of a bidirectional relationship between creativity and depression. Based on a theoretical framework proposed by Agamben in his critique of Freud, this article develops this hypothesis by associating depression with the non-adaptive application of a person’s innate creativity. More specifically, it provides a model that associates the onset of depression with a unique form of non-adaptive hyper-activation of creative capacity. By distinguishing a unique mode of intransitive (object-less) creative hyper-activation in depression, it provides a wider explanatory scope for the vast array of studies attesting to a relationship between creativity and depression, and provides several prospects for the clinical facilitation of depression utilizing creative tasks.
... "Success is stimulated through the use of juxta positioning and bisociations of ideas from diverse and often unrelated domains" (Fillis & Rentschler, 2010, p. 73). In a study of ideation skills of successful entrepreneurs, the more successful entrepreneurs had higher scores on divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005). Luckily, ideation skills can be increased through training and practice (Karimi, et al., 2016). ...
... (Shane, et al., 1991;Hisrich et al. 2008). Hence, many authors argue that successful entrepreneurs have more innovative features than non-entrepreneurs or unsuccessful ones (Koh, 1996;Ames and Runco, 2005;Gürol and Atsan 2006). ...
... To support this approach, meta-analytic findings show that the link between metacognition and task performance is strongest under conditions of divergent thinking (i.e., when creative problem solving is needed) (Sio and Ormerod, 2009). Entrepreneurs are often faced with open-ended tasks that benefit from divergent thinking (Ames and Runco, 2005;Behrens et al., 2014;Gielnik et al., 2012), thus we expect that metacognition is an important skill that relates directly, and positively, with entrepreneurial action. However, one important underlying aspect of metacognition not yet defined or measured in the entrepreneurship literature relates to strategic thinking, i.e., "metacognition is responsible for the development and selection of cognitive strategies" (Haynie et al., 2010, p. 217). ...
Article
This study tests a situated metacognitive model of entrepreneurial action to highlight how action (or inaction) during the entrepreneurial process is influenced by both individual traits and one's metacognitive ability, namely one's strategic mindset. Integrating theory on resourcefulness and metacognition, we show how entrepreneurs who are more frugal tend to engage in less action in developing their new venture (i.e., enacting fewer innovative behaviors and putting forth less effort) as compared to less frugal entrepreneurs. However, we explain that this direct (negative) relationship is mediated by one's strategic mindset, such that the indirect effect of frugality on both innovative behavior and level of effort enacted towards one's new venture is positive (rather than negative). Overall, this study extends the construct of strategic mindset to the entrepreneurship literature and highlights the crucial role that metacognition can play regarding one's socio-cognitive decision-making process and subsequent entrepreneurial behaviors.
... "Success is stimulated through the use of juxta positioning and bisociations of ideas from diverse and often unrelated domains" (Fillis & Rentschler, 2010, p. 73). In a study of ideation skills of successful entrepreneurs, the more successful entrepreneurs had higher scores on divergent thinking (Ames & Runco, 2005). Luckily, ideation skills can be increased through training and practice (Karimi, et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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Conference Proceedings of ACBSP Region 8 Paris
Chapter
In the last two chapters you were given evidence that should give you reason to believe that the theory of entrepreneurial creativity merits your serious consideration. What, however, does it really mean to be entrepreneurially creative? This next chapter elaborates the creative resources likely to be found in a prototypic, entrepreneurially creative person; providing yet more evidence on the validity of the theory.
Chapter
Das Kapitel behandelt den Zusammenhang zwischen Kreativität und Entrepreneurship. Kreativität ist wichtig für Entrepreneurship insofern, dass Kreativität hilft neue und nützliche Ideen zu generieren. Allerdings ist der Zusammenhang zwischen Kreativität und Entrepreneurship nicht direkt, sondern abhängig von Kontextfaktoren und von einzelnen Phasen des unternehmerischen Prozesses. Dieses Kapitel fasst die existierende Literatur zusammen, die einen direkten Effekt von Kreativität auf Entrepreneurship untersucht. Ferner zeigt dieses Kapitel, wie die Erweiterung theoretischer Modelle um Kontextfaktoren und die Berücksichtigung des unternehmerischen Prozesses das Verständnis des Zusammenhangs zwischen Kreativität und Entrepreneurship verbessert. Basierend auf diesen theoretischen Modellen beschreibt dieses Kapitel wie Kreativität gesteigert werden kann, um dadurch Entrepreneurship zu fördern. Abschließend werden in diesem Kapitel vier mögliche Wege aufgezeigt, wie zukünftige Forschung dieses Thema weiter erschließen kann.
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Higher Educational Institutions play an important role in developing the Entrepreneurial behaviour of students. Researchers have found that Educational Institutions and faculty involved in Entrepreneurial activity play an important role in developing Entrepreneurial mind-set among students through innovative programs and research-oriented cultures. This study uses Teachers Entrepreneurial Orientation: Innovativeness, Risk-Taking Ability, and Pro-activeness as indicators to describe the development of the Entrepreneurial mind-set of students in Higher Education Institutions. The primary purpose of this research is to expansively examine the various aspects of Entrepreneurial Orientation toward the development of the Entrepreneurial mind-set of students. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the relationship between teachers' Entrepreneurial orientation (attitude) and students' Entrepreneurial mind-set. The study provides a unique perspective by combining Entrepreneurial Orientation, Entrepreneurial Competencies, and Entrepreneurial Mind-set. The study employs the concept of an Entrepreneurial teacher who demonstrates Entrepreneurial behaviour in their character and behaviour (Gibb, 2011) and uses Educational activities for nourishing Entrepreneurial learning processes in students (Peltonen, 2015: 507) and enhances the development of students" Entrepreneurial Competences & Mind-set (Leffler, 2002). This study is conducted to find the Entrepreneurial orientation of faculty in developing Entrepreneurial Mind-Set of students in Higher Education Institutions. The study is conducted on a sample of respondents belonging to a university of Uttar Pradesh (INDIA). The pilot testing results indicate that Entrepreneurial orientation of faculty has significant influence in nurturing Entrepreneurial Mind-set of students. Entrepreneurial Orientation for developing Entrepreneurial Mind-set 3 The study combines the concepts of the Entrepreneurial Orientation and Entrepreneurial Mind-set and explores the relationship between them. The study provides a new perspective by combining the concepts of the Entrepreneurial Orientation of teachers in developing Entrepreneurial Mind-set of students. The study contributes to the existing body of literature related to Entrepreneurship Psychology and the Entrepreneurial Orientation.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the literature on creativity and entrepreneurship, which has generally employed a relatively basic approach to the main effects of creativity on entrepreneurship. Past research has provided fine-grained conceptualizations describing both creativity and entrepreneurship as complex processes that encompass multiple components. It follows from these assumptions that a differentiated perspective on creativity in entrepreneurship requires examining the specific effects of divergent and convergent thinking on different dimensions of entrepreneurial success in the three phases (prelaunch, launch and postlaunch) of entrepreneurship. Future research should employ a more fine-grained analysis of each stage of the entrepreneurial process in order to provide a more complete representation of the differential effects of divergent and convergent thinking in entrepreneurship. Drawing upon more fine-grained conceptualizations of both creativity and entrepreneurship, the chapter proposes a comprehensive theoretical model on the changing role of divergent and convergent thinking throughout the entrepreneurial process.
Article
Within the investment theory of creativity (Sternberg & Lubart, 1996), creativity is defined as a 2-part process of buying low by investing in unusual ideas and then selling high by convincing others of the value or usefulness of these new ideas. This process requires both creative ideation and perseverance. The purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of instrumentation proposed to assess the 2 underlying constructs in this definition: the creative ideational behavior required to buy low and the persevering behavior required to sell high. In particular, psychometric properties of a creativity ideation measure, the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS Scale: Runco, Plucker, & Lim, 2001) and a perseverance measure, the Grit Scale (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007) were examined in this study. Two samples of undergraduate students (N = 187; N = 817) completed a survey including these two scales and demographic information. Factor analyses were performed on the RIBS and Grit Scales. The RIBS Scale was found to have a 2-factor structure and 2 proposed new subscales. The Grit Scale’s previously reported 2-factor structure was confirmed.
Article
Entrepreneurship programming has become a popular choice among higher education students. Entrepreneurial intent is regarded as a strong predictor of entrepreneurial behavior and success of entrepreneurial education programs, while ideation is viewed as a key skill needed for successful entrepreneurial behavior. Despite the widespread discussion of entrepreneurial intent in the literature, few studies have reported the actual impact of entrepreneurship education and more specifically, ideation exercises, on intent. The authors contend that ideation is a key skill and thus, barrier to entrepreneurial intentions when students have a lack of efficacy surrounding the ideation process. This study examined the impact of a 150-minute divergent activity training session and new venture ideation exercise on entrepreneurial intent in students enrolled in undergraduate entrepreneurship courses. These measures come together in this study to help further explain how entrepreneurship educators can drive more impactful entrepreneurial behavior in students. In this study, entrepreneurial intent significantly increased in students after the brief 150-minute intervention. This study infers that entrepreneurial self-efficacy of ideation skills are critical to increased entrepreneurial intent in college students, and exercises such as the ones conducted in this study can positively impact entrepreneurial intentions among students. Recommendations for future research and practice are provided.
Chapter
A command economy is one in which the coordination of economic activity, essential to the viability and functioning of a complex social economy, is undertaken through administrative means — commands, directives, targets and regulations — rather than by a market mechanism. A complex social economy is one involving multiple significant interdependencies among economic agents, including significant division of labour and exchange among production units, rendering the viability of any unit dependent on proper coordination with, and functioning of, many others.
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Managers (N= 112) from a large international consumer goods manufacturer participated in a field experiment in which they learned and applied the Simplex process of creative thinking to solve real management problems. The interrelationships among six attitudinal and behavioral skill variables learned during the training were measured to improve understanding of how these variables contribute to the process. Predicted relationships were tested and a best-fit causal model was developed. Behavioral skill in generating quantity of options was the most important variable overall: it was directly associated with behavioral skill in both generating quality options and evaluating options. The key attitudinal skill and the second most important variable overall was the preference for avoiding premature evaluation of options (deferral of judgement). The other attitude measured the preference for active divergence, played only an indirect role in the process.
Article
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Although creativity is an important part of cognitive, social, and emotional activity, high-quality creativity assessments are lacking. This article describes the rationale for and development of a measure of creative ideation. The scale is based on the belief that ideas can be treated as the products of original, divergent, and creative thinking - a claim J. P. Guilford (1967) made years ago. Guilford himself assessed ideation with tests of divergent thinking, although through the years scores from these tests have only moderate predictive validity. This may be because previous research has relied on inappropriate criteria. For this reason, the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) was developed. It can be used as a criterion of creative ideation. Most items describe actual behaviors (i.e., overt actions and activities) that clearly reflect an individual's use of, appreciation of, and skill with ideas. Results obtained using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are reported in this article. These suggest the presence of 1 or 2 latent factors within the scale. Based on the theoretical underpinnings of the scale, a 1-factor solution was judged to be more interpretable than a 2-factor solution. Analyses also supported the discriminant validity of the RIBS.
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In this article we propose that work teams implement many of the innovative changes required to enable organizations to respond appropriately to the external environment. We describe how, using an input – process – output model, we can identify the key elements necessary for developing team innovation. We propose that it is the implementation of ideas rather than their development that is crucial for enabling organizational change. Drawing on theory and relevant research, 12 steps to developing innovative teams are described covering key aspects of the team task, team composition, organizational context, and team processes.
Article
Business success in the 21st century will be based on the widespread mastery of leadership roles. The first step for systematically enacting a leadership development agenda is to identify the factors, values or qualities most important for leadership effectiveness. This article considers nine methodological challenges to identification. To illustrate the challenges, the authors use their own business leadership research as a case study. The authors identify where methodological improvements are needed to cope with the challenges of leadership research. They suggest important directions for methodological development and propose three minimum standards for future leadership research.
Article
In the early 19705, when Canon took its first halting steps in reprographics, the idea of a fledgling Japanese company challenging Xerox seemed impossible. Fifteen years later, it matched the U.S. giant in global unit market share. The basis for Canon's success? A different approach to strategy, one that emphasized an organization's resourcefulness above the resources it controlled. In this McKinsey Award-winning article, first published in 1989, Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad explain that Western companies have wasted too much time and energy replicating the cost and quality advantages their global competitors already experience. Familiar concepts like strategic fit and competitive advantage can foster a static approach to competition, while familiar techniques like portfolio planning and competitor analysis lead to strategies that rivals can easily decode. The sum total is a pathology of surrender that leads many managers to abandon businesses instead of building them. Canon and other world-class competitors have taken a different approach to strategy: one of strategic intent. They begin with a goal that exceeds the company's present grasp and existing resources: "Beat Xerox"; "encircle Caterpillar." Then they rally the organization to close the gap by setting challenges that focus employees' efforts in the near to medium term: "Build a personal copier to sell for $1,000"; "cut product development time by 75%." Year after year, they emphasize competitive innovation - building a portfolio of competitive advantages; searching markets for "loose bricks" that rivals have left under-defended; changing the terms of competitive engagement to avoid playing by the leader's rules. The result is a global leadership position and an approach to competition that has reduced larger, stronger Western rivals to playing an endless game of catch-up.
Article
Because of their importance in creating wealth—both personal and societal—entrepreneurs have long been the subject of intensive study. Past research has focused on important issues such as: Why do some people, but not others, recognize or create new opportunities? Why do some, but not others, try to convert their ideas and dreams into business ventures? And why, ultimately, are some entrepreneurs successful and others not?Efforts to answer these questions in terms of the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs generally yielded disappointing results: contrary to what informal observation suggests, entrepreneurs do not appear to differ greatly from nonentrepreneurs with respect to various aspects of personality. As a result, a growing number of researchers have recently adopted a different approach—one emphasizing the role of cognitive processes in entrepreneurship. This perspective suggests that valuable insights into the questions posed above may be obtained through careful comparison of the cognitive processes of entrepreneurs and other persons.Whereas informative research has already been conducted within this framework, the present study seeks to expand this developing perspective by building additional conceptual bridges between entrepreneurship research and the large, extant literature on human cognition. Basic research on human cognition suggests that our cognitive processes are far from totally rational; in fact, our thinking is often influenced by a number of sources of potential bias and error. It is suggested here that entrepreneurs often work in situations and under conditions that would be expected to maximize the impact of such factors. Specifically, they face situations that tend to overload their information-processing capacity and are characterized by high levels of uncertainty, novelty, emotion, and time pressure. Together, these factors may increase entrepreneurs’ susceptibility to a number of cognitive biases.Several cognitive mechanisms that may exert such effects and that have not previously been considered in detail in the literature on entrepreneurship are examined. These include: counterfactual thinking—the effects of imagining what might have been; affect infusion—the influence of current affective states on decisions and judgments; attributional style—tendencies by individuals to attribute various outcomes to either internal or external causes; the planning fallacy—strong tendencies to underestimate the amount of time needed to complete a given project or the amount of work that can be achieved in a given time; and self-justification—the tendency to justify previous decisions even if they result in negative outcomes. Each mechanism is described, and specific hypotheses concerning its potential impact on the thinking of entrepreneurs are proposed.A final section of the article touches briefly on methods for testing hypotheses concerning these mechanisms and explores the implications of this cognitive perspective for future entrepreneurship research. This section emphasizes the fact that a cognitive perspective can provide researchers in the field with several new conceptual tools and may also facilitate the development of practical procedures for assisting entrepreneurs.
Article
Why are some entrepreneurs so much more successful than others in starting new companies—ones that create wealth for their societies as well as themselves? Growing evidence suggests that the answer involves the influence of both cognitive and social factors. Successful entrepreneurs appear to think differently than other persons in several respects (e.g., they are less likely to engage in counterfactual thinking but more likely to show overconfidence in their judgments). Similarly, successful entrepreneurs appear to be higher in social competence—the ability to interact effectively with others (e.g., they are better at social perception and adapting to new social situations). These results suggest that the principles and findings of psychology can be invaluable to researchers in the field of entrepreneurship, providing important insights into the factors that influence entrepreneurs' success.
Article
The authors describe the rationale for the multiphase creative problem solving process, and report the finding of an empirical investigation conducted to facilitate the problem solving of managers (N=35). The ideational skills of the managers were assessed before and after training in the creative problem solving process, along with their attitudes about creative ideation, cognitive style (i.e. optimizer, generator, conceptualizer, or implementor), and evaluative skill (i.e. ability to recognize original ideas). The managers were significantly more accurate in their judgments after training, both in their identification of original ideas and recognition of unoriginal ideas. After training, the managers also gave more solutions and more original solutions to problems faced. Several variables (e.g. the preference for ideation attitude and an implementor cognitive style) seemed to moderate the impact of training, which was therefore effective, with specific effects predictable from pretraining individual differences in attitudes and cognitive style
Article
The discipline of managing mental models—surfacing, testing, and improving our internal pictures of how the world works—promises to be a major breakthrough for building learning organizations.
Article
Administered 5 divergent thinking tests to a heterogeneous sample of 228 school children to assess the threshold theory of creativity. Ss included 46 5th-graders, 57 6th-graders, 57 7th-graders, and 68 8th-graders. The theory posits that creativity and intelligence are related only up to an IQ of 120. The tests were from the battery developed by M. A. Wallach and N. Kogan (1965). Correlations between measures of creativity and intelligence were calculated within 4 IQ levels and within California Achievement Test quartiles. Results indicate that the relationship between creativity and intelligence is a function of the particular measures employed and heterogeneity of the Ss sampled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Business success in the 21st century will be based on the widespread mastery of leadership roles, rather than on the directives of a professional or leadership elite. The first step for systematically enacting a leadership development agenda for our nation is to identify the factors, values or qualities most important to leadership effectiveness. Next, we must improve our understanding of how these guiding ideas and insights translate into what successful leaders do. As we perfect this understanding, we will need to operationally define the “best practices” of successful leaders. These best practices must then become “benchmarks’ for intensive leadership development efforts. This article considers nine methodological challenges of the first agenda item-identification of the factors, values or qualities most important to leadership effectiveness. To illustrate these challenges, the authors use their own business leadership research as a case study. This research surveys 127 chairmen, chief executive officers, and presidents-a cross section of successful U.S.A. business leaders, including men and women from all parts of the nation who have diverse industry, racial, ethnic and religious backgrounds. The authors identify where methodological improvements are needed to cope with the challenges of leadership research. They suggest important directions for methodological development and propose three minimum standards for future leadership research.
Article
Because of their importance in creating wealth—both personal and societal—entrepreneurs have long been the subject of intensive study. Past research has focused on important issues such as: Why do some people, but not others, recognize or create new opportunities? Why do some, but not others, try to convert their ideas and dreams into business ventures? And why, ultimately, are some entrepreneurs successful and others not?Efforts to answer these questions in terms of the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs generally yielded disappointing results: contrary to what informal observation suggests, entrepreneurs do not appear to differ greatly from nonentrepreneurs with respect to various aspects of personality. As a result, a growing number of researchers have recently adopted a different approach—one emphasizing the role of cognitive processes in entrepreneurship. This perspective suggests that valuable insights into the questions posed above may be obtained through careful comparison of the cognitive processes of entrepreneurs and other persons.Whereas informative research has already been conducted within this framework, the present study seeks to expand this developing perspective by building additional conceptual bridges between entrepreneurship research and the large, extant literature on human cognition. Basic research on human cognition suggests that our cognitive processes are far from totally rational; in fact, our thinking is often influenced by a number of sources of potential bias and error. It is suggested here that entrepreneurs often work in situations and under conditions that would be expected to maximize the impact of such factors. Specifically, they face situations that tend to overload their information-processing capacity and are characterized by high levels of uncertainty, novelty, emotion, and time pressure. Together, these factors may increase entrepreneurs’ susceptibility to a number of cognitive biases.Several cognitive mechanisms that may exert such effects and that have not previously been considered in detail in the literature on entrepreneurship are examined. These include: counterfactual thinking—the effects of imagining what might have been; affect infusion—the influence of current affective states on decisions and judgments; attributional style—tendencies by individuals to attribute various outcomes to either internal or external causes; the planning fallacy—strong tendencies to underestimate the amount of time needed to complete a given project or the amount of work that can be achieved in a given time; and self-justification—the tendency to justify previous decisions even if they result in negative outcomes. Each mechanism is described, and specific hypotheses concerning its potential impact on the thinking of entrepreneurs are proposed.A final section of the article touches briefly on methods for testing hypotheses concerning these mechanisms and explores the implications of this cognitive perspective for future entrepreneurship research. This section emphasizes the fact that a cognitive perspective can provide researchers in the field with several new conceptual tools and may also facilitate the development of practical procedures for assisting entrepreneurs.
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