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Leader Influences on Training Effectiveness: Motivation and Outcome Expectation Processes

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Abstract

Training effectiveness is a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors. Social exchanges in the work environment have received less attention compared with other training effectiveness predictors. We focus on the extent to which leaders (through their relationships and exchanges with followers) influence skill transfer, maintenance and generalization. We also examine two intervening processes (training motivation and outcome expectancy). Our findings, based on surveys from 495 employees, argue for the importance of leadermember exchange for training transfer, with training motivation and outcome expectancy as intervening mechanisms.

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... Motivation is one of the most frequently examined variables in research particularly vis-à-vis transfer of training. Notably, in training situations, motivation has been found to have a significant impact on acquisition of knowledge and skills (Quiñones, 1997;Tracey, Hinkin, Tannenbaum, & Mathieu, 2001), motivation to transfer (Facteau et al., 1995;Tai, 2006) and transfer outcomes (Scaduto, Lindsay, & Chiaburu, 2008). Motivation is defined as 'a variability in behavior not attributable to stable individual differences (e.g. ...
... In the year 2002, Naquin & Holton completely reconceptualized both constructs (i.e., motivation to learn and motivation to transfer) by creating construct motivation to improve work through learning (MTIWL). However, Scaduto et al. (2008) maintained that both constructs are important for transfer of training, and again demarcated them as two distinct constructs. The concept of motivation to transfer was given by Noe (1986), who stated it as 'the trainees intended effort to utilize skills and knowledge learned in training settings to a real world work situation.' ...
... The concept of motivation to transfer was given by Noe (1986), who stated it as 'the trainees intended effort to utilize skills and knowledge learned in training settings to a real world work situation.' Researchers (see for example Axtell et al., 1997;Nijman, Nijhof, Wognum, & Veldkamp, 2006;Scaduto et al., 2008) have found the direct influence of motivation to transfer on transfer outcomes. Unfortunately, the direct influence of motivation to transfer with transfer outcomes in research has been somewhat limited (Seyler et al., 1998;Kontorghiorghes, 2002;Machin & Fogarty, 2004). ...
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Effective application of skills & knowledge gained from a training program to a job situation, ie transfer of training, has become a great concern in training issues. Transfer of learned skills at the actual workplace is subject to a number of factors, with work environment being one of those factors. Research has shown a relatively profound role of the work environment in delineating the construct of transfer. However, some of the most important characteristics of the work environment have arguably remained under-researched and are still going empirical testing. So, in earnest, this paper is an attempt to make a holistic review of the literature and methodology by going through summative, formative and meta studies published from 1988–2014 on transfer. This paper proposes a conceptual framework by recognizing the influential role of two forms of work environments (ie, support and climate) on transfer of training, taking …
... Researchers have focused on different antecedents, such as organizational culture (Bunch, 2007;Simosi, 2012), leader-member exchange (Scaduto et al., 2008), social support (Baldwin and Ford, 1988;Facteau et al., 1995;Schindler and Burkholder, 2016;Velada et al., 2007), organizational transfer climate (Rouiller and Goldstein, 1993) and training design (Baldwin and Ford, 1988;Velada et al., 2007), to find out the reasons for poor training transfer. Among various predictors, organizational culture is one of the important predictors of training transfer. ...
... Many theories and models are failed to address human resource development (HRD) due to low training motivation (Gegenfurtner et al., 2009). However, the plethora of previous researches concluded that motivation to transfer is pivotal to enhance the training transfer (Baldwin and Ford, 1988;Chiaburu et al., 2010;Reinhold et al., 2018;Scaduto et al., 2008). Prior research found different antecedents to predict motivation to transfer, organizational culture is one of the important predictors (Chiaburu and Tekleab, 2005;Egan et al., 2004;Gegenfurtner et al., 2009). ...
... However, Zeitz et al. (1997) considered training quality as a part of organizational culture. Prior studies have identified individual characteristics, training design (Baldwin and Ford, 1988;Velada et al., 2007), leadership (Scaduto et al., 2008), and social support (Facteau et al., 1995;Reinhold et al., 2018) as an antecedent of training transfer. Very few studies have dealt with organizational culture as an antecedents of training transfer (Bates and Khasawneh, 2005;Egan et al., 2004;Simosi, 2012). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of motivation to transfer training in between five dimensions of organizational culture and training transfer. Design/methodology/approach This paper followed a positivist epistemology to understand the factors associated with training transfer. The descriptive and causal research design was used for data analysis. A proportionate stratified random sample of 150 faculties responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the hypotheses. Findings The results show that motivation to transfer training partially mediates the relationship between the four dimensions of organizational culture (i.e. job challenge, communication, innovation and social cohesion) and training transfer. Further, the results also show the relation between trust and training transfer is fully mediated by the motivation to transfer training. Practical implications For better training transfer higher education sector ought to consider organizational related factors such as organizational culture, rather than only focusing on individual-related factors. The education sector would have strengthened each dimension of organizational culture to motivate the faculties for training transfer. Originality/value Organizational culture dimensions (job challenge, communication, trust, innovation and social cohesion) are the essential dimensions for training transfer which are less prioritized despite their importance.
... firms undertake training to improve the performance of their employees (Scaduto et al., 2008). Human resource academics and professionals together have identified training as a critical factor to improve employees' skills, firm performance, organizational survival, and considered essential for a firm to remain competitive (MacDuffie 1995;Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). ...
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Service recovery is a critical moment of truth and provides an opportunity for firms to please and retain customers. Service failure and recovery remain critical issues for both academicians and marketing practitioners. The study aimed to explore the potential effect of perceived working environment (training, empowerment, motivation, supportive management, and service technology) on frontline employees’ service recovery performance. A total of 400 frontline employees were chosen with simple random sampling method from 20 hotels in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Respondents were asked to complete the questionnaire in a self administered manner. 330 usable questionnaires were retrieved for a response rate of 82.5%. Structural Equations Model was used to verify the reliability and validity of the scale and to test the proposed model. The results showed that dimensions of working environment such as training, empowerment, motivation, supportive management, and service technology significantly predict frontline employees’ service recovery performance. Specifically, among the dimension of working environment, the most significant predictor of frontline employees’ service recovery performance was service technology and empowerment. This study implies that managers of four and five star hotels in Jordan should come forward and try their best to present a better work environment for frontline employees to enhance service recovery performance to maintain customers’ satisfaction.
... 11 Most impactful of surgeons' perceived workload was the role of case difficulty expectation, where cases that were more difficult than initially expected required significantly more workload than cases that matched expectation levels. While much of the research surrounding task expectation has focused on goal expectation, goal setting, or mental rehearsal in education and training, 17,18 there is little understanding of what factors are associated with deviations from expected case difficulty in surgery. ...
Article
Background: To understand how surgeon expectation of case difficulty relates to workload for colon and rectal procedures and to identify possible surgeon-perceived drivers contributing to case difficulty. Materials and methods: For 3 mo, surgeons were asked to complete a modified NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire following each surgical case. Questions included items on distractions, fatigue, procedural difficulty, and expectation plus the validated NASA-TLX items. All but expectation were rated on a 20-point scale (0 = low, 20 = high). Expectation was rated on a 3-point scale (i.e., more difficult than expected, as expected, less difficult than expected). Surgeons also reported perceived drivers contributing to case ease or difficulty. Patient and procedural data were analyzed for procedures with completed surveys. Results: Seven surgeons (three female) rated 122 procedures over the research period using a modified NASA-TLX survey. Mean surgeon-perceived workload was highest for effort (mean [M] = 10.83, standard deviation [SD] = 5.66) followed by mental demand (M = 10.18, SD = 5.17), and physical demand (M = 9.19, SD = 5.60). Procedural difficulty varied significantly by procedure type (P < 0.001). Thirty-five percent of cases were considered more difficult than expected. Surgeon-perceived workload and most subscales differed significantly according to expectation level. There was no significant difference in patient factors by expectation level. Surgeons most frequently reported patient anatomy, body habitus, and operative team characteristics as drivers to difficulty and ease of cases. Conclusions: Procedural difficulty significantly differed across procedure type. More than one-third of cases were more difficult than expected, during which surgeons attributed this to operative team characteristics as well as issues in patient anatomy and body habitus.
... A study [6] stated that training effectiveness may be assessed by considering the results or evaluation, performance of the trainees and their ability to transfer techniques to their jobs. Training effectiveness can also be a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors [10]. ...
... First, differential effects have to be further investigated by integrating additional variables. Here, the consideration of motivational aspects seems to be useful since motivation can impact the effectiveness of a training (Chiaburu & Tekleab, 2005;Jaeggi et al., 2011;Scaduto, Lindsay, & Chiaburu, 2008). Therefore, it could be assumed that the high SRL promotion strategy group benefits less because they already possess much of the knowledge shared during the intervention and therefore were less motivated to pay attention. ...
... Training effectiveness may be assessed by considering the results or evaluation, performance of the trainees and their ability to transfer techniques to their jobs. Training effectiveness can also be a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors (Scaduto et al., 2008). ...
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With the aim of evaluating the effect of Government Youth Development Training on the KSA of the incumbents, this research used structured interview schedule and accomplished face-to-face interview of 142 randomly selected trainees from four purposefully selected Youth Training Centers. A strong positive significant change of KSA occurred due to the training and major change happened in knowledge followed by skill and attitude. The regression analysis shows that the traits of the trainers, location of the training center, and regularity in class attendance had significant relationship with knowledge change of the incumbents, while the traits of the trainers, experience of other trainings, and location of the training centers were significant determinants of skill change. Continuous improvement of trainer's traits as well as inclusion of more practical field works in training sessions, and frequent evaluation of each training program based on KSA(Knowledge Skill & Attitude) is crucial to improve the effect of government youth development training in the study area.
... Training effectiveness may be assessed by considering the results or evaluation, performance of the trainees and their ability to transfer techniques to their jobs. Training effectiveness can also be a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors (Scaduto et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
With the aim of evaluating the effect of Government Youth Development Training on the KSA of the incumbents, this research used structured interview schedule and accomplished face-to-face interview of 142 randomly selected trainees from four purposefully selected Youth Training Centers. A strong positive significant change of KSA occurred due to the training and major change happened in knowledge followed by skill and attitude. The regression analysis shows that the traits of the trainers, location of the training center, and regularity in class attendance had significant relationship with knowledge change of the incumbents, while the traits of the trainers, experience of other trainings, and location of the training centers were significant determinants of skill change. Continuous improvement of trainer's traits as well as inclusion of more practical field works in training sessions, and frequent evaluation of each training program based on KSA(Knowledge Skill & Attitude) is crucial to improve the effect of government youth development training in the study area.
... Specifically, when the trust level was lower than expected, all NASA-TLX subscales but frustration was significantly higher than cases that were rated at or higher than the expected trust level. While goal expectation has been studied in education and training and acknowledged as contributing to workload demand and workload variability, the impact of trust on task demand has not been quantified [39]. ...
Article
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Automation aims to improve the task performance and the safety of human operators. The success of automation can be facilitated with well-designed human–automation interaction (HAI), which includes the consideration of a trade-off between the benefits of reliable automation and the cost of Failed automation. This study evaluated four different types of HAIs in order to validate the automation trade-off, and HAI types were configured by the levels and the statuses of office automation. The levels of automation were determined by information amount (i.e., Low and High), and the statues were decided by automation function (i.e., Routine and Failed). Task performance including task completion time and accuracy and subjective workload of participants were measured in the evaluation of the HAIs. Relatively better task performance (short task completion time and high accuracy) were presented in the High level in Routine automation, while no significant effects of automation level were reported in Failed automation. The subjective workload by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index (TLX) showed higher workload in High and Failed automation than Low and Failed automation. The type of sub-functions and the task classification can be estimated as major causes of automation trade-off, and dissimilar results between empirical and subjective measures need to be considered in the design of effective HAI.
... Motivation to transfer. Trainee motivation is important throughout the training lifecycle, including before (e.g., motivation to participate), during (e.g., motivation to learn), and after training (e.g., motivation to transfer; Beier & Kanfer, 2010;Colquitt, LePine, & Noe, 2000;Holton, 1996;Scaduto, Lindsay, & Chiaburu, 2008). Importantly, trainee motivation to transfer is a critical facet of motivation, which influences the degree and quality to which training is transferred. ...
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Objective: The purpose of this meta-analytic review is to examine the role of three work environment support variables (i.e., peer, supervisor, and organizational support) in training transfer and sustainment or long-term use of learned knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). Background: Estimates demonstrate that little training is transferred to the job, wasting billions in organizational spending each year and resulting in significant loss to safety and individual and team performance. Prior research shows the importance of a supportive work environment to facilitating transfer; however, we know little of the relative importance of specific support variables. This study seeks to examine the unique roles of distinct support variables in training transfer. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted with multiple regressions to answer three primary research questions. Results: All work environment support variables demonstrate moderate and positive correlations with transfer of training. Furthermore, multiple regressions demonstrate that each factor of the work environment explains unique variance as a predictor, with the model accounting for 32% of transfer and peer support accounting for most of R2. Motivation to transfer mediates the relationship between all three work environment support variables and transfer. Furthermore, three support variables are positively related to sustainment, with peer and supervisor support showing the strongest relationships. Conclusion: Findings illuminate the relative contribution of peer, supervisor, and organizational support to transfer and sustainment of training. As transfer continues to be an important yet understudied measure of the effectiveness of workplace training, these findings hold implications for both research and practice.
... Samples of the transfer statements include 'I have incorporated some of the skills, knowledge and abilities that I have learned in the leadership program' and 'I feel that my organizational behavior has changed partly due to the leadership training I completed'. The reliability of this measurement in the current study was α = 0.810, which is in line with previous literature and therefore suggests that the study model is comparable to other country and organizational contexts (Chauhan et al., 2016;Chiaburu et al., 2010;Scaduto et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Purpose This study focuses on leadership transfer by academic managers in public universities. Motivation to transfer is expected to mediate the relationship between peer and supervisor support (independent variables) and the transfer of training (dependent variable). Methodology The study sample comprises 263 academic managers who completed leadership training programs in public universities. Structural equation modeling is used to test the study model for four hypotheses. Findings In line with previous findings from different contexts, the study shows that (a) the motivation of academic managers to transfer training mediates between the actual transfer and the two types of organizational support, from peers and supervisors; (b) peer support has a stronger impact than supervisor support on motivation to transfer; (c) training transfer in public universities has a pattern similar to that in other organizations; and (d) the country context does not seem to affect the dynamics of training transfer. Implications To remain competitive with successful policies, universities need to foster learning environments by effectively engaging those responsible for managing university policies. Applying new leadership knowledge, skills and abilities is a sophisticated process in which academic managers are not the only stakeholders. Given the nature of the organizational phenomenon, work environments are similar across countries and sectors; therefore, emphasizing the role of national cultural norms and values over the objective needs of the workplace seems problematic. Limitations Structural equation modeling may not capture all psychological and personal aspects of transfer; therefore, triangulation methods can be useful. The competition in higher education is increasing,and it is recommended that leadership training transfer in public and private universities should be compared.
... firms undertake training to improve the performance of their employees (Scaduto et al., 2008). Human resource academics and professionals together have identified training as a critical factor to improve employees' skills, firm performance, organizational survival, and considered essential for a firm to remain competitive (MacDuffie 1995;Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). ...
... Istnieje wiele dowodów na to, że istotna część inwestycji organizacji w szkolenia nie przynosi spodziewanych rezultatów. Menedżerowie i organizacje zawsze są zainteresowani oceną kosztów szkolenia w relacji do spodziewanych korzyści osiągniętych dzięki nim [34]. Aby maksymalizować korzyści szkoleń menedżerowie muszą monitorować cały proces szkolenia, który obejmuje następujące fazy: ocenę potrzeb szkoleniowych, rozwój i prowadzenie szkoleń oraz ich ocenę. ...
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Streszczenie: Artykuł jest pierwszą częścią opracowania na temat wykorzystania instrumentu szkoleń pracowniczych w przedsiębiorstwach południowej Polski i przedstawia teoretyczne podstawy Barometru Rynku Szkoleń. W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane definicje pojęć związanych ze szkoleniami personelu, wybrane obszarów aktywności szkoleniowej, jakie znalazły się w Barometrze Rynku Szkoleń (potrzeby szkoleniowe, organizowanie szkoleń, prowadzenie szkoleń, charakterystyka szkolenia, ocena efektywności szkoleń). Celem naukowym opracowania jest stworzenie podstaw teoretycznych zakresu tematycznego Barometru Rynku Szkoleń. Słowa kluczowe: potrzeby szkoleniowe, organizowanie szkoleń, prowadzenie szkoleń, charakterystyka szkolenia, ocena efektywności szkoleń 1. Wprowadzenie Rozwój personelu stał się ważnym elementem rozwoju organizacji jako całości. Przesłanką, która nakazuje zwracać większą uwagę na procesy rozwoju zasobów ludzkich w przedsiębiorstwie są uwarunkowania, w jakich ono funkcjonuje, a które można określić gospodarką opartą na wiedzy czy społeczeństwem informacyjnym. W obliczu rozwijającej się od pewnego czasu koncepcji zarządzania kapitałem ludzkim, działania z obszaru funkcji rozwojowej ZZL stają się kluczowe dla uzyskiwania wartości z dobrze wykorzystanych i rozwijanych kompetencji ludzi w organizacji. Artykuł jest pierwszą częścią opracowania na temat wykorzystania instrumentu szkoleń pracowniczych w przedsiębiorstwach południowej Polski i zawiera teoretyczne podstawy Barometru Rynku Szkoleń. W ramach tego projektu badawczego, który w założeniu ma charakter longitudinalny, przeprowadzono pierwszą edycję badań w roku 2014. Barometr Rynku Szkoleń to projekt badawczy, zawierający kwestionariusz ankiety w formie elektronicznej (http://szkolenia.barometry-gospodarki.pl) oraz mechanizm oceny firmy respondenta online [1]. Celem głównym niniejszego artykułu jest zaprezentowanie teoretycznych podstaw konstrukcji Barometru Rynku Szkoleń oraz wprowadzenie do części drugiej, zawierającej wybrane wyniki badań empirycznych. Cele szczegółowe, które składają się na cel główny, są następujące:  zaprezentowanie wybranych definicji pojęć związanych ze szkoleniami personelu,  wskazanie obszarów aktywności szkoleniowej, jakie podlegają badaniu w Barometrze Rynku Szkoleń,  zaprezentowanie metodyki Barometru Rynku Szkoleń. W artykule wykorzystano jako metodę naukową studia literaturowe, a w ich wyniku dokonano syntezy poglądów różnych autorów na temat rozwoju personelu i wykorzystania w celu instrumentu szkoleń pracowniczych.
... Organizational researchers (e.g. Graen et al., 1982;Scaduto et al., 2008;Townsend et al., 2002) demonstrated that training managers to develop high-quality LMX relationships benefits their followers in significant ways, such as by increasing productivity, loyalty toward the leader, satisfaction ...
Article
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Purpose Based on the theory of crossover, the purpose of this paper is to explore the limited but growing body of research on positive crossover, wherein the authors investigated the direct and indirect crossover of work passion between the dyadic setting of leader and followers. The authors hypothesized that the leader’s (follower’s) work passion influence follower’s (leader’s) work passion through direct crossover phenomena (i.e. crossover via empathy). In the study, the authors also examined the underlying indirect crossover mechanism of leader’s (follower’s) work passion via personal identification – the process by which individuals (supervisors and subordinates) realize cognitive overlap between the self and other over time in a relationship. In an attempt to fully understand the crossover of leader’s (follower’s) work passion, the authors scrutinized the pattern of leader–follower relationship quality, which has the capacity to moderate the direct and indirect crossover of work passion from leader to follower and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted two independent studies and collected a time-lagged data from the dyadic settings of a large trade multinational company (n=77 supervisor and 373 subordinates) and a large manufacturing multinational company (n=89 supervisor and 411 subordinates) situated in Anhui province of China to test the authors’ moderated mediation model of work passion. Findings As expected the authors found support for all the authors’ hypothesized relationships. Specifically, the results provide support for the notion of direct and indirect crossover of work passion within leader–follower dyads. Moreover, the authors’ findings also support the moderated mediation model of direct and indirect crossover of work passion. Originality/value Overall, this study provides a potential way to stimulate work passion in employees (leader and followers) from the perspective of their relationship quality with each other. Moreover, implications for theory, research and practice with prospective future research topics are discussed.
... Organizational evidence suggests that a substantial amount of organizational investment in training efforts does not yield in the transfer of training on the job, forcing managers to make the difficult decision whether to offer the training or not (Scaduto, Lindsay & Chiaburu, 2008;Panturo & Sahoo, 2016). Therefore, if the decision to provide training is taken, the training managers must ensure to thoroughly monitor the three-step training process of needs assessment, conducting of training and evaluation to assess the effectiveness of the training programs (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2001). ...
... (Asfaw et al., 2015;Ikram et al., 2019). The effectiveness of training carried out by an organization can be of benefit to the individual which can facilitate the application of training results on the job (Inn et al., 2010) then increased motivation and competence can encourage employee creativity (Scaduto et al., 2008;Scott et al., 2004;Surbaini, 2018). ...
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This study aims to invest in empirical relationships in a model that becomes the process of Team-Performance due to participation in practical training through causality between Training Effectiveness variables, soft-skill competence, Employee-Creativity, and team performance. This study uses a quantitative approach. The analytical tool used is structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS version 23 software. Accidental sampling technique is used to collect the sample. As many as 202 respondents filled up a survey questionnaire with complete and valid answers. This study's results significantly contribute to fill the gap of inadequate empirical evidence that can answer critical questions about the missing link between training and employee-performance, more specifically between training-effectiveness and team-performance. The results showed that practical training would encourage employees' soft-skill competence, improve Employee-Creativity, and improve Team-Performance. Furthermore, training-effectiveness also plays a significant role in enhancing employee-creativity and helping in optimal team-performance. This study also found that the relationship between employee-creativity and team-performance did not show positive and significant results; therefore, empirically, it did not support the hypothesis built in this study. Practical training targeted towards increasing soft-skills and creativity is a fundamental reason which not only aims to contribute toward organizational performance but also provides personal feedback for self-development.
... This has practical implications, especially the degree to which teachers engage students in their outcome expectancies. Various studies across domains (e.g., health care, education, psychology) have suggested that helping individuals to explicitly identify the goals and objectives of certain activities before the activities happen evidently increases their outcome expectancies (e.g., Reesor et al. 2017;Scaduto et al. 2008;Settlege 2000). Teachers can help students identify the objectives by explicitly telling their students all the goals of the tasks or activities they are about to do. ...
Article
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This study examined students’ genetics learning in a game-based environment by exploring the connections between the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation and flow theory. A total of 394 secondary school students were recruited and learned genetics concepts through interacting with a game-based learning environment. We measured their science self-efficacy, science outcome-expectancy beliefs, flow experience, feelings of frustration, and conceptual understanding before and after playing the game, as well as their game satisfaction. Mixed-model ANOVA, correlation tests, and path analysis were run to answer our research questions. Based on the results, we found that the game had a significant impact on students’ conceptual understanding of genetics. We also found an acceptable statistical model of the integration between the two theories. Flow experience and in-game performance significantly impacted students’ posttest scores. Moreover, science outcome-expectancy belief was found to be a significant predictor of students’ flow experiences. In contrast, science self-efficacy and pretest scores were found to be the most significant factors influencing the feeling of frustration during the game. The results have practical implications with regard to the positive role that an adaptive game-based genetics learning environment might play in the science classroom. Findings also underscore the role the teacher should play in establishing productive outcome expectations for students prior to and during gameplay.
... Past studies found that employee training had a significant relationship with employee motivation (Hammond & Churchill, 2018;Scaduto, Lindsay, & Chiaburu, 2008). Training improves employees' understanding of how their job fits well into their organisation's objectives, structure and mission. ...
Article
This study aims to examine the effect of employee empowerment, employee training and teamwork on employee motivation at Malaysian public universities. Based on the review of published literature, it is evident that there are limited studies on employee motivation in the Asian context, particularly in higher education. Therefore, this study intends to provide empirical evidence towards the link between the selected variables. The data were obtained from the participants using an online survey method from a total of 242 academic and administrative staff at public universities in the northern region of Malaysia. For ease of data collection, convenience sampling approach was adopted. The findings indicated that employee empowerment has a significant positive impact on employee motivation. The outcomes also showed that employee training and teamwork have significant positive effects on employee motivation.
... The study variables were derived and adapted from the study training transfer literature review as well from psychology (such as Ajzen, 1991). Training transfer items were mainly obtained from two key studies (Tesluk et al., 1995;Xiao, 1996), and then these items were adapted according to the results of additional studies (Bhatti et al., 2013;Blume et al., 2010;Chiaburu & Marinova, 2005;Chiaburu, et al., 2010;Pham et al., 2013;Scaduto et al., 2008;van der Locht et al., 2013;Velada et al., 2007). ...
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This study investigates variables in training transfer in the general education (school) sector of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) by hybridizing the established training transfer model and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The hybridized model employs four variables: (i) supervisor support, (ii) training design, (iii) intention to transfer, and (iv) training transfer. This model is used to test nine hypotheses. The study sample comprised 225 employees from the UAE general education sector. Study participants (respondents to a questionnaire) were recruited by simple random sampling. The study questionnaire data was analyzed using Partial least squares structural equation modeling PLS-SEM. The study model had a good fit confirming a good fit of the hypothesized model to the empirical data. Eight out of nine hypotheses were accepted. The study is generally parallel with TPB. It demonstrates that intention to transfer has a dominant and central (mediating) influence on transfer process and transfer behavior. Remarkably, supervisor support is important only in the pre-training phase. For the UAE education sector to succeed in effective training transfer, supervisors must be properly trained to design training programs, particularly to enhance the trainee’s intention to apply training on the job. This study proved empirically that designing training is a critical influence of a trainee’s intention to apply training. Training design and intention to transfer are mediators and play a central role in promoting the training transfer process. Future studies should focus on including TPB and intention in the training transfer researches.
... However, as stated above, not only does training itself help to improve leaders' abilities and skills, as their training level, training motivation and outcome expectancy can also be transferred to their employees, positively influencing their collective performance (e.g. Scaduto et al., 2008;Velada et al., 2007;Tai, 2006). In fact, several studies recognize that management training programs tend to be associated with a significant improvement in organizational performance (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose Building on Upper Echelons Theory and prior research on strategic leadership, the purpose of this paper is to examine the possible effect on employee motivation of two sets of characteristics related to leaders: demographic (gender and age); and professional development (tenure, prior career experience in the organization and training). Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is based on data from a survey of Spanish educational organizations (secondary schools). The hypotheses are tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis estimations. Findings The results reveal that the characteristics linked to a leader’s professional development have a significant impact on employee (teacher) motivation. Specifically, a long tenure in office has a negative effect, while prior career experience in an organization and continuous training have a positive impact. However, none of the leader’s demographic characteristics considered in the study has a significant impact on teacher motivation. Practical implications Several lines of managerial and educational policy action are suggested for improving employee (teacher) motivation, especially in the specific case of the schools considered here. Originality/value This study is one of the first attempts to explore what impact certain leaders’ characteristics have on employee motivation.
... The inclusion of motivation construct as a mediator linking supervisor support and transfer of training has produced significant and positive results. Employing social exchange theory, Scaduto, Lindsay and Chiaburu (2008) found that supervisor support was critical for skills transfer, maintenance and generalization of training. Motivation to learn, along with outcome expectancy, mediated such relationships. ...
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This study aims to enhance our current understanding of the transfer of training by proposing a conceptual model that supports the mediating role of motivation to improve work through learning on the relationship between social support and the transfer of training. The examination of motivation to improve work through learning construct offers a holistic view pertaining to a learner's profile in a workplace setting, which emphasizes learning for the improvement of work performance. The proposed conceptual model is expected to benefit human resource development theory building, as well as field practitioners by emphasizing the motivational aspects crucial for successful transfer of training.
... Put differently, in a climate that is characterized by job insecurity, employees might feel less compelled to reciprocate the benefits obtained from the positive transaction with their leader, because the organization (as perceived through the aggregatelevel climate construct of job insecurity) has failed to guarantee a sufficient level of certainty regarding the continuity of their employment. While high LMX is deemed to enhance employee motivation (Scaduto et al., 2008) and to stimulate workers to engage in extra-role work behaviors (Harris et al., 2014), job insecurity climate is likely to lessen this positive motivational influence. Based on the line of reasoning given above, we hypothesize that: ...
... Specifically, when the surgical difficulty was higher than expected, all NASA-TLX subscales but distraction were significantly higher than cases that were rated at or below the expected difficulty level. While goal expectation has been studied in education and training 34 and acknowledged as contributing to workload demand and workload variability, 29 the impact of difficulty expectation on task demand has not been quantified. Deviation from expected difficulty is also related to the procedural duration. ...
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Objective: With advancements in surgical equipment and procedures, human-system interactions in operating rooms affect surgeon workload and performance. Workload was measured across surgical specialties using surveys to identify potential predictors of high workload for future performance improvement. Summary background data: Surgical instrumentation and technique advancements have implications for surgeon workload and human-systems interactions. To understand and improve the interaction of components in the work system, NASA-Task Load Index can measure workload across various fields. Baseline workload measurements provide a broad overview of the field and identify areas most in need of improvement. Methods: Surgeons were administered a modified NASA-Task Load Index survey (0 = low, 20 = high) following each procedure. Patient and procedural factors were retrieved retrospectively. Results: Thirty-four surgeons (41% female) completed 662 surgery surveys (M = 14.85, SD = 7.94), of which 506 (76%) have associated patient and procedural data. Mental demand (M = 7.7, SD = 5.56), physical demand (M = 7.0, SD = 5.66), and effort (M = 7.8, SD = 5.77) were the highest rated workload subscales. Surgeons reported difficulty levels higher than expected for 22% of procedures, during which workload was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and procedural durations were significantly longer (P > 0.001). Surgeons reported poorer perceived performance during cases with unexpectedly high difficulty (P < 0.001). Conclusions: When procedural difficulty is greater than expected, there are negative implications for mental and physical demand that result in poorer perceived performance. Investigations are underway to identify patient and surgical variables associated with unexpected difficulty and high workload. Future efforts will focus on re-engineering the surgical planning process and procedural environment to optimize workload and performance for improved surgical care.
... Put differently, in a climate that is characterized by job insecurity, employees might feel less compelled to reciprocate the benefits obtained from the positive transaction with their leader, because the organization (as perceived through the aggregatelevel climate construct of job insecurity) has failed to guarantee a sufficient level of certainty regarding the continuity of their employment. While high LMX is deemed to enhance employee motivation (Scaduto et al., 2008) and to stimulate workers to engage in extra-role work behaviors (Harris et al., 2014), job insecurity climate is likely to lessen this positive motivational influence. Based on the line of reasoning given above, we hypothesize that: ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible role of job insecurity climate as a moderator in the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire data were collected from 466 employees working in 14 organizations from both the private and public sector. Following the core tenets of social exchange theory and occupational stress theories, the authors argue that ideally job insecurity is studied as a climate-level construct, given the fact that intra-group social exchange processes strongly influence the formation of employee perceptions about specific aspects of their work context (e.g. job insecurity). Findings In line with one of the hypotheses, multi-level analyses revealed that LMX is significantly and positively related to OCBs. In addition, the authors found support for a negative moderation effect, such that LMX has a less strongly positive relationship with extra-role behaviors that are beneficial to the organization when job insecurity climate is high. Originality/value The study contributes to the limited empirical scholarly research on job insecurity climate and its correlates. Management and HR professionals in working organizations are advised to focus on preventive measures (e.g. to invest in the professional development of their employees, that is focus on employability enhancement, in order to reduce job insecurity) as well as on participation-based interventions.
... In programs with a high degree of congruence in faculty norms, faculty members are more likely to be motivated to provide this training to students (e.g., through coursework and practicums) and have experienced enough to do so effectively. Finally, research suggests that the desire to gain the approval of one's leaders is a particularly potent influence on behavior (Scaduto et al., 2008). Thus, the perception that faculty members collectively value social justice is likely to motivate students to seek their approval by participating in social justice behaviors themselves. ...
Article
A growing body of research suggests that graduate psychology training programs with a stronger collective social justice identity are likely to provide more support for students’ advocacy engagements than those with discrepant views among members. We conducted response surface analyses (N = 178 Ph.D. students; across 16 counseling psychology programs) to examine whether the degree of congruence and discrepancy on social justice attitudes and perception of training program norms (perceived social justice norms among students and faculty) between an individual student and other students in their program would be associated with students’ social justice advocacy intention and behavior. Higher congruences on attitudes and perceived norms (among students and faculty) were significantly associated with advocacy intentions. For advocacy behaviors, only congruently higher perception of faculty was significantly associated. Discrepant attitudes and perceived norms were not significantly related to students' advocacy intentions and behaviors. Recommendations for training and research are discussed.
... Samples of the transfer statements include 'I have incorporated some of the skills, knowledge and abilities that I have learned in the leadership program' and 'I feel that my organizational behavior has changed partly due to the leadership training I completed'. The reliability of this measurement in the current study was α = 0.810, which is in line with previous literature and therefore suggests that the study model is comparable to other country and organizational contexts (Chauhan et al., 2016;Chiaburu et al., 2010;Scaduto et al., 2008). ...
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This study tests the validity of the Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI-version 4) and identifies the factors that impact transferring leadership training. The LTSI was administered to 242 academic managers, who had completed a series of leadership training a year before the study. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that all 11 factors in the specific domain were validated, unlike the general domain, where only four factors were validated, and one factor was not validated. Leadership training transfer was primarily influenced by supervisor support, motivation to transfer, peer support, readiness to transfer, and self-efficacy.
... Not surprisingly, service organisations view training as a critical factor for improving the performance of their employees (Scaduto, Lindsay, & Chiaburu, 2008;Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). Furthermore, Babakus, Yavas, Karatepe, and Avci (2003) suggested that training front-line staff is essential, and that the presence of customer service training programmes demonstrate to front-line employees management's commitment to service quality. ...
Thesis
This study investigates the effect of cultural intelligence of front-line service employees on foreign guests’ perceptions of service quality. This relationship has not hitherto been investigated. The literature suggests that culture and interactions between customers and employees affect service quality. The literature also shows that, in cross-cultural encounters, attitudes and behaviours are important aspects of cultural intelligence, employee performance and service quality. It also points to interrelationships between these constructs. A theoretical model was developed which suggests that in these encounters, cultural intelligence is likely to affect service quality through employee performance. A novel methodological approach consisting of a pilot study and two stages of empirical research were undertaken in international hotels in Karbala, Iraq. The first, qualitative stage was in the form of interviews to gain an insight into the service interactions. Thematic analysis of the data supported the theoretical model and pointed to additional causal relationships. The model was tested in the second quantitative stage. A self-report cultural intelligence questionnaire was administered to a sample of local employees (N=201). A new job performance questionnaire was designed and administered to hotel managers (N=53) to assess these employees’ performance. A SERVPERF questionnaire was also given to foreign guests (N=469) who were served by these employees. The dimensions of these measures were determined by principal components analysis (SPSS 22), and their adequacy was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.8). The model was tested using hierarchical multi-regression analysis. The findings showed that employee performance mediated the relationships between cultural intelligence and service quality. Another main contribution is the development of an employee performance scale for use in service encounters. The study adds to the cross�cultural service literature and to research methodology design. Its implications for management and employee training were discussed, as well as its limitations. Further research was also suggested.
... The findings of this study also lend support to past empirical studies. Transfer motivation has been found to have a direct influence on training transfer outcomes (Nijman et al. 2006;Scaduto, Lindsay, and Chiaburu 2008). Transfer motivation is predicted by individual characteristics and workplace characteristics as a result of the relationships of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors with transfer motivation (Rouiller and Goldstein 1993;Santos and Stuart 2003). ...
Article
This paper is ambitious of investigating the mediating role of transfer motivation on trainee characteristics in transferring training on the population of Nigerian teachers. An aggregate of 1,000 copies of the questionnaire was distributed to the respondents in an Education Board in Nigeria. Totally, 605 copies of the questionnaire were finally retained for analysis. Smart-PLS’s measurement model, structural model and Sobel test were the techniques employed to assess and evaluate the statistical significance of relevant path coefficients. The findings showed that the extent to which employees are engrossed in organizational commitment and fully involved in their jobs would drive them to be desirous in making persistent and intense efforts towards utilizing skills and knowledge learned in the work settings. Also, the findings of this study highlighted that transfer motivation is a fundamental element in the transfer of training processes.
... Online training can be described as the technology-based and systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, and/or attitudes that increase the productivity of both the employee and the organization [21]. It can also be described as method that enables the trainer and the trainee to be in different locations yet still connect through the use of technology capabilities (tools, technology, and equipment) [22]. Online training approaches are especially important in organizations where employees work different shifts and where there are high turnover rates, both of which are organizational aspects that are especially evident in developing countries [23,24]. ...
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Organizations have moved away from traditional classroom-based training to online training whereby employees can attend courses at their convenience either at home or in the workplace. This transition has been fuelled by lockdowns that governments worldwide have implemented to counter the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, where employees are expected to work or attend training from home. However, several issues including lack of employee engagement hinder the effective delivery of online corporate training. In recent years, gamification has been identified as a solution to lack of engagement in education. Gamification involves the incorporation of game elements into non-game applications to encourage user engagement, where different combinations are used for different learning contexts. However, little research has been done to identify suitable game elements for the gamification of corporate online training. This study proposes a set of game elements to improve employee engagement with online training platforms. A step-by-step analysis of the literature led to the identification of nine potentially suitable game elements. These elements were evaluated by a group of experts selected from five well-known training providers in Saudi Arabia, who completed a semi-structured interview questionnaire about the usability, completeness, and usefulness of the elements. The result of the evaluation indicated that the identified game elements will be able to effectively and efficiently improve employee engagement. The set of nine game elements was then incorporated into a proposed framework for the gamification of online training platforms to enhance employee engagement.
... Training, one of the most frequently used intervention of enhancing human performance (Silberman, 2006;Scaduto et al., 2008) can be defined as a planned and systematic learning experience which designed to bring valuable change in an individual's skills, attitudes and knowledge. In our fast-paced world, it is essential to keep up to speed with developments in standards, regulations and technology. ...
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Knowledge, Skills, and attitudes are the most essential ingredient for the efficient conduct of business through the human resources of an organization. But the impact of these valuable ingredients is often reduced by lack of an effective training program. The research paper tries to highlight the necessity of effective training and after training evaluation in designing and implementing training programs for the employees in the retail sector specifically for super shops of Bangladesh. The study takes three major super shops in Bangladesh-Agora, Shwapno and Meena Bazaar. The main purpose of this study is to find the answer to how training refers to the acquisitions of knowledge, skill, and attitudes. The paper also facilitates the organization to better understand the necessity of post-training evaluation leading to effective employee engagement in designing improved training programs to seize the present and future training opportunities.
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Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji kesan motivasi latihan sebagai perantara antara kriteria personal dan kriteria latihan terhadap prestasi belajar dalam kalangan pelatih yang menjalani kursus latihan peralihan di Perbadanan Hal Ehwal bekas angkatan tentera (PERHEBAT). Dalam kajian ini, kriteria personal dan kriteria latihan bertindak sebagai pemboleh ubah bebas dalam meramal prestasi belajar. Motivasi latihan pula dijadikan sebagai pemboleh ubah pengantara dalam hubungan antara pemboleh ubah bebas dengan prestasi belajar. Alat kajian yang digunakan diadaptasi daripada Skala Ciri-Ciri Pelatih (Trainee Characteristic Scale), Skala Ciri-ciri Program Latihan (Training Program Characteristic Scale), Skala Motivasi Latihan (Training Motivational Scale) dan Skala Keberkesanan Latihan (Training Effectiveness Scale) oleh Siti Fardaniah (2013). Soal selidik bagi mengukur dimensi reka bentuk pemindahan latihan yang terdapat dalam kriteria latihan pula diadaptasi daripada Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) oleh Holton et al, (2000). Pengujian kesan pengantara pula menunjukkan motivasi latihan bertindak sebagai pengantara secara separa dalam hubungan antara kriteria personal dan kriteria latihan dengan prestasi belajar. Seterusnya, perbincangan, limitasi dan kesimpulan kajian turut dibincangkan.
Article
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has been acknowledged as a major driver of seamless and integrated operations. Implementing ERP is a challenging task, requiring configuration, migration from legacy systems. Therefore, the successful assimilation of ERP within an organisation requires building the requisite skills and knowledge to support both the implementation and post-implementation challenges. This study investigates the relationships among supervisor support, computer self-efficacy, transfer motivation and training transfer in an enterprise system environment. The sequential mediating effects of computer self-efficacy and transfer motivation was assessed in this study. Data collected from 170 users who previously attended an ERP system training program were analysed in this study using the SPSS version 24 and Hayes Macro Process. Findings from the analysis revealed direct relationships among the variables, and the full mediation effects influence of computer self-efficacy and transfer motivation in the relationship between supervisory support and training transfer.
Article
The National Association of School Psychologists developed the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum to help schools plan for and prevent school crises and to help mitigate the effects after a crisis occurs. In this study, 279 participants who attended the PREP aRE training between 1 and 24 months before the survey date completed measures assessing work environment, trainee characteristic, and training design variables as well as the transfer of PREP aRE‐specific knowledge and skills. Utilizing structural equation modeling, unique effects of Work Environment and Trainee Characteristic variables on knowledge and skill transfer and the extent to which Trainee Characteristics moderate effects of the Work Environment were assessed. Results indicated a significant moderating effect such that trainees who were less motivated compared to those who were more motivated demonstrated greater transfer when they worked in more supportive, open, and rewarding environments. Overall, results from this study provide evidence to support addressing many individual and contextual variables to improve the transfer of PREP aRE‐specific knowledge and skills. Implications for practice are discussed.
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Early Childhood Education (ECE) is an emerging field worldwide. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of in-service Early Childhood Education (ECE) teachers' training programs for public schools of Punjab organized by Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED), School Education Department, Government of Punjab. The theoretical framework was based on Kirkpatrick's (2006) four-level evaluation model: reaction, learning, behaviour and results. The quantitative approach was applied through the application of a random sampling technique. The adapted questionnaire was used to collect data from ECE trained teachers (n=100) by QAED from Lahore. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques. The reliability ( =.877) of the instrument was found satisfactory. The results revealed a substantial and significant positive correlation among all the four levels of the Kirkpatrick model. Motivation to transfer training and social support was also found significant and positively correlated with four levels of the Kirkpatrick model. The training outcomes depend on the second level and third level of the Kilpatrick's model for the evaluation of training program along with motivation to transfer training and colleague support. Future studies can be conducted to find out the moderating factors for ECE teacher's training effectiveness.
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Early Childhood Education (ECE) is an emerging field worldwide. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of in-service Early Childhood Education (ECE) teachers' training programs for public schools of Punjab organized by Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED), School Education Department, Government of Punjab. The theoretical framework was based on Kirkpatrick's (2006) four-level evaluation model: reaction, learning, behaviour and results. The quantitative approach was applied through the application of a random sampling technique. The adapted questionnaire was used to collect data from ECE trained teachers (n=100) by QAED from Lahore. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques. The reliability ( =.877) of the instrument was found satisfactory. The results revealed a substantial and significant positive correlation among all the four levels of the Kirkpatrick model. Motivation to transfer training and social support was also found significant and positively correlated with four levels of the Kirkpatrick model. The training outcomes depend on the second level and third level of the Kilpatrick's model for the evaluation of training program along with motivation to transfer training and colleague support. Future studies can be conducted to find out the moderating factors for ECE teacher's training effectiveness.
Article
Colquitt et al. (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000, 85, p. 678) integrative theory based on meta-analysis and model testing has served as the foundation for our understanding of training motivation. However, the applicability of the theory today may be limited for several reasons. There has been significant growth in training motivation research since Colquitt et al. (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000, 85, p. 678) proposed and tested their theory. Also, advances in meta-analysis and model testing allow for a more complete and rigorous test of the theory than was previously possible. As a result, we propose and test a contemporary and comprehensive theory of training motivation based on Colquitt et al. (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000, 85, p. 678) and other studies conducted over the last 20 years. To do so, we conducted an updated meta-analytic review of 167 independent studies and tested a mediation model of training motivation theory using both conventional meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) and full-information MASEM (FIMASEM). The results support a partially mediated model of training motivation that includes additional antecedents (e.g., openness to experience, extroversion, agreeableness, and goal orientation) and learning outcomes (e.g., turnover intentions and job satisfaction) not included in Colquitt et al. (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000, 85, p. 678). In addition, we conducted exploratory analyses to understand the relative importance of the antecedents of both motivation to learn and learning outcomes and the moderating role of training and studying characteristics on the relationships between motivation to learn and its antecedents and consequences. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the results for theory, practice, and future research directions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Purpose Purpose of this study is to investigate the role of learner readiness in enhancing transfer of training by empirically testing a moderated mediation mechanism in which learner readiness influences transfer through motivation to transfer, and this indirect impact is moderated by supervisor support. Design/methodology/approach The perception of trainees about the constructs considered has been captured through a survey of 250 employees of a unit of a manufacturing organization in India. For hypotheses testing, PROCESS macro developed by Hayes (2013) has been used. Findings Results have confirmed the significant role played by learner readiness in predicting transfer. This apart, supervisor support has been proved to moderate the indirect impact of learner readiness on transfer. Practical implications Trainees need to have pre-requisite knowledge to learn the content of a training programme, which would enable them to grasp such content and transfer the same subsequently to work. It is also essential that trainees are willing to attend any training voluntarily. Specific interventions may be designed for supervisors to bolster their catalytic role in training transfer. Originality/value An interactionist approach has been adopted by focussing on learner readiness as a less-studied trainee characteristic and supervisor support as a situational factor of transfer. This is construed as a significant contribution of this study to training literature. The potential overlap between learner readiness and motivation to transfer as trainee characteristics is seen to be neutralized by the presence of supervisor support as a moderator. Findings help in understanding how a trainee’s readiness and motivation, together with supervisor’s positive attitude, can enhance transfer.
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İnsan kaynakları yönetim uygulamalarının (İKYU) bireysel ve örgütsel çıktılar üzerindeki etkilerinin araştırıldığı tez çalışmasının temel amacı; hizmet sektöründe faaliyet gösteren otellerin uyguladığı İKYU içerisinde en etkili uygulamaları belirlemek ve bu uygulamaların bireysel ve örgütsel çıktılara olan etkisini incelemektir. Bireysel ve örgütsel çıktılar olarak; zorunlu vatandaşlık davranışı, iş stresi, yenilik ve girişimci davranışlar esas alınmıştır. Bu değişkenler hizmet sektöründe başarı veya başarısızlığa sebep olabilecek temel değişkenlerdir. Araştırma, İKYU’nun çıktılar üzerindeki etkilerini daha iyi anlamak ve böylelikle hizmet kalitesini geliştirmek için İKYU ve lider üye etkileşimini içeren kavramsal bir model önermektedir. Araştırma kapsamına uygun evren olarak KKTC’de faaliyet gösteren ve İKYU’nun etkin olarak uygulanıldığı değerlendirilen beş yıldızlı oteller tercih edilmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi 302 beş yıldızlı otel çalışanı oluşturmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler regresyon analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçları İKYU’nun çoklu yapısının otel çalışanlarında; zorunlu vatandaşlık davranışını azalttığı, girişimci davranışları artırdığını ve lider üye etkileşiminin bu ilişkilerde aracı rolü olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu bulgulara ilave olarak İKYU’nun çoklu yapısının otel çalışanlarında yeniliği ve iş stresini arttırdığı fakat bu ilişkide lider üye etkileşiminin aracı rolünün olmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma, İKYU’yu tüm alt boyutları ile inceleyerek literatüre katkı sağlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Araştırma literatüre katkı sağlamanın yanı sıra, emek yoğun özelliğiyle insan kaynağının etkin kullanılması gereken hizmet sektörünün yöneticilerine yönelik pratik bilgiler sunmaktadır.
Article
Purpose Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A body of knowledge has established significant links between the motivational behaviours of operatives towards health and safety. Motivation is also considered as a key tool for improving operative productivity as when operatives experience safe worksites, they can carry out their work in a more productive manner. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework to examine the motivational factors that affect operative health and safety in small construction firms. Design/methodology/approach A critical review and synthesis of the body of knowledge incorporating motivational theory, health and safety literature and the factors which characterise small firms, is used to develop the framework. Findings Key components of the framework include the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic components, appropriate health and safety policies and procedures, the type of work environment, the operatives (i.e. attitude, experience and training) as well as the presence of appropriate management and supervision. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated due to the absence of training, management commitment, policies and the wider working environment Research limitations/implications Failure of motivational support can result in increased danger and risk in exposing operatives to injury in the small firm environment. In this context, the damage caused to operative's health and safety in small construction firms is dependent mainly on the extrinsic factors. Practical implications The framework provides a basis for improving our understanding of how to motivate operatives to act safely and will help to improve the health and safety performance of small firms. It is therefore vital to emphasise enhancement efforts on these extrinsic strategies in the small firms' environment especially in the initial stages of the project (or activity), so that the health and safety of operatives in small firms can be improved. Originality/value This study proposes a contribution in developing an understanding of the motivational factors and their influence on the health and safety of operatives in small construction firms. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated and have only intrinsically motivated elements in their workplace. The study proposes an indirect link between the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect motivation.
Article
Testing and application of ‘a system of forces’, effectiveness of training (EoT) and organizational project management performance has been a challenging and demanding approach. The purpose of this study is to engage the Omani Dockyard in enhancement of its organizational learning on knowledge and competencies through the formulation of refit preparations and implementations by amalgamating frameworks/models to underpin ships’ upkeep and repair support preparations (SURSP). The data collection and analysis were administered using survey questionnaires. Pearson correlation, multiple regression and Sobel Mediation Tests and analyses were used to determine and strengthen the frameworks/models. The methodical system of frameworks was used through the employment of ‘a system of forces’ variables, encompassing “force of cooperation” and “force for: efficiency, innovation, direction, proficiency and concentration” as the independent variables (IVs), “EoT” as a mediating variable and the “organizational performance” as a dependent variable. The IVs were positively related to DV. The regression model of organizational performance was significant when regressed against IVs, pending “cooperation and direction”, which did not significantly contribute to organizational performance. Equally, when the ‘regressed coefficients’ were mediated through “EoT”, using the Sobel Mediation Test, they were found to be both directly and indirectly significant. The results were needed to emphasise the importance of amalgamation and contribution of frameworks/models for the naval dockyard’s organizational values through different phases of progressive organizational performance. The results of this study have shown a significant and contributive way forward for the application of organizational learning and progressive frameworks/models to deliver the required SURSP. The results of this study provided some positive breakthroughs and contributions for improvement.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to predict the transfer of training (ToT) from management training. This study empirically examined the predictive power of ToT factors, namely, individual characteristics (self-efficacy), training intervention design (training approaches) and work climate (organizational support) among the study respondents. Design/methodology/approach All the proposed research hypotheses were tested through survey data. Data was collected using a questionnaire from managers working in different departments of an Indian public manufacturing organization. A sum of 273 usable data was analyzed, and the structural equation modeling technique was used to test the proposed theoretical model. Findings The study results showed a direct and positive association among self-efficacy, work climate and training intervention design with training transfer. The study findings suggest that self-efficacy, training approaches and organizational support predict ToT. Practical implications The study findings have a beneficial impact on designing and delivering successful management training intervention among managers. To enhance training transfer, organizations could consider all these three factors. A replication of the study in national and international settings would help improve generalizability. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explored the new relationships of selected factors with ToT in management training. An improved understanding of the interactive impact of self-efficacy, training approaches and organizational support on the ToT is provided.
Article
The article aims to define a behavioral matrix regarding the style of leadership applied to management in a public company. The dimensions include communication and persuasion, ethics, empathy, knowledge and information management, the desire to learn, the objective’s achievement, adaptability, innovation, and decision making. The behavioral competencies correlate with the four dimensions of emotional intelligence related to personal abilities such as self-knowledge and self-management, but also social competences, such as awareness and the management of relationships with others. The article analyses the extent to which the emotional intelligence among the personnel that makes up the middle management influences organizational climate at the company level.
Article
This study examines two sources of workplace learning (via supervisors and via colleagues) as potential mediators accounting for the effects of social support and training on employee wellbeing. Analysis of survey data from 279 Chinese workers reveals that they react to the two sources of learning differently, possibly as a consequence of a high-power-distance culture. Learning from supervisors is the only significant mediator in the relationships between social support and training, on the one hand, and employee wellbeing (physical health, work engagement and job satisfaction), on the other. This demonstrates that different forms of workplace learning can have different antecedents and consequences, and suggests that the supervisor-employee dyad is particularly important for work-related learning in China. The study shows that a learning-based mediation process contributes to job-resources-to-wellbeing relationships, and should be factored into future theorization in the job demands-resources (JD-R) framework.
Poster
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The purpose of this study is to quantitatively gauge the effect of supervisors’ support in promoting training transfer into the workplace through a meta-analysis study. Two questions guiding this study include (a) what is the size of the relationship between supervisor supports and training transfer? and (b) what type of support is indicated most effective to influence the training transfer? We analyzed previous publications’ findings by using R and RStudio software. Based on the 10 previous studies included in this study, the result indicated a moderate relationship between supervisors’ support and training transfer. Both limitations and recommendations are further discussed in the study.
Article
Recent events in the workplace, government, and college campuses in the US have brought the issues of sexual harassment and assault to the forefront of media and public discussion. IO psychologists are uniquely suited to help address these issues by aiding in intervention development. Specifically, IO psychologists can provide key insight regarding the context, design, development, and evaluation of sexual harassment and assault training efforts. Although some empirical evidence suggests that trainings are effective in the short-term, there is little evidence to suggest long-term attitudinal or behavioral change outside of the training environment. Much of the research in this area, however, has focused solely on the training intervention, excluding the pre- and post-training environment. Thus, the present effort focuses on designing trainings that promote transfer, as well as improving measurement of desired outcomes, to provide a framework for improving sexual harassment and assault training. This framework addresses how individual differences, needs analysis, training design, evaluation, and post-training support contribute to lasting change while addressing the unique challenges associated with sexual harassment and assault. Lastly, this framework provides guidance for improving research in this area as well as practical suggestions for improving training programs.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The leader-member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader-member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership.
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Studies of the influence of trainees' characteristics on training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content. Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees' attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training.
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There is growing evidence that an organization’s training climate can influence the effectiveness of formal and informal training activities. Unfortunately, there is limited data regarding the psychometric properties of climate measures that have been used in training research. The purpose of this article is to examine the construct validity of a training climate measure. Results from content adequacy, reliability, aggregation, and convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity assessments provide support for the measure’s use in diagnostic and theory testing efforts.
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Given the proliferation of training transfer studies in various disciplines, we provide an integrative and analytical review of factors impacting transfer of training. Relevant empirical research for transfer across the management, human resource development (HRD), training, adult learning, performance improvement, and psychology literatures is integrated into the review. We synthesize the developing knowledge regarding the primary factors influencing transfer—learner characteristics, intervention design and delivery, and work environment influences—to identify variables with substantive support and to discern the most pressing gaps. Ultimately, a critique of the state of the transfer literature is provided and targeted suggestions are outlined to guide future empirical and theoretical work in a meaningful direction.
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This study describes the development of general scales to measure self-efficacy and outcome expectancy at both the individual and group level. Factor analysis of an initial application of these scales in work settings was used for scale revision. Results from a second work sample provide evidence of the revised scales' factorial validity, reliability, and criterion validity in reference to work satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work performance based on peer evaluations. These scales are proposed as tools to enhance the use of these constructs in job-related research.
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The process of the transfer of training has a great impact on job productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction. Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in the process have, however, been limited in number. The general aim of this study is to determine the impact of managers’ reinforcement on participants’ job attitude, productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction in the process of the transfer of knowledge, skill and attitude to be acquired through a training programme into the workplace. The study involves a group of sales representatives participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola Bottlers of Turkey. Using experimental and control groups, the study is based on Kirkpatrick’s four–stage evaluation model. The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of training.
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Training participants' cognitions (training self-efficacy and training instrumentality) can be powerful motivational forces (and impact their motivation to learn and motivation to transfer) and influence important distal outcomes (such as training transfer). Our paper provides a set of ideas linking training cognitions with training outcomes. In addition, we support our propositions with a preliminary empirical test, based on a sample of 254 employees, who provide information on their training perceptions of training and development efforts at their organization. The results indicate that although the ‘can do’ (training self-efficacy) is a primary predictor or motivation to learn, the ‘will do’ aspect (training instrumentality) is the primary predictor for motivation to transfer. In addition, training transfer is predicted primarily by motivation to transfer, and has a strong relationship with training instrumentality. Given the paucity of research on the instrumentality aspect, we discuss theoretical and practical implications, and directions for future research.
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The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader–member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model of learning transfer that focused on the active role of the learner was developed and tested within a complex decision-making task. The study examined how individual differences, learning strategies, and training outcomes influenced transfer of learning to a more complex task. A sample of 93 undergraduate students participated in a 2-day radar operations study. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that mastery orientation was positively related to metacognitive activity of the learner. Metacognitive activity was significantly related to knowledge acquisition, skilled performance at the end of training, and self-efficacy. All 3 of these training outcomes were related to performance on the transfer task. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested a model in which pretraining self-efficacy and motivation were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between job involvement, organizational commitment, perceptions of the work environment, and training reactions and knowledge acquisition. The model also proposed hierarchical relationships between levels of training effectiveness criteria. Survey data was obtained from 115 managerial trainees and 305 supervisors and managerial coworkers. A series of statistical analyses demonstrate support for the model. It is suggested that research should incorporate a multilevel framework and consider the multidimensional nature of training outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined whether variables at individual, unit, and suborganization levels influence the extent to which the knowledge and skills learned in employee involvement (EI) training are generalized beyond specific EI activities. Training generalization occurs when the knowledge and skills learned in training for a specific purpose in one context (e.g., EI training for use in quality circles) are applied by trainees in another context (e.g., regular job duties). A multiple-cross-level design using data gathered from 252 employees and supervisors drawn from 88 units across 11 suborganizations provided support for both individual and situational effects. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated that characteristics at individual, unit, and suborganization levels significantly predicted the extent EI knowledge, skills, and attitudes were generalized to the core job activities. As predicted, trainees were more likely to use EI training in performing core job activities the more EI activities they participated in, the greater their commitment to the organization, and the less cynical they were about the likelihood of positive organizational change. Contrary to expectations, more generalization of EI training was found to occur in units and suborganizations with less participative climates.
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The process of the transfer of training has a great impact on job productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction. Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in the process have, however, been limited in number. The general aim of this study is to determine the impact of managers' reinforcement on participants' job attitude, productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction in the process of the transfer of knowledge, skill and attitude to be acquired through a training programme into the workplace. The study involves a group of sales representatives participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola Bottlers of Turkey. Using experimental and control groups, the study is based on Kirkpatrick's four-stage evaluation model. The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of training.
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This study aims to gain insight into some of the factors that determine the transfer of training to the work context. The present research examined the relationship between three types of predictors on transfer of training, including training design, individual characteristics and work environment. Data was collected at two points in time from 182 employees in a large grocery organization. The results indicated that transfer design, performance self-efficacy, training retention and performance feedback were significantly related to transfer of training. Contrary to expectation, supervisory support was not significantly related to transfer of training. These results suggest that in order to enhance transfer of training, organizations should design training that gives trainees the ability to transfer learning, reinforces the trainee's beliefs in their ability to transfer, ensures the training content is retained over time and provides appropriate feedback regarding employee job performance following training activities.
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The use of an alternative to the research strategies employed for the past 20 yrs and more to investigate leadership produced results which question the traditional models and open new avenues for empirical exploration. Approaching leadership as an exchange relationship which develops within the vertical dyad over time during role making activities, this longitudinal study found that the degree of latitude that a superior granted to a member to negotiate his role was predictive of subsequent behavior on the part of both superior and member. Contrary to traditional views of leadership, superiors typically employed both leadership and supervision techniques within their units. With a select subset of their members, superiors developed leadership exchanges (influence without authority), and with others, superiors developed only supervision relationships (influence based primarily upon authority). Some of the many implications of these findings are discussed.
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Research into Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory has been gaining momentum in recent years, with a multitude of studies investigating many aspects of LMX in organizations. Theoretical development in this area also has undergone many refinements, and the current theory is far different from the early Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) work. This article uses a levels perspective to trace the development of LMX through four evolutionary stages of theorizing and investigation up to the present. The article also uses a domains perspective to develop a new taxonomy of approaches to leadership, and LMX is discussed within this taxonomy as a relationship-based approach to leadership. Common questions and issues concerning LMX are addressed, and directions for future research are provided.
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We developed a model in which leader-member exchange mediated between perceived transformational leadership behaviors and followers' task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Our sample comprised 162 leader-follower dyads within organizations situated throughout the People's Republic of China. We showed that leader-member exchange fully mediated between transformational leadership and task performance as well as organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications for the theory and practice of leadership are discussed, and future research directions offered.
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The focus of the study was to assess learning transfer made by HRD professionals from a Korean organization for a training program on performance improvement technologies. Results revealed multiple reasons for high or low transfer and provide insights into the design of highly transferable training programs.
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Results support the hypothesis that individuals transfer their training to the job when their ‘real’ environment matches or fits the preferred ‘ideal’ environment. Five aspects of environment were assessed: supervisory encouragement, sufficient resources, worker’s perceived freedom, workload pressures, and perceived worker creativity. In addition to the traditional criteria of hiring people whose skills match the job, organizations might consider creating environments to match employees’ needs.
In a field experiment involving 106 form-processing employees of a large, public service organization four treatment conditions are compared—leader—member exchange (LMX), job design, a combination of LMX and job design, and a placebo control—on satisfaction and productivity. The job design manipulation fails to take, and only the LMX condition results in significant before—after gains. Employee growth need strength moderates the LMX effect. Both dyadic exchange and work itself outcomes show significant gains in the LMX condition. The implications of these results are discussed.
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The present study was conducted to determine whether trainees' general beliefs about training affect pretraining motivation and transfer of training in a large-scale training curriculum. In addition, the influence of social support for training from four organizational constituents (top management, supervisors, peers, and subordinates) and task constraints in the work environment on pretraining motivation and training transfer were evaluated. Nine hundred sixtyseven managers and supervisors completed a questionnaire that assessed 14 constructs. Structural equations analysis with LISREL VII indicated that the overall reputation of training, intrinsic and compliance incentives, organizational commitment, and three social support variables (subordinate, supervisor, and top management support) were predictive of pretraining motivation. In addition, pretraining motivation and subordinate, peer, and supervisor support were predictive of managers' perceived training transfer. These findings suggests that previous theory and research (e.g., Noe, 1986; Noe & Schmitt, 1986) serve as a useful heuristic for predicting the effects of general beliefs about training on training effectiveness. Implications of the findings for future research and practice are discussed.
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An explanation of the effects of leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction, motivation, and performance is presented. The explanation is derived from a path-goal theory of motivation. Dimensions of leader behavior such as leader initiating structure, consideration, authoritarianism, hierarchical influence, and closeness of supervision are analyzed in terms of path-goal variables such as valence and instrumentality. The theory specifies some of the situational moderators on which the effects of specific leader behaviors are contingent. A set of general propositions are advanced which integrate and explain earlier fragmentary research findings. Several specific predictions are made to illustrate how the general propositions can be operationalized. The usefulness of the theory is demonstrated by showing how several seemingly unrelated prior research findings could have been deduced from its general propositions and by applying it to reconcile what appear to be contradictory findings from prior studies. Results of two empirical studies are reported that provide support for seven of eight hypotheses derived directly from the general propositions of the theory. A third study designed to test three of the original eight hypotheses is also reported. Two of these three hypotheses are successfully replicated. In the light of these results and the integrative power of the theory, it is argued that the theory shows promise and should be further tested with experimental as well as correlational methods.
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This article reviews some major studies that were conducted in the past decade (1989-1998) on the transfer of what employees learned from training programmes back to their jobs. A conceptual framework is developed for this article to better present the “popular” constructs that have been tested empirically. The achievement is twofold. First, this review paper highlights that some individual, motivational and environmental factors are related to transfer of training. Second, some directions for further studies have been suggested. For example, longitudinal study was highly recommended for measuring transfer outcomes. Some new individual (e.g. achievement striving), motivational (e.g. trainee-control-over-training) and environmental (e.g. transfer climate) constructs are recommended to be incorporated in newly created models. These models can then be examined using structural equation modelling. After extensive testing and refinement of these models, a set of critical constructs can be distilled. By that time, convergence of research efforts focusing on major themes can be achieved.
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It has become widely accepted that correlations between variables measured with the same method, usually self-report surveys, are inflated due to the action of common method variance (CMV), despite a number of sources that suggest the problem is overstated. The author argues that the popular position suggesting CMV automatically affects variables measured with the same method is a distortion and oversimplification of the true state of affairs, reaching the status of urban legend. Empirical evidence is discussed casting doubt that the method itself produces systematic variance in observations that inflates correlations to any significant degree. It is suggested that the term common method variance be abandoned in favor of a focus on measurement bias that is the product of the interplay of constructs and methods by which they are assessed. A complex approach to dealing with potential biases involves their identification and control to rule them out as explanations for observed relationships using a variety of design strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). I talk about how I came to write this paper here: https://managementink.wordpress.com/2011/04/05/truth-or-urban-legend/
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This study (a) compared the effect of perceived supervisor support (PSS) and perceived coworker support (PCS) on work attitudes; (b) examined the moderating role of gender, tenure, and job type in the support—attitude relationship; and (c) tested a theoretical model hypothesizing relationships among PCS, PSS, perceived organizational support, and work attitudes. In a meta-analysis, PSS was found to be more strongly related to job satisfaction (.52 vs. .37), affective commitment (.48 vs. .28), and turnover intention (—.36 vs. —.19) than was PCS. Further, job type (customer-contact vs. non-customer-contact jobs) was found to be a significant moderator. Finally, the proposed model received empirical support. Different forms of support were closely related to work attitudes and to each other. Implications for research on social support are discussed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and human resource development (HRD) to gain a better understanding of the LMX-performance relationship through connecting LMX and HRD theory. Design/methodology/approach – Dubin's framework is used for the purpose of linking LMX with HRD. Except that the last three steps (empirical indicators of key terms, hypotheses, testing) involved conducting empirical research, the authors employ steps 1 through 5 to build an HRD-based LMX model, i.e. the first step specifies that the units of the theory be identified; the second step involves establishing the laws of interaction applicable to the units of the theory. The third and fourth steps define boundaries for an HRD-based LMX model and suggest propositions for future empirical research. In addition, to lessen the likelihood of some redundancy the system states are included with the laws of interaction. Findings – LMX and HRD (as represented by identified outcomes) theories are linked by at least three key factors: trust, empowerment, and performance. A theoretical model linking LMX and HRD also describes the contributions of trust, empowerment, and performance to LMX theory of leadership with the help of two specific HRD interventions – trust building and empowerment facilitation. Research limitations/implications – The confirmation of the theoretical model through empirical research is still required. Practical implications – In the aspect of relational performance, this paper proposes a basis for designing and implementing strategic HRD activities and recommends the conceptual model as an intervention technique for organizational change. Originality/value – This paper illuminates the base of LMX leadership theory and seeks to develop new practical insights of the theory. In so doing, it aims to contribute to reducing the tension between leadership theorists and leadership development practitioners, described as validity versus usefulness.
Article
Purpose – To investigate individual and contextual antecedents of learning, transfer of learning, training generalization and training maintenance in a work context. Design/methodology/approach – The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analysis on data obtained from 119 employees who attended training programs. Findings – The data supported the relationship between continuous-learning culture and supervisor support and training motivation. Although training motivation was directly related only to training maintenance, it interacted with performance goal orientation in affecting training transfer and generalization. Practical implications – Practitioners interested in designing interventions directed at increasing similar training outcomes can use various approaches aimed at assessing and monitoring factors such as continuous-learning culture, supervisor support and training motivation. More importantly, based on the current results, practitioners can manage selectively the performance goal orientation of their trainees, given its differential relationship with training outcomes. Originality/value – The findings are valuable for researchers and practitioners. From a theoretical perspective, the study offers a better-specified model of training effectiveness by including both contextual and individual factors important for improving training effectiveness. Practitioners can use these ideas to design corresponding training and training transfer interventions.
Article
From the Publisher:Create a Learning Transfer Environment in Your OrganizationImproving Learning Transfer in Organizations translates organizational science into down-to-earth terms. This important book includes guidelines, principles, and lessons learned that can shape and guide the practice of learning transfer in any organization. Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations is written by the leading experts in the field of transfer systems. Contributors to Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations Timothy T. Baldwin Reid A. Bates Mary L. Broad Lisa A. Burke Janis A. Cannon-Bowers Camden C. Danielson Erik R. Eddy J. Kevin Ford Jerry W. Gilley Erik Hoekstra Elwood F. Holton III Robert D. Marx Patricia McLagan Laura Martin Milham Sharon S. Naquin Eduardo Salas Richard A. Swanson Scott I. Tannenbaum William Wiggenhorn Lyle Yorks To succeed in today’s fast-paced business environment, organizations must put in place systems that help employees learn and transfer new ideas and information. While most managers recognize the inherent value in learning transfer, the successful transfer of learning is a formidable challenge for any organization. Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations features contributions from leading experts in the field of learning transfer, and offers the most current information, ideas, and theories on the topic and aptly illustrates how to put transfer systems into action. In this book, the authors move beyond explanation to intervention by contributing their most recent thinking on how best to intervene in organizational contexts to influence the transfer of learning. Written for chief learning officers, training and development practitioners, management development professionals, and human resource management practitioners, this important volume shows how to create systems that ensure employees are getting and retaining the information, skills, and knowledge necessary to accomplish tasks on the job.Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations addresses learning transfer on both the individual and organizational levels. This volume shows how to diagnose learning transfer systems, create a transfer-ready profile, and assess and place employees to maximize transfer. The book includes information on how to determine what process should be followed to design an organization-specific learning transfer system intervention. Chapters span the entire process from front-end analysis through post-training interventions. In addition, the authors outline the issues associated with such popular work-based learning initiatives as action learning and communities of practice, and they also present applications on learning transfer within e-learning and team training contexts.Improving Learning Transfer in Organiza-tions also includes a relapse prevention tool to help employees maintain learned skills over the long haul while demonstrating how managers can create a dynamic work group climate that encourages the initial transfer and sustains learning over time. Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations features contributions from leading experts in the field learning transfer ,and offers the most current information, ideas, and theories on the topic and aptly illustrates how to put transfer systems into action. In this book, the authors move beyond explanation to intervention by contributing their most recent thinking on how best to intervene in organizational contexts to influence the transfer of learning. Written for chief learning officers, training and development practitioners, management development professionals, and human resource management practitioners, this important volume shows how to create systems that ensure employees are getting and retaining the information, skills, and knowledge necessary to accomplish tasks on the job. Improving Learning Transfer in Organizations addresses learning transfer on both the individual and organizational level. This volume shows how to diagnose learning transfer systems, create a transfer-ready profile, and assess and place employees to maximize transfer. The book includes information on how to determine what process should be followed to design an organization-specific learning transfer system intervention. The authors focus on the actual learning process and show how to use front-end analysis to avoid transfer problems. In addition, they outline the issues associated with such popular work-based learning initiatives as action learning and communities of practice, and they also present applications on learning transfer within e-learning and team training contexts. Author Biography: The Editors Elwood F. Holton III is Jones S. Davis Distinguished Professor of Human Resource, Leadership, and Organization Development in the School of Human Resource Education at Louisiana State University. Timothy T. Baldwin is Professor of Management and Subhedar Faculty Fellow at the Indiana University Kelley School of Business.
Article
Considerable evidence suggests that a substantial part of organizations' investment in training is often wasted due to poor learning transfer and trainee relapse. This study investigated the effects of two different relapse prevention (RP) modules designed to supplement a training program on employee coaching skills. The coaching program was delivered to 78 research scientists from five departments of a large Midwestern firm. The transfer “climate” of those five represented departments was also assessed. Results indicated that the RP modules did modestly influence trainees' use of transfer strategies, but the impact was contingent on the nature of the transfer climate.1© 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This study investigated the contribution of both subordinate and leader characteristics in the development of leader-member exchange (LMX) quality. Data from 56 subordinate-superior dyads working at a large West-coast media company revealed that subordinates high in work self-efficacy were liked more by their supervisors, perceived to be more similar to their supervisors, experienced more positive LMX quality, and were rated as better performers than subordinates low in self-efficacy. Previous job experience, was related only to one outcome; supervisor's liking of the subordinate. Subordinates initially low in self-efficacy benefited from high LMX, as evidenced by increased end-of-program self-efficacy. Perceptions of similarity between supervisor and subordinate were found to be more important to LMX quality than actual demographic similarity. Leader self-efficacy and optimism predicted subordinates' ratings of LMX quality only for female supervisors. Unexpectedly, leader self-efficacy and optimism were related to the leaders' own ratings of LMX and subordinate performance.
Article
This study was conducted in four electronics companies in Shenzhen, China. It employs a transfer model that argues that training develops only potential capacity in trainees. The transfer of training in the workplace depends on organizational factors that facilitate the utilization of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) gained in the training setting. Analyses indicate that training, recently adopted nationwide in industry in China, is related to transfer behavior. In addition, organizational variables that encourage application of KSA in the workplace promote the transfer of training. Among the organizational variables, supervision appears to be the most influential. The study's findings also suggest that management concepts and practices for organizing a modern workplace are important in improving productivity in a newly developed industria! zone in China.
Article
This study describes the development and investigation of the concept of organizational transfer climate and discusses whether it influences the degree to which trainees transfer behaviors learned in a training program to their job situations. The study was conducted in a large franchise that owns and operates over one hundred fast-food restaurants in a large metropolitan area. Analyses indicated that when manager trainees were assigned to units that had a more positive organizational transfer climate, they were rated as better performers of the behaviors previously learned in training. As was predicted, it was also found that manager trainees who learned more in training performed better on the job. It was concluded that, in addition to how much trainees learn in training, the organizational transfer climate of the work situation affects the degree to which learned behavior will be transferred onto the actual job. This research suggests that organizational transfer climate is a tool that should be investigated as a potential facilitator for enhancing positive transfer of training into the work environment.
Article
Studies of the influence of trainee characteristics on training effectiveness have focused on the ability level necessary to learn program content. Motivational and environmental influences on training effectiveness have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to test an exploratory model describing the influence on trainee career and job attitudes on training outcomes (learning, behavior change, performance improvement). Results of the study suggest that job involvement and career planning are antecedents of learning and behavior change. Future research directions and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Supervisory support is perceived as a major condition for enhancing the transfer of training. This article presents two studies that investigated the impact of supervisory behaviour on trainees’ transfer. Both studies were carried out in banking organisations. One study consisted of the investigation of a training programme that provided bank tellers with the knowledge and skills for handling customers’ complaints. The other study focused on the transfer of the training programme ‘legal aspects of bank tellers’ jobs’. In neither study was there any convincing evidence for the impact of supervisory behaviour on the transfer of training. The implications for future research and current practice are discussed here.
Article
This study examined the effects of self-efficacy and a two-stage training process on the acquisition and maintenance (i.e., retention) of complex interpersonal skills. In stage one, all participants received basic training in negotiation skills; behavioral measures of negotiation performance were taken following this training. During stage two, alternative post-training interventions (goal setting and self-management) were offered to facilitate skill maintenance. Six weeks later, behavioral measures of performance were repeated. Results indicated that pre-test self-efficacy contributed positively to both initial and delayed performance. While training condition contributed to skill maintenance, self-efficacy also interacted with post-training method to influence delayed performance. Specifically, self-management training attenuated the self-efficacy performance relationship, while goal-setting training accentuated performance differences between high and low self-efficacy trainees. Implications of these findings are discussed for researchers and practitioners concerned with interpersonal skills training.
Article
Six employee characteristics (conscientiousness, self-efficacy, motivation to learn, learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, instrumentality) and one work environment characteristic (transfer of training climate) were captured for 130 trainees in a large industrial company in an attempt to predict training effectiveness (training grade, supervisor evaluation of the application of training). The results strongly support the predicted links, although not all the predictor variables contributed a statistically significant share of the explained variance of the training outcomes. Motivation to learn and learning goal orientation were found to contribute most to predicting training outcomes. The implications of the results are discussed and the limitations of the study are noted, along with suggested avenues for future research.
Article
Results from a study examining the predictors of skill transfer from an instructional to a work environment are presented. Prior research indicates that skill transfer is a function of both individual and contextual factors. A total of 186 employees from a work organization were surveyed on individual dimensions (goal orientation, training self-efficacy) and contextual factors (supervisor and peer support). Pre-training motivation was proposed as proximal training outcome and further connected to the distal outcome, skill transfer. Analyses with structural equation modeling using EQS indicate that individual dimensions, such as mastery-approach goal orientation and training self-efficacy, are related to pre-training motivation. Also, contextual factors, such as peer support, predicted both pre-training motivation and skill transfer, while supervisor support was unrelated to either pre-training motivation or skill transfer. Pre-training motivation, in turn, was related to skill transfer. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Training professionals were surveyed concerning their knowledge of transfer of training research. Survey items were developed from an integrative literature review based on empirical findings of factors that directly or indirectly (through learning) influence training transfer. Survey results suggest that training professionals are in agreement with empirical transfer findings in the areas of training design and the work environment, but differ in their agreement of how individual differences impact transfer success and of relevant transfer evaluation findings. Training professionals were more familiar with academic transfer research when they occupied higher job positions within their organization, held a training certification and had a college degree. The results of our study and the implications for addressing the research-to-practice gap among training professionals are also discussed.