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Abstract

One cost effective way to improve applicant reactions is by giving explanations. Although a literature on this topic has accumulated, the effects of explanations on applicant reactions have not been examined meta-analytically, and several aspects of giving explanations to applicants are unclear. For example, do explanations affect applicant reactions, and which outcomes are most affected? Do findings from lab studies generalize to field settings? Under what conditions are explanations most effective? To answer these questions, we meta-analytically examined the effects of providing explanations on applicant reactions. Based on 26 distinct samples from experiments and quasi-experiments (N=3481), our results suggest that explanations do affect applicants' fairness perceptions, perceptions of the hiring organization, test-taking motivation, and performance on cognitive ability tests. The effects on fairness are larger in field contexts than in lab settings and when they are used with a personality test rather than a cognitive ability test. Test-taking motivation mediated the relationship between explanations and test performance. Our discussion focuses on when to provide explanations to applicants in employment settings and directions for future research.

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... If this is the case, organizations should consider providing more information about the selection process to temper the signaling effects of only certain elements being known to candidates. Such information may not only affect candidate reactions but also their subsequent performance and motivation when moving through the selection process (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). For example, organizations could reveal various selection steps to candidates early in the process, so candidates can clearly see the proportion of technology-based versus interpersonal assessments involved. ...
... For example, organizations could reveal various selection steps to candidates early in the process, so candidates can clearly see the proportion of technology-based versus interpersonal assessments involved. Previous research shows that more information can increase perceptions of openness and fairness, increasing attraction to the company (Langer et al., 2019;Truxillo et al., 2009). Additionally, as AI-based evaluation is still a relatively new tool, companies may provide further information regarding their choice to use this technology in order to support the derivation and ritualization processes of the signal, thereby increasing the chances that this choice is interpreted correctly by potential applicants. ...
... The current study was not well suited to capturing these mediating mechanisms, but as scholars continue to investigate reactions to various elements of the selection process, AIbased technologies should be included in this list. Exploring perceptions of justice and fairness is a particularly promising area, as these have been found to predict organizational attractiveness, job purist, and acceptance intentions (McCarthy et al., 2017;Truxillo et al., 2009). Although AIbased systems may provide the consistency of evaluation that companies are looking for to maximize the validity of their selection systems (Lievens & Sackett, 2017), prediction and explainability are important features when considering the acceptance of AI technologies (Biran & Cotton, 2017). ...
Article
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This study investigates how information provided prior to the application stage of the selection process affects application intentions toward the job and organization. Existing research has focused on applicants who have already entered into the selection process; however, information revealed prior to application may cause candidates to self-select themselves out of the process. Utilizing a randomized experimental design, participants read a job ad specifying that their prerecorded interviews would be reviewed by a human or an artificial intelligence-based evaluator. The results show increased intentions to apply and pursue the job in the human evaluation condition.
... In reviewing the existing literature, Truxillo et al. (2009) found that many research studies adopted structure fairness explanations using either an excuse or a justification. It is notable that this fairness approach is most applicable to negative outcomes such as a job rejection or failing a test, as the counterfactual is not produced in situations where there is no apparent reason to blame others Truxillo et al., 2009). ...
... In reviewing the existing literature, Truxillo et al. (2009) found that many research studies adopted structure fairness explanations using either an excuse or a justification. It is notable that this fairness approach is most applicable to negative outcomes such as a job rejection or failing a test, as the counterfactual is not produced in situations where there is no apparent reason to blame others Truxillo et al., 2009). This accounts for why some researchers (e.g., Gilliland et al., 2001) in this field have used fairness theory focusing only on negative outcomes. ...
... A major strength of the pilot study was that it investigated real-life job applicants' reactions to feedback (outcome) using a field study something that has been called for in the literature (e.g., Truxillo et al., 2009). Therefore, such a study has more ecological validity than experimental or correlational study designs where researchers try to replicate a job setting artificially. ...
Article
A main aim of this doctoral research was to examine job applicant reactions towards online testing, and specifically different forms of feedback provision. As job recruitment is a `bilateral process` with the recruiters aiming to employ a candidate, and from the candidate`s perspective the feedback provision and selection process may indicate the employer`s future behaviour in determining whether they accept a job offer. The research is underpinned by organisational justice theory and by Gilliland’s (1993) organisational justice model. This model considers how elements of procedural and distributive justice interact and examines the effect such fairness reactions have in terms of individual and organisational outcomes. The research was designed to build on a literature review, followed by a pilot study to test several psychological constructs to explore applicant feelings in a field setting. This preliminary phase then informed the experimental phase. The first experiment compared applicant reactions to paper-and-pencil testing compared to online testing, and to positive and negative feedback. Having established no clear differences in test-takers fairness and justice reactions across mode of test administration on a verbal (i.e. comprehension) ability test, the second experiment then focused on test-reactions towards online testing which are nowadays more widely used in graduate recruitment. Interpersonal, non-interpersonal, and combined forms of feedback were manipulated, alongside three types of feedback messages (passed, reject no explanation, reject with explanation), after participants had undertaken two online tests. Perceived stress was found to increase when rejection was reinforced with an automated report compared to interpersonal feedback, whereas with a positive outcome there was decreased stress in the report condition. These findings suggest that personal communication is important when there is bad news. These insights paved the way for the field study. In this field study, candidates who had recently applied for a job position involving some aspect of online testing were invited to participate in a self-report survey. The aim of the study was to investigate feelings of fairness and justice, and to compare outcome favourability (job offer, rejection), and the effect of providing explanations (or no explanations) to candidates within a field setting. Findings revealed the applicants’ preference of holistic (overall performance) over mechanical (one aspect of performance) explanations of recruitment decisions, while perceptions of fairness and justice were based on outcome favourability. Furthermore, feedback acceptance fully mediated the effect of outcome favourability (job offer, rejection) and process fairness, clear and open manner, and organisational fulfilment obligations. Pertinently, providing an explanation of the recruitment decision resulted in lower stress irrespective of a positive or negative outcome. This finding suggests that an explanation of recruitment decisions can mitigate the psychological effects of rejection and enhance candidate reactions towards the recruiting organisation. In summary, this research has made some important contributions to the field of occupational selection by investigating applicant reactions to online testing. It has highlighted the importance of feedback and its beneficial psychological effect on applicants irrespective of decision outcome. This new insight allays fears of feedback having detrimental effects by recruiters, often due to litigation and image concerns. The research employed experimental and field studies to highlight these issues.
... For example, in computer science, there is a push toward explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), with the hope that making AI-based systems more understandable and transparent to people would increase system acceptance (Arrieta et al., 2020). Similar positions have been voiced in the area of personnel selection (Burns et al., 2008;McCarthy et al., 2017;Truxillo et al., 2009). According to the meta-analysis of Truxillo and colleagues (2009) telling applicants about what will be happening during personnel selection procedures (we call this process information) or why exactly it is a good idea to use this procedure and what is inferred by this procedure (we call this process justification) helps to improve applicant reactions. ...
... This indicates that automating job interviews has the potential to stimulate negative applicant reactions and there seems to be a strong need to mitigate such negative reactions. A prominent and promising way how to improve applicant reactions is the provision of additional information regarding selection methods (Truxillo et al., 2009). We thus chose to provide people in the current study with information before they would experience the automated selection situation. ...
... First, applicant reaction theories (e.g., Gilliland, 1993) suggest that information and transparency bear the potential to positively impact applicant reactions. Second, this assumption was tested many times and has received meta-analytical support (Truxillo et al., 2009) and has also received support for novel technology-based selection methods (Basch & Melchers, 2019). ...
Article
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Applicants seem to react negatively to artificial intelligence-based automated systems in personnel selection. This study investigates the impact of different pieces of information to alleviate applicant reactions in an automated interview setting. In a 2 (no process information vs. process information) × 2 (no process justification vs. process justification) between-subjects design, participants (N=124) received respective information and watched a video showing an automated interview. Testing mediation effects via different applicant reaction variables indicated that process justification is better than process information which can even impair applicant reactions. However, information did not increase organizational attractiveness compared to not receiving any information. This study thus sheds light onto what type of information contribute to positive and negative applicant reactions to automated systems. Note that this paper was originally included as a second study in our paper: Langer, M., König, C. J., & Fitili, A. (2018). Information as a double-edged sword: The role of computer experience and information on applicant reactions towards novel technologies for personnel selection. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 19-30. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2017.11.036
... However, no research to date has explored whether individuals consider gamified assessments hard to fake whereas scarce research has examined Gilliland's (1993) model of procedural fairness in a gamified assessment context. Moreover, findings from this research contribute to gamification and applicants' reactions theory, as the role of explanations -which are supported to improve applicants' reactions to other selection procedures (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009)is explored into a novel and timely assessment context. ...
... Specifically, we expect those perceptions to be higher among individuals completing the gamified SJT compared to those going through the text based SJT assessment, as the latter is deprived of the gaming environment that accounts for the aforementioned advantages Fetzer et al., 2017). Moreover, metanalytic findings indicated that explanations had a positive relationship with both fairness and organizational perceptions (such as organizational attractiveness) as well as testtaking motivation and performance on cognitive ability tests (Truxillo et al., 2009 we used a manipulation check measure that was adapted from Gilliland & Honig's (1994) ease of faking construct. In particular the following two items were used: "The information I received before the assessment explained that people may distort their responses in this test to make themselves look better." ...
... Previous research suggests that explanations on the reason of an event that is not obvious or familiar to candidates may generate positive reactions to them (Shaw, Wild & Colquitt, 2003;Truxillo, Bodner et al. al., 2009). As far as justice is concerned, previous studies have shown that providing explanations in the beginning of the selection process might affect candidates' perceptions of the existence or nonexistence of justice (Holtz et al., 2005;Horvath, Ryan, & Stierwalt, 2000;Truxillo et al., 2002;Van den Bos, Vermunt, & Wilke, 1997). ...
Article
Gamification is increasingly being used by organizations in hiring decisions. However, the use of gamification in assessment has advanced quicker than corresponding research. One area in need of research is how applicants' perceptions of fairness are formed when gamified assessments are used in employee selection. Therefore, two studies were conducted to explore the impact of using gamified assessments to applicants' justice perceptions and the role of providing explanations to applicants. Adopting an experimental design to explore organizational justice model in the context of gamified assessments, results indicated that individuals' perceptions of job relatedness are higher when a situational judgment tests (SJT) is used rather than a gamified version, leading to more positive perceptions of procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness (Study 1). The mediating effects of the procedural rules of ease of faking and opportunity to perform were not supported. Subsequently, a 2 × 2 design was used (Study 2) to explore the role of providing explanations. It seems that the provision of explanations on the assessment's faking difficulty generates more positive reactions towards gamified SJTs than text-based SJTs, in relation to ease of faking and procedural justice, and a spillover effect, invoking favorable reactions to the recruiting organization as well (Study 2).
... In previous studies, explanations turned out to be a cost-effective way to improve applicants' reactions to other selection procedures (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether explanations focussing on the apparent advantages of video interviews can also improve how they are perceived by potential applicants. ...
... Some explanations emphasize the job relevance of a selection procedure (e.g., Melchers & Körner, 2019), others provide details on the selection process, for example, what happens at what time (e.g., Truxillo, Bauer, Campion, & Paronto, 2002). The effects of explanations have been explored in various studies, and it has been found that in addition to improving perceptions of the selection process explanations can also lead to higher organizational attractiveness and improved behavioral intentions by applicants (Bauer, Maertz, Dolen, & Campion, 1998;Mc-Carthy, Bauer, Truxillo, Campion, et al., 2017;Truxillo et al., 2009). ...
... The results of our study show that explanations emphasizing the advantages of standardization and flexibility of video interviews can have positive effects on fairness perceptions and perceived usability and thereby also indirectly on applicant reactions. This is in line with previous evidence on the beneficial effects of explanations concerning other selection procedures (McCarthy, Bauer, Truxillo, Anderson, et al., 2017;Truxillo et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Asynchronous video interviews are used more and more for the preselection of potential job candidates. However, recent research has shown that they are less accepted by applicants than face-to-face interviews. Our study aimed to identify ways to improve perceptions of video interviews by using explanations that emphasize standardization and flexibility. Our results showed that an explanation stressing the higher level of standardization improved fairness perceptions, whereas an explanation stressing the flexibility concerning interview scheduling improved perceptions of usability. Additionally, the improvement of fairness perceptions eventually influenced perceived organizational attractiveness. Furthermore, older participants accepted video interviews less. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
... Therefore, differences in performance and perceived fairness may be more pronounced for older or non-academic job applicants. Furthermore, applicant reaction research has often revealed that real applicants show more pronounced responses in comparison to participants from simulated settings (e.g., Hausknecht et al., 2004;Truxillo et al., 2009). Thus, future research with real applicants is crucial to evaluate whether potential effects in high-stakes selection contexts are larger than in our study. ...
... Since evidence has shown that such expectations can affect several other important perceptions and intentions (Bell et al., 2006), organizations might have to pay a price that impairs the recruitment function of their interviews if they ignore applicants' preferences for FTF interview. Fortunately, however, previous research on the effects of explanations (Truxillo et al., 2009) suggests that explanations that provide a justification concerning the use of a selection procedure or that stress its advantages are often a suitable way to address applicants' concerns. In line with this research, recent evidence has shown that such explanations can also improve perceptions of technology-mediated interviews (Basch and Melchers, 2019). ...
Article
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Organizations increasingly use technology-mediated interviews. However, only limited research is available concerning the comparability of different interview media and most of the available studies stem from a time when technology-mediated interviews were less common than in the present time. In an experiment using simulated selection interviews, we compared traditional face-to-face (FTF) interviews with telephone and videoconference interviews to determine whether ratings of interviewees' performance, their perceptions of the interview, or their strain and anxiety are affected by the type of interview. Before participating in the actual interview, participants had a more positive view of FTF interviews compared to technology-mediated interviews. However, fairness perceptions did not differ anymore after the interview. Furthermore, there were no differences between the three interview media concerning psychological and physiological indicators of strain or interview anxiety. Nevertheless, ratings of interviewees' performance were lower in the technology-mediated interviews than in FTF interviews. Thus, differences between different interview media can still be found nowadays even though most applicants are much more familiar with technology-mediated communication than in the past. The results show that organizations should take this into account and therefore avoid using different interview media when they interview different applicants for the same job opening.
... This is primarily because data from actual applicants are difficult to obtain. Nevertheless, this gap is problematic, as existing findings may misrepresent the magnitude of the relationships found among actual applicants (Chapman et al., 2005;Truxillo et al., 2009), hindering the advancement of theoretical models that reflect reality and limiting practical application. ...
... two-tailed. 10 We anticipate that interview anxiety levels will be higher given that we are examining real applicants applying for actual positions in the midst of a pandemic (c.f., Chapman et al., 2005;Truxillo et al., 2009). In support of this proposition, the levels of anxiety we obtained (M = 2.89, SD = 1.14) are significantly higher than Melchers et al. (2021), who examined 32 students undergoing a mock virtual interview prior to the pandemic and found average anxiety levels of 2.22 (SD = .52; ...
Article
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Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Throughout the previous two decades, applicants and reactions have been considered to be of key interest. During this time, the facts and figures of main investigations, narrative criticisms (Chan & Schmitt, 2004;Ryan & Ployhart, 2000), and meta-analyses (Anderson, Salgado et al., 2010;Truxillo, Bodner et al., 2009) were issued, and studies on applicant reactions were established as a point of focus. These studies have provided us with applicants' reactions to and perceptions of companies and their hiring processes, with support provided from dissimilar states, and through offering administrations with research on applicant responses upon which they can detrack from their hiring system. ...
... The recommendations that have been made have to be considered under certain limitations. First, the majority of applicants in this study were young and a criticism of using young people or students is that they may not be familiar with selection techniques (Truxillo, Bodner et al., 2009). In addition, this study consists of a sample of graduates, undergraduates and employed grownup in a nation where candidate perspective research values are diverse as compared to other nations. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to investigate applicants’ reactions towards different personnel selection methods used in Pakistan. A sample of 149 undergraduates, graduates, and working adults rated their perceptions of the favorability and fairness of these personnel selection methods, namely: resumes, job knowledge tests, biographical information, interviews, personal references, work-sample tests, personality tests, written ability tests, personal contacts, and situational judgment tests. Our first research objective is to provide details about applicant reactions, detailed system of the same and methods on a range based on working adults, graduates, and undergraduates. The second major objective is to identify the interaction effects of favorability and system fairness based upon applicant reactions. Descriptive data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS and the data was collected from Lahore, Islamabad, and Jhelum. The results demonstrated that 112 applicants reported the most favorable rating reaction towards the interview personnel selection method, with the effectiveness of identifying qualified people for the job, while 101 applicants reported a favorable rating reaction towards job knowledge tests, noting the fairness of this procedure. In addition, implications for the current assessment of selection practices from the applicants’ viewpoints, the strengths and limitations of the study, and directions for future research are all discussed. The practices of different predictor methods are considered in the conclusion.
... Additionally, not only the comparability of the different instruments might play a role, but also the comparability of the descriptions used in our study. Although we tried to standardize the descriptions as far as possible, stressing different advantageous aspects of an instrument might lead to improved applicant reactions (Truxillo et al., 2009). ...
... However, in view of the lack of dissemination of AVIs, it is conceivable that raising awareness of the technology among applicants could reduce some of the concerns. Furthermore, as has already been shown meta-analytically (Truxillo et al., 2009), it can be helpful to explain the advantages of selection procedures to actual applicants, as this can help to improve perceptions and indirectly also applicant reactions such as the acceptance of a job offer or recommendation intentions (also see Basch & Melchers, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) are increasingly used to preselect applicants. Previous research found that interviewees are more skeptical of these interviews compared to other forms of interviews. However, comparing AVIs to other interviews is not completely appropriate because of their lack of interactivity and their use during earlier stages of the selection process. Therefore, we compared perceptions of AVIs with perceptions of other preselection tools (online cognitive ability tests and online application documents). Compared to other preselection instruments, potential applicants do not have more skeptical fairness perceptions of AVIs. However, we found differences for perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, privacy concerns, and perceptions of organizational attractiveness. Organizations can take this into account when choosing how to preselect their applicants. Asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) are perceived more skeptical than other forms of interviews However, AVIs are mainly used for the preselection of applicants and not to replace synchronous interviews that are used during later stages of the selection process Compared to other preselection instruments (online cognitive ability tests and online application documents), AVIs are perceived as equally fair but differ in terms of usability, privacy concerns, the potential use of impression management, and their effects on organizational attractiveness Therefore, organizations should take this into account when choosing how to preselect their applicants Asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) are perceived more skeptical than other forms of interviews However, AVIs are mainly used for the preselection of applicants and not to replace synchronous interviews that are used during later stages of the selection process Compared to other preselection instruments (online cognitive ability tests and online application documents), AVIs are perceived as equally fair but differ in terms of usability, privacy concerns, the potential use of impression management, and their effects on organizational attractiveness Therefore, organizations should take this into account when choosing how to preselect their applicants
... In contrast, adding information, explanations, and justification for AI-based decisions might increase perceived informational justice (but see Schlicker et al., 2021, who found no effect of an explanation on information justice perceptions in an AI-based decision scenario). In cases where affected people understand the reasons behind a decision, they might even be more likely to accept even unfavorable outcomes (Truxillo et al., 2009). Additionally, better understanding of decision processes might lead to more favorable perceptions of procedural justice as people are better able to identify if a process was unbiased and consistent for all people (Lind & van den Bos, 2002). ...
... They argue that people might not even expect explanations by AI-based systems in contrast to cases where humans make decisions. Thus, it remains unclear if and under what conditions a better understanding of AI-based decisions actually translates to further desired outcomes and if results from research in traditional human-based decision scenarios (e.g., from organizational justice literature; Shaw et al., 2003;Truxillo et al., 2009) will be transferable to research on AI-based decisions. Additional research questions might be: Does better understanding of AI-based systems really contribute to human-AI team performance? ...
Chapter
Machine learning (ML) approaches, a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI), promise advancements in the field of personnel selection. This chapter introduces ML approaches to personnel selection practitioners and researchers in a non-technical way. We review the empirical research to date, specifically research that has looked at the potentials of ML approaches (in particular the increased prediction power) as well as the challenges and disadvantages of such approaches. We explain that the assumption of bias-free ML approaches is unwarranted, and that there might be negative reactions among applicants and users. We close this chapter by providing suggestions for highly needed research to demonstrate the validity of ML approaches to selection, to analyse the human-AI interface, and to more closely examine the reactions of applicants, users, and further stakeholders.
... An explanation that accompanies a salary offer may help persuade the other party of the merits of the offer. Meta-analytic reviews have reported positive effects of explanations on various attitudinal measures (Shaw et al., 2003;Truxillo et al., 2009), suggesting that explanations may help in negotiations. ...
... Although meta-analytic reviews have reported positive effects of explanations on various attitudinal measures (Shaw et al., 2003;Truxillo et al., 2009), the explanation that accompanied salary offers in Study 1 had little impact on the results. We conducted a second study 3 to compare a disparagement rationale to a constraint rationale (Lee & Ames, 2017). ...
Article
Two studies were conducted which examined explanations and precise anchors on counteroffers and perceptions in a salary negotiation. Study 1 found that precise offers reduced counteroffers compared to round offers, but explanations focused on internal equity concerns or external equity concerns had no effect on counteroffers. Study 2 also found that precise offers reduced counteroffers compared to round offers. Explanations, which were manipulated to focus on constraint or disparagement rationales, failed to affect counteroffers, but a constraint explanation led to higher attributions of competence compared to a disparagement explanation or no explanation. These results suggest that precise offers are an effective tactic for reducing counteroffers and that explanations are relatively unimportant. Further research is needed to determine under what conditions an explanation may improve or harm negotiation outcomes.
... Ακόμη, άλλοι παράγοντες που επιδρούν στις αντιλήψεις των υποψηφίων σχετίζονται με οργανωσιακές λειτουργίες. Συγκεκριμένα, η παροχή εξηγήσεων, ειδικά σε περίπτωση απόρριψης, από τα τμήματα ΔΑΔ επεμβαίνει στην διαμόρφωση της αντιλαμβανόμενης δικαιοσύνης και ορίζει την οργανωσιακή ελκυστικότητα (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009), η οποία σχετίζεται με τον σχηματισμό μιας θετικής εικόνας για τον οργανισμό (λ.χ., μέσω της εταιρικής υπευθυνότητας) και οδηγεί σε ευμενή στάση των υποψηφίων (Nikolaou & Georgiou, 2018 ...
Chapter
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Ο ρόλος της τεχνολογίας και πιο συγκεκριμένα των ιστοσελίδων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης έχει αναδειχθεί ιδιαίτερα τα τελευταία χρόνια στις διαδικασίες προσέλκυσης και επιλογής ανθρώπινου δυναμικού των οργανισμών. Επίσης, ο ρόλος του υποψήφιου και ο τρόπος που αντιλαμβάνεται και αξιολογεί τις παραπάνω διαδικασίες έχει λάβει αυξανόμενη προσοχή, όχι μόνο σε ερευνητικό αλλά και σε πρακτικό επίπεδο. Στο παρόν κεφάλαιο θα μελετήσουμε διεξοδικά τόσο τον ρόλο των ιστοσελίδων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης αλλά και των αντιδράσεων των υποψηφίων αλλά και πώς αυτά αλληλοεπιδρούν επηρεάζοντας τελικά την αποτελεσματικότητα των μεθόδων προσέλκυσης και επιλογής. Δίνεται ιδιαίτερη έμφαση στον ρόλο της τεχνολογίας και των νέων μεθόδων επιλογής, ταυτόχρονα με μια αναλυτική προσέγγιση των σημαντικότερων θεωρητικών προσεγγίσεων που έχουν επηρεάσει αυτούς του δύο σημαντικούς χώρους έρευνας και πρακτικής.
... The websites should clearly describe what factors will exclude someone from qualifying and explain how each selection criterion is linked to KSAOs identified by the job analysis. As we have stated above, clear descriptions of selection criteria will effectively manage applicants' expectations, provide transparency in how the selection process operates, and promote public trust in the fairness 12 and effectiveness of the process (see Truxillo et al., 2009 and, for more on the importance of this). Clear communication of what criteria or factors can disqualify applicants and lead to non-selection can also save the city's resources and applicants' expenses. ...
... Ακόμη, άλλοι παράγοντες που επιδρούν στις αντιλήψεις των υποψηφίων σχετίζονται με οργανωσιακές λειτουργίες. Συγκεκριμένα, η παροχή εξηγήσεων, ειδικά σε περίπτωση απόρριψης, από τα τμήματα ΔΑΔ επεμβαίνει στην διαμόρφωση της αντιλαμβανόμενης δικαιοσύνης και ορίζει την οργανωσιακή ελκυστικότητα (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009), η οποία σχετίζεται με τον σχηματισμό μιας θετικής εικόνας για τον οργανισμό (λ.χ., μέσω της εταιρικής υπευθυνότητας) και οδηγεί σε ευμενή στάση των υποψηφίων (Nikolaou & Georgiou, 2018 ...
... Another practical implication of this scale is that applicants have concerns not only in the moment of providing their information, but also about the long-term storage of it, that is, concerns about data misuse and improper storage. Importantly, employers may be reasonably able to appease these concerns by using explanations, which have been useful in the context of justifying preemployment assessments (McCarthy, et al., 2017b;Truxillo et al., 2009) to minimize existing privacy concerns. However, we caution that these explanations should be utilized and included only to the extent that an organization is able to ensure the security of applicant information from both a technical misuse (e.g., preventing hacking) and purposeful misuse (e.g., sharing poor test scores or personal information with other parties) standpoint. ...
... To maximise engagement, make sure the process and purpose of testing is clearly explained to each test-taker. Consistent with this, a metaanalysis by Truxillo et al. (2009) indicated that job applicant motivation and performance were positively associated with explanations as to the job relevance of their selection procedures, such as testing. ...
Article
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Psychometric testing is considered as the intersection of the fields of psychology and business, with potential benefits to both employees and employers. Recommendations for maximising contributions of occupational testing are presented. These are evaluated across five phases of the assessment process. The first is choosing a test, bearing in mind both psychometric and practical qualities of measures. Next, ways to increase positive responses to testing are discussed. The process of administration is examined, with suggestions for improved accuracy. Recommendations for score interpretation are provided, taking measurement error into account. Finally, implications for communicating test results are drawn. It is explained that these facets of psychometric testing are key in ensuring accurate, meaningful and trustworthy workplace measurement.
... Transparency of a situation is given if people understand what is going on during this situation (Truxillo et al., 2009;McCarthy et al., 2017). In contrast, if people conceive that there is something shady about the situation or that they do not see through a situation, this reduces transparency. ...
Article
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When people interact with novel technologies (e.g., robots, novel technological tools), the word "creepy" regularly pops up. We define creepy situations as eliciting uneasy feelings and involving ambiguity (e.g., on how the behave or how to judge the situation). A common metric for creepiness would help evaluating creepiness of situations and developing adequate interventions against creepiness. Following psychometrical guidelines, we developed the Creepiness of Situation Scale (CRoSS) across four studies with a total of N = 882 American and German participants. In Studies 1-3, participants watched a video of a creepy situation involving technology. Study 1 used exploratory factor analysis in an American sample and showed that creepiness consists of emotional creepiness and creepy ambiguity. In a German sample, Study 2 confirmed these subdimensions. Study 3 supported validity of the CRoSS as creepiness correlated positively with privacy concerns and computer anxiety, but negatively with controllability and transparency. Study 4 used the scale in a 2 (male vs. female experimenter) × 2 (male vs. female participant) × 2 (day vs. night) field study to demonstrate its usefulness for non-technological settings and its sensitivity to theory-based predictions. Results indicate that participants contacted by an experimenter at night-time reported higher feelings of creepiness. Overall, these studies suggest that the CRoSS is a psychometrically sound measure for research and practice.
... 2.3. The impact of candidate perceptions of procedural justice on withdrawal intention Gilliland (1993) proposed that job candidates' perceptions of justice in selection procedures directly influence their subsequent attitudes and behaviours both during and after hiring, such as intentions to accept a job offer, recommend the employer to others, and reapply (see Hausknecht, Day, & Thomas, 2004;Konradt et al., 2013;Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). According to signalling theory (Celani & Singh, 2011), because candidates have limited information about employers, they develop expectations for how an employer treats employees based on their impressions from the selection process (Allen, Mahto, & Otondo, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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This study examined passive job seekers’ reactions to pre-employment screening on Facebook. We found that the passive job seekers whose Facebook was screened by a potential employer felt their privacy had been invaded, resulting in lower both procedural justice and the job-pursuit intentions throughout the result of PLS-SEM analysis. Moreover, the perception of procedural justice partially mediated the relationship between perceived privacy violation and job pursuit intention. Although organization attractiveness was associated with job pursuit intention, it did not have significant moderating effect in this study.
... Les informations sur le processus de sélection : il est important pour les candidats d'avoir des informations sur le processus de sélection, ainsi que sur la façon dont la décision de sélection sera prise (Bies & Moag, 1986). Dans une méta-analyse, Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, et Yonce (2009) montrent un effet des explications données sur les perceptions de justice des candidats, cela indépendamment du résultat (positif ou négatif) de la procédure de recrutement. Beaucoup de recherches ont porté sur les informations données au cours de la procédure de sélection, mais les résultats sont mitigés et les effets sont assez faibles . ...
... The role of providing explanations to applicants has been studied in the applicant reactions literature. In a meta-analysis conducted by Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, and Yonce (2009) the authors made the distinction between "structure" and "social fairness," with the former emphasizing the job-related and procedural characteristics of the selection method, whereas the latter focuses on issues such as the interpersonal sensitivity and the justification provided before or after the selection decisions are made. The meta-analytic evidence demonstrated the existence of positive associations between explanations and most applicant reactions outcomes (perceived fairness, organizational perceptions, test performance, testtaking motivation). ...
... Furthermore, the growing research into applicant reaction has made possible several meta-analytic reviews (i.e. Anderson et al., 2010;Chapman et al., 2005;Hausknecht et al., 2004;McGonigle et al., 2004;Shaw et al., 2003;Truxillo et al., 2009). These meta-analytic reviews not only support the previous models that show applicant reaction is affected by several antecedents and further affect several outcomes, but they also illustrate the potential moderator/mediator variables into applicant reaction to selection process such as interviewers' personality and behaviours, other interview processes (i.e. ...
Conference Paper
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Selecting potential applicants to be hired as employee is never an easy task for the organization. Many organizations ignore the importance of applicant perspective in personnel selection process. Growing research in this area has made possible development of theories and models of applicant reaction. In spite of this, there is no one comprehensive theory or model that can explain the issue. The objective of this paper is to provide scientific and Islamic perspectives of applicant reaction to selection process. This is a theoretical paper based on theories and models of applicant reaction literature. First, the paper will offer an Islamic overview on the concept of da'wah in reference to inquiries by potential muslims and potential du'at. Second, the paper will evaluate the theories and models of applicant reaction from scientific and Islamic perspectives. The Islamic perspective will include Quranic verses, Prophetic Hadiths, and stories of past Prophets and the Companions using terms familiar to Industrial/ Organizational (I/O) psychology. Third, the paper will suggest an integrated model of applicant reaction to selection process from an Islamic perspective that includes the element of soul as an important variable. Finally, the paper intends to show that applying the theories and models of applicant reaction in personnel selection process can help us fulfil our role as the vicegerent of Allah (khilafah role) by improving the effectiveness of ourdàwah (propagating Islam in organization) and tarbiyah (organizational training). In addition, the paper also intend to show that understanding the issue of applicant reaction to selection process can lead us to appreciate more the oneness and greatness of Allah and helps us fulfil our role as his servant (`ibadah role) in a better way.
... A potentially suitable way to do this could be to provide applicants with a suitable explanation for the use of a given kind of interview. Because explanations have turned out to be a good method to improve applicants' reactions to selection procedures (Truxillo et al., 2009), they could be used to emphasize the advantages of technology-mediated interviews for both the applicant and the organization. Furthermore, for the less familiar and less common asynchronous interviews it might be especially helpful to include explanations to reduce applicants' uncertainty (cf. ...
Article
Videoconference interviews and asynchronous interviews are increasingly used to select applicants. However, recent research has found that technology-mediated interviews are less accepted by applicants compared to face-to-face (FTF) interviews. The reasons for these differences have not yet been clarified. Therefore, the present study takes a closer look at potential reasons that have been suggested in previous research. The present study surveyed 154 working individuals who answered questions concerning their perceptions of FTF, videoconference, and asynchronous interviews in terms of perceived fairness, social presence, and the potential use of impression management tactics. Furthermore, potential attitudinal and personality correlates were also measured. Technology-mediated interviews were perceived as less fair than FTF interviews and this difference was stronger for asynchronous interviews than for videoconference interviews. The perceived social presence and the possible use of impression management followed the same pattern. Furthermore, differences in fairness perceptions were mediated by perceived social presence and the possible use of impression management tactics. Additionally, affinity for technology and core self-evaluations correlated positively with perceptions of videoconference interviews but not with those of FTF and asynchronous interviews. This is the first study to compare fairness perceptions of FTF, videoconference, and asynchronous interviews and to confirm previous assumptions that potential applicants perceive technology-mediated interviews as less favorable because of impairments in social presence and the potential use of impression management.
... The development of perceptions of the organizational image does not stop with the recruitment phase, but continues throughout the process of the initial screening of individuals as well, as the making of a job offer (Bauer et al., 2001;Bauer, Maertz, Dolen, & Campion, 1998;Hausknecht, Day, & Thomas, 2004;Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). Models of applicant reactions have emphasized the role of justice perceptions (Hausknecht et al., 2004;Ryan & Ployhart, 2000), although few published studies have specifically studied how the candidate experience works in a selection context. ...
... The applicants in Study 2 had a lot more at stake than the MTurk participants in Study 1 and may therefore have been more sensitive to the types of selection instruments used during the selection process. Indeed, previous studies have shown that selection process characteristics have a different effect in a lab vs. an actual selection context (e.g., Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). Second, our results among actual applicants render support to Brockner et al.'s (2001) argument that the less familiar an applicant is with a certain selection procedure, the less legitimate the procedure will appear. ...
Article
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Applicant fairness perceptions of asynchronous job interviews were assessed among panelists (Study 1, N = 160) and highly educated actual applicants (Study 2, N = 103). Furthermore, we also examined whether personality explained applicants’ perceptions. Participants, particularly actual applicants, had negative perceptions of the fairness and procedural justice of asynchronous job interviews. Extraverted applicants perceived more opportunity to perform with the asynchronous job interview than introverts. A trait interaction between Neuroticism and Extraversion was tested, but no significant results were found. Although the first selection stage is increasingly digitized, this study shows that applicant perceptions of asynchronous job interviews are relatively negative. The influence of personality on these perceptions appears to be limited.
... Providing applicants with explanations has been proven to be a cost-effective way to improve applicant reactions (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, & Yonce, 2009). However, research on explanations and applicant reactions has mostly focused on the viewpoint of recruiters by examining what types of explanations could lead to the most positive applicant reactions (e.g. ...
Article
Drawing from regulatory fit theory and the literature on persuasion, the current study is the first to explore whether the fit between explanation framing and applicants’ regulatory foci could enhance applicant reaction. We hypothesized that a positively framed explanation fits with applicants’ promotion foci and that a negatively framed explanation fits with applicants’ prevention foci. Three studies were conducted in which participants with different regulatory foci rated their perceived procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness after reading differently framed recruitment advertisements, rejection letters, and job offer letters. The results supported our hypothesis by showing significant interactions between explanation framing and participants’ regulatory foci on procedural fairness and organizational attractiveness perception in the contexts of recruitment advertising and rejection letters. In these contexts, compared with receiving a negatively framed explanation, promotion-focused recipients reported higher levels of perceived fairness and organizational attractiveness after receiving a positively framed explanation, and promotion-focused recipients’ fairness and attractiveness perceptions were higher than prevention-focused recipients’, after receiving a positively framed explanation. Moreover, perceived procedural fairness mediated the relationship between regulatory fit and perceived organizational attractiveness. However, regulatory fit effects were not found in the context of job offer letters.
... First, it does not only affect what needs to be explained. For example, before the hiring process, applicants might want to know which kind of information will be evaluated by the system and be interested in how to improve for their next selection process [33]. Second, different contexts may place constraints on the explanation generation process or the form of acceptable explanations. ...
Conference Paper
Recent research efforts strive to aid in designing explainable systems. Nevertheless, a systematic and overarching approach to ensure explainability by design is still missing. Often it is not even clear what precisely is meant when demanding explainability. To address this challenge, we investigate the elicitation, specification, and verification of explainablity as a Non-Functional Requirement (NFR) with the long-term vision of establishing a standardized certification process for the explainability of software-driven systems in tandem with appropriate development techniques. In this work, we carve out different notions of explainability and high-level requirements people have in mind when demanding explainability, and sketch how explainability concerns may be approached in a hypothetical hiring scenario. We provide a conceptual analysis which unifies the different notions of explainability and the corresponding explainability demands.
... Given the novelty of AVIs, providing justifications or information to candidates is likely important. In support of this, research demonstrates that in general, explanations can influence applicant perceptions of fairness and the organization, as well as their motivation to perform, especially in field settings (Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, and Yonce, 2009). In line with Gilliland's (1993) consistency of administration element, participants asked to imagine completing an AVI rated fairness higher when interview standardization was emphasized (Basch and Melchers, 2019). ...
Article
Asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) are a form of one-way, technology-mediated, selection interviewing that continue to grow in popularity. An AVI is a broad method that varies substantially in design and execution. Despite being adopted by many organizations, human resources professionals, and hiring managers, research on AVIs is lagging far behind practice. Empirical evidence is scarce and conceptual work to guide research efforts and best practice recommendations is lacking. We propose a framework for examining the role and impact of specific design features of AVIs, building on theories of justice-based applicant reactions, social presence, interview anxiety, and impression management. More precisely, our framework highlights how pre-interview design decisions by organizations and completion decisions by applicants can influence reactions and behaviors during the interview, as well as post-interview outcomes. As such, we offer an agenda of the central topics that need to be addressed, and a set of testable propositions to guide future research.
... Furthermore, given the obvious practical advantages of videoconference interviews such as their higher flexibility, it might be helpful to stress these advantages to applicants. Specifically, meta-analytic evidence by Truxillo, Bodner, Bertolino, Bauer, and Yonce (2009) found that giving an explanation concerning the advantages of selection instruments can improve applicant reactions on these instruments. Thus, explanations might also be a viable option to improve applicant perceptions of these interviews and their reactions to the selection process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to technological progress, videoconference interviews have become more and more common in personnel selection. Nevertheless, even in recent studies, interviewees received lower performance ratings in videoconference interviews than in face-to-face (FTF) interviews and interviewees held more negative perceptions of these interviews. However, the reasons for these differences are unclear. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with 114 participants to compare FTF and videoconference interviews regarding interview performance and fairness perceptions and we investigated the role of social presence, eye contact, and impression management for these differences. As in other studies, ratings of interviewees' performance were lower in the videoconference interview. Differences in perceived social presence, perceived eye contact, and impression management contributed to these effects. Furthermore, live ratings of interviewees' performance were higher than ratings based on recordings. Additionally, videoconference interviews induced more privacy concerns but were perceived as more flexible. Organizations should take the present results into account and should not use both types of interviews in the same selection stage.
... K. Lee et al., 2019). Moreover, even if automated systems could provide adequate explanations regarding their outputs, it is not clear whether findings regarding the effects of information and explanation that predominantly stem from the context of human decision-making (Shaw et al., 2003;Truxillo et al., 2009) translate to the context of automated decision-making (Langer et al., 2018, Newman et al., 2020. ...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in artificial intelligence contribute to increasing automation of decisions. In a healthcare-scheduling context, this study compares effects of decision agents and explanations for decisions on decision-recipients’ perceptions of justice. In a 2 (decision agent: automated vs. human) × 3 (explanation: no explanation vs. equality-explanation vs. equity-explanation) between-subjects online study, 209 healthcare professionals were asked to put themselves in a situation where their vacation request was denied by either a human or an automated agent. Participants either received no explanation or an explanation based on equality or equity norms. Perceptions of interpersonal justice were stronger for the human agent. Additionally, participants perceived human agents as offering more voice and automated agents as being more consistent in decision-making. When given no explanation, perceptions of informational justice were impaired only for the human decision agent. In the study’s second part, participants took the perspective of a decision-maker and were given the choice to delegate decision-making to an automated system. Participants who delegated an unpleasant decision to the system frequently externalized responsibility and showed different response patterns when confronted by a decision-recipient who asked for a rationale for the decision.
... We also document that applicants may be discouraged from applying for another role at the same employer if the employer does not explain a rejection decision. Earlier research has documented similar behavior [17]. Rapid feedback increases the likelihood of future applications [5] and female applicants are less likely to apply again after being rejected [4]. ...
Preprint
Rejected job applicants seldom receive explanations from employers. Techniques from Explainable AI (XAI) could provide explanations at scale. Although XAI researchers have developed many different types of explanations, we know little about the type of explanations job applicants want. We use a survey of recent job applicants to fill this gap. Our survey generates three main insights. First, the current norm of, at most, generic feedback frustrates applicants. Second, applicants feel the employer has an obligation to provide an explanation. Third, job applicants want to know why they were unsuccessful and how to improve.
... For classical personnel selection approaches, providing applicants with information and explanations was found to be a promising strategy in improving applicant reactions (Truxillo et al., 2009). However, in the case of AI for personnel selection, this might not be the case. ...
Chapter
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Machine learning (ML) approaches, a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI), promise advancements in the field of personnel selection. This chapter introduces ML approaches to personnel selection practitioners and researchers in a non-technical way. We review the empirical research to date, specifically research that has looked at the potentials of ML approaches (in particular the increased prediction power) as well as the challenges and disadvantages of such approaches. We explain that the assumption of bias-free ML approaches is unwarranted, and that there might be negative reactions among applicants and users. We close this chapter by providing suggestions for highly needed research to demonstrate the validity of ML approaches to selection, to analyse the human-AI interface, and to more closely examine the reactions of applicants, users, and further stakeholders.
... Research has established that providing employees with a truthful and realistic justification (e.g. financial difficulties) is most likely to reduce employees' negative reactions (Henderson et al., 2020;Truxillo et al., 2009). Supervisors must also monitor and understand employees' PC and expectations so that the employees do not form unrealistic expectations or misinterpret communication by the supervisor/ organization. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing upon social exchange theory and psychological contract (PC) research, this study aims to examine the impact of supervisors' fulfillment/non-fulfillment of transactional psychological contract (TPC) and relational psychological contract (RPC) promises on employees' reactions (e.g. feelings of violation, trust in the supervisor and organizational commitment) in a non-Western context, namely, the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach An experimental field design was used with a sample of employees ( N = 234) from a wide range of nationalities and work backgrounds. Four conditions were developed by manipulating the fulfillment of three TPC promises (e.g. competitive salary) and three RPC promises (e.g. sufficient power and responsibility). Participants were randomly assigned to the four conditions and asked to complete the study materials as if they were experiencing a real employment situation with a real organization. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up univariate analysis with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons. Findings This study demonstrated that a supervisor's failure to fulfill promises pertinent to both TPC and RPC, or one of them, generated negative reactions among participants. Based on a comparison of means analysis, this study also established that breach of TPC promises produced a higher negative impact than breach of RPC promises on perceptions of breach, feelings of violation, trust in the supervisor, organizational perceptions, organizational commitment and recommendation intentions. Furthermore, these findings revealed that a supervisor's breach of RPC promises has no significant incremental (additive) effect above a supervisor's breach of TPC promises. On the other hand, a supervisor's breach of TPC promises has a significant incremental (additive) effect above a supervisor's breach of RPC promises. Originality/value This study is one of the very few studies that examined and established, under a controlled setting, the differential effects of fulfillment/non-fulfillment of both TPC and RPC promises on employees' breach perceptions, emotions, attitudes and behavioral intentions.
... Furthermore, there is also evidence from other studies that differences in applicant perceptions of different interview situations are smaller after participants had completed the actual interview than before . Nevertheless, possible negative effects should be taken into account when applying warnings in high-stakes settings because applicant reactions can be considerably more pronounced in field settings than in simulated lab settings (e.g., Truxillo et al., 2009). For face-to-face interviews, we found that objective questions had little impact on applicant reactions and a personable interviewer-obviously-even had a positive effect on applicant reactions. ...
Article
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Many applicants use faking in interviews to present themselves more favorably than they really are. There is widespread concern that this may affect interview validity. As previous research on countermeasures is sparse, we conducted an exploratory study to identify the most promising countermeasures. For technology‐mediated interviews, these were warnings referring to a criterion‐based content analysis and lie detection algorithms focusing on nonverbal or paraverbal cues. For face‐to‐face interviews, these were objective questions and a personable interviewer. We then investigated the effects of these countermeasures on faking intentions in two experimental vignette studies and on faking in another simulated interview study. However, none of the countermeasures could reduce faking intentions or faking. Additionally, in the vignette studies, warnings impaired applicant reactions. There is the fear that faking can jeopardize the criterion‐related validity of selection interviews. Faking in interviews can hardly be detected, which is why we investigated potential countermeasures to prevent faking. In three experiments, none of the different countermeasures were effective in reducing faking intentions or faking. Warnings against faking in interviews partially led to negative applicant reactions. There is the fear that faking can jeopardize the criterion‐related validity of selection interviews. Faking in interviews can hardly be detected, which is why we investigated potential countermeasures to prevent faking. In three experiments, none of the different countermeasures were effective in reducing faking intentions or faking. Warnings against faking in interviews partially led to negative applicant reactions.
... Basch and Melchers (2019) also showed that explanations can improve applicant reactions toward selection methods, including fairness perceptions and perceived OA. This is also in line with the procedural justice rules proposed by Gilliland (1993; for a meta-analysis see Truxillo et al., 2009), especially with the explanation dimension. A process is well explained when both timely and useful information about upcoming procedures is provided, when decisions are justified, and when the information provided is truthful. ...
Article
Full-text available
How applicants’ perceptions of organizational attractiveness (OA) change over the recruitment process and whether OA, once lost, can ever be regained, has hardly been investigated. Therefore, drawing on organizational justice and signaling theories, we examined the effects of treatment (fair vs. unfair), re-evaluation (positive vs. negative), and outcome (offer vs. rejection) on OA. Results from a multiple-segment factorial vignette study (N = 193 employees) showed a reduction in OA (67%) after applicants were treated unfairly. Up to 24% of this loss was regained in subsequent stages through positive re-evaluation and by being offered a job. The results also showed a reduction in OA (52%) for applicants who were treated fairly but re-evaluated their experience negatively and received a rejection. Thus, one good experience may not be enough to attract applicants, and understanding the combined effect of experiences is even more important than understanding the effect of a single experience.
... Ensuring that the organizations acquire the right types of employees at the right time is the pivotal and challenging task of recruitment and selection function (Absar, 2012;Van Hoye, 2013). As a result, recruitment and selection of employees have been an important focus of both academics and practitioners (Truxillo et al., 2009;Konradt, et al., 2017). The aspect of recruitment and selection that attracts the most research interest so far is applicants' justice perceptions in selection settings and subsequent outcomes (Gilliland, 1993;Ryan and Ployhart, 2000;Ployhart and Harold, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and purpose : In recruitment and selection, job applicants do not only base their justice judgment on the actual experience but also compare what happens and what they expect. This study, therefore, investigates applicants’ reaction to procedural justice in recruitment selection through the lens of psychological contract framework. Psychological contract theory highlights the role of expectations, discrepancies between perception and expectation, and perceived contract breach on individual outcomes. Methodology : Two surveys were conducted with job seekers in Vietnam, one before and one after the selection process. Printed questionnaires were administered to job seekers in the first survey, while the second used online survey. Structural Equation Modeling technique was adopted to analyze the data. Results: Data from a sample of 232 job seekers indicated that previous job experience and source of candidates were significantly related to justice expectations. In addition, perceived unmet expectations were found to predict procedural contract breach, which in turn negatively influenced job acceptance intention and recommendation intention. Conclusion: The research highlights the role of unmet justice expectation, the perceived discrepancy between what happened and what was supposed to be, in predicting intention to accept offer and to recommend others. The results suggest that firms should provide updated and official information regarding the selection process to all parties such as internal employees, recruitment agency and job search website to reduce over-expectation.
... Another practical implication of this scale is that applicants have concerns not only in the moment of providing their information, but also about the long-term storage of it, that is, concerns about data misuse and improper storage. Importantly, employers may be reasonably able to appease these concerns by using explanations, which have been useful in the context of justifying preemployment assessments (McCarthy, et al., 2017b;Truxillo et al., 2009) to minimize existing privacy concerns. However, we caution that these explanations should be utilized and included only to the extent that an organization is able to ensure the security of applicant information from both a technical misuse (e.g., preventing hacking) and purposeful misuse (e.g., sharing poor test scores or personal information with other parties) standpoint. ...
Article
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This study describes the development and validation of the Privacy and Data Security Concerns Scale (PDSCS), designed to assess job applicants’ privacy and data security concerns. Validity evidence for the PDSCS was established with four steps including: item generation and content validation, item reduction, confirmatory factor analysis, and construct and criterion validity. Our findings supported the content and proposed factor structure of the nine‐item PDSCS. Specifically, the proposed three‐factor structure (with the subdimensions: Secure connection, inappropriate use of information, and mistrust in employer security practices) as well as a second‐order factor, (termed privacy and data security concerns) were confirmed. Additionally, evidence is presented for the criterion validity of the PDSCS and its subdimensions.
Chapter
Das Interview ist eine altbewährte und effektive Methode der Personalauswahl – gerade im Feld der Management-Diagnostik. Durch den technologischen Fortschritt ergeben sich heute als Alternative zur klassischen Gesprächssituation eine Vielzahl an alternativen Settings von Interviews für die Praxis, wie zum Beispiel Web-basierte Videointerviews. Diese werden mithilfe von mobilen Geräten oder PCs online ausgeführt.
Article
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Companies increasingly deploy artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in their personnel recruiting and selection processes to streamline them, thus making them more efficient, consistent, and less human biased (Chamorro-Premuzic, Polli, & Dattner, 2019) . However, prior research found that applicants prefer face-to-face interviews compared with AI interviews, perceiving them as less fair (e.g., Acikgoz, Davison, Compagnone, & Laske, 2020) . Additionally, emerging evidence exists that contextual influences, such as the type of task for which AI is used (Lee, 2018) , or applicants’ individual differences (Langer, König, Sanchez, & Samadi, 2019) , may influence applicants’ reactions to AI-powered selection. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether adjusting process design factors may help to improve people's fairness perceptions of AI interviews. The results of our 2 x 2 x 2 online study (N = 404) showed that the positioning of the AI interview in the overall selection process, as well as participants’ sensitization to its potential to reduce human bias in the selection process have a significant effect on people’s perceptions of fairness. Additionally, these two process design factors had an indirect effect on overall organizational attractiveness mediated through applicants’ fairness perceptions. The findings may help organizations to optimize their deployment of AI in selection processes to improve people’s perceptions of fairness and thus attract top talent.
Chapter
Das Kapitel befasst sich mit dem diagnostischen Prozess in der Praxis – von der Auftragsannahme über die Fragestellung, die Ableitung psychologischer Fragen daraus, die Auswahl geeigneter Verfahren, die Planung der Untersuchung, deren Durchführung und Auswertung, die Beschreibung der Ergebnisse, deren Interpretation bis hin zur Beantwortung der Fragestellung. Dabei gilt es, ethische Standards zu beachten (z. B. Aufklärung der untersuchten Person). Wird auch ein psychologisches Gutachten erstellt, werden die einzelnen Schritte nachvollziehbar begründet und verständlich erläutert. Wir sprechen konkrete Empfehlungen dazu aus, wie man Gutachten formal gestaltet, Ergebnisse verständlich und zugleich treffend kommuniziert, diese effizient in eine psychologischen Frage integriert und mit ungeklärten Fragen und alternativen Interpretationsmöglichkeiten umgeht. Vielfach wird auf einschlägige Standards zur Testanwendung und zur Gutachtenerstellung verwiesen.
Article
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Using an event‐triggered multi‐stage framework, this random‐effects meta‐analysis examined the changes in applicants' perceptions of fairness between consecutive stages and throughout the entire personnel selection process. We integrated findings of studies with at least two measurement points, resulting in 45 effect sizes (overall N = 3,038). Trajectories of perceptions of fairness decreased nonlinearly across the process, with a steeper decrease for people who held high levels of initial fairness expectations. Unjust treatment produced a decrease in perceptions of fairness from pretest to posttest and an increase from posttest to postdecision. Furthermore, the length of the time interval moderated the changes in fairness perceptions between the posttest and postdecision stage. Practical implications and an agenda for future research are discussed.
Article
Cambridge Core - Organisation Studies - The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers February 2019
Article
With advances in technology, new innovative methods for evaluating teamwork skills are emerging, however little research has been done into students’ reactions to such innovative assessments in an educational setting. This study investigated the reactions of undergraduate students to a high-fidelity behavioral simulation assessment for teamwork skills and explored some of the factors behind those reactions. 168 undergraduate students completed a simulation assessment and filled out surveys of reactions, perceptions, and personality. The results of a structural equations model indicate that reactions were positively related to perceived scenario realism, characters (chatbots) realism and design clarity.
Article
In the aviation sector, where intense rules and competition prevail, safe flight operations are possible with the employment of qualified human resources who can adapt to technology. The aim of this research is to investigate how the most suitable candidate can be recruited by evaluating many criteria together in the pilot recruitment processes, which are of critical importance for aviation enterprises. In this context, the opinions of senior pilots working in the world's top 10 airline organizations were consulted in the study carried out with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is one of the multi-criteria decision support methods. As a result of the literature research, the recruitment criteria for pilot candidates, which are actively used in the sector, have been listed in the context of the suggestions of experienced captains who also take part in various management positions in the aviation sector. A total of 17 criteria, 3 of which are upper and 14 are sub-criteria determined were weighted with the AHP method. As a result of the analysis, "technical", "non-technical" and "occupational criteria" were listed as the upper criteria according to the degree of importance in terms of local weights.
Article
Cues regarding organizational diversity in recruitment and assessment materials can serve as signals to infer how members of a social group are treated. However, theory on identity–contingency (diversity) cues provides little guidance as to how the interaction of multiple cues impacts performance on selection tools. In an experiment, racial diversity cues in employee testimonials and situational judgment test (SJT) items were manipulated in a simulated selection process to examine implications for individuals' performance and reactions. SJT diversity cues indirectly reduced SJT performance via lower attentiveness. Individuals also evaluated an SJT with diversity cues to be less related to the job than a similar, nondiverse version, whereas perceptions of the assessment's predictive validity and opportunity to perform on it were unaffected. Effects on assessment reactions did not vary as a function of participant race or the presence of diversity cues in employee testimonials. Individuals who watched testimonials with more diverse speakers were subsequently more attracted to the organization if the testimonials were followed by the SJT with more diverse representation in items. Implications for assessment design and recruitment are discussed. There has been limited research on the influence of diversity cues on applicant attraction and assessment performance during selection processes. This study shows that diversity cues can influence reactions to and performance on an assessment, as well as attraction to the organization. Practitioners should attend to diversity cues in assessment materials and can strategically include such cues to enhance attraction without negatively impacting performance. There has been limited research on the influence of diversity cues on applicant attraction and assessment performance during selection processes. This study shows that diversity cues can influence reactions to and performance on an assessment, as well as attraction to the organization. Practitioners should attend to diversity cues in assessment materials and can strategically include such cues to enhance attraction without negatively impacting performance.
Chapter
This chapter explores the theory, research, and evidence relating to the applicants’ perspective of selection processes within the healthcare context. The chapter starts with an overview of the theoretical underpinning of applicant perceptions, which highlights why it is important to understand applicants’ experiences of selection and recruitment processes, particularly within the healthcare context. Key research findings from the wider organizational context and within healthcare are explored, emphasizing the significant factors that influence whether applicants perceive a selection process to be fair. Two case studies are presented to highlight how to ensure that candidates leave selection processes feeling positive about the process and/or organization. Finally, some future directions for research and practice are considered.
Chapter
Personalmarketing soll potenziell geeignete Arbeitskräfte identifizieren, sie auf die Organisation und die dortigen Arbeitsplätze aufmerksam machen und sie zu einer Bewerbung ermutigen sowie diejenigen Personen, die von der Organisation ausgewählt und eingestellt wurden und die sich als geeignet erwiesen haben, langfristig an die Organisation binden und helfen, sich von den Personen zu trennen, die für eine Tätigkeit in der Organisation nicht (mehr) geeignet sind. Für den Erfolg der Personalansprache haben das Organisationsimage, der spezifische Weg der Personalansprache, die Art des Auftretens der Recruiter, die Merkmale der Tätigkeit sowie die Akzeptabilität des Auswahlverfahrens eine große Bedeutung. Ein wichtiges Instrument der Personalbindung stellt die realistische Tätigkeitsvorschau dar. Die Star Performer rücken immer mehr in den Blickpunkt des Personalmarketing. Bei ihnen liegen exponentielle Leistungsfunktionen vor.
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A 10-item multidimensional measure of test-taking motivation based on expectancy theory, the Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy Motivation Scale (VIEMS), was developed using a student sample (N = 90) and tested using 2 samples of job applicants in a field settings (N = 296; N = 246). In Field Study 1, the VIEMS was related to test performance. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the VIEMS explained variance in test score beyond a general measure of rest motivation. In a second longitudinal field study, pretest and posttest perceptions of motivation were compared. Results indicated that expectancy was related to actual test performance, and perceived test performance accounted for variance in posttest reports of motivation after controlling for pretest levels of motivation. Test-taking motivation did not account for variance in test performance differences between African Americans and Whites in either field study.
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This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed.
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This chapter describes a model of the justice judgment process. It is proposed that people used their perceptions of fairness as a heuristic to assess the quality and nature of their relationship to important groups and institutions to which they belong. The implications of this notion for the development and use of fairness cognitions are explored.
Book
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Full-text available
This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Following a justice framework, the present study examined actual candidates taking selection tests to gain full-time employment. The reactions of 144 applicants for an entry-level accounting job were examined in a real employment testing context at 3 time periods: before testing, after testing but before feedback on whether they passed or failed the test, and after test performance feedback. With controls for pretest perceptions, several of the 5 procedural justice measures (information known about the test, chance to perform, treatment at the test site, consistency of the test administration, and job relatedness) predicted applicant evaluations regarding the organization, perceptions of employment testing, and applicant test-taking self-efficacy. Test outcome favorability (passing or failing the employment test) predicted outcomes beyond initial reactions more consistently than procedural justice perceptions. Procedural justice perceptions explained incremental variance in some analyses after the influence of outcome favorability was controlled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
Although laboratory studies have found that selection information can affect applicant perceptions, this has not been tested in the field. The authors followed 2 cohorts of police applicants (N = 274) in a longitudinal Study to examine the relationship between information, applicant perceptions, and behavior (e.g., turnover). Information was related to perceived fairness measured at the time of testing and I month later when applicants received their results. Information moderated the relationship between outcome favorability and test-taking self-efficacy among African Americans but not among Whites. Information was not related to the behavioral measures. The discussion focuses on why certain findings from previous studies were not replicated and on the use of information when applicants have an investment in getting a job.
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Test-taking dispositions and motivation have been proposed as moderators of employment test validity. In a simulated, multiorganization employment system, scores on the Test Attitude Survey (TAS) were found to moderate the validities of both an ability and a personality test used to predict a performance criterion. The criterion-related validity of the personality test was found to be higher for a subsample with less positive test-taking motivation than for a subsample with higher test-taking motivation. An opposite effect was found among the subgroups for the ability test. Range restriction and the predictability of individuals with high and low test-taking dispositions were examined as explanations for the findings. Practice and negative feedback effects on test-taking motivation and dispositions were assessed. Implications for examining predictive versus concurrent validation designs are discussed.
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This research examines predictors of actual discrimination claiming among terminated workers by investigating a number of variables suggested by organizational justice and social information processing theories. This study investigated initial decisions to claim in a sample of 439 terminated workers who were surveyed at several unemployment offices. Logistic regression was used to examine how the decision to claim for discrimination was affected by procedural and distributive justice, social guidance, minority status, gender, age, tenure, and education. All of the variables except education and gender were found to be significant. Thus, the results support variables from each of the theories. Social guidance was found to have a major influence on discrimination-claiming. A counter-intuitive finding for minority status was found such that Whites were more likely to claim than minorities. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Three experiments examined impression-management responses to the Reid Report Integrity Attitude Inventory. Subjects encouraged to score high on the honesty test attained higher scores than a control group, but no higher than a group of job applicants. Study 2 offered money for high scores, and provided information to use concernign the first, second, or both factors of the Reid Report. Subjects in the three information conditions scored higher than those in a control condition, but again were no higher than job applicants. In a third study, subjects were asked to respond to the Reid Report and to several other measures as if they seriously wanted a job. After the test, each subject was overpaid for the participation. Reid Report scores were significantly correlated with returning versus retaining the money. These results suggest that integrity tests possess predictive validity despite spite some impression-management response distortion. Relations with other personality measures also are presented.
Conference Paper
Following a justice framework, the present study examined actual candidates taking selection tests to gain full-time employment. The reactions of 144 applicants for an entry-level accounting job were examined in a real employment testing context at 3 time periods: before testing, after testing but before feedback on whether they passed or failed the test, and after test performance feedback. With controls for pretest perceptions, several of the 5 procedural justice measures (information known about the test, chance to perform, treatment at the test site, consistency of the test administration, and job relatedness) predicted applicant evaluations regarding the organization, perceptions of employment testing, and applicant test-taking self-efficacy. Test outcome favorability (passing or failing the employment test) predicted outcomes beyond initial reactions more consistently than procedural justice perceptions. Procedural justice perceptions explained incremental variance in some analyses after the influence of outcome favorability was controlled.
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The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
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Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to demonstrate that an effect is important. This article describes 2 alternative methodological strategies, in which importance is a function of how minimal a manipulation of the independent variable or how difficult-to-influence a dependent variable will still produce an effect. These methodologies demonstrate the importance of an independent variable or psychological process, even though they often yield effects that are small in statistical terms.
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This review critically examines the literature from 1985 to 1999 on applicant perceptions of selection procedures. We organize our review around several key questions: What perceptions have been studied? What are determinants of perceptions? What are the consequences or outcomes associated with perceptions applicants hold? What theoretical frameworks are most useful in examining these perceptions? For each of these questions, we provide suggestions for key research directions. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of this line of research for those who design and administer selection processes.
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I consider the interactive effects of procedural fairness and outcome favorability on people's reactions to organizational decisions. When the dependent variable consists of employees' support for decisions, for decision makers, or for organizations, outcome favorability has less influence when procedural fairness is high rather than low. When the dependent variable consists of employees' self-evaluations, however, out-come favorability has more influence when procedural fairness is high rather than low. Explanations, implications, and future research directions are discussed.
Article
The authors examined the bases for fairness reactions to different selection practices and considered cross-cultural differences in these reactions by comparing respondents from 2 cultures. College students ( N = 259) from France and the United States rated the favorability of 10 selection procedures and then indicated the bases for these reactions on 7 procedural dimensions. Selection decisions based on interviews, work-sample tests, and resumes were perceived favorably in both cultures. Graphology was perceived more favorably in France than in the United States, but even French reactions toward graphology were somewhat negative. The perceived face validity of the selection procedure was the strongest correlate of favorability reactions among both samples. Beyond comparing the results from each culture, the discussion addresses implications for multinational companies establishing selection systems in foreign countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to demonstrate that an effect is important. This article describes 2 alternative methodological strategies, in which importance is a function of how minimal a manipulation of the independent variable or how difficult-to-influence a dependent variable will still produce an effect. These methodologies demonstrate the importance of an independent variable or psychological process, even though they often yield effects that are small in statistical terms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
puts forward a clear model that aims to predict whether positive perceptions will be formed [of job candidates] / the social impact of selection technology on participants is considered / Schuler's use of model building . . . demonstrates that model building is possible / it also demonstrates how effective models can be in organizing and clarifying a myriad of empirical results / explores [the model's] application to a wide range of selection methods that includes tests, work samples, and self-descriptions deals . . . with the way that the information given out by an organization influences the perceptions of applicants / the positive perceptions that result from the presence of these factors [is called] social validity / validity is the correctness of the inferences which are drawn from a score (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of explanation features on participants' reactions toward a selection decision were examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, students were provided with scenarios where informational (justification, procedural, personal, control) and sensitivity (sensitive or control) features of explanations were crossed with a selection decision to assess their effects on 3 applicant reactions: process fairness, self-perceptions, and organizational perceptions. In general, personal information enhanced fairness and organizational perceptions but harmed the reported self-perceptions of students role-playing rejected applicants. Explanations given in a sensitive manner accentuated these effects. Study 2 used a similar methodology to assess the effects of giving different types of procedural information. Self-reported reactions were influenced by the interactive effects of the type of procedural information provided and the selection decision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a general set of meta-analytic procedures for combining and comparing research results from studies yielding multiple effect sizes based on multiple dependent variables. These require, in addition to the individual effect sizes or significance levels, only the degrees of freedom in the study and the typical intercorrelation among the variables. Older methods are reviewed, and a new method for obtaining a single summary effect size estimate from multiple effect sizes is presented. Significant testing of this summary effect size estimate is described. Procedures for computing the effect size for a contrast, and its significance level, among the multiple effect sizes of a single study are also described. Methods for dealing with problems of heterogeneous intercorrelations among the dependent variables are presented. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Test-taking dispositions and motivation have been proposed as moderators of employment test validity. In a simulated, multiorganization employment system, scores on the Test Attitude Survey were found to moderate the validities of both an ability and a personality test used to predict a performance criterion. The criterion-related validity of the personality test was found to be higher for a subsample with less positive test-taking motivation than for a subsample with higher test-taking motivation. An opposite effect was found among the subgroups for the ability test. Range restriction and the predictability of individuals with high and low test-taking dispositions were examined as explanations for the findings. Practice and negative feedback effects on test-taking motivation and dispositions were assessed. Implications for examining predictive vs concurrent validation designs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research has shown that explanations for selection decisions may influence a variety of applicant perceptions and behavior, but an understanding of how and why this occurs remains largely unknown. This study attempts to understand the effects of explanations by adopting Kelley's (1967, 1972) covariation model of the attribution process. Specifically, explanations that vary on consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency covariation information should produce predictable effects on applicant perceptions and attributions. Results from 2 studies, the first a laboratory study and the second a field study with actual applicants, support the utility of the covariation model for understanding the influence of explanations for selection decisions on locus attributions, fairness, self-perceptions, and organizational attractiveness. These results suggest that the covariation model may be a useful means to construe the explanation-attribution-perception relationship, and thus provide a number of theoretical and practical implications.
Article
This study examined the effects of providing an explanation and voice on fairness perceptions and reactions of test takers under favorable and unfavorable selection decisions. Participants took either a cognitive ability test or an overt integrity test in a simulated selection situation. Then, the voice manipulation was introduced. Participants were informed of the hiring decision with or without an explanation. Results showed that type of test had effects on procedural fairness perceptions such that these reactions were more positive when a cognitive ability test was used. The results of voice and explanation manipulations on fairness perceptions indicated that providing an explanation had a positive effect on perceptions but, surprisingly, face-validity perceptions were less favorable when participants had voice opportunity.
Article
We note that applicant reactions to selection procedures may be of practical importance to employers because of influences on organizations’attractiveness to candidates, ethical and legal issues, and possible effects on selection procedure validity and utility. In Study 1, after reviewing sample items or brief descriptions of 14 selection tools, newly hired entry-level managers (n= 110) and recruiting/employment managers (n= 44) judged simulations, interviews, and cognitive tests with relatively concrete item-types (e.g., vocabulary, standard written English, mathematical word problems) to be significantly more job related than personality, biodata, and cognitive tests with relatively abstract item-types (e.g., quantitative comparisons, letter sets). A measure of new managers’cognitive abilities was positively correlated with their perceptions of the job relatedness of selection procedures. In Study 2, applicant reactions to a range of entry-level to professional civil service examinations (assessed immediately after tasting the exam) were positively related to (procedural and distributive) justice perceptions and willingness to recommend the employer to others (assessed one month after the exam, n= 460).
Article
This study investigated the effects of legitimizing explanations for selection test use on simulated applicants’ perceptions of fairness. The specificity of the explanation was varied. After receiving an explanation, a sample of 157 undergraduates completed 2 assessments (cognitive ability and personality), and reported their reactions to the assessments. Results indicate that for the cognitive ability assessment, general explanations increased fairness perceptions, but specific explanations did not. This relationship was fully mediated by perceptions of content and predictive validity. No effects for the personality assessment were found.
Article
This paper presents an overview of a useful approach for theory testing in the social sciences that combines the principles of psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. In this approach to theory testing, the estimated true score correlations between the constructs of interest are established through the application of meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), and structural equations modeling is then applied to the matrix of estimated true score correlations. The potential advantages and limitations of this approach are presented. The approach enables researchers to test complex theories involving several constructs that cannot all be measured in a single study. Decision points are identified, the options available to a researcher are enumerated, and the potential problems as well as the prospects of each are discussed.
Article
Manufacturing applicants' perceptions of two selection devices were examined. In Study 1, applicants (n= 3,984) completed cognitive ability tests and a survey of reactions. In Study 2, a subset of applicants from Study 1 (n= 194) participated in an assessment center and completed the survey. Applicants reacted favorably to the procedures but viewed the assessment center as more face valid than the cognitive tests. Applicants who perceived the selection techniques more favorably were also more satisfied with the selection process, the job, and the organization. Although applicants' perceptions of the procedures were related to job acceptance intentions, applicants' liking of the job and organization explained the largest unique variance. In future studies, applicants' job acceptance intentions and attitudes toward the job and organization should be assessed before and after administration of selection devices; not controlling for prior impressions resulted in overestimation of the contribution of applicants' perceptions of selection procedures.
Article
This paper describes research that fills a void in the applicant reactions literature by developing a comprehensive measure of Gilliland's (1993) procedural justice rules, called the Selection Procedural Justice Scale (SPJS). Five separate phases of scale development were conducted. In Phase 1 we generated and refined the items. For Phase 2 we reduced the items through exploratory factor analysis using data gathered from 330 applicants for the job of court officer and found higher-order factors consistent with Greenberg (1993a, 1993b). In Phase 3 we confirmed the factor structure using a separate sample of 242 applicants and trainees for the court officer job. In Phase 4 we assessed the initial convergent and divergent validity of the scale. In Phase 5 we tested the generalizability of these items in general and for those receiving positive and negative selection outcomes using 2 student samples. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the SPJS in differentiating each of Gilliland's procedural justice rules and relating them to outcomes included in his model of applicant reactions. A copy of the SPJS is included in the Appendix.
Article
The resurgence of personality tests in selection has sparked interest in factors that may increase the utility and acceptability of these tests. Following a justice framework, the present study explores two possible methods for improving the psychometric properties and test-taker perceptions of a widely used measure of personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. The first manipulation altered respondents' frame-of-reference (FOR) by adding "at-work" tags to the personality test. The second provided information about the validity and appropriateness of the personality test for selection. Under the controlled setting of a laboratory experiment, participants (n=345) were randomly assigned to one of the conditions in the following between-subjects design: 2 (FOR: work specific vs. generic) x 2 (information: validity vs. control). The FOR manipulation produced consistent effects on the personality test responses, but in contrast to recent claims, produced no effect on test perceptions. Alternatively, the information manipulation primarily influenced job-relatedness perceptions, but had a modest negative effect on the psychometric properties of the personality test. These results show some possibilities, and difficulties, for enhancing perceptions of personality tests. They also have important implications for justice theory because they suggest that interactions among the procedural justice rules may yield unexpected and contradictory effects.
Article
This article offers an agenda for future research on applicant reactions to selection procedures. Advocating a construct-oriented approach, we propose that future research focuses attention on fundamental issues subsumed under seven distinct although related areas namely: (1) dimensions of applicant reactions, (2) changes in applicant reactions over time, (3) determinants of applicant reactions, (4) applicant reactions and test constructs, (5) criterion outcomes of applicant reactions, (6) reactions to new technology in testing, and (7) methodological and data analysis issues.