Article

Understanding Participation in E-Learning in Organizations: A Large-Scale Empirical Study of Employees

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Abstract

Much remains unknown in the increasingly important field of e-learning in organizations. Drawing on a large-scale survey of employees (N = 557) who had opportunities to participate in voluntary e-learning activities, the factors influencing participation in e-learning are explored in this empirical paper. It is hypothesized that key variables derived from the theories of planned behaviour and instructional design – general-person characteristics, motivation to learn, general and task-specific self-efficacy, situational barriers and enablers, and instructional design characteristics – will predict participation in e-learning. Using structural equation modelling, we find statistical support for the overall theoretical model proposed. We discuss the implications for practice.

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... Accepted by most training professionals as a credible training strategy, e-learning has been growing in popularity since the end of the 1990s (Bell et al., 2004;Nisar, 2002). The e-leaning market represents a sizeable portion of the training industry: worldwide, $90 billion are spent in training, with $20 billion spent on e-learning (Garavan et al., 2010). However, the adoption, diffusion and exploitation of e-learning by both educational institutions and organizations has proven to be slower than one would have anticipated, given the revolution in vocational training that was expected from e-learning (Bell et al., 2004). ...
... According to Cheng (2011, p. 275), cognitive absorption in an e-learning context is defined as "a state of deep involvement with the internet-based learning systems"; finally, learning goal orientation is conceptualized as "an achievement-oriented motivation via task learning process". As suggested in earlier studies, employees' e-learning capabilities may differ in accordance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, level of education, and personal or professional experiences (Garavan et al., 2010). ...
... As technology-related concerns in the context of distance learning may constitute constraints or barriers to participation in e-learning through their impact on self-efficacy and motivation to learn (Garavan et al., 2010), employees lacking sufficient technical IT skills may be less willing to resort to e-learning. Workplace learning aims at acquiring "from basic skills to high technology and management practice that are immediately applicable to workers' jobs, duties, and roles" (Wang, 2011, p. 192). ...
... Motivation also affects students' learning behaviors (Orhan-Özen, 2017;Sharma & Sharma, 2018;Turan, 2015), as well as their learning enthusiasm (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020). In further detail, highly motivated students will be more eager to actively participate throughout their study, complete and finish assignments, and win awards (Garavan et al., 2010). Besides enthusiasm, another definition illustrates motivation as students' effort throughout their learning progress (Di Serio et al., 2013;Gopalan et al., 2016). ...
... In their study of 200 Business Administration students enrolled in a Business English course, Pengnate and Rattanapong (2021) found the students' satisfaction with English instruction using the Zoom application was at a high level. A few studies dealing with motivation and community of inquiry have also been conducted (Anderson et al., 2001;Garavan et al., 2010;Garrison et al., 1999;Tan et al., 2020). Tan et al. (2020) examined the learning motivation and performance model as well as the community of inquiry during the Covid-19 pandemic and showed that university students initially had a high level of motivation and community of inquiry before the pandemic but experienced a significant drop during distance learning. ...
... Considered a crucial aspect leading to successful learning outcomes (Kim & Frick, 2011), motivation could influence students' learning behavior (Orhan-Özen, 2017;Sharma & Sharma, 2018;Turan, 2015), and their learning enthusiasm (Azar & Tanggaraju, 2020). Motivation could also drive students to actively participate and optimally accomplish their learning progress (Garavan et al., 2010). Unfortunately, the level of students' motivation might be either decreasing or increasing while students were learning in an unfamiliar online setting as in the Covid-19 outbreak (Bonk, 2002;Izmirli & Izmirli, 2015;Levy, 2007). ...
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Aim/Purpose: This study aimed at exploring students’ online-learning exposures involving their readiness and motivation to learn English using synchronous video conferences, as well as investigating the possible relationship between the readiness and motivation. To fulfill these objectives, three research questions were formed: (1) What is students’ readiness to learn English using synchronous video conferences? (2) What is students’ motivation to learn English using synchronous video conferences? (3) Is there any correlation between students’ readiness and their motivation to learn English using synchronous video conferences? Background: Due to the urgency of Covid-19 pandemic in the educational field, the Indonesian Minister of Education requested that all schooling activities must be conducted online as announced in the Learning from Home Policy starting on March 24, 2020. In this case, students are forced to struggle with the unfamiliar and challenging learning situations that their readiness and motivation to learn are worth questioning. Methodology: The participants in this descriptive research, combining both a survey and correlation study, were 116 Indonesian high schoolers. They came from two different private schools as the particular adaptive curriculum has been reshaped and implemented in each school during this pandemic. In order to collect the data of students’ readiness and motivation while they were learning English using synchronous video conferences, an online Likert-Scale questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview was conducted to dig deeper into students’ online-learning exposures. Contribution: The results of this study can become reference to create the effective and successful online learning environment. This study offers fresh and genuine insights coming from students on how ready and motivated they were within the unfamiliar learning situations. Besides, the obstacles faced by students are also presented. Three pillars were used to construct the questionnaire and to analyze the findings: 1) Four Online Readiness Factors, 2) ARCS Model of Motivation, and 3) the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework. Hence, the findings of this research can also expand educators’ and researchers’ knowledge whether the readiness and motivation can be improved through the three frameworks. Findings: This study shows how students’ readiness and motivation are influenced by unfamiliar situations of synchronous online learning. Firstly, students are already confident with their technical skills and their familiarity with the use of technology. However, their readiness in terms of self-discipline is the lowest. Secondly, students’ motivation cannot be consistently high because of two drawbacks that demotivated them within their online learning. Furthermore, this study also found that there is significant positive correlation between readiness and motivation. Hence, the readiness and motivation factors cannot be simply ignored within the online learning progress. Recommendations for Practitioners: As our findings reveal, Teacher Presence is important as it enhances Cognitive Presence and supports students to experience Social Presence. Therefore, the roles of teachers that cover designing and providing meaningful learning activities, acting as a model to engage students in online discussion, employing effective strategies to deliver direct instruction and managing class, should be completely fulfilled. Instead of consistently sustaining the teacher-centered style, teachers may sharpen their technical skills along with their pedagogical knowledge. Online learning can be effective as teachers could design and implement the student-centered learning style in synchronous virtual meetings. Recommendation for Researchers: Learning from Home is a new policy that was published because of the Covid-19 pandemic urgency. The learning process happening in a synchronous virtual environment is new for both Indonesian teachers and students. Accordingly, more researchers in this topic involving a wider level of students coming from rural and urban areas are still needed. Impact on Society: By showing how students’ readiness and motivation are influenced in the online learning process, this study offers a reference that students can have better opportunities of an effective and successful online-learning environment. This study also discusses the obstacles mostly faced by students. Following the frameworks used, this study also gives an opportunity for educators to expand their knowledge to take part in solving any problems related to the investigated issues. Future Research: As technology must still be developing and online learning is possibly sustained closely after the pandemic, its development must be continuing. As the idea of online learning through synchronous meetings is new, issues related to this learning situation can still be investigated so that Indonesian teachers can gradually create more effective and successful online learning.
... Assessment (71), (70), (1), (2), (9), (11), (13), (17), (19), (20), (22), (25), (29), (36), (38), (39), (40), (42), (45), (47) 3 Support (71), (72), (70), (67), (7), (8), (10), (14), (17), (18), (23), (69), (19), (29), (30), (31), (36), (38), (39), (41), (42), (46) 4 Rules (71), (72), (13) 5 HR (71), (63), (72), (66), (9), (27), (46), (47) 6 ...
... Technical infrastructure (63), (74), (23), (35) 26 ...
... Simultaneous communication Interactive role (77), (13), (17), (18) Study based on the student speed (77) 79 Education at any time (77), (23), (33), (36) 80 Education in any place (77), (33) ...
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Background: Management knowledge in the new centuryis, which is more important than anything when it comes to continuous change and development. Any organization that is not adapted with these waves is unsuccessful. The present study tries using the meta-synthesis method to design a comprehensive organizational e-learning model. Methods: This study is a qualitative study, its method is heuristic, in terms of time it is sectional and in terms of purpose it is developmental and applied. This research method is a kind of meta-synthesis method that in order to implement the method, the 7 stage model of Sandelowski and Barroso (2007) was used. In this study, after designing research questions, a systematic search of databases of Persian and English papers, based on keywords related to organizational e-learning and all related and available papers, were collected and reviewed from 1992 to the end of 2015. In other words, to design the research model, no sampling was done; also in order to assess the content validity of the model, professors and experts’ opinions, in the field of e-learning, were used and to assess its reliability, Kappa indicator was used. Results: After performing 7 stages of the meta-synthesis method and reviewing 324 articles in asystematic way, a model was designed with 12 groups (intellectual capital management, e-learning practices, learning facilitating factors, technical infrastructure, educational infrastructure, the people involved, individual factors, information, technical features, training, strategic management, and communication), 49 concepts, and 531 codes. Conclusions: According to the desired reliability and validity of the model designed based on professors and experts’ opinions, this model is recommended to recognize and plan e-learning system in organizations.
... Transfer motivation captures the essence of training as a means of achieving future benefits (Chiaburu and Tekleab, 2005) because motivated end users will seek out the opportunity to transfer skills on the job. Prior research shows that transfer motivation influence end users' post-training outcomes (Garavan et al., 2010;Klein et al., 2006). ...
... Importantly, computer self-efficacy which represents an individual's perception of his/her abilities to use a computer in the accomplishment of work-related tasks has been acknowledged as an important antecedent of post-training usage of software. Self-efficacy has been found to positively relate to system usage (Garavan et al., 2010). ...
... In the context of e-learning, self-efficacy represents the dimensions of perceived behavioural control construct in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) [14] . According to [14] a person who has a task-specific self-efficacy has a strong tendency to complete the e-learning programs because this form of self-efficacy affects the effort, persistence, and hard work to overcome barriers to training. ...
... In the context of e-learning, self-efficacy represents the dimensions of perceived behavioural control construct in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) [14] . According to [14] a person who has a task-specific self-efficacy has a strong tendency to complete the e-learning programs because this form of self-efficacy affects the effort, persistence, and hard work to overcome barriers to training. In online environmental training, computer selfefficacy is also an important characteristic of the trainees to e-learning situations. ...
Article
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Through the help of the internet, a large number of higher education institutions encourage faculty and students to adopt e-learning. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that might influence the usage intention of e-learning among students at the tertiary level by using a theoretical model of the extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Based on literature reviews, several factors are considered to be very influential on the e-learning usage intention, which will be the discussion of this paper including aspects of an organization, culture, and technology. These will cover the importance of considering organizational support and values belong to a social group. These factors will be integrated with the determinants of technology, namely perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness as determinants of e-learning usage intention of students.
... The science of training attempts to keep up with the advanced development, design, and delivery of online training programs in order to discover how to improve human performance through the definition of principles, guidelines, and criteria in monitoring e-learning in organizations (Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley, & O'Donnell, 2010). ...
... In distance learning, new and specific aspects are present, for example, quality of the instructor's teaching performance, virtual instructional design, technical and social support provided by peers and organization to trainees (when and how it is provided to them), availability, and utility and ease of use of technology (Garavan et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This study analyzes the effectiveness of online training in a large organization. We tested the influence of different training processes, such as learning strategies, reactions, support of transfer, and barriers, on behavioral transfer and job performance. The participants were 3,600 employees of a Brazilian public bank after taking part in online training at work. Six months later, their supervisors evaluated the influences of the training on their subordinates’ work behaviors. Findings indicated that in self-evaluation behavioral transfer was predicted by elaboration/practical application learning strategies, trainees’ reactions to training, organizational, and peer support; motivation control, cognitive/help-seeking, and elaboration/practical application learning strategies, along with trainees’ reactions to training, were significantly related to job performance. In hetero-evaluation, supervisor support contributed to explaining behavioral transfer, and cognitive/help-seeking strategies explained job performance. The mediating role of reactions to training was identified, and support of transfer showed marginal moderating effects.
... People need motivation in order to do things (11)(12)(13) or to switch on some pattern of behavior (14). Motivation energizes and guides behavior toward reaching a particular goal (15). ...
... Motivational factors, according (37,38), can mediate learning by increasing or decreasing cognitive engagement. In addition, motivation has the power to energize and guide students toward reaching a particular goal (15). Therefore, when students are engaged in their learning, they are more likely to enjoy learning and feel more responsible and in charge (36). ...
... Elektronsko učenje je postalo ključna komponenta nastave na univerzitetima. Postoje neke teorije kao što je teorija razumne akcije ili teorija razumnog delovanja (engl.The theory of reasoned action) i planirano ponašanje koje su korišćene kao strukture za proučavanje motivacijskih i kontekstualnih elemenata koji utiču na učestvovanje u nastavnim aktivnostima [6]. Elektronsko učenje je postalo uobičajen stil pružanja obrazovnih materijala u visokom obrazovanju na univerzitetima u svim delovima sveta. ...
... Promocija motivacije za učenje je jedan od glavnih principa efikasnog obrazovanja [13]. Motivacija za učenje otkriva da učenik želi da učestvuje i da uči tokom nastavnih aktivnosti [6]. ...
Conference Paper
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Apstrakt: U nastavi studenata na visokoškolskim ustanovama i studijskim programima elektronsko učenje ima značajnu ulogu. Cilj ovog istraživanja koje je sprovedeno na Alfa BK Univerzitetu u Beogradu je istražiti odnos između elektronskog učenja i unutrašnje motivacije studenata. Sveobuhvatno, rezultati ovog istraživanja potvrdili su da je elektronsko učenje bitan elemenat koji utiče na motivaciju studenata. U metodološkom okviru istraživanja – kao instrument istraživanja, upitnik je primenjen za prikupljanje podataka od grupe studenata OAS, MAS i DAS, a za analizu podataka korišćena je statistička metoda Pirsonovog koeficijenta korelacije. Ograničenja/implikacije istraživanja – Analiza se sprovodi u Republici Srbiji, na jednom univerzitetu i nekoliko studijskih programa, stoga se mora obratiti pažnja na generalizaciju ishoda. Praktične implikacije – Rezultati ovog istraživanja će pomoći zemljama u razvoju da obrazovni mislioci bolje razumeju efekte elektronskog učenja na unutrašnju motivaciju studenata. Abstract: In teaching students at higher education institutions and study programs, electronic learning plays an important role. The aim of this research conducted at Alfa BK University in Belgrade is to explore the relationship between e-learning and the intrinsic motivation of students. Comprehensive, the results of this research have confirmed that e-learning is an essential element that influences a student's motivation. In the methodological framework of this research - as a research instrument, the questionnaire was used to collect data from a group of students on the Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. program of academic studies, and the statistical method of Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for data analysis. Limitations/Implications of Research - The analysis is carried out in the Republic of Serbia, at one university and several study programs, therefore attention must be paid to the generalization of outcomes. Practical Implications - The results of this research will help developing countries to make education thinkers better understand the effects of e-learning on students' intrinsic motivation.
... Learning motivation is important to establish effective education (Kim & Frick, 2011). Learning motivation exposes that students' preferences to participate and learn from a training activity (Garavan et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper scrutinizes the active learning perception among students in the Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Kedah. Active learning is one of the platforms that is useful in enhancing student’s engagement. However, active learning is rarely used as a learning tool at the tertiary level. According to the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and the Australian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE), active learning involves “students’ efforts to actively construct their knowledge”. As cited in Brame (2016), active learning is desired as “activities that students do to construct knowledge and understanding”. This study will employ the basic AUSSE instrument. The students were given a set of survey to rate their perceptions towards the active learning approach applied by their respective lecturers. Their ratings were gathered and analyzed using the SPSS Software. 166 respondents were involved from the Faculty of Business Management of UiTM Kedah. Majority of the respondents were female with 118 students. The findings discovered that majority of the respondents preferred active learning as it helped them to remember things better; it made them enjoy the lesson and helped in improving their social skills. It is hoped that this study will be beneficial to the lecturers in terms of promoting their creativity in teaching especially in applying the active learning approach.
... Previous knowledge is one of the most examined context factors for trainings [34]. There are various approaches investigating the influence of previous knowledge on the learning process [30,35]. This is not surprising, since the adaptation of the learning content on the knowledge level of the learner is an important prerequisite for successful learning. ...
... The integration of technology in corporate training and development (T&D) settings has become increasingly evident (Gegenfurtner et al., 2020). E-learning now features as a key component of an organisation's training activities (Garavan et al., 2010) and organisations are increasingly leveraging the benefits that technology offers (CIPD, 2017). Understanding the technology-related expectations, preferences and experiences of higher education (HE) students may be particularly informative for corporate International Journal of Training and Development then be presented, followed by the results. ...
Article
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There has been much debate about the increasing use of technology in all learning, training and development contexts. In the case of higher education, although technology may not have fundamentally changed teaching practices, students report how several technologies and applications help with their learning, research and collaborative activities. Through a survey of business students at an Irish university, this paper examines their expectations and experiences of faculty usage of technology tools and applications. Although, on the surface, the findings provide some degree of confidence that students’ expectations of technology usage are being met, students would, nonetheless, like to see faculty make even greater, and more effective, use of technology in the classroom. The study provides faculty with examples from students of technology usage that supports their learning and these examples may be useful for faculty when designing and delivering their courses. Beyond the higher education context, the research highlights some broader practical implications for training and development in a corporate setting.
... Likewise, support for this relationship has been found in e-learning settings. For instance, Garavan et al. (2010) investigated completion of e-learning activity using a large sample of employees drawn from 275 organisations. MTL was found to have had a significant path to the completion rate for the e-learning. ...
Article
Organisations today are investing significant amounts of time, money, and resources on workplace self-paced e-learning, yet employees seem to be having problems even getting these e-learning courses completed, bringing into question the true value of workplace self-paced e-learning. In an attempt to improve understanding of factors contributing to success in workplace self-paced e-learning, this study investigated how employee learners’ motivation, self-regulated learning, and organisational contextual factors affected outcomes in workplace self-paced e-learning. A quantitative study was conducted to investigate the research questions. Participants of the study were 119 employees enrolled in workplace self-paced e-learning courses provided by Hong Kong organisations. Data were collected using online questionnaires and analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling technique. Findings revealed significant relationships between learners’ motivation, self-regulated learning, organisational contextual factors, and training outcomes in workplace self-paced e-learning. Motivation to learn, time management, metacognitive self-regulation, perceived choice, workload, and organisational support were found to positively correlate with training outcomes as expressed in terms of course completion rate, learner satisfaction, and perceived learning performance in workplace self-paced e-learning. Findings also revealed learners’ autonomy in learning participation, level of workload (negative), and supervisor support (negative) moderate the relationship between learners’ time management strategy use and completion rate of workplace self-paced e-learning courses. Unfortunately, the results failed to support the expected relationship between supervisor support and training outcomes. The significance of the findings is discussed, along with implications for researchers and practitioners, limitations of the current study, and opportunities for future research.
... One strategy for achieving the learning process to be effective and efficient is that there is learning motivation (Kyong-Jee and Theodore, 2011). Learning motivation is important because with the motivation students will take part, be active and not burdened in following and doing assignments and responsibilities (Thomas, Ronan, David, 2010). Learning motivation is sourced from within the students themselves and is sourced or is growing motivation from outside, but so far the most dominant factors that most contribute to learning still need to be studied because the two motivations are interrelated (Harandi, 2015). ...
... In a training context, organisational support for training is rewarded by positive employee outcomes (Shuck et al., 2014). Supervisor support is an effective mechanism and transfer enhancing strategy (Garavan et al., 2010) because supervisors provide feedback, reinforcements and the opportunity to apply learning in the workplace. Supervisor support is investigated in this study using the social exchange theoretical perspective. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the link between supervisor support, transfer motivation and post-training usage of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The study tested the influence of supervisor support and transfer motivation on training transfer in a complex information systems environment. Second, the study tested the mediating effect of transfer motivation in the relationship between supervisor support and training transfer. Design/methodology/approach An online survey method was used to collect data from 170 ERP system users, who had previously attended ERP system training. The descriptive analysis was conducted with SPSS version 24, while Hayes Process Macro was used to test the research model and the mediation analysis. Findings The findings from this study showed that supervisor support and transfer motivation positively influence training transfer. The additional result also confirmed that transfer motivation mediates the relationship between supervisor support and training transfer. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to training theory by specifically analysing the interactions among supervisor support, transfer motivation and training transfer in a complex information system environment. One of the limitations of this study is the cross-sectional design adopted; future studies could improve by using multiple sources of data collection. Practical implications The study highlights the importance of social exchanges in an ERP transfer environment. Originality/value This paper provides a better understanding of the influences of supervisor support and transfer motivation on the transfer of hard skills in a complex environment.
... Employees are required to possess a sufficient amount of knowledge and skills on greening. However, without this knowledge and skills (competencies), it is not possible for the employee to become a green employee (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004;Busck, 2005;Callenbach, Capra, Goldman, Lutz & Marburg, 1993;Collier & Esteban, 2007;Daily & Huang, 2001;Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley & O'Donnell, 2010;Gupta & Sharma, 1996;Madsen & Ulhoi, 1996;Ramus, 2002;Rothenberg, 2003;Sudin, 2011). ...
Article
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the factors that drive employee fraud and determine their relationships. It also identifies the types of bank fraud committed by employees. The study employs a quantitative approach to investigate the phenomenon. Data was collected using questionnaires administered to 250 employees of 20 selected banks, across the ten regional capitals of Ghana. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis. The findings of the study provide that bank fraud is prevalent in the Ghanaian banking sector and it is considered as an act that is committed by both managerial and non-managerial staff with factors such as capability, opportunity and internal controls being the main drivers. These, notwithstanding, the study implies that it is also important to note that there are other factors that have not been studied in this article that may also contribute to employee fraud.
... Employees are required to possess a sufficient amount of knowledge and skills on greening. However, without this knowledge and skills (competencies), it is not possible for the employee to become a green employee (Bhattacharya & Sen, 2004;Busck, 2005;Callenbach, Capra, Goldman, Lutz & Marburg, 1993;Collier & Esteban, 2007;Daily & Huang, 2001;Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley & O'Donnell, 2010;Gupta & Sharma, 1996;Madsen & Ulhoi, 1996;Ramus, 2002;Rothenberg, 2003;Sudin, 2011). ...
Article
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Organizations’ role is gaining more importance than ever before due to the challenges facing the stakeholders to whom such organizations appeal. When the power structure of the community is highly respected and the approach of the organizations becomes more stakeholders centered, the negative externalities and societal challenges can be lessened. Such negative externalities and societal challenges are abundant in Lebanon which requires assessing the Green responsibility of the Lebanese private companies in preparing their employees to combat these challenges and in appealing to the stakeholders. This study argued that the Lebanese private companies can acquire an edge when adopting high Green responsible human resources management especially in the presence of hyper competition which characterizes many industries. Green responsibility of the Lebanese private companies is perceived within the human resource frame via its influence on retaining the employees and creating a noble cause for them. This study attempted to explore the stance of Lebanese companies regarding Green human resources responsibility, seeking to provide simplified general reflections of (Green HRM) on employee work behavior through taking a model of two Lebanese companies representing diverse industries (A university and a bank).
... Learning motivation is important to establish effective education (Kim & Frick, 2011). Learning motivation exposes that students' preferences to participate and learn from a training activity (Garavan et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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People make decisions based on what they perceive as ethical or unethical daily. McShane and Glinow (2008) defined ethics as “the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad “. This research seeks to find out on the tertiary students’ ethical behaviours. The tertiary students will one day become the country’s future leaders. Thus, they should be able to make good ethical judgements because “today’s students may be tomorrow’s criminals” (Weisul & Merritt, 2002). The purpose of this study is to investigate the ethical behaviours of the students in UiTM Kedah focusing on four factors of academic environment: violation of school regulation, academic cheating, computer ethics and selfishness.
... Although only a few studies have investigated motivation to learn in e-learning, they have consistently found that motivation to learn is related to learning behaviors and outcomes such as in class motivation (K. Kim & Frick, 2011), training effort (Brown, 2005b), and participation in e-learning (Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley, & O'Donnell, 2010). Given the findings from the broader training literature and the evidence of its importance in e-learning, more research is needed on trainee motivation as part of models of e-learning success. ...
Chapter
This chapter outlines and defines e-learning in its various contexts. It reviews several e-learning frameworks and provides an integrative framework though which the research on e-learning is reviewed. Given the centrality of e-learning to both corporate and educational training and learning initiatives, it is important for organizations and educators to understand how best to leverage technology in the design of e-learning initiatives. The chapter provides a set of evidence-supported guidelines for research to build on and for designers to build more effective e-learning initiatives. It reviews a number of e-learning frameworks and integrates them into an overall framework. This framework considers the role of the learner/trainee, the instructor, course design, technology, and the organization serve as inputs to the learning process. In turn, several motivational, behavioral and cognitive processes mediate these inputs and impact learning outcomes such as satisfaction and performance.
... B. Seminar). Einzelne Studienergebnisse weisen jedoch darauf hin, dass die institutio-nellen Rahmenbedingungen der Anbieter von Belang sind und die Teilnehmer sie als Bewertungsgrundlage für weitere Lernabsichten heranziehen [10,20,24]. Zu diesen institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen zählen neben anderen inhaltliche, didaktische, methodische aber auch räumliche und finanzielle Aspekte, die nach allgemeinen Qualitätskriterien von derartigen Dienstleistungen (wie z. ...
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Ein Beitrag zur breiten Kapazitätsbildung in der Gesundheitsförderung ist der Ausbau von Kernkompetenzen und Fertigkeiten von Personen und Organisationen. Der persönliche Entschluss, an einer Fort- und Weiterbildung teilzunehmen, wird in der Forschungsliteratur als ein komplexer Entscheidungsprozess beschrieben. Laut jüngeren Ergebnissen ist dabei die Teilnahmeabsicht von zentraler Bedeutung, die von zahlreichen Faktoren auf personaler und kontextueller Ebene beeinflusst wird. Fragestellung Dieser Artikel soll zur Klärung der Frage beitragen, welche Faktoren von Personen für die Entscheidung, an einer Fort- und Weiterbildung im Kontext der Gesundheitsförderung teilzunehmen, als wichtig erachten werden. Dafür baut die Arbeit auf Annahmen der Theorie des geplanten Verhaltens auf und erweitert sie um Empfehlungen der relevanten Forschungsliteratur. In dieser Studie wird Fort- und Weiterbildung immer auf Seminare im Kontext der Gesundheitsförderung bezogen. Material und Methoden Nach Operationalisierung der theoretischen Überlegungen wurde eine Online-Befragung mit 351 Teilnehmern von Gesundheitsförderungsseminaren eines österreichweiten Fort- und Weiterbildungsprogramms durchgeführt. Die Hypothesenprüfung erfolgte anhand mehrerer Strukturgleichungsmodelle mit latenten Variablen. Ergebnisse Schlüsselfaktoren für die Teilnahmeabsicht sind die Selbstwirksamkeit, Einstellung gegenüber Seminarbesuchen, soziale Erwartung bedeutender Anderer und die faktische Teilnahme an Seminaren in der Vergangenheit. Des Weiteren einflussreich ist ein komplexes, indirekt wirkendes Wechselspiel von personalen Handlungs- und institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen. Diskussion Die Kausalmodelle bieten tiefere Einblicke in den Entscheidungsprozess über die Teilnahme an formalen Lernaktivitäten. Die Ergebnisse helfen bei der Benennung von maßgeblichen Voraussetzungen für einen gelingenden Kapazitätsaufbau und können Praktiker dabei anleiten, adäquate Fort- und Weiterbildungsangebote in der Gesundheitsförderung (weiter) zu entwickeln und zu implementieren.
... The majority of the scale items were adopted from prior works of e-learning literature but modified slightly for our research context. Those items regarding e-learning self-efficacy were integrated and adapted from Garavan et al. (2010), Kim and Frick (2011) Once the item list for the initial questionnaire was generated, an iterative personal interview process was conducted to refine the draft instrument. These interviews enabled the researcher to gauge the clarity of the tasks, assess whether the instrument captured the desired phenomena, and verify that important aspects have not been omitted. ...
Article
Based upon the perspective of social cognitive theory, this study develops a conceptual framework that examines the antecedents of technical-vocational university students’ active participation and learning effectiveness of English proficiency development in a blended e-learning (BEL) environment. A BEL system was employed to support technical-vocational university students’ English proficiency development. The research model is tested using a questionnaire survey of 298 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the measurements. The partial least squares method was used to validate the measurement and hypotheses. The empirical results indicate that e-learning self-efficacy, social influence and BEL system characteristics are the primary antecedents of students’ active participation in a BEL environment. The results also show that e-learning self-efficacy, student active participation and BEL system characteristics saliently affect technical-vocational university students’ learning effectiveness of English proficiency development. The findings signify that technical-vocational university students show positive incline towards the active participation in BEL for English as a foreign language (EFL) courses and exposed a possible benefit of English proficiency development from its use in the long run. The results can not only proffer instrumental suggestions for the critical research issue of e-learning, but also may serve as instrumental guidelines for a BEL environment to be effective implemented with care to avoid the risk to weaken student’s interests and activations in English proficiency development in BEL.
... An Irish study found that employee motivation to engage in e-learning was driven by selfefficacy rather than other measured factors (Garavan et al., 2010). In addition, when elearning modules included feedback on employee performance, participation in meetings persisted. ...
Research Proposal
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Abstract Quality of work life is an inseparable part of the teaching profession – it influences both his/her professional and personal aspect of life. The profession of a teacher has been always regarded as an attractive, demanding and necessary profession. This highly demanding profession also carries numerous stressors which can have negative effects on a teacher’s mental health and on the quality of their work and personal life. Due to significant changes in requirements for a teacher’s professionalization, many teachers are forced to leave school and to find a new and not so demanding profession eventually. The thesis is also focused on mental load, eustress and distress and on possibilities of raising the level of a teacher’s work life. The empirical part of the thesis is devoted to the problematics of a teacher’s work and personal life. The thesis is to be included in the dissertation which is about to be completed in the following year. This is an outline of the issue which will reflect the information obtained in the questionnaire survey and its results will be described in the empirical part of the dissertation – this research will be conducted at DTI University in Dubnica nad Váhom (Slovakia) at the Department of School Didactics.
... Sun et al. (2008) concluded that learner computer anxiety, instructor attitude toward e-learning, e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and diversity in assessments were the critical factors affecting learner's perceived satisfaction. Garavan et al. (2010) conceptualised participation in e-learning and quantitatively validated the research model. In their model, the participation in e-learning is formed by the general-person characteristics (e.g. ...
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Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions were forced to shut down, causing massive disruption of the education system. This paper aims to determine the critical factors for the intention to participate in e-learning during COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected by surveying 131 university students and structural equation modelling technique using PLS-SEM was employed to analysis the data. Findings: The results showed that the COVID-19 related factors such as perceived challenges and COVID-19 awareness not only directly impact students' intention but also such effects are mediated through perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of e-learning systems. However, the results showed that the educational institution's preparedness does not directly impact the intention of students to participate in e-learning during COVID-19. The results also showed that the gender and length of the use of e-learning systems impact students' e-learning systems use. Originality/value: These results demonstrated that, regardless of how well the educational institutions are prepared to promote the use of e-learning systems, other COVID-19-related challenges play a crucial role in forming the intention of students to participate in e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Theoretical and practical implications are provided.
... Liu and Chu (2010) argued that design quality can be used as a measure of the information quality and the course content quality. Moreover, Uppal et al. (2018) and Garavan et al. (2010) showed that the supportiveness of the overall service, information quality, system quality, content quality and learner support are different aspects of e-learning quality; thus, impacting the use of and the satisfaction with e-learning systems. Hence, we make a hypothesis that: Alea et al. (2020) examined the perception of teachers about the preparedness and challenges faced by higher education institutions when e-learning is implemented and found several antecedent factors including (i) COVID-19 awareness, (ii) the educational institutions preparedness to conduct distance learning, and (iii) perceived challenges during COVID-19 in distance learning education. ...
Conference Paper
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t In response to the global COVID-19 situation, quarantine measures have been implemented at the educational institutions around the world. This paper aims to determine the antecedent factors predicting the university students’ satisfaction with e-learning systems during the COVID-19 situation. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and evaluated a conceptual model on the basis of a sample of university students from Finland (n = 131) and South Korea (n = 114). The SEM results showed that the COVID-19 related factors, i.e., COVID19 awareness, perceived challenges during COVID-19 and the educational institutions’ preparedness indirectly influence the satisfaction with e-learning systems. Moreover, we found a statistically significant moderating effect of course design quality, and instructor’s teaching style between the COVID-19 related factors and the satisfaction with e-learning systems. The implications of these results for the management of e‐learning systems are discussed.
... Online learning or E-learning is defined as a learning process, which relies on the use of technology and products such as digital technologies in wikis, blogs, podcasts, social software, and gaming technologies (Eze et al., 2018;Garavan et al., 2010). Online learning is important to conduct to protect people from the Coronavirus. ...
Article
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Not all teachers can operate computers or gadgets in online learning activities. Another problem is that the teacher finds it difficult to control every activity and student response to the material. This is due to the absence of learning discussions and the absence of students in the middle of the class. The purpose of this study is to analyze the challenges encountered during online English learning. This type of research is qualitative. This study uses library research methods with library research procedures guidelines. The technique used to collect data is the reduction technique—sources of data derived from scientific articles. The result of the study is that bold learning during the Covid-19 outbreak provides many challenges for students to follow. Internal factors can trigger external problems and vice versa. Internal factors that come from within students include motivation, learning attitudes, study habits, and personal practice. External factors that come from outside the students themselves are related to the environment around students. External factors include the media used by students and the environment in terms of financial problems and the learning environment. Therefore, online learning is still lacking, and other solutions are needed to improve the quality internally and externally.
... Motivation in learning processes is one of the main factors for efficient education (Kim & W. Frick, 2011). Motivation in learning processes reveals that students need to take part in, and learn from a training activity (Garavan, Carbery, Grace, and David, 2010). These are valid affirmations for health care education, which includes physical and psychological education. ...
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Objectives. This study aims to identify the main motivation characteristics in the process of learning education in psychology students. Material and methods. For this objective, a pre-experimental design based on a one-shot case study type was conducted. Data were collected from 41 psychology undergraduates enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine and Psychology of Autonomous University of Baja California. The pre-experiment was conducted in two parts: treatment and measuring. The treatment condition consisted in a twelve-hours classroom course with the subject matter introduction to educational theories. After the treatment was applied, motivational characteristics were recorded using the 31 items from the motivation section of the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. For determining the results, the mean, mode, standard deviation, and relative standard deviation were analyzed. Results. Findings suggest influence of intrinsic goal motivation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, and self-efficacy for learning and performance in the learning process, while anxiety seems to be a non-negative element in the motivational process for the students. Conclusions.Psychology´s students showed motivational influence in different topics, mainly in motivation aspects related to intrinsic and self-motivation. Meanwhile, if well there exists differences by gender in specific items, these differences were not significant.
... Concerning employees who recently joined an organization, one would expect that they had higher probabilities to train as they may have to acquire new skills to accomplish their new tasks (Green, 1993). However, mixed findings were reported, with some indicating lower probabilities for employees with low tenure, while others finding higher probabilities or no significant results (Albert et al., 2010;Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley, & O'Donnell, 2010;Green, 1993;Kyndt & Baert, 2013). Conflicting results are also reported for workload. ...
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The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013). Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.
... Self-efficacy refers to an individual's ultimate belief in their capacity to perform a certain activity. Furthermore, Zolait (2014) defined self-efficacy in technology as a person's ability to understand and use computer technology (Garavan et al., 2010;Tagoe and Abakah, 2014). Early tourism scholars such as Reichel et al. (2007) and Dolnicar (2005) argued that people differ in their willingness to take risks and that self-efficacy is a main determinant in explaining people's willingness culture for absorbing risks. ...
... Garavan, Carbery, O'Malley & O'Donnell, 2010)"[27]. ...
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Traditional classroom teaching and learning processes are not in full-fledged utilizing latest new technology for teaching learning system at various college levels which in high demand. This article describe valuable concept to get awareness to the principal governing educational sector in India to the vital need of shifting from traditional system to an e-learning practice system using Data centers deployments and latest technology. In advance it focuses on significance necessity of infrastructure which is high demand to use in educational institute to improve effectiveness and value of teaching and learning process through e-learning. Major issues are in Indian Educational Sector is e-learning system decentralized model and proposed model provides solution for centralized system features and illustrate its importance of Cloud Datacenter model-Dac and its significances.
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This paper examines how organisational support influences learning management system (LMS) self-efficacy, technical support, and faculty-perceived benefits. An empirical study based upon responses from 379 instructors at several universities is conducted. Structural equation modelling is applied to develop and assess the measurement model, and analyse the relationships among the factors in the structural model. The results support the hypotheses that organisational support plays a primary role in enhancing faculty’s LMS self-efficacy and technical support. In turn, improved LMS self-efficacy and technical support lead to faculty-perceived benefits from using LMS. Implications are that universities can increase the use of LMS and achieve more effective outcomes from faculty for web-based distance learning and web-assisted course curricula by structuring their organisations to better support faculty in both technical and self-efficacy areas.
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Purpose This study aims to explore the opportunity offered through mobile learning (m-learning) to tourism education in the developing country context. To achieve this aim, the antecedent impact of self-efficacy and the moderator role of innovativeness on the attitude and intention to adopt m-learning have been investigated using the technology acceptance model (TAM). Design/methodology/approach A survey of 176 participants from three prominent tourism education institutes in Dhaka, Bangladesh, has been conducted. Partial least squares-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) has been used to analyze the data. Findings While the findings confirmed the antecedent effect of self-efficacy on the intention to adopt m-learning, the moderating effect of innovativeness was not found to be as significant for the attitude-intention link. Research limitations/implications Data have been collected only from one country and from current tourism students. Future studies on several developing countries with different potential users would bring more in-depth insights. Practical implications Tourism education institutes need to focus on students’ self-efficacy to build a positive attitude and behavioral intention toward m-learning when launching mobile-based education services. Originality/value The study provides theoretical underpinnings enabling tourism educators to better understand tourism students’ behavioral intention to use m-learning, in particular in the developing country context. By applying TAM to tourism education to examine the effects of students’ self-efficacy and innovativeness, a better explanation of the adoption of m-learning in tourism education is provided.
Chapter
Lernen mit digitalen Medien ist ein zwar junges aber weit erforschtes Feld der psychologischen Forschung. Ein Großteil der Forschung widmete sich dabei der Erforschung kognitiver Prozesse bei der Selektion und Verarbeitung sowie der Speicherung und dem Abruf von Informationen. Erst in den letzten 20 Jahren wurden verstärkt begleitende psychische Prozesse wie der Motivation, der Emotion, sozialer Prozesse sowie der Metakognition untersucht. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über grundlegende und um zusätzliche Prozesse erweiterte Theorien zum Lernen mit digital präsentierten Lernmaterialien. Darüber hinaus werden alle Prozessarten, die am Lernvorgang beteiligt sein können, näher beleuchtet um ein ganzheitliches Bild des Lernens mit digitalen Medien zu zeichnen. Gleichzeitig wird anhand aktueller Forschung aufgezeigt, in welchen Bereichen noch bestehende Forschungslücken herrschen.
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Distance programs are frequently used by public healthcare providers at the Unified Healthcare System (SUS) in Brazil. This research consisted of evaluating learning predictors in a distance specialization program offered by a university to public healthcare providers. The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of variables related to the characteristics of clients (personal data, professional data, well-being at work) and their reaction to the course (instructional procedures and tutor performance) over the learning process. Data collection was conducted through the Internet, with the participation of 125 students. The averages for the items of the Well-being Scale, Reaction to Tutor Performance Scale and Reaction to the Instructional Procedures Scale remained near the midpoint of the Scale. Concerning the learning results, students obtained high averages (grades) in the evaluative activities of the program. Well-being and reaction questionnaires were valid based on the analyzes performed. Multiple regression analyzes showed that participant reaction to instructional procedures and their practice area significantly predicted the learning process of the sample. This work added new knowledge to the distance training evaluation area in public healthcare.
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Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has been acknowledged as a major driver of seamless and integrated operations. Implementing ERP is a challenging task, requiring configuration, migration from legacy systems. Therefore, the successful assimilation of ERP within an organisation requires building the requisite skills and knowledge to support both the implementation and post-implementation challenges. This study investigates the relationships among supervisor support, computer self-efficacy, transfer motivation and training transfer in an enterprise system environment. The sequential mediating effects of computer self-efficacy and transfer motivation was assessed in this study. Data collected from 170 users who previously attended an ERP system training program were analysed in this study using the SPSS version 24 and Hayes Macro Process. Findings from the analysis revealed direct relationships among the variables, and the full mediation effects influence of computer self-efficacy and transfer motivation in the relationship between supervisory support and training transfer.
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Background: E-learning is one of the new methods of education that helps to increase people’s knowledge and performance by using new technologies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of graduate and postgraduate students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences toward using e-learning technology. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among graduate and postgraduate students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in autumn 2017. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability was verified (α = 0.82). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests (including t-test, ANOVA, and Spearman correlation) to investigate the relationship between the mean score of e-learning usefulness and students’ demographic information in SPSS software. Results: About 80% of e-learning students found it a good tool for the exchange of information and educational content between faculty and students at different universities and more than 40% believed that e-learning could improve the quality of education. About 57% of the participants were interested in using the technology. More than 70% of the students reported e-learning to be useful. Also, there was a significant relationship between the mean score of the usefulness of e-learning with age (P = 0.049), computer use skill (P = 0.025), and mobile use skill (P <0.001). Conclusion: From the students’ perspective, using e-learning technology is useful and it saves time and costs and improves the quality of their education. It also makes it easier for students to answer their questions later. Therefore, it may be better to use this technology besides the traditional method to make it more effective.
Technical Report
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This curriculum is part of the RELIVET project which aims to offer an international and competitive training programme, specially designed for VET teachers, professionals and families. The objective of this set of 7 modules is to provide teachers and trainers with a training curriculum containing innovative, effective, supportive strategies and tools, to prevent student’s early leaving in the Vocational Educational Training system. Contents of the modules have been developed on the basis of a need analysis carried out in 6 European Countries. Results have shown various different reasons that lead to student’s school’s early leaving and have highlighted the need to focus on specific aspects. That is the reason why contents of the modules will cover the following topics: - How to encourage and boost student’s proactive behaviour - Efficient methods of communication, cooperation and relationship with students, their families and other involved persons and institutions - Efficient methods of mediation and conflicts negotiation, problem solving and positive talk. - The usefulness of counselling and professional orientation and career planning. - Modern ways to enhance motivation, involvement and responsibility of the students - Examples of teaching by promoting creative and practical activities and good practices. - Learning innovative teaching methodologies for online learning. The course will be carried out through blended learning (distance learning and face to face lessons). It has also been though as a dynamic, interactive and rich in useful tips.
Chapter
The goal of this chapter was to study the political strategies utilized in the context of e-learning. The research is based on the e-learning political strategies (ELPoS) model. The model is based on two dimensions: (1) the direction of the political strategy (upward or downward) and (2) the scope of the political strategy (individual or group based). The model assumes that the interaction between these dimensions will define four different types of e-learning political strategies, which, in turn, will lead to different outcomes. The model is presented in the context of the literature on e-learning and is accompanied with four short case studies that demonstrate its political strategies. The discussion and conclusions section integrates the findings from the case studies and outlines the rules that govern the utilization of political e-learning strategies in different organizational contexts.
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The internet has become the chosen medium for professional learning. Completing professional learning can improve work performance; however, many individuals who begin online courses do not complete them. It is not well understood which influences keep individuals engaged in online professional learning. We address these issues with a systematic review. Our review of 51 studies and 9,583 participants includes a narrative synthesis and a meta-analysis that examined influences on user engagement in online professional learning. We found that course design and employers’ provision of time to complete learning are key for engaging learners. Other important influences were learners’ reasons for learning (e.g., intrinsic value and perceived usefulness), access to learning support, and opportunities for interaction during the learning experience.
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Organizations that use e-learning as a tool to educate their employees have either reaped the benefits or struggled with its implementation. The dominant reason for this is corporate e-learning overlaps the organizational, human, and technological aspects of learning. Previous research has compartmentalized the research by studying these three aspects separately, so there is little insight on how these variables affect corporate e-learning. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the levels and differences of organizational learning, e-learning quality, and e-learning use according to the demographic groups of corporate e-learners in a Malaysian oil and gas company. A quantitative survey method was applied to collect data from 261 participants using a 5-point Likert Scale questionnaire. The results revealed the level of overall organizational learning, e-learning quality, and e-learning use was moderate. Furthermore, organizational learning, e-learning quality, and e-learning use were significantly different for gender, department, and job position demographic groups. However, age and working experience did not show a significant difference for these variables. The findings from this study provide a bottom-up insight to stakeholders and managers when investing in and implementing e-learning at the organization.
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The paper is a comparative analysis of some basic models of E-learning process and to investigate values of these models for specified E-learning. These models have been digested, which are used by different researchers for educational technology. These models play very important role for e-learning process development and enhancement. Three models have been reviewed from various researches, compared and an analysis of a suitable framework for the design prototype will be tabulated and discussed based on their material, instructional and technological needs and also assess their strength, weakness and suitability during an E-learning design process. The models compared are Funnel Model (FM), ADDIE and Life Cycle Model (LCM) for E-learning. The analysis shows that FM seems to be the most expensive, LCM on the other hand is time consuming as such, ADDIE model has little shortcoming due to its prototyping approach, it consumes time also. Although, ADDIE is much faster than LCM. On the other, taking into account their effectiveness, all the models compared are suitable based on the situation and required E-learning System target and approach to learning process. FM provides detailed report and takes into account completion of each stage before advancing to next stage, ADDIE promotes flexible and simple build and fix approach before problems escalates. As such, LCM makes sure each stage is reviewed and finally evaluation takes place. In a situation where effective evaluation is needed and time is not of essence, LCM can be adopted. Conclusively, several E-learning models are in existence and their approaches and activities can furthermore be assessed and compared. Moreover, a hybrid type of model can also be applied there by taking into consideration the effective review and evaluation approach of LCM is coupled with the swift, robust and easy going approach of ADDIE model for a successful E-learning design and implementation.
Research
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The paper is a comparative analysis of some basic models of E-learning process and to investigate values of these models for specified E-learning. These models have been digested, which are used by different researchers for educational technology. These models play very important role for e-learning process development and enhancement. Three models have been reviewed from various researches, compared and an analysis of a suitable framework for the design prototype will be tabulated and discussed based on their material, instructional and technological needs and also assess their strength, weakness and suitability during an E-learning design process. The models compared are Funnel Model (FM), ADDIE and Life Cycle Model (LCM) for E-learning. The analysis shows that FM seems to be the most expensive, LCM on the other hand is time consuming as such, ADDIE model has little shortcoming due to its prototyping approach, it consumes time also. Although, ADDIE is much faster than LCM. On the other, taking into account their effectiveness, all the models compared are suitable based on the situation and required E-learning System target and approach to learning process. FM provides detailed report and takes into account completion of each stage before advancing to next stage, ADDIE promotes flexible and simple build and fix approach before problems escalates. As such, LCM makes sure each stage is reviewed and finally evaluation takes place. In a situation where effective evaluation is needed and time is not of essence, LCM can be adopted. Conclusively, several E-learning models are in existence and their approaches and activities can furthermore be assessed and compared. Moreover, a hybrid type of model can also be applied there by taking into consideration the effective review and evaluation approach of LCM is coupled with the swift, robust and easy going approach of ADDIE model for a successful E-learning design and implementation.
Conference Paper
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Despite the recent flurry of scientific interest in the Dark Triad – narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism – the research has been mostly descriptive in nature. Relatively ignored by researchers, darker personality variables may prove valuable in understanding counterproductive work behaviors. In the present study, we attempt to integrate the Dark Triad personality traits into organizational life by correlating them with the level of counterproductive work behavior and with work locus of control. Although those three facets have different origins, the personalities described as dark personalities share a number of features. In different degrees, all of them entail a socially malevolent character with behavior tendencies toward self-promotion, emotional coldness, duplicity, and aggressiveness. A narcissistic person is described in terms of a high vanity, constantly seeking for attention and admiration, with a sense of superiority or authority. Most often he or she manifests manipulative and exhibitionist behaviors. Machiavellianism is a tendency to be cynical, pragmatic, emotionally detached in interpersonal relations but, at the same time a good organizer and having long-term strategically thinking. Psychopathy presents as cardinal features: impulsiveness, emotional detachment, manipulative antisocial behavior. The recently published meta-analysis by O'Boyle, Forsyth, Banks and McDaniel (2011), showed that counterproductive behavior in the workplace is associated with all three facets of the dark triad. In the current study 122 participants (36 males and 86 females) were invited to fill in the following measures: Work Locus of Control Scale (Spector, 1988), MACH IV (Christie & Geis, 1970), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Hall, 1979), Self-Report Psychopathy scale – version III (Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (Spector & Fox, 2002). Results did not showed positive correlations between Machiavellianism and counterproductive work behaviour, or between narcissism and counterproductive work behaviour. Nevertheless, one strong positive correlation was found between psychopathy and counterproductive work behaviour (r= .438, p<.01), mirroring Patrick’s results (2007, as cited in Paulhus and Williams, 2002). Regarding the work locus of control, it was identified a positive significant correlation with Machiavellianism (r= .204, p<.05), meaning that the higher the score on work locus of control – internal, the higher the tendency to act in a machiavellic way.
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Examined the development of organizational commitment, academic self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and motivation in a socialization-type training context with data collected from 666 military trainees. The hypotheses were that (1) training fulfillment, or the extent to which training meets or fulfills a trainee's expectations and desires, (2) trainee reactions, and (3) training performance would be related to the development of posttraining attitudes. Support was obtained for each hypothesis. Training fulfillment was positively related to posttraining organizational commitment, physical self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and training motivation, even after pretraining attitudes and a set of individual variables were controlled. Pretraining motivation, trainee reactions, and training performance were also related to the development of posttraining attitudes.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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The author investigated the effectiveness of Web-based courses on technical learning. The regression results show that the delivery format (Web-based or traditional classroom courses) has no significant effect on student performance. However, although gender is a significant predictor in traditional classroom courses, its effect disappears in Web-based courses. There is evidence that Web-based courses can be conducive to the leaning process of technical knowledge for female students. For the high-GPA subgroup, the predictors of ethnicity, GPA, and problem-solving questions as an evaluation method were positively associated with performance.
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Studies of the influence of trainees' characteristics on training effectiveness have focused on the level of ability necessary to learn program content. Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little attention. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees' attributes and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training.
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A quantitative research synthesis (meta-analysis) was conducted on the literature concerning the effects of feedback on learning from computer-based instruction (CBI). Despite the widespread acceptance of feedback in computerized instruction, empirical support for particular types of feedback information has been inconsistent and contradictory. Effect size calculations from twenty-two studies involving the administration of immediate achievement posttests resulted in a weighted mean effect size of .80. Also, a mean weighted effect size of .35 was obtained from nine studies involving delayed posttest administration. Feedback effects on learning and retention were found to vary with CBI typology, format of unit content and access to supplemental materials. Results indicate that the diagnostic and prescriptive management strategies of computer-based adaptive instructional systems provide the most effective feedback. The implementation of effective feedback in computerized instruction involves the computer's ability to verify the correctness of the learner's answer and the underlying causes of error.
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There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951). Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano. Highly developed skills of this kind typically no longer require conscious formulation of a behavioral plan. Nevertheless, at least in general outline, we are normally well aware of the actions required to attain a certain goal. Consider such a relatively routine behavior as typing a letter. When setting this activity as a goal, we anticipate the need to locate a typewriter, insert a sheet of paper, adjust the margins, formulate words and sentences, strike the appropriate keys, and so forth. Some parts of the plan are more routine, and require less conscious thought than others, but without an explicit or implicit plan to guide the required sequence of acts, no letter would get typed.
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In a field study, the factors that influence employees' participation in development activities are investigated. The proposed model hypothesized that the influence of self-efficacy and work environment perceptions on development activity is mediated by learning attitudes, perceptions of development needs, and perceived benefits. Attitudinal and perceptional data and self-report and objective measures of development activity were collected from employees in health maintenance ( n = 343), financial services ( n = 196), and public sector engineering firms ( n = 496). No statistical support was found for the proposed mediated relation. However, motivation to learn, perception of benefits, and work environment perceptions had significant unique effects on development activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, and related multivariate statistical methods are based on maximum likelihood or generalized least squares estimation developed for covariance structure models (CSMs). Large-sample theory provides a chi-square goodness-of-fit test for comparing a model (M) against a general alternative M based on correlated variables. It is suggested that this comparison is insufficient for M evaluation. A general null M based on modified independence among variables is proposed as an additional reference point for the statistical and scientific evaluation of CSMs. Use of the null M in the context of a procedure that sequentially evaluates the statistical necessity of various sets of parameters places statistical methods in covariance structure analysis into a more complete framework. The concepts of ideal Ms and pseudo chi-square tests are introduced, and their roles in hypothesis testing are developed. The importance of supplementing statistical evaluation with incremental fit indices associated with the comparison of hierarchical Ms is also emphasized. Normed and nonnormed fit indices are developed and illustrated. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Training research is beginning to examine the trainee as an active participant in the learning process. One component of this process involves the choices learners make about the effort they will apply to the learning task. Learner effort was examined in two ways: amount of effort and type of effort. Both amount and type of effort were measured in multiple ways. The results indicated that mastery orientation and time on task were the strongest predictors of performance on the knowledge learning outcome, while perceived mental workload and the use of an example during learning predicted performance on the application learning outcome. Implications for training practice and research are discussed.
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Originally published in 1991, this book provides the reader with a comprehensive synthesis of developments, issues and practices related to a self-direction in learning. it presents strategies for facilitating self-directed learning as an instructional method and for enhancing learner self-direction as an aspect of adult personality. The idea of self-directed learning is not a new one but has received renewed attention in education circles and has particular significance for the adult education sector. © 1991 Ralph G. Brockett and Roger Hiemstra. All rights reserved.
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Discusses characteristics of older adult learners and the reasons that Web-based instruction provides the flexibility to meet the needs of adult learners. An examination of the literature shows that adult learners experience different constraints, motivations, and learning styles than do traditional college students, and distance-learning technologies can overcome many constraints. (Author/LRW)
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We know little about the influences of individual, historical, and situational characteristics on young workers proactive career behaviors. This study examined the effects of early career experiences, occupational group membership, and national culture on proactive career behaviors, including career planning, skill development, consultation, and networking. The study analyzed data from a longitudinal cross-national study on young workers from two occupational panels. The results confirmed the cultural dependence of proactive behaviors. Moreover, employment-related early career experiences showed a positive effect on proactive skill development and consultation behaviors. Periods of unemployment-inhibited proactive career planning and networking behaviors. Additional significant contributions to skill development and consultation behaviors were found to be associated with occupational group membership. Overall, a change in hierarchical position had a positive effect on proactive career behavior. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
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This study examined the effects of framing training program assignments on training outcomes. A model was developed that suggests that the framing of training assignments can provide feedback regarding past performance and result in different attitudinal and motivational levels going into training. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 differently framed training programs (remedial vs. advanced). Attributions regarding past performance were found to interact with training assignments to affect pretraining self-efficacy. Both perceptions of past performance and expected assignment were found to moderate the relationship between training assignment and fairness perceptions. Also, motivation to learn was a key variable linking pretraining characteristics and training outcomes. Implications for training effectiveness research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study explored possible determinants, both inside and outside the job sphere, of willingness to relocate. Data were collected from a large sample of managerial and professional employees in one organization. Unlike previous research, this study investigated willingness to relocate for three different purposes: (1) for a better job or career development; (2) to help the organization; or (3) to remain employed. However, only two factors of willingness to relocate emerged: willingness to relocate for career enhancement or company needs, and willingness to relocate to remain employed. Results showed that the strongest predictors of willingness to relocate to remain employed were job sphere variables such as satisfaction with career development opportunities and propensity to remain, while family and community variables were much more important in predicting willingness to relocate for career enhancement or company needs. The implications of these results for both the organization and individuals are discussed.
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Compared to traditional instructor-led training, computer-delivered training typically offers learners more control over their instruction. In learner-controlled environments, learner choices regarding practice level, time on task, and attention are expected to be critical determinants of training effectiveness. To examine the effect of learner choices in computer-based training, a study was conducted with 78 employees taking an Intranet-delivered training course. Learner choices were assessed and predicted with goal orientation (mastery and performance) and learning self-efficacy, as well as age, education, and computer experience. Results indicate considerable variability among trainees in practice level and time on task, which both predict knowledge gain. Performance orientation interacted with learning self-efficacy to determine practice level, and mastery orientation had an unexpected negative effect. Implications for the use of computers to deliver training and for future research are discussed.
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The primary purpose of management development programs is performance improvement at an individual and organizational level. Performance improvement results from knowledge, skill, or ability enhancement. An important intervention in management development is the use of 360-degree or multisource feedback (MSF), which leads to more effective career development activity resulting from enhanced self-awareness. The research model used to investigate self-reported postfeedback management development behavior is derived using the theory of planned behavior. The findings reveal that perceptions of the accuracy of MSF, cynicism, perceived organizational support, and age are significant predictors of postfeedback development behavior. The implications for research and practice are set out.
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This naturally occurring quasi-experiment examined how learning goal orientation (LGO), delivery mode (classroom vs. blended learning), and the perception of barriers and enablers related to motivation to learn and course outcomes. Study participants were 600 students enrolled in either classroom or blended learning courses. As hypothesized, learners in the blended learning condition, high in LGO, and who perceived environmental features as enablers rather than barriers had significantly higher motivation to learn. Motivation to learn, in turn, was significantly related to course outcomes (satisfaction, metacognition, and grades). The mediation hypotheses received partial support. Finally, exploratory analyses revealed 3 significant interactions between delivery mode, LGO, and perceived barriers and enablers on motivation to learn and course satisfaction.
This research advances the understanding of how to define, evaluate, and promote e-learning success from an information systems perspective. It introduces the E-Learning Success Model, which posits that the overall success of an e-learning initiative depends on the attainment of success at each of the three stages of e-learning systems development: system design, system delivery, and system outcome. To study this model, an online version of an undergraduate quantitative methods core course for business students is developed using a prototyping strategy. Four cycles of development are traced, each comprised analysis, design, implementation, testing, and enhancement. Findings from the study confirm the validity of using the proposed success model for e-learning success assessment. In addition, an action research methodology is also found to be a valuable impetus for promoting e-learning success through an iterative process of diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluating, and learning.
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The widespread availability of the Internet has revolutionized the way organizations train their workforces. With e-learning methods, learning can take place on-demand, and trainees can be given greater control over their learning than ever before. This increased control has the potential to improve training effectiveness. However, the failure of many e-learning programs suggests that organizations would benefit from a set of research-based principles on providing learner control in e-learning. In this article, we offer guidelines for preparing trainees for learner-led instruction, the design of learner-controlled training, and the creation of workplace conditions that facilitate successful learner-led training. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chapter
Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
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The trend of using e-learning as a learning and/or teaching tool is now rapidly expanding into education. Although e-learning environments are popular, there is minimal research on instructors’ and learners’ attitudes toward these kinds of learning environments. The purpose of this study is to explore instructors’ and learners’ attitudes toward e-learning usage. Accordingly, 30 instructors and 168 college students are asked to answer two different questionnaires for investigating their perceptions. After statistical analysis, the results demonstrate that instructors have very positive perceptions toward using e-learning as a teaching assisted tool. Furthermore, behavioral intention to use e-learning is influenced by perceived usefulness and self-efficacy. Regarding to learners’ attitudes, self-paced, teacher-led, and multimedia instruction are major factors to affect learners’ attitudes toward e-learning as an effective learning tool. Based on the findings, this research proposes guidelines for developing e-learning environments.
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The web-based e-learning system (WELS) has emerged as a new means of skill training and knowledge acquisition, encouraging both academia and industry to invest resources in the adoption of this system. Traditionally, most pre- and post-adoption tasks related to evaluation are carried out from the viewpoints of technology. Since users have been widely recognized as being a key group of stakeholders in influencing the adoption of information systems, their attitudes toward this system are pivotal. Therefore, based on the theory of multi-criteria decision making and the research products of user satisfaction from the fields of human–computer interaction and information systems, this study proposed a multi-criteria methodology from the perspective of learner satisfaction to support those evaluation-based activities taking place at the pre- and post-adoption phases of the WELS life cycle. In addition, by following this methodology, this study empirically investigated learners’ perceptions of the relative importance of decision criteria. This investigation carried out a survey of college students, and the data thus obtained was then analyzed by analytic hierarchy process in order to derive an integrated preference structure of learners as a ground for evaluation. We found that learners regarded the learner interface as being the most important dimension of decision criteria. Future applications of these results are recommended and the implications are discussed.
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Several studies have been conducted related to dropouts from on-campus and distance education courses. However, no clear definition of dropout from academic courses was provided. Consequently, this study proposes a clear and precise definition of dropout from academic courses in the context of e-learning courses. Additionally, it is documented in literature that students attending e-learning courses dropout at substantially higher rates than their counterparts in on-campus courses. Little attention has been given to the key factors associated with such substantial difference. This study explores two main constructs: (1) academic locus of control; and, (2) students’ satisfaction with e-learning. Results show that students’ satisfaction with e-learning is a key indicator in students’ decision to dropout from e-learning courses. Moreover, dropout students (non-completers) reported to have significantly lower satisfaction with e-learning than students who successfully completed (completers or persistent students) the same e-learning courses. Additionally, results of this study show that the academic locus of control appears to have no impact on students’ decision to drop from e-learning courses.