Article

Beauty Revisited: The Impact of Attractiveness, Ability, and Personality in the Assessment of Employment Suitability

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Abstract

This study examined the relative weight that hiring managers place on applicants' attractiveness, general mental ability (GMA), and the Big Five personality dimensions in assessing employment suitability for high and low customer contact positions. A sample of 130 managers from 43 hotel properties in the United States and Canada evaluated applicant profiles that varied on these dimensions. The policy capturing results demonstrated that attractiveness does impact employment suitability ratings across positions. However, attractiveness is valued less than GMA and conscientiousness. The attractiveness weight was greater in the evaluation of high customer contact positions, suggesting that attractiveness may be perceived as more job-relevant for positions where employees interact extensively with people outside the organization. These findings are discussed along with implications for practice and future research attention.

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... Although critics have been voiced regarding the FFM the robustness, the generalizability, the comprehensiveness, and the universality of the model are globally accepted (Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009;Gurven, Von Rueden, Massenkoff,, Kaplan, & Lero, 2012;McCrae, 2010). In addition, this taxonomy is considered the most useful in personality research (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001) and influential in industrial and organizational psychology (Barrick & Mount, 1991). ...
... Extraversion reflects individual traits such as being sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative and active (Kim et al., 2007;Tews et al., 2009). According to Hogan (1986), this dimension consists of two main components: a) ambition (initiative, surgency, ambitious, and impetuous), and b) sociability (sociable, exhibitionist, and expressive) (Barrick & Mount, 1991). ...
... Emotional stability refers to people that are usually calm, relaxed, generally free from worry (Tews et al., 2009), even-tempered, able to face stressful situations without becoming upset (Rothmann & Coetzer, 2003), coping easily with negative emotions (Michel et al., 2011;Choi & Lee, 2014), and hardy . Emotionally stable people are characterized by the lack of anxiety, hostility, depression, personal insecurity (Barrick et al., 2001), anger, and embarrassment (Kim et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Tourism is highly important for the Greek economy. The tourism product consists mostly of services, something that highlights the crucial role of human factor in the tourism context. Employee turnover rates in tourism industry are considerably high globally, and the same applies to Greece. The main focus of literature, in terms of employee turnover, is based on environmental and situational reasons. In an effort to focus on reasons for employee turnover that are connected with individuals themselves and not with environmental and working conditions, the current dissertation investigates the causal relationship of personality and commitment with intention to leave an organization. More specifically the dissertation focuses on employees of the Greek accommodation sector, as this industry represents almost half of total tourism revenues. Taking into consideration that upon selection of new employees, the employee turnover process is possible to start, we focused on structured selection methods that could support selection process and improve selection decisions in terms of turnover. Thus, we focus on psychometric assessments which, according to corresponding literature, represent the most direct and cost-effective way to reduce turnover in a pre-entry stage. Psychometrics can pinpoint an applicant’s predisposition based on numbers and measures and not on subjective estimations, as is the case with unstructured interviews, which are the most commonly used selection methods. The aim of this dissertation is to evaluate personality and the work attitude of commitment as these features according to theory can affect behavior. As in corresponding literature the disposition of turnover behavior has rarely been examined, it was examined if personality can be an antecedent of turnover. In addition, as commitment is inextricably related with turnover, it has been examined if commitment has a dispositional aspect, as well. Finally, as research on commitment in terms of turnover has mostly focused on organizational commitment, the role of a different foci of commitment (occupational commitment) on turnover was examined in the context of hospitality, where evidence on the topic is scarce. Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), emotional stability, organizational commitment, and occupational commitment were found to be predictors of intention to leave organization. In addition, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were found to be strongly related with organizational commitment. An additional impact of intention to leave occupation on prediction of organization commitment has also been observed. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed as well.
... However, the literature examining discrimination against employees with disabilities has only focused on manager and employer attitudes (e.g., Gröschl, 2007;Madera, 2016;Tews, Stafford, Tracey, 2010;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). A glaring gap in this literature is understanding whether customer service evaluations are influenced by an employee's disability status, such that service employees with physical disabilities who have direct contact with customers are rated lower by customers than an employee without disabilities. ...
... This is an unfortunate gap in this literature for two reasons. First, research suggests that hospitality managers and employers assume that customer service evaluations can be negatively affected by employees with visible physical disabilities (Tews et al., 2010;Tews et al., 2009). Yet, research has not examined this assumption. ...
... The fact that the employee with a disability was rated lower on all three customer service evaluation factors and competence than the employee without disabilities shows that disabilities elicit a negative influence on customer evaluations of service employees. These results are consistent with the general literature that shows that disabilities are processed as a negative, undesirable attribute (Dovidio et al., 2011), are distracting and elicit discomfort (Lyons et al., 2016;Ruggs, Martinez, & Hebl, 2011), and violate expectations of aesthetic labor or physical attractiveness (Madera, 2016;Tews et al., 2010;Tews et al., 2009). The results not only show that customers evaluate hospitality employees with disabilities lower than employees without disabilities, they also provide insight to why this occurs. ...
Article
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Although employees with disabilities represent a significant percentage of the American hospitality labor force, they often face workplace discrimination. Despite this reality, no research has examined whether customer service evaluations are affected by employees with visible disabilities and the mechanisms behind why and when customer service evaluations can be negatively impacted by employee disability status. This is a significant gap in the literature focusing on disability discrimination because customers—through their customer service evaluations—play a significant role in the evaluation of hospitality employees. Therefore, the current article examined if employee disability status (i.e., does or does not have a disability) influences customer service evaluations using experimental methods in which a hotel service experience is performed by an employee who does or does not have a disability. The current research found that (a) customers do evaluate hospitality employees with disabilities lower than employees without disabilities, (b) customer service evaluations are negatively impacted by employee disability status because they are perceived as less competent than employees without disabilities, and (c) customers are more likely to do so in the presence of a service failure.
... Studies concerning bias, based on physical appearance in the labour market, are not new. However, most of these investigations have analysed beauty as a motivation for remuneration (Andreoni & Petrie, 2008;Benzeval, Green & Macintyre, 2013;French, 2002;Hamermesh & Biddle, 1993;Mobius & Rosenblat, 2006;Robins, Homer & French, 2011;Tews, Stafford & Zhu, 2009). This research would focus on hiring decisions. ...
... The beauty premium is evidenced by recruiters who claimed that candidates' physical appearance significantly accounted for their assessment of the candidates 'fit' in an organisation (Solnick & Schweitzer, 1999). Managers may use physical attractiveness to make generalised inferences about a candidate regarding employment suitability as it is an easily identifiable characteristic (Tews et al., 2009). In a related study, 50% of employers who had recently hired candidates to fill a position answered that physical appearance was very important (11%) or somewhat important (39%) (Holzer, 1993). ...
... Rynes and Bourdreau (1986) have suggested that very little time is spent on training interviewers on how to evaluate applicants' suitability and this may lead to bias that is based on physical appearance or the 'what is beautiful is good' stereotype (Patzer, 1983). Tews et al. (2009) found that when positive attributes are ascribed to the physically attractive, this may lead to a positive effect on hiring decisions, but when details of the applicants' general mental ability (GMA) and personality were recorded, the results demonstrated that attractiveness was valued less than both of these attributes. This finding concluded that managers do try to make hiring decisions based on employee ability to maximise job performance. ...
Article
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Orientation: It is a widely held belief that attractive people generally experience an easier life and that the door to success is opened by perfect bone structure and a sparkling smile. However, attractiveness might play a far lesser role in individual’s achieving their objectives than has previously been thought. Is it possible that an individual’s qualifications may have a greater influence on the perceptions of managers who assess the suitability of a candidate of a knowledge worker? Research purpose: The study sets out to examine the relative predictive power of physical attractiveness and qualifications in the decision to hire a knowledge worker. Motivation for the study: The research was motivated by a desire to explore the presence of bias in the decision-making process when seemingly rational individuals are exposed to factors such as physical attractiveness of a job candidate and then faced with a decision on whether to hire them. Research design, approach and method: A two-phased experimental design was applied to investigate the existence and strength of the beauty premium amongst a group of managers who were provided with fictitious resumes coupled with photographs of the applicants. These managers were requested to make a hiring decision based on the information supplied. Main findings: Although results confirm the existence of a beauty premium, it was relatively weak. It indicated that qualifications have a greater influence on a manager’s perception of the suitability of a candidate to fill a position of a knowledge worker. Practical or managerial implications: The research draws attention to the possibility of bias in selection decisions and proposes ways in which such potential bias can be limited. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the existence or otherwise of a so-called beauty premium, with particular reference to its impact in the knowledge economy.
... Extraversion reflects individual traits such as being sociable, gregarious, assertive, talkative, and active (Kim, Shin, & Umbreit, 2007;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). It also refers to the extent to which people are warm, friendly, and dominant in social situations (Zhao, Seibert, & Lumpkin, 2010). ...
... Emotional Stability refers to people that are usually calm, relaxed, generally free from worry (Tews et al., 2009), even-tempered, able to face stressful situations without becoming upset (Rothmann & Coetzer, 2003), coping easily with negative emotions (Michel, Clark, & Jaramillo, 2011;Choi & Lee, 2014), and hardy (Zhao et al., 2010). People with a lack of emotional stability (i.e., neuroticism) are sensitive to negative feedback and easily become discouraged by small failures, feel easily worried, hopeless, or panicked when they face difficult situations (Zhao et al., 2010). ...
... Agreeableness refers to the warmth, friendliness, kindness, empathy in social interactions of individuals (Kim et al., 2007). People high in agreeableness tend to be altruistic, generous, trusting, and cooperative (Tews et al., 2009). Additionally, people high in agreeableness prefer social occupations due to the frequent interpersonal interactions (Zhao et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Employee turnover rates in the tourism industry are globally considerably high. Research on the topic has focused mostly on environmental and situational factors, with little attention given to employees' different characteristic. In the current research the effect of the Big Five personality traits and commitment on turnover intentions of lodging employees was examined. The effect of personality on commitment was examined, as well. Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), emotional stability and organizational commitment were found to be predictors of turnover intentional behaviour. An additional impact of occupation commitment-related variables on the prediction of organizational commitment was observed. Finally, conscientiousness was found to be the best predictor of organizational commitment. The implications of these results for future research are discussed, as well.
... The physical attractiveness effect is regarded as a key factor influencing interpersonal interactions (Ahearne et al., 2010;Andreoni and Petrie, 2008;Judge et al., 2009;Patzer, 2012;Tews et al., 2009;Wan and Wyer, 2015). This effect, sometimes referred to as what is beautiful is good (Dion et al., 1972), is also well known as the beauty premium effect or the physical attractiveness stereotype. ...
... Attractive individuals are perceived as more favorable and competent than their unattractive counterparts (Morrow, 1990;Patzer, 2012;Wan and Wyer, 2015). They are believed to have appealing personal traits and better social skills (Dion et al., 1972;Tews et al., 2009), and to have a higher locus of control and better mental health (Judge et al., 2009;Patzer, 2012;Feingold, 1992). The physical attractiveness effect can smooth an interpersonal interaction and increase a person's persuasion ability, making an attractive person more persuasive than an unattractive one (Ahearne et al., 2010;Feingold, 1992;Patzer, 1983). ...
... They are also more likely to tip more generously when helped by an attractive service representative. While one may more easily understand the positive repercussions of the physical attractiveness stereotype in service settings involving low service skills (Tews et al., 2009), similar effects are observed in service encounters involving professionally-trained skills (Wan and Wyer, 2015). For example, Wan and Wyer (2015) demonstrate that participants favor attractive clinical service providers more than unattractive ones. ...
... For example, a study of hotel managers found that physical attractiveness is a factor that is used to assess the employment suitability of applicants (Tews, Stafford, & Tracey, 2010). Similarly, hiring managers in the hospitality industry emphasized physical attractiveness in positions that require customer contact (Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). In a qualitative study using interviews with hotel managers, Groschl (2007) found that managers tended to emphasize a high level of physical attractiveness. ...
... Research suggests that the hospitality industry emphasizes their employees' physical looks, because employees are the primary provider of service (Groschl, 2007;Ruetzler et al., 2012). In fact, physical attractiveness is a factor that is used to assess the employment suitability of applicants (Tews et al., 2009;Tews et al., 2010). ...
... These results might be particularly important for the hospitality industry, which emphasizes physical looks and physical attractiveness (Groschl, 2007;Nickson et al., 2005;Ruetzler et al., 2012). Because physical attractiveness is a factor that is used to assess applicants in the hospitality industry (Tews et al., 2009;Tews et al., 2010), a facial stigma might lead to more salient effects (i.e., the negative affect and behavior) than it would for occupations that do not require customer interactions or that emphasized the physical looks of applicants. ...
Article
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Despite being one of the most common methods for selecting employees, the selection interview is not free from biases because it involves social interactions in which physical characteristics influence the interview—one being physical aberrations. The current study used a two-group experimental design in which participants interviewed a confederate without or with a facial stigma (i.e., a port-wine stain birthmark on the cheek). The results showed that interviewers felt more negative affect and displayed more negative behaviors toward a facially stigmatized applicant than an applicant who was not facially stigmatized. The interviewers' negative affect and behavior were perceived by the applicant who in turn rated the interviewer as more negative than when the applicant did not have a facial stigma. The results were consistent with affective events theory and stigma theory in that interviewing a facially stigmatized applicant is a negative event for the interviewer that elicits negative affect and behaviors. Thus, the current research suggests that interviewers do feel and display negativity toward a facially stigmatized applicant and that a stigmatized applicant is aware of this negativity.
... Consistent with the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, more attractive candidates are likely to receive more favorable hiring recommendations (Arvey & Campion, 1982;Gilmore, Beehr, & Love, 1986;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009), while less attractive candidates are deemed less suitable for hiring (Marlowe, Schneider, & Nelson, 1996). Barrick and colleagues (2009) conducted a meta-analytic review of research on candidate attractiveness and job interviews and found that physical appearance exhibited a strong relation with interviewer ratings of performance. ...
... Type of job is also a moderator of the relation between physical attractiveness and interview performance. Indeed, evidence indicates that physical attractiveness plays a pivotal role when positions entail a high level of customer contact (Tews et al., 2009;Tsai, Huang, & Yu, 2011). In fact, there is evidence that attractiveness is actually detrimental for female candidates when applying to masculine sex-typed jobs where physical appearance is considered unimportant (Johnson, Podratz, Dipboye, & Gibbons, 2010). ...
Chapter
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Job interviews are of crucial importance to the job search process. As a result, recent years have witnessed a considerable amount of research on job interviews from the perspective of candidates. While this research has provided valuable insight into candidate reactions, it has yet to have a strong impact on the actual behaviors of job candidates and organizations. Thus the goal of the current chapter is to bridge the gap between empirical knowledge and applied practice in job interviews. To accomplish this objective we first present a framework for understanding the interview process that is grounded in theoretical and empirical research. The focus of this framework is whether candidate characteristics (e.g., gender, age), behaviors (e.g., impression management, communication style), and reactions (e.g., anxiety, justice) have an effect on important interview-related outcomes, such as interview performance. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of research relevant to each section of the framework, including impression management, the first handshake, interview anxiety, and other predictors of interview success. Implications for research and practice are discussed and a checklist for practice is provided. We conclude by highlighting how properly conducted interviews can simultaneously serve the best interest of both job applicants and organizations.
... Differences among civil servant positions and the results of previous studies also suggest that job type is an important factor that influences the beauty premium in personnel recruitment (Tews et al. 2009). The current study also aimed to study the beauty premium in Chinese civil servant interviews for different positions, technical and managerial, according to the Civil Servant Law of the People's Republic of China. ...
Article
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Physical attractiveness can greatly influence business job applications (the “beauty premium” effect). However, little is known about whether and how physical attractiveness influences interviewers’ evaluations of Chinese civil servant applicants, given that many characteristics of civil service appear to be different from those of business jobs. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the current study investigated how female job candidates’ physical attractiveness influenced interviewers’ evaluations in Chinese civil servant interviews for both technical and managerial positions. The behavioral results showed that for the managerial positions, attractive female candidates had a much higher acceptance rate than unattractive candidates. However, for the technical positions, no significant difference was found between attractive and unattractive candidates. At the brain level, for the managerial positions, pairs of attractive faces with managerial posts elicited smaller N400 and larger late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes than did pairs of unattractive faces with managerial posts. However, this relationship was not observed for technical posts. The negative correlation between N400 amplitude and acceptance rate as well as the positive correlation between LPP amplitude and acceptance rate further confirmed these results. The present study suggests that beauty could potentially influence if candidates are accepted in real Chinese civil servant interviews, as observed experimentally in this research.
... However, hospitality managers value GMA less than managers in other industries (Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009) and restaurant hiring managers particularly place more emphasis on results of personality tests than those of GMA tests (Tews, Stafford, & Tracey, 2011). ...
The main objectives of this research were to investigate traits that hospitality managers use to define successful hires and the role of preemployment testing methods in determining successful hires. Analysis of one-on-one interviews conducted with hospitality managers in Ohio identified interpersonal behavior and guest-service attitude as most important attributes of successful hires. While background checking and drug testing were perceived to be effective for all employees, personality and general mental ability (GMA) tests were viewed as more effective when screening management employees. Differences were noted in time needed to determine whether hires were successful for frontline versus management positions. Managerial implications are discussed.
... Physical attractiveness which is primarily determined by a person's facial attractiveness (Olson & Marshuetz, 2005) has a significant influence on the person's ability to persuade others, even when the person is not deliberately trying to do so (Rossiter & Praxmarer, 2009). For example, physically attractive people receive better grades in school (Elovitz & Salvia, 1982;Jackson, Hunter, & Hodge, 1995;Judge, Hurst, & Simon, 2009;Langlois et al., 2000); are more likely to be hired as a result of job interviews (Engemann & Owyang, 2005;Hurley-Hanson & Giannantonio, 2006;Johnston, 2010;Ramachandran, 2005;Roberts, 2012;Saranow, 2004;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009;Toledano, 2013;Verhulst, Lodge, & Lavine, 2010); tend to be paid more when they get the job (Bennett, 2010;Cawley, 2004;Frevert & Walker, 2014;Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994;Hamermesh & Parker, 2005;Salter, Mixon, & King, 2012;Toledano, 2013); and are much more likely to win political elections compared with their less attractive counterparts (Cialdini, 2009;Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994;Rosar, Klein, & Beckers, 2008). Facially attractive presenters also have a persuasive advantage in advertising-particularly, when they endorse beautyenhancement products (Friedman & Friedman, 1979;Koc, 2002;Ohanian, 1991;Praxmarer, 2006). ...
Article
This study aims to explore how hotel customers in Turkey respond to service failures when the service personnel they interact with are attractive or not. Based on 239 scenario-based surveys, it is established that customers are positively influenced by the attractiveness of service personnel. The findings point out that there are marked differences in terms of the type of service failure experience and hotel customers’ gender, income, and the level of education. The study has important theoretical and practical implications.
... Headshots, with their focus on the face, can make an immediate, long-lasting impression on the viewer (Willis & Todorov, 2006). In studies conducted in general settingsdi.e., outside of Link- edIndportraits have been found to influence viewers' ratings on traits such as approachability and dominance (Vernon, Sutherland, Young, & Hartley, 2014), and professional outcomes such as teaching evaluations and assessments of suitability for employ- ment (e.g., Freng & Webber, 2009;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). ...
Article
LinkedIn is the largest professional social network site in the world, designed for professional networking, job seeking, and recruitment. The current study explores visual self-presentation in LinkedIn user portraits. LinkedIn portraits serve alongside explicit data posted in users’ profiles as a tool for professional self-presentation, yet they have hardly been studied. In the absence of scientific recommendations, non-academic websites offer recommendations for the optimal portrait. In this study, we aimed, first, to identify the common features of LinkedIn portraits and to determine whether they adhere to the popular recommendations found on the Internet. Second, we offered grounded hypotheses suggesting that LinkedIn portraits, and other features of LinkedIn accounts, would show gender and occupational differences. Using a representative city in the United States, 480 LinkedIn portraits and accounts were selected and analyzed. Results indicate that LinkedIn portraits display common features and tend to adhere to popular recommendations. Women were more likely than men to signal emotions, whereas men were more likely to signal status. No occupational differences were detected. The findings suggest that two opposing forces shape self-presentation in LinkedIn portraits. Specifically, social norms, corporate culture, and popular advice drive users to display standard business-like portraits, while gender-related self-expression inspires users to display their uniqueness and attractiveness. These pioneering findings can inform scholars and practitioners on impression management processes in professional online settings.
... Further research shows that managers can accurately assess this construct (Borkenau et al., 2004) and value it over nearly all other employee attributes (e.g. Dunn et al., 1995;Tews et al., 2009). Managers may believe that those who can readily learn new skills and quickly solve problems will perform jobs effectively (Dunn et al., 1995). ...
Article
Do managers behave territorially toward their employees? Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating the prevalence of territoriality over nonagentic organizational resources, key questions remain regarding the extent to which psychological ownership and territorial behavior occur within supervisor-subordinate relationships. To explore this question, we drew on territoriality and mate-guarding theory to ascertain how and why managers might utilize one form of territoriality, anticipatory defenses, toward their employees. In a four-study investigation, we find that managers consistently engage in two forms of anticipatory defense tactics, persuasion and nurturing, that are intended to defend ownership claims over their employees and limit employee defection. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between psychological ownership of subordinates and employee guarding directed toward those subordinates. We also find that managers engage in employee guarding more when they anticipate an employee is likely to defect, and they adapt guarding tactics in response to the subordinate’s general mental ability. Collectively, our results identify the motivations and conditions under which supervisors act territorially toward agentic subordinates, contributing to theory in territoriality and downward social influence.
... Participants were shown 20 different portrait photos from old and young businessmen with the aim of obtaining three equivalent photos for each age group (young vs. old) as study material. We asked participants to indicate the age of the businessmen as well as their attractiveness (1 = not at all to 5 = extremely attractive), because physical attractiveness can bias evaluations of abilities and trustworthiness in an employment situation (e.g., Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). Based on the results of a one-way repeated measures ANOVA (Table 1), we selected three photos of older businessmen that did not differ significantly with regard to age (F(2, 52) = .64, ...
Article
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As a result of demographic changes, workforces are becoming older and more age-diverse. While interactions between workers from different age groups can provide opportunities for mutual learning through bi-directional knowledge transfer, research has yet to investigate how age influences knowledge transfer between age-diverse colleagues. Building on the organizational theory of age effects, we conducted two studies to examine how age influenced the roles assigned to individuals in knowledge transfer processes, i.e., whether they were perceived as knowledge senders or knowledge recipients. In Study 1, we used an experimental vignette design with 450 employees to assess how age affected perceived ability and motivation to share and receive knowledge. Further, we tested the extent to which trustworthiness moderated these relationships. In Study 2, we extended these findings using a dyadic research design with data from 53 age-diverse knowledge transfer dyads. We examined through which mechanisms the age of one’s colleague affected one’s knowledge transfer behavior. We found that the age of one’s colleague had a positive effect on one’s knowledge receiving behavior, and a negative effect on one’s knowledge sharing behavior. Further, perceived ability to receive knowledge and perceived motivation to share knowledge mediated these effects.
... Die Vorteile setzen sich auf dem Arbeitsmarkt fort (Hosoda et al. 2003). Attraktive Bewerber finden einfacher eine Stelle (Marlowe et al. 1996;Watkins und Johnston 2000), insbesondere wenn die Arbeit umfangreichen Kundenkontakt beinhaltet (Tews et al. 2009). Attraktive Personen verdienen mehr als ihre weniger attraktiven Kollegen, auch unter Kontrolle von Bildung und Intelligenz (Judge et al. 2009;Pfeifer 2012). ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag untersucht erstmals für den deutschsprachigen Raum mit repräsentativen Befragungsdaten, ob physische Attraktivität sozial ungleich verteilt ist. Eine Kopplung von sozialer Ungleichheit und physischer Attraktivität kann entstehen, wenn Selektionsmechanismen dazu führen, dass physisch attraktive Personen eine höhere sozio-ökonomische Positionierung erreichen (Jackson et al. 1995; Langlois et al. 2000; Rosar et al. 2014) oder wenn ungleich verteilte Ressourcen im Rahmen der sozialen Produktionsfunktion (Esser 1999; Lindenberg 1996) eingesetzt werden, um physische Attraktivität „zu produzieren“. Physische Attraktivität wird dabei in Anlehnung an das Konzept des erotischen Kapitals (Hakim 2010) nicht als ein angeborenes, askriptives, sondern als erlernbares und erwerbbares Merkmal angesehen. Der angenommene Zusammenhang zwischen sozio-ökonomischer Position und physischer Attraktivität wird mit Daten des ALLBUS unter Verwendung von Regressionsmodellen mit Interviewer Fixed Effects geprüft. Es zeigt sich, dass die sozio-ökonomische Position systematisch mit der eingeschätzten Attraktivität zusammenhängt. Dabei fallen klassische Dimensionen sozialer Ungleichheit mit der Stratifikation physischer Attraktivität zusammen: Befragte mit höheren Bildungsabschlüssen, einer höheren Klassenposition und einem höheren Haushaltseinkommen werden als attraktiver eingeschätzt. Diese Zusammenhänge zeigen sich gleichermaßen für Männer und Frauen. Zudem zeigt sich, dass Unterschiede zwischen physischer Attraktivität von Personen mit unterschiedlichen finanziellen Ressourcen im Lebenslauf zunehmen.
... Over the years, many studies have demonstrated the impact of attractiveness on tangible benefits. For example, physically attractive individuals are more likely to receive a job offer (e.g., [44]), teachers have higher expectations of attractive students' intelligence and future success [36], and acceptance into high-status social groups is also positively correlated with attractiveness [25]. Furthermore, interpersonally attractive (likeable) individuals are more likely to receive positive evaluations [8] and be considered a credible source [32]. ...
Conference Paper
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On live streams, viewers can support streamers through various methods ranging from well-wishing text messages to money. In this study (N=230) we surveyed viewers who had given money to a streamer. We identified six motivations for why they gave money to their favorite live streamer. We then examined how factors related to viewer, streamer, and viewer-streamer interaction were associated with three forms of social support provision: emotional, instrumental, and financial support. Our main findings are: parasocial relationship was consistently correlated with all three types of social support, while social presence was only related with instrumental and financial support; interpersonal attractiveness was associated with emotional and instrumental support and lonely people were more likely to give instrumental support. Our focus on various types of social support in a live streaming masspersonal platform adds a more detailed understanding to the existing literature of mediated social support. Furthermore, it suggests potential directions for designing more supportive and interactive live streaming platforms.
... Similarly, in at least 28% of interviews, employers assessed social skills associated with agreeableness (relating to, working with, and cooperating with others; Huffcutt, Conway, Roth, & Stone, 2001;Sackett & Walmsley, 2014), and 96% of personnel officers rated actors who were trained to be assertive/dominant as more likable and hirable than those who were trained to be nonassertive (Gallois, Callan, & Palmer, 1992). Moreover, even though employees' competence is the best predictor of their performance, it is often weighed less heavily in hiring than employees' affiliative traits, particularly in service industries (Tews et al., 2011;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). ...
Article
While significant research has demonstrated that people’s beliefs about a group shape how they judge members of that group, few studies have examined whether people’s beliefs and values regarding emotion (their “ideal affect”) shape how they socially judge people’s emotional facial expressions. We predicted that the more people valued and ideally wanted to feel excitement and other high arousal positive states (HAP), the more affiliative (extraverted, agreeable) they would judge excited (vs. calm) faces. Moreover, because European Americans typically value HAP more than Hong Kong Chinese do, we predicted that European Americans would rate excited (vs. calm) targets as more affiliative than would Hong Kong Chinese. We found consistent support for these hypotheses in four studies. In Studies 1a and 1b, these effects held regardless of target race (White, Asian) and target sex (male, female); emerged for human as well as computer-generated faces; and did not consistently emerge for nonaffiliative social judgments (i.e., dominance, competence). In Studies 2 and 3, we replicated these findings in more realistic contexts. In Study 2, culture and ideal affect predicted participants’ extraversion judgments of excited Facebook profiles. In Study 3, culture and ideal affect predicted participants’ extraversion and agreeableness judgments of an excited job applicant, which increased their likelihood of hiring that applicant. Together, these findings suggest that people’s culture and ideal affect shape how affiliative they judge excited (vs. calm) smiles. We discuss the role these processes may play in perpetuating biases in multicultural settings.
... Numerous studies in personnel selection have highlighted stigmatization, biases, and employment discrimination based on a multitude of factors including: race, ethnicity, and immigrant or minority status (Brief et al. 2000;Derous and Ryan 2012;Petersen and Krings 2009), gender (Cohen and Bunker 1975;Glick et al. 1988;Ng and Wiesner 2007), age (Finkelstein et al. 1995;Krings et al. 2011), sexual preference (Hebl et al. 2002), attractiveness (Tews et al. 2009), or obesity (King et al. 2014;Roehling 2002). Non-discrimination has been described as a moral obligation for organizations (Demuijnck 2009). ...
Article
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Decades of tobacco control initiatives have turned public opinion against cigarette smoking. Smokers, once considered glamorous, are now stigmatized in domains including the workplace. Extant literature lacks scrutiny of smoker stigmatization and devaluation within the job selection process, and mechanisms that lead to such outcomes. Using an experimental design, we empirically examine initial reactions to job applicants’ smoking behaviors within two samples (N=122 Canadian business students, and N=143 online U.S. respondents with hiring experience). We show that initial impressions are significantly worse when job applicants smoke versus do not in a store-based context. Moreover, this effect occurs indirectly through perceived likelihood of engaging in counterproductive work behaviors (and to some extent negative emotions experienced), and is conditional upon respondents’ own attitudes toward smoking (particularly within the U.S. sample). These relationships—similar for customer-service and inventory-management jobs—are indicative of potential biases within the hiring process. Implications of these findings, and the moral dilemmas they raise around the treatment of smokers, are discussed from the ethical perspective of human resource management.
... Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991;Feingold, 1992;Langlois et al., 2000;Lorenzo, Biesanz & Human, 2010). Fysiek aantrekkelijke personen zouden ook positiever geëvalueerd worden op het werk en bij sollicitaties, zeker als er veel extern klantencontact is (Hosoda, Stone-Romero & Coats, 2003;Tews, Stafford & Zhu, 2009). Fysieke malformaties, daarentegen, wekken eerder angst en afkeer op (Colella & Stone, 2005;Thompson & Kent, 2001) en kunnen leiden tot diverse, negatieve reacties. ...
... though, overall, attractive job applicants are evaluated more favorably than less attractive applicants, Watkins and Johnston (2000) find that physical attractiveness has no impact when it comes to high-quality job applications. Similarly, Tews, Stafford, and Zhu (2009) find that the attractiveness of job applicants does have an impact on their employment suitability evaluation, but its impact is lower than that of their general mental ability and conscientiousness. ...
Article
Objective In this article, we address two major gaps in the understanding of the relationship between candidate attractiveness and electoral success. With the assistance of the Victoria Police Criminal Identification Unit in Melbourne, Australia, we show how good‐looking candidates look like by building the faces of six “ideal candidates” in terms of physical attractiveness. Utilizing our “ideal candidates,” we then investigate whether candidate attractiveness can actually sway electoral results. Methods We proceed in four distinct steps, using data from the 2008 U.S. House of Representatives elections. First, we collect data on candidate attractiveness. Second, we build our “ideal candidates” and obtain their attractiveness ranking. Third, we model the effect of candidate attractiveness on candidate vote margins. Fourth, we run four hypothetical scenarios that assess whether candidate attractiveness can sway the electoral results in marginal seats. Results About two‐thirds of marginal races would trigger a different winner if the actual loser looked like our ideal candidates. In addition, virtually every single marginal race would have had a different outcome if the unsuccessful candidate looked like our “ideal candidate” and the successful candidate was very unattractive. Conclusion Candidate attractiveness can sway electoral results, provided that elections are competitive.
... There are a few other organizational studies in this area. One study on hiring recommendations (Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009) included information on general mental ability, the five-factor personality variables, and facial photographs. The authors found that attractiveness influenced hiring decisions over and above ability and conscientiousness, particularly for high customer contact jobs (see also Freng & Webber, 2009). ...
... Some of these decisions may also elicit stress responses themselves. The business world even uses time constraints and stress inductions as a means to assess individuals in a better way, for example in assessment centers (Whetzel et al., 2014) or in intelligence tests (Tews et al., 2009). Scientific research has shown that acute stress not only affects individuals in the time they need to make decisions, but that stress may also continue to affect many facets of higher-order cognitive functions, including emotional memory (Diamond et al., 2007), selective attention to emotional stimuli (Henckens et al., 2012), working memory (Henckens et al., 2011) and altruistic punishment in an economic game (Vinkers et al., 2013), even hours after the induction of stress. ...
... Die Bewerber spiegeln hierbei den bekannten Attraktivitätseffekt, dem auch Personalverantwortliche unterliegen, wenn sie ihrerseits in unstrukturierten Verfahren die Kompetenzen von Bewerbern einschätzen sollen (z. B. Tews, Stafford & Zhu, 2009). ...
Chapter
Obwohl die richtige Besetzung von Führungspositionen zu den wichtigsten Investitionsentscheidungen eines jeden Unternehmens gehört, werden an dieser neuralgischen Stelle häufig suboptimale Methoden eingesetzt. Die eklatanteste Folge dieses Missstandes markiert das Phänomen des Derailments: neu eingesetzte Führungskräfte scheitern nach wenigen Monaten ihn ihrer Funktion und müssen das Unternehmen wieder verlassen oder werden zumindest degradiert. Dabei stellt Derailment nur die Spitze des Eisbergs personeller Fehlentscheidungen dar. Ziel des vorliegenden Kapitels ist es, Personalverantwortliche in die Prinzipien einer diagnostisch professionellen Personalauswahl von Führungskräften einzuführen. Hierzu werden sukzessive alle Bausteine eines aussagekräftigen Vorgehens von der Analyse der Anforderungen bis zum Assessment Center vorgestellt und durchgängig anhand eines realen Praxisbeispiels – Der Besetzung einer Geschäftsführungsposition – erläutert.
... Second, research clearly indicates how recruiters can sometimes be biased because they use information that is not related to job performance (Brown & Vaughn, 2011;Dubois & Pansu, 2004;Purkiss, Perrewé, Gillespie, Mayes, & Ferris, 2006;Seiter & Hatch, 2005;Shannon & Stark, 2003), and therefore their decision-making process could be discriminatory (García-Izquierdo, Ramos-Villagrasa, & Castaño, 2015). The most prominent of this irrelevant information is perhaps the biases produced when decisions are made based on age (Lahey, 2008;Maurer, & Rafuse, 2001;Weiss & Maurer, 2004), gender (Harvie, Marshall-McCaskey, & Johnston, 1998;Riach & Rich, 2002;Swim Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995), sexual orientation (Black, Makar, Sanders, & Taylor, 2003;Blandford, 2003;Drydakis, 2009;Weichselbaumer, 2003), race (Kawakami, Dion, & Dovidio, 1998;Pager, 2003;Riach & Rich, 2002), or physical attractiveness (Luxen & Van de Vijver, 2006;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). Undoubtedly, this poses a problem for the quality of selection decisions, and the use of SNW does not seem to alleviate this issue (Caers & Castelyns, 2011). ...
... Second, research clearly indicates how recruiters can sometimes be biased because they use information that is not related to job performance (Brown & Vaughn, 2011;Dubois & Pansu, 2004;Purkiss, Perrewé, Gillespie, Mayes, & Ferris, 2006;Seiter & Hatch, 2005;Shannon & Stark, 2003), and therefore their decision-making process could be discriminatory (García-Izquierdo, Ramos-Villagrasa, & Castaño, 2015). The most prominent of this irrelevant information is perhaps the biases produced when decisions are made based on age (Lahey, 2008;Maurer, & Rafuse, 2001;Weiss & Maurer, 2004), gender (Harvie, Marshall-McCaskey, & Johnston, 1998;Riach & Rich, 2002;Swim Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995), sexual orientation (Black, Makar, Sanders, & Taylor, 2003;Blandford, 2003;Drydakis, 2009;Weichselbaumer, 2003), race (Kawakami, Dion, & Dovidio, 1998;Pager, 2003;Riach & Rich, 2002), or physical attractiveness (Luxen & Van de Vijver, 2006;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). Undoubtedly, this poses a problem for the quality of selection decisions, and the use of SNW does not seem to alleviate this issue (Caers & Castelyns, 2011). ...
Article
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Social networks websites, and specially the LinkedIn platform, have changed the landscape of recruitment and personnel selection to a unified organizational process. Thus, apart from using LinkedIn as a recruitment tool, professionals also use it to make evaluative inferences regarding the individual characteristics of the candidates (e.g., their personality). However, most of the research focused on LinkedIn has left aside the evidence about its validity for decision making in the work setting. In our study we analyze the criterion oriented validity of LinkedIn incumbents professional profiles (N = 615) in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector and with some measures of job performance. The results show four major factors underlying LinkedIn profiles about professional experience, social capital, updating knowledge, and non-professional information. These factors are significantly related to productivity, absenteeism, and the potential for professional development. These findings are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.
... The first impression a person makes is largely influenced by their outward appearance: Physical appearance has been shown to impact inferences about character, abilities, sociability, and intellectual competence [1]. Numerous studies demonstrate the impact of physical appearance in various domains of life: From securing employment [2,3] to obtaining higher socioeconomic outcomes [4,5]. Skin is one of our Like many chronic skin conditions, AD limits lifestyle, leads to avoidance of social interactions, and impedes activities [29]. ...
... Hiring managers prefer candidates who are more cooperative because such individuals are more apt to be more compliant and altruistic (Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). More opinionated candidates may be perceived as more apt to question authority and be a hindrance to group cohesion. ...
Article
As a step toward further understanding the relationship between social networking content and perceptions of employment suitability, the present study assessed the impact of three examples of potentially negative content. Namely, this research focused on self‐absorption, opinionatedness, and alcohol and drug use, where a sample of 436 hiring managers evaluated experimentally manipulated hypothetical Facebook candidate profiles. The results demonstrated that content related to each construct had a negative impact on person–organization fit and overall candidate evaluation. Moreover, self‐absorption had the largest negative effect. There were also significant hiring manager age interaction effects. Older hiring managers more heavily weighted less opinionated content with respect to overall candidate evaluation and content without alcohol and drug use for person–organization fit.
... Further research shows that managers can accurately assess this construct (Borkenau et al., 2004) and value it over nearly all other employee attributes (e.g. Dunn et al., 1995;Tews et al., 2009). Managers may believe that those who can readily learn new skills and quickly solve problems will perform jobs effectively (Dunn et al., 1995). ...
Conference Paper
Do managers behave territorially toward their employees? Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating the prevalence of territoriality over non-agentic organizational resources, key questions remain regarding the extent to which psychological ownership and territorial behavior occur within supervisor-subordinate relationships. To explore this question, we drew on territoriality and mate guarding theory to ascertain how and why managers might utilize one form of territoriality, anticipatory defenses, toward their employees. In a four-study investigation, we find that managers consistently engage in two forms of anticipatory defense tactics, persuasion and nurturing, that are intended to defend ownership claims over their employees and limit employee defection. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between psychological ownership of subordinates and employee guarding directed toward those subordinates. We also find that managers engage in employee guarding more when they anticipate an employee is likely to defect, and adapt guarding tactics in response to the subordinate’s general mental ability. Collectively, our results identify the motivations and conditions under which supervisors act territoriality toward agentic subordinates, contributing to theory in territoriality and downward social influence.
... Valid and reliable measurement variables were derived from previous studies to measure the constructs in the conceptual model. The inflight service experience included five dimensions, namely food services (seven items adopted from Hyun, 2010;Liu, 2012;Park et al., 2004;Wu & Liang, 2009); entertainment (five items adopted from Gilbert & Wong, 2003;Liu, 2012;Park et al., 2004); physical environments (five items adapted from Liu, 2012;Park et al., 2004;Petrick, Tonner, & Quinn, 2006); flight attendants' performance (five items adapted from Hyun, 2010;Park et al., 2004;FIGURE Petrick et al., 2006); and flight attendants' physical appearance (three items adapted from Luoh & Tsaur, 2009;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). The concept of customer-centric innovativeness was measured with seven items adapted from Kunz et al. (2011). ...
Article
In this study we consider the first-class passenger market to identify in-flight service-related triggers of customer-centric innovativeness, test the effect of customer-centric innovativeness on brand loyalty, and examine the moderating role of advertising effectiveness. A series of theory-based hypotheses was examined through structural equation modeling using empirical data collected from a sample of 205 first-class airline passengers in the United States (US). The results indicate that various experiential dimensions of in-flight service designs (including food, entertainment, physical environment, and flight attendant performance/physical appearance) in the first-class passenger market had significant effects on perceived firm innovativeness. In addition, advertising effectiveness moderated the effects of in-flight food services and flight attendant physical appearance on perceived firm innovativeness. These results clearly suggest that customer-centric innovativeness is a strong driver of brand loyalty in the first-class passenger market. The study provides a theoretical basis for future research and offers some effective management methods for enhancing first-class passengers’ loyalty in the airline industry.
... When recruiters apply their intuition, they unwittingly consider factors that may be irrelevant to later job performance. Factors that affect hiring decision include candidates' age and sexual orientation (Drydakis, 2009), weight (Swami et al., 2008), facial attractiveness (Tews et al., 2009), race and sex (Branscombe and Smith, 1990), and, last but not least, the recruiter's own sex and national culture (El Ouirdi et al., 2016). Recruiters give subjectively desirable M a n a g e m e n t R e s e a r c h R e v i e w 5 applicants more favorable evaluations than subjectively undesirable applicants (Chiang and Suen, 2015). ...
... When recruiters apply their intuition, they unwittingly consider factors that may be irrelevant to later job performance. Factors that affect hiring decision include candidates' age and sexual orientation (Drydakis, 2009), weight (Swami et al., 2008), facial attractiveness (Tews et al., 2009), race and sex (Branscombe and Smith, 1990), and, last but not least, the recruiter's own sex and national culture (El Ouirdi et al., 2016). Recruiters give subjectively desirable applicants more favorable evaluations than subjectively undesirable applicants (Chiang and Suen, 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to analyze aspects of decision-making in recruitment. Using a choice-based conjoint (CBC) experiment with typified screening scenarios, it was analyzed what aspects will be more important for recruiters: the recommendation provided by a hiring algorithm or the recommendation of a human co-worker; gender of the candidate and of the recruiter was taken into account. Design/methodology/approach A total of 135 recruitment professionals (67 female) completed a measure of sex roles and a set of 20 CBC trials on the hiring of a pharmacologist. Findings Participants were willing to accept a lower algorithm score if the level of the human recommendation was maximum, indicating a preference for the co-worker’s recommendation over that of the hiring algorithm. The biological sex of neither the candidate nor the participant influenced in the decision. Research limitations/implications Participants were presented with a fictitious scenario that did not involve real choices with real consequences. In a real-life setting, considerably more variables influence hiring decisions. Practical implications Results show that there are limits on the acceptance of technology based on artificial intelligence in the field of recruitment, which has relevance more broadly for the psychological correlates of the acceptance of the technology. Originality/value An additional value is the use of a methodological approach (CBC) with high ecological validity that may be useful in other psychological studies of decision-making in management.
... The impact of physical attractiveness has also been studied in other areas of research, such as the impact of beauty in the labor-market (e.g., Hamermesh & Biddle, 1993) or employment suitability (e.g., Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009). ...
Article
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In this work, we present norms concerning the perceived association of two sets of image stimuli with the concept of “beauty”: 40 objects (Study 1) and 40 photos of human faces (Study 2) . Participants were presented with a set of words associated with the construct of “beauty” and were subsequently asked to judge each image on how much they considered them to be related with this construct on a 7-point scale (1 - Not at all related; 7 - Very related). The interpretation of means’ confidence intervals distinguish between 40 images, evaluated as “ugly” – with low scores on the beauty dimension - (20 objects and 20 faces), and 28 images evaluated as “beautiful” – with high scores on the beauty dimension - (12 objects and 16 faces). Results are summarized and photos made available to support future research requiring beauty and/or ugly stimulus.
... Attractiveness influences various job-related outcomes, including selection, hiring and promotion decisions and performance evaluations (Hochschild & Borch, 2011;Hosoda et al., 2003;Mobius & Rosenblat, 2006;Ruffle & Shtudiner, 2014;Tews, Stafford, & Zhu, 2009) as well as long-term socioeconomic outcomes such as employment status and income (Benzeval, Green, & Macintyre, 2013;Hamermesh, 2011;Scholz & Sicinski, 2014). In a sales setting, studies show that attractive sellers have a higher sales performance (Ahearne, Gruen, & Jarvis, 1999) and buyers respond more readily to requests of attractive sellers (Reingen & Kernan, 1993). ...
Article
This study examines the influence of inventor appearance on how technology licensing officers perceive the commercial potential of new university inventions. An experiment with technology licensing officers at Carnegie I research universities in the United States serves to manipulate inventor appearance in otherwise identical invention disclosures. The experiment reveals that licensing officers perceive inventions by more attractive inventors (inventors with a professional appearance) to have more commercial potential. These findings have several critical implications for university technology commercialization.
Purpose – This paper aims to reflect on issues concerning online and social media recruitment in hospitality organisations. It considers the implications for employers and prospective employees, discussing areas of mutual relevance. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on existing research to examine the subject of online and social media recruitment. Secondary sources are used to provide a framework for the consideration of online and social media recruitment for hospitality organisations. A model for understanding online- and social media-empowered hospitality recruitment is proposed. Findings – Considerations for employers include website attributes, issues of fairness in the recruitments process and brand reputation. For prospective employees, the considerations centre on public and private online profiles. Considerations common to both include the value of an online presence, the blurring of boundaries in online information and legal implications. Research limitations/implications – This is a discussion paper drawing on evidence from previous research to explore recruitment issues in the hospitality industry. It raises the profile of recruitment issues, mapping the field and providing the basis for further exploration. Practical implications – The paper provides a basis for understanding the impact of online and social media recruitment trends and issues and considers the implications for hospitality employers and prospective employees. Originality/value – The paper’s contribution is its reflection on debates from different disciplines and in offering the dual perspective of employers and potential employees from which to consider emerging themes as they relate to online- and social media-empowered recruitment.
Article
Online education is on the rise as the number of online courses and degrees has increased significantly in recent years. This trend will continue as many institutions incorporate online studies as part of redesigning and making changes to their curricula. As a result, an increasing number of graduates with a significant part of their education completed online will start to appear in the job market. However, it remains unclear how these graduates are regarded within the job market, compared to their counterparts with strictly traditional studies. To investigate this issue, we presented a set of vignettes describing hypothetical Information Systems (IS) graduates to 82 IS professionals with recruitment experience to ascertain whether an IS graduate's education mode (online versus traditional studies) influence their employment judgments. The findings did not support the notion that an IS graduate's education mode was an important consideration to recruiters. In contrast, other factors included in the vignettes, such as work experience and academic performance were more salient to recruiters. Overall, our findings agree with the viewpoint that online education is evolving into a viable alternative to traditional education, with 'other factors' dominating perceptions of IS graduate attractiveness.
Article
This chapter looks at how social network sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter can be used for recruiting staff members within or outside the organization and during selection procedures. The authors present the opportunities and review scientific literature to analyze whether these opportunities are already used by organizations and what effects their use may have. It thereby becomes clear that although much work has already been done in this field, there is still a critical need for a more profound understanding of matters and for more international research worldwide.
Article
We investigate if the perceived attractiveness of mutual fund managers influences mutual fund flows. We hand-collect professional photographs of managers and use machine learning algorithms to develop two objective proxies of attractiveness. We find that, after controlling for fund characteristics, performance measures and manager characteristics, mutual funds managed by ‘attractive’ managers receive higher fund flows. Our results are robust to matched sample analysis, Heckman two-stage selection, alternate model specifications. Attractiveness bias is predominantly witnessed within retail investors and does not entail superior fund performance. Our results suggest that mutual fund investors exhibit a bias for seemingly attractive mutual fund managers.
Article
Using mixed methods, this article examines the role of body art as a form of branded labour in customer-facing jobs. It brings together employee selection and relationship marketing into one framework, and uniquely conceptualizes body art as an asset in the labour market, rather than the traditional liability. In Study 1, 192 respondents with management experience participated in an online laboratory experiment in which they were asked to rate photographs of tattooed and non-tattooed job applicants in two hypothetical organizations: a fine dining restaurant and a popular nightclub. In Study 2, 20 in-depth, qualitative interviews were carried out with managers, tattooed front-line employees and potential consumers in two real-world service sector firms. The results show how body art can be strategically used to positively convey the brand of organizations, primarily those targeting a younger, ‘edgier’ demographic of customer.
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Įsitikinimas, kad „grožis yra gėris“, reiškia, jog patraukliems žmonėms priskiriamos teigiamesnės asme­nybės savybės nei nepatraukliems, tačiau įdarbinimo srityje gaunami prieštaringi rezultatai. Pastebėta, kad patrauklios moterys, siekiančios vadovaujamų pareigų, vertinamos neigiamiau, palyginti su patrau­kliais vyrais ir nepatraukliomis moterimis. Šiuo tyrimu siekta išsiaiškinti, kokią reikšmę suvoktas fizinis patrauklumas turi asmens savybių vertinimui ir potencialaus darbuotojo pasirinkimui pakviesti į darbo pokalbį dėl vadovaujamų / nevadovaujamų pareigų. Pagrindiniame tyrimo etape dalyvavo 85 asmenys. Jie turėjo įvertinti keturių fotografijose pavaizduotų skirtingų lyčių žmonių asmenybės savybes, taip pat nuspręsti, kurį iš asmenų kviestų į darbo pokalbį. Nustatyta, kad patraukliems žmonėms priskiriamos teigiamesnės savybės, nesvarbu, kokia jų lytis ar pareigos, į kurias jie kandidatuoja, taip pat jie būtų dažniau kviečiami į darbo pokalbius.
Chapter
Obwohl die richtige Besetzung von Führungspositionen zu den wichtigsten Investitionsentscheidungen eines jeden Unternehmens gehört, werden an dieser neuralgischen Stelle häufig suboptimale Methoden eingesetzt. Die eklatanteste Folge dieses Missstandes markiert das Phänomen des Derailments: neu eingesetzte Führungskräfte scheitern nach wenigen Monaten ihn ihrer Funktion und müssen das Unternehmen wieder verlassen oder werden zumindest degradiert. Dabei stellt Derailment nur die Spitze des Eisbergs personeller Fehlentscheidungen dar. Ziel des vorliegenden Kapitels ist es, Personalverantwortliche in die Prinzipien einer diagnostisch professionellen Personalauswahl von Führungskräften einzuführen. Hierzu werden sukzessive alle Bausteine eines aussagekräftigen Vorgehens von der Analyse der Anforderungen bis zum Assessment Center vorgestellt und durchgängig anhand eines realen Praxisbeispiels – Der Besetzung einer Geschäftsführungsposition – erläutert.
Article
Recent technological developments and media applications, such as the use of social media and the internet in the selection process, have created a new type of resumes: the video resumes. In this study, a comparison was made between paper resumes and video resumes. Using a 2 (resum type: paper versus video) by 2 (self-promotion: present versus absent) between-subjects design, 103 recruiters evaluated applicants' personality from resum information. Based on predictions of the 'realistic accuracy model' and the 'media richness theory,' we expected that recruiters would infer applicants' personality more accurately from video resumes than paper resumes and that the applicants' use of self-promotion would have a different effect on accuracy judgments. Results were in line with expectations: extraversion was inferred more accurately from video resumes than paper resumes (with no difference for the other Big Five traits), and self-promotion moderated this effect so that accuracy was lower when applicants used self-promotion in the video resumes.
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Attractiveness is generally perceived to be beneficial to women in the workplace. However, a rapidly growing body of literature suggests that there are hidden costs of attractiveness that can negatively influence career trajectories of professional women. In this chapter, the authors employ Super’s (1957) model of career development as a framework and analyze linkages between specific developmental aspirations of women, their concerns in different career stages, and the downsides of attractiveness. In particular, they focus on the ‘beauty is beastly’ effect, female intrasexual competition, objectification of attractive women, sexual harassment in the workplace, and self-objectification. Finally, they discuss why women might engage in sexual behavior at work and what consequences it might have on their careers. They round the chapter off with practical implications and recommendations for individuals and organizations.
Article
Purpose The paper aims to examine the effect of employees' perceived physical attractiveness on the extent to which their voices are “listened to” by management. Design/methodology/approach Using an experimental research design, the paper estimates main effects of employee attractiveness and possible moderating effects of employee race and gender as well as the gender of their “managers.” Findings The results suggest that, with few exceptions, more physically attractive employees are significantly more likely to have their suggestions acted upon by managers than less attractive employees, pointing to a powerful form of workplace discrimination. This finding holds across races, with more attractive white, black, and Asian employees exerting a more impactful voice than their less attractive counterparts, although the moderation appears to be stronger for whites than ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications The results have important implications for the extant literatures on employee voice, diversity and discrimination. Originality/value This is among the first studies to demonstrate that less attractive employees suffer from an “employee voice deficit” vis-à-vis their more attractive counterparts.
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Background: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a rare genetic disorder, associated with some physical symptoms including spots and tiny bumps on the skin, and internal organ involvement. People suffering from neurofibromatosis face various challenges in their daily lives. However, there is little understanding on how patients deal with neurofibromatosis. This study aimed to investigate the life challenges of patients with NF1. Methods: This qualitative study was performed by implementing a grounded theory with the cooperation of the Society for Neurofibromatosis Patients over the course of 15 months in 2019 across 4 provinces in Iran. Twenty-four patients with NF1 were interviewed. An analysis was performed using the constant comparative method. Findings: The results of the analyses indicated that the major concern of the NF1 patients was feelings of failure and falling behind in life. In the face of failure in life in such a context, patients used the main strategy of "unsuccessful struggle to escape" the disease and its complications, which was represented itself in the forms of 'hopelessness and impatience', 'suicidal thoughts and unsuccessful suicide attempts', 'isolation and seclusion', 'expressing complaints and grievances to God', 'hiding the disease' and 'hopelessness and refusing to receive care'. The implementation of such strategies helped patients reduce tension and achieve a temporary, though vulnerable and fragile, sense of relief and peace. Conclusion: Given an unfavourable life condition, NF1 patients turned to a harmful passive strategy in the face of the challenges posed by the disease. Patient or public contribution: Public contributors were active partners throughout, and co-authored the paper.
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Physical appearance influences our perceptions, judgments, and decision making about others. While the current literature with regard to the perceptions and judgments of nondisabled people's attractiveness is robust, the research investigating the perceived physical attractiveness and judgments of physically disabled individuals is scarce. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated whether people with physical disabilities are perceived by the opposite sex as more or less attractive relative to nondisabled individuals. Our results, based on over 675 participants, showed a positive effect for women's attractiveness ratings of men with physical disabilities, but not men's attractiveness ratings of physically disabled women. Moreover, social desirability bias was positively associated with attractiveness ratings of physically disabled individuals, meaning those with higher tendency to be viewed favorably by others rated physically disabled individuals more attractive. Finally, our results revealed that attractiveness ratings of individuals with physical disabilities are positively associated with extroversion and empathy in both men and women, and positively with agreeableness and negatively with neuroticism in women. In conclusion, our study showed women rate men with physical disabilities as higher on attractiveness than nondisabled men, which is also influenced by their social desirability bias.
Article
Certainly one of the first things that we notice when meeting someone new is how physically attractive that they are. Although the vast majority of studies in the literature suggest favoritism for physically attractive humans, some research indicates that negative biases may occur as well. This discrepancy in the literature may simply indicate the failure of differing experimental methods to adequately tap the same construct; however, it is also a likely indicator of moderating factors at work. This study employs an episodic memory task to demonstrate the moderating effects of self-esteem threat on physical attractiveness attributions. Furthermore, results indicate that attractiveness-based stereotypes are susceptible to fluctuations in self-esteem, such that individuals experiencing a threat to self-esteem become more reliant on stereotyping.
Purpose Personality provides a critical perspective for human resource managers on differences between employees. This study aims to systematically and meta-analytically synthesize the consequences of employee personality in the hospitality context. Design/methodology/approach After an extensive literature search, 105 empirical studies on the consequences of the big five personality factors (BFF; agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism and openness) along with proactive personality (PP) in the hospitality context were included for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Findings The review highlighted a steady increase in the number of studies on hospitality employee personality. Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior were identified as the most significant consequences for employee personality in the hospitality context. Five dimensions of personality traits varied in their consequences and differed from PP. Research limitations/implications This study provides insightful implications and suggestions for future studies in terms of methodological approaches, research topics and dimensions of employee personality that will extend the theoretical framework of individual differences. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to systematically investigate the consequences of employee personality in the hospitality context. The results reveal discrepancies in the relations between the dimensions of BFF and PP with a variety of consequences. These results offer research directions for hospitality scholars investigating employee personality.
Article
To shed light on tattoo bias in the hospitality industry, two studies were conducted in the context of employee selection. The first study that examined tattoo bias in the context of selecting entry-level managers in a hotel setting demonstrated a negative tattoo bias, which did not differ by candidate gender. The second study that examined tattoo bias in the context of selecting restaurant employees found a negative tattoo bias when evaluating candidates for guest contact positions but not for non-guest contact positions. Interestingly, there was a gender effect, whereby hiring managers preferred females with tattoos relative to males.
Article
Policy capturing is a widely used technique, but the temporal stability of policy-capturing judgments has long been a cause for concern. This article emphasizes the importance of reporting reliability, and in particular test-retest reliability, estimates in policy-capturing studies. We found that only 164 of 955 policy-capturing studies (i.e., 17.17%) reported a test-retest reliability estimate. We then conducted a reliability generalization meta-analysis on policy-capturing studies that did report test-retest reliability estimates—and we obtained an average reliability estimate of .78. We additionally examined 16 potential methodological and substantive antecedents to test-retest reliability (equivalent to moderators in validity generalization studies). We found that test-retest reliability was robust to variation in 14 of the 16 factors examined but that reliability was higher in paper-and-pencil studies than in web-based studies and was higher for behavioral intention judgments than for other (e.g., attitudinal and perceptual) judgments. We provide an agenda for future research. Finally, we provide several best-practice recommendations for researchers (and journal reviewers) with regard to (a) reporting test-retest reliability, (b) designing policy-capturing studies for appropriate reportage, and (c) properly interpreting test-retest reliability in policy-capturing studies.
Article
Despite an increasing body of scientific evidence accumulated over the last 25 years, organizational design thinking has almost c1ompletely ignored the role of beauty on organizational life and performance. Based on a literature review in the fields of organizational aesthetics and management, this article explores ways in which beauty can create value for organizations. It develops an integrative approach, both rational and aesthetic, that helps better understand the contribution of beauty to organizational efficiency and performance. The analysis shows that beauty in organizations can contribute through different organizational elements: resources, outcomes, processes, organization and environment. It also gives some guidelines on how to measure and integrate it into organizations through the concept of ROIB (Return on Investment in Beauty). Finally, the article concludes with some business implications and suggestions for future research.
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Increasing attention is being paid to the fair treatment of individuals in society and in organizational contexts. Fair treatment issues are a concern of special importance to individuals who are stigmatized by virtue of their standing on variables such as physical attractiveness, physical and psychological handicaps, and race. Theories and models from social psychology, political psychology, sociology, and other academic disciplines provide a number of useful explanations of stigmatization and its consequences. Stigma-related issues are only infrequently studied by individuals in industrial and organizational psychology and closely allied fields. This chapter stresses on the need for industrial and organizational psychologists and researchers in closely allied fields to pay much more attention to stigmas and stigma-related problems in organizational settings. The chapter considers the nature of stigmas and the processes through which individuals become stigmatized, and then deals with the stigmas of race, physical unattractiveness (unattractiveness), and handicaps. It also describes strategies that might be used to deal with problems that stigmatized individuals encounter in organizational contexts, and considers issues that relate to research on stigmas in organizational contexts.
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Social Judgement Theory (SJT) evolved from Egon Brunswik's Probabilistic Functionalist psychology coupled with multiple correlation and regression-based statistical analysis. Through its representational device, the Lens Model, SJT has become a widely used, systems-oriented perspective for analysing human judgement in specific ecological circumstances. Judgements are assumed to result from the integration of different cues or sources of perceptual information from the environment. Special advantages accrue to the SJT approach when criterion values (or correct values) for judgement are also available, as this permits the comparison of judgement processes to environmental processes and leads naturally to the generation of cognitive feedback as an aid to facilitate learning. In contrast to more prescriptive approaches to decision analysis, the SJT approach analyses judgements by decomposing the judgement process after judgements have been rendered. This a posteriori decomposition is accomplished by first using multiple regression analysis to recover prediction equations for both the judgement and ecological systems and then using the Lens Model Equation to compare those systems. SJT methods maintain close contact with ecological circumstances by employing the principle of representative design (which focuses on how the researcher obtains the stimuli for judgement) and avoiding unwarranted over-generalisations from nomothetic aggregation (e.g. averaging across judges) through the use of idiographic statistical analysis. SJT methods have proven valuable in the analysis of individual judgements as well as groupbased judgements where conflict becomes likely.
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Policy capturing was used to examine relative importance placed by managers on the Big Five personality factors (Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) in the context of expatriate selection. Ninety‐six managers with expatriate staffing and management experience made judgments about 32 expatriates based on characteristics associated with the Big Five. Judgments were made about (a) completion of overseas assignment, (b) adjustment, (c) interpersonal relations with host‐country nationals, and (d) overseas job performance. Across all four decisions, the raters tended to use the cues (i.e., the Big Five personality factors) in a similar manner. Conscientiousness was perceived to be the most important personality factor for all four judgments examined. Openness to Experience was perceived to be important for completion of overseas assignment. These results from policy capturing are compared and contrasted with those from criterion‐related validity studies of the Big Five for expatriate selection. Implications for expatriate selection systems are discussed.
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Reports an error in the original article by author's name (Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 60(1) Feb 1975, 39-43). On page 41, there were several typographical errors in Table 2. 30 college students and 30 professional interviewers rated and ranked bogus resumes on suitability for a managerial position. Applicant sex, physical attractiveness, and scholastic standing were systematically varied in the resumes. A 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 repeated measures analysis of variance on the ratings yielded 4 significant main effects (p < .05), while the same analysis on the rankings yielded 3 significant main effects (p < .01). Students rated applicants more favorably than professionals. Both groups preferred males to females, attractive applicants to unattractive applicants, and applicants of high scholastic standing. The latter variable accounted for the greatest proportion of variance. However, internal analyses of the rankings reveal that sex and physical attractiveness were more important than indicated by the analysis of variance.
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This study contributes to our understanding of which factors predict raters' policies for combining performance components into an overall job performance rating. We used a work-roles framework to examine the effects of rater source and team-based culture. The sample consisted of 612 individuals in three job categories (3 17 nurses, 168 personnel recruiters and 127 sales representatives). Respondents rated employee performance profiles that were described on task, citizenship and counterproductive performance. Raters' weights differed by (a) organizational culture (low- vs. high-team-based); (b) rating source (supervisor vs. peer) and (c) job. In a team-based culture, more weight was given to citizenship performance and less to task performance. Peers attached more importance to citizenship performance and less to task performance. Implications of these findings for performance management are discussed.
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This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification.
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This review demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although subjects in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with our implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that subjects were asked to make: The differences in subjects' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information.
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This study considered the relationship between physical attractiveness and income attainment based on evidence from a national sample of employed Canadians. The findings suggest that attractive respondents earned higher annual salaries than less attractive respondents. Controls on a variety of other variables suggest that this relationship held for men, older respondents, and those engaged in occupations primarily filled by men. Women, younger respondents, and those working in jobs largely performed by women tended not to gain any significant economic return from greater physical attractiveness.
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Through an analysis of two highly routinized interactive service jobs, fast food service and insurance sales, this article explores the interrelationship of work, gender, and identity. While notions of proper gender behavior are quite flexible, gender-segregated service jobs reinforce the conception of gender differences as natural. The illusion that gender-typed interaction is an expression of workers' inherent natures is sustained, even in situations in which workers' appearances, attitudes, and demeanors are closely controlled by their employers. Gender-typed work has different meanings for women and men, however, because of differences in the cultural valuation of behavior considered appropriate to each gender.
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This article describes a theory of job performance that assumes that job performance is behavioral, episodic, evaluative, and multidimensional. It defines job performance as the aggregated value to the organization of the discrete behavioral episodes that an individual performs over a standard interval of time. It uses the distinction between task and contextual performance to begin to identify and define underlying dimen- sions of the behavioral episodes that make up the performance domain. The theory predicts that individual differences in personality and cognitive ability variables, in combination with learning experiences, lead to variability in knowledge, skills, and work habits that mediate effects of personality and cognitive ability on job perform- ance. An especially important aspect of this theory is that it predicts that the kinds of knowledge, skills, work habits, and traits that are associated with task performance are different from the kinds that are associated with contextual performance.
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Policy-capturing has been employed extensively in the past to examine how organizational decision makers use the information available to them when making evaluative judgments. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers with guidelines for enhancing the reliability and validity of their studies. More specifically, the authors identify issues researchers may want to consider when designing such studies and offer suggestions for effectively addressing them. They draw on a review of 37 articles from 5 major journals to identify “best practice” and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches to resolving the various issues. The key issues are (a) the realism of the approach and its effect on both internal and external validity, (b) the limits of the full factorial design, (c) the need for orthogonal cues, (d) sample size and statistical power, and (e) the assessment of reliability. The analysis also includes comparisons with conjoint analysis, a similar methodology used in the marketing research literature.
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This special issue bridges inquiry on intelligence and scholarship on social policy by exploring the constraints that differences in intelligence may impose in fashioning effective social policy. The authors discuss a range of behaviors, but focus primarily on the noneducational outcomes of crime, employment, poverty, and health. (SLD)
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Past research on the importance of traits and abilities in supervisors' hirability decisions has ignored the influence of the selection method used to derive information about these traits and abilities. In this study, experienced retail store supervisors (N = 163) rated job applicant profiles that were described on the Big Five and General Mental Ability (GMA) personality dimensions. Contrary to past studies, the supervisors were also informed about the method of assessment used (paper-and-pencil test vs. unstructured interview). Hierarchical linear modelling analyses showed that the importance attached to extraversion and GMA was significantly moderated by the selection method, with extraversion and GMA decreasing in importance when store supervisors knew that scores on extraversion and GMA were derived from a paper-and-pencil test as opposed to from an unstructured interview. Store supervisors with more selection-related experience also attached more importance to GMA. Results are discussed in relation to the practice-science gap and the extant literature on perceptions of selection procedures.
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Examined whether physically attractive stimulus persons, both male and female, are (a) assumed to possess more socially desirable personality traits than physically unattractive stimulus persons, and (b) expected to lead better lives (e.g., be more competent husbands and wives and more successful occupationally) than unattractive stimulus persons. Sex of Subject * Sex of Stimulus Person interactions along these dimensions also were investigated. Results with 30 male and 30 female undergraduates indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge * Sex of Stimulus interaction. Implications of such a stereotype on self-concept development and the course of social interaction are discussed.
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Previous research suggests that physical appearance variables may play a role in employment hiring decisions. This study examined the influence of two physical appearance variables, beardedness and attractiveness, on personnel selection. Fifty undergraduate participants were given the task of evaluating and selecting between nine equally qualified male job applicants applying for a fictitious management trainee position. A photograph was attached to each of the nine applications. Photographs differed systematically on level of beardedness and attractiveness. Results indicated that the level of attractiveness of the photographs significantly affected the evaluation of the application to which it was attached, but did not significantly affect the subjects' final selection decision. Level of beardedness of the photographs was not found to have a significant effect on evaluation of the applications. However, there was a trend in the data that suggested that bearded applicants, although evaluated equally with nonbearded applicants, were selected for management positions at lower rates. Implications and limitations of these results are also examined.
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Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 (18 per job) hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs (tax manager of an industrial firm, postmaster, and vice principal of a high school) by 60 MBA students (20 MBA student-raters per job), evenly divided between the two sexes and among three age levels, who voluntarily participated in the three experiments. As hypothesized, physical attractiveness favourably influenced (p < .01) the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex was not significant but applicants' sex significantly (p < .03) affected ratings for the job of tax manager; and applicants' age as a main effect was significant (p < .05) for one job (vice principal) but the raters' age was not significant for any. A number of interactions, some of which were hypothesized, emerged as significant (p < .05), which indicated that age and sex biases operate in a subtle and complex fashion and are moderated by a number of social and personal attributes of the raters and the ratees.
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In this article, the results of a meta-analysis that investigates the degree to which dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality are related to performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions are reported. The article also investigates whether the nature of the interactions with others moderates the personality-performance relations. The meta-analysis was based on 11 studies (total N = 1,586). each of which assessed the FFM at the construct level using the Personal Characteristics Inventory. Results support the hypothesis that Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability are positively related to performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Results also support the hypothesis that Emotional Stability and Agreeableness are more strongly related to performance in jobs that involve team- work (where employees interact interdependently with coworkers), than in those that involve dyadic interactions with others (where employees provide a direct service to customers and clients). Implications for developing theories of work performance and for selecting employees are discussed.
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Investigated the interaction of applicant sex and physical attractiveness while varying perceived relevance of attractiveness to job performance and type of rater in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design. Type of job was controlled for both interns of hierarchical level (entry level vs management trainee) and in terms of perceptions of the job as typically male or female employment. 120 undergraduates and 105 professional employment interviewers (mean age 33.5 yrs) were presented with a resumé with a photograph attached, an interview transcript, and a job description and were asked to make a hiring decision and to rate the applicants' expected performance and perceived personality. Results indicate that physical attractiveness of job candidates had the broadest influence on employment decisions. There was no main effect for applicant sex; however, professional interviewers were biased in favor of female applicants while student raters were not. Professional interviewers rated job applicants less leniently than students did. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the recent resurgence of interest in the 5-factor model of personality characteristics appears to reflect a "working consensus" among a substantial number of investigators on the primary importance of the dimensions of (I) Surgency/Extraversion, (II) Agreeableness, (III) Conscientiousness, (IV) Neuroticism, and (V) Openness to Experience/Intellect / focus on earlier writers who have contributed, directly or indirectly, to the 5-factor tradition and on current writers who have been associated with distinctive theoretical perspectives on the 5-factor model theoretical perspectives on the Big Five (an enduring dispositional view of the Big Five: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, the dyadic interactional view of the Big Five: J. S. Wiggins, the competency view of the Big Five: R. Hogan, the lexical view of the Big Five: L. R. Goldberg) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compensation specialists made 2 survey-sample decisions in a simulated wage survey. Policy-capturing analyses indicate that most specialists relied extensively on 2 of the available cues and consistently applied that policy across judgments. They were not able to accurately estimate their own decision-making policies, as demonstrated by the fact that rationally generated assessments of cue importance were significantly different from their actual policies. Finally, meta-analyses demonstrate that the variation in policies across decision makers could not be attributed to statistical artifacts or any moderators (e.g., salary-survey experience or industry) associated with the demographic data. Thus, different compensation specialists are likely to select a different sample of employers even for the same wage survey. Implications for the relevance of market wages obtained from surveys are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two methodological approaches, policy capturing and narrative self-reports, were used to examine how individuals combine information about job characteristics and probabilities of receiving job offers (expectancies) in decisions to pursue job vacancies. 10 college students evaluated 24 hypothetical job alternatives at 3 expectancy levels in terms of overall attractiveness and whether they would apply for a job interview. A variety of within-S analyses were used to infer how probabilities of receiving a job offer affect peoples' propensities to apply for jobs. Results indicate that there was wide individual variability in the way expectancies influenced job-search patterns. Low probabilities of receiving job offers acted as much stronger search deterrrants for some Ss than for others. Results are discussed in terms of (a) possible sources of individual differences in expectancy usage, (b) the value of using multiple methodologies to investigate decision processes, and (c) the desirability of broadening the types of questions typically asked about the role of expectancies in job search and choice. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although Ss in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with the authors' implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that Ss were asked to make: The differences in Ss' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Meta-analysis was used to examine findings in 2 related areas: experimental research on the physical attractiveness stereotype and correlational studies of characteristics associated with physical attractiveness. The experimental literature found that physically attractive people were perceived as more sociable, dominant, sexually warm, mentally healthy, intelligent, and socially skilled than physically unattractive people. Yet, the correlational literature indicated generally trivial relationships between physical attractiveness and measures of personality and mental ability, although good-looking people were less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled, and more sexually experienced than unattractive people. Self-ratings of physical attractiveness were positively correlated with a wider range of attributes than was actual physical attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Argues that occupational sex bias is not inevitable nor invariable and presents a "lack of fit" model to describe the dynamics of sex bias and the conditions that prompt and support its occurrence in organizational settings. The model uses a single principle to explain how both self-directed sex bias (self-limiting behavior) and other-directed sex bias (discrimination) operate before and after a woman's entry into an organization. Areas considered include selection, evaluation, and causal explanations of success. A review of the literature demonstrates the integrative capacity of the model, and consideration of the model's implications illustrates its practical utility in furthering organizational change to reduce sex bias in the workplace. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Meta-analysis of the cumulative research on various predictors of job performance showed that for entry-level jobs there was no predictor with validity equal to that of ability, which had a mean validity of .53. For selection on the basis of current job performance, the work sample test, with mean validity of .54, was slightly better. For federal entry-level jobs, substitution of an alternative predictor would cost from $3.12 (job tryout) to $15.89 billion/year (age). Hiring on ability had a utility of $15.61 billion/year but affected minority groups adversely. Hiring on ability by quotas would decrease utility by 5%. A 3rd strategy—using a low cutoff score—would decrease utility by 83%. Using other predictors in conjunction with ability tests might improve validity and reduce adverse impact, but there is as yet no database for studying this possibility. (89 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using a policy-capturing approach, in this study we examined the extent to which 4 variables (work performance, relationship with coworkers, relationship with managers, and personal needs) affect the process through which Chinese and American managers make 2 types of compensation award decisions (bonus amounts and nonmonetary recognition). Results showed that, compared with their American counterparts, Chinese managers (a) put less emphasis on work performance when making bonus decisions; (b) put more emphasis on relationship with coworkers when making nonmonetary decisions; (c) put more emphasis on relationship with managers when making nonmonetary award decisions; and (d) put more emphasis on personal needs when making bonus decisions. We discussed the implications of these results for future research and practice.
Article
This study examined the disciplinary decision rules that managers employ when responding to substance abuse violations. We suggested that because of competing perspectives about the role and purpose of disciplinary systems, substantial inconsistency is likely to exist across managers in how they respond to violations. Using policy capturing techniques, we found substantial diversity across the 93 managers studied in how they respond to violations. Further, cluster analysis indicated that we could group the 93 managers into retributive, corrective, individual rights, and mixed clusters. The results also suggest that the type of decision rule that a manager employs is influenced by his/her attitude toward punishment and toward drug use. The implications of these findings for disciplinary programs in general and substance abuse policies in particular are discussed as well.
Article
This study examined how personnel managers (n= 19) and line managers (n= 28) make disciplinary decisions. Using a policy-capturing approach, subjects were asked to respond to disciplinary incidents that varied in terms of three factors likely to affect managerial attributions about the cause of the disciplinary problem (managerial provocation, personal problems, or tenure). The incidents also varied in terms of factors made relevant by the economic, institutional/legal, and hierarchical contexts. Of the six variables manipulated, the factor relating to the institutional/legal context had the largest impact on the decisions made by the personnel managers, and the factor relating to the hierarchical context had the largest impact on the decisions made by the line managers. While provocation was relatively important for both line and personnel managers, personal problems, tenure, and the economic implications of the decision had more modest impacts on managerial decisions. The results also suggest that there is substantial variation across managers in terms of the decision rules employed when responding to disciplinary cases.
Article
Using a policy-capturing approach, 29 corporate interviewers evaluated 64 hypothetical candidates for a position in a financial services organization. Six selection criteria were manipulated in a balanced factorial design. Interviewers evaluated candidates' qualifications and made hiring recommendations. The results revealed substantial individual differences in interviewers' decision strategies, as well as their insight into their own decision processes. Data on the effectiveness of the 29 interviewers were collected from 427 hiring managers and the decision processes of effective and ineffective interviewers were compared. The findings indicated that the decision strategies used by effective interviewers were quite similar to one another and relied heavily on two selection criteria. Also, effective interviewers were more likely than ineffective interviewers to use selection criteria in a manner that mirrored their self-reports of the importance of these criteria. Effective interviewers were more aware of their decision processes than ineffective interviewers.
Article
It is commonly believed that attractive people are more successful, but the empirical support for this belief is mixed. A number of role-playing, laboratory studies have demonstrated that more attractive men are more often hired, but the laboratory data for women are less consistent. Few studies have explored the effects of attractiveness on actual hiring and starting salaries for men or women. Even less work has been done on the impact of attractiveness once on the job. It was predicted that there would be positive effects for attractiveness and that the effects would be stronger as people worked longer on their jobs. To test this prediction, a sample of 737 male and female MBA graduates from the years between 1973 and 1982 was used to explore how facial attractiveness relates to starting and later salaries. Results indicated that more attractive men had higher starting salaries and they continued to earn more over time. For women, there was no effect of attractiveness for starting salaries, but more attractive women earned more later on in their jobs. By 1983, men were found to earn $2600 more on the average for each unit of attractiveness (on a 5-point scale) and women earned $2150 more. Implications for research in this area are discussed.
Article
Tips represent a substantial portion of restaurant waiters' and waitresses' incomes. We report a study that examines several potential predictors of the differences in servers' average tip earnings. Our results indicate that servers earn larger average sales-adjusted tips if they are attractive females, better service providers, and high self-monitors. However, these effects hold up only for evening tips. None of the variables in this study predicted servers' average lunch tips. The methodological, theoretical, and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
We report the findings of a meta-analytic review of experimental studies concerned with the biasing effect of physical attractiveness on a variety of job-related outcomes. In support of implicit personality theory, attractive individuals were found to fare better than unattractive individuals in terms of a number of such outcomes. The weighted mean effect size, d, was .37 for all studies. In addition, tests for moderating effects showed that (a) the attractiveness bias did not differ between studies that provided low versus high amounts of job-relevant information about the targets, (b) the same bias was greater for within-subjects research designs than for between-subjects designs, (c) professionals were as susceptible to the bias as were college students, (d) attractiveness was as important for men as for women, and (e) the biasing effect of attractiveness has decreased in recent years. Implications of these findings are considered.