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Abstract

It is now commonplace to assert that actions toward sustainable development require a mix of scientific, economic, social and political knowledge, and judgments. The role of research-based knowledge in this complex setting is ambiguous and diverse, and it is undergoing rapid change both in theory and in practice. We review conventional views of the linkages between research-based knowledge and action, and the early response to concerns that these links could and should be improved, through efforts at translation and transfer. We then examine the range of critiques that challenge those conventional views by highlighting different aspects of the relationships between science and society, focusing on the implications for action toward sustainable development. We then review the theories and strategies that have emerged in the attempt to improve the linkages between research-based knowledge and action in the context of sustainability across four broad categories: participation, integration, learning, and negotiation. These form a hierarchy with respect to how deeply they engage with the various critiques. We propose that the relationships between research-based knowledge and action can be better understood as arenas of shared responsibility, embedded within larger systems of power and knowledge that evolve and change over time. The unique contribution of research-based knowledge needs to be understood in relation to actual or potential contributions from other forms of knowledge. We conclude with questions that may offer useful orientation to assessing or designing research-action arenas for sustainable development.

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... Various inclusive R&I approaches aim to bridge the gap between 'knowledge and action ' (van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006;West et al. 2019), including Transition Management (Loorbach 2007), Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI, see Owen et al. 2012), transformative research (Fazey et al. 2018) and transdisciplinarity (Klein et al. 2001;Lang et al. 2012). Though different in approach and underlying philosophies, these approaches share deep commonalities, among them the notion that problem-driven, iterative R&I efforts could-more effectively than traditional linear processes-contribute to tackling societal challenges by co-producing knowledge with researchers and societal stakeholders through processes that acknowledge diversity of knowledges and values while fostering learning and reflexivity among participating actors (Lang et al. 2012;Caniglia et al. 2020;Lang and Wiek 2021). ...
... Stakeholder inclusion might devolve into 'tick-the-box' requirements, or worse: lead to tokenism or oppression through participation (e.g., Cooke and Kothrari 2001). This functional turn is rather surprising as other rationales for doing stakeholder inclusion, such as promoting social learning and reflexivity, enhancing legitimacy of R&I processes and outcomes, as well as efforts for democratizing R&I in response to socially unjust outcomes, lie at the very core of transdisciplinarity (see, e.g., Jasanoff 2003;van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006;Brown 2009;Bunders et al. 2010;Schmidt et al. 2020). Critiques of the functional turn (see Chilvers and Kearnes 2020) also led scholars to argue that there is a need "for a new phase of 'democratization of science'" (Cornell et al. 2013: 68) that entails a thorough "rethinking and a repoliticization" (Turnhout et al. 2020: 18) of inclusion for transformation. ...
... This is especially relevant for designing transformation pathways towards sustainability (Fazey et al. 2018Caniglia et al. 2020;West et al. 2020;Den Boer et al. 2021a). A third argument is that transdisciplinary co-production of R&I leads to increased legitimacy of processes and outcomes, especially in the context of implementation of R&I interventions (van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006;Stirling 2008;Lang et al. 2012). This argument also lies at the core of efforts to make R&I more responsible (for instance in RRI; see von Schomberg 2013;Owen et al. 2012;Stilgoe et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Transdisciplinary research and innovation (R&I) efforts have emerged as a means to address challenges to sustainable transformation. One of the main elements of transdisciplinary efforts is the ‘inclusion’ of different stakeholders, values and perspectives in participatory R&I processes. In practice, however, ‘doing inclusion’ raises a number of challenges. In this article, we aim to contribute to re-politicizing inclusion in transdisciplinarity for transformation, by (1) empirically unraveling four key challenges that emerge in the political practice of ‘doing inclusion’, (2) illustrating how facilitators of inclusion processes perform balancing acts when confronted with these challenges, and (3) reflecting on what the unfolding dynamics suggests about the politics of stakeholder inclusion for societal transformation. In doing so, we analyze the transdisciplinary FIT4FOOD2030 project (2017–2020)—an EU-funded project that aimed to contribute to fostering EU R&I systems’ ability to catalyze food system transformation through stakeholder engagement in 25 Living Labs. Based on 3 years of action-research (including interviews, workshops and field observations), we identified four inherent political challenges to ‘doing inclusion’ in FIT4FOOD2030: (1) the challenge to meaningfully bring together powerful and marginalized stakeholders; (2) combining representation and deliberation of different stakeholder groups; (3) balancing diversities of inclusion with directionalities implied by transformative efforts; and (4) navigating the complexities of establishing boundaries of inclusion processes. We argue that by understanding ‘doing inclusion’ as a political practice, necessitating specificity about the (normative) ambitions in different inclusion settings, facilitators may better grasp and address challenges in transdisciplinarity for transformation.
... However, in traditional science and educational models situated within disciplinary silos, there are limitations to the successful transfer of scientific findings into action (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006), a situation known as the "knowing-doing gap" (Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999), which has been identified in a variety of environmental science-related fields such as landscape ecology (Montgomery et al., 2018), restoration ecology (Reyers et al., 2010), and ecosystem management (Matzek et al., 2014). ...
... Alternative models of knowledge transfer involve integration and active engagement among key stakeholders (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006), where sharing of knowledge between researchers and nonscientists is an ongoing process using adaptive management approaches. Collaboration among ecologists and other professionals, in addition to an integrated understanding of urban ecological systems, is essential for sustainable management of urban environments (Lang et al., 2012;Norström et al., 2020). ...
Article
Abstract Urban settings, where >50% of the world's population resides, are increasingly faced with environmental challenges that threaten their sustainability. Aging infrastructure, water and air pollution, and increasing recognition of environmental injustices highlight the need for professionals to employ complex scientific reasoning across disciplines where they can effectively address the multifaceted issues of urban sustainability. Here we present an innovative model for preparing the next generation of public, private, and academic leaders to address complex problems in urban sustainability. Specifically, we outline the design and implementation of an integrated, adaptable graduate training program, with the goals of science leadership, curriculum relevancy, community impact, broader applicability, establishing a career development pathway in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs, and program sustainability. This program addresses human‐ecosystem challenges using a transdisciplinary approach to produce scientific products in partnership with local communities, businesses, industries, scientists, and policy makers, while providing a mechanism to understand and overcome contemporary societal and ecological challenges. Students receive rigorous training in their home disciplines, coupled with training across disciplinary lines and developmental experiences, to prepare them to communicate, collaborate, and innovate in a variety of contexts. Training success is evaluated across measurable competency domains including problem definition, research methods, communication, collaboration, and problem‐solving. After 3 years the program expanded relationships across fields and professions, successfully established 18 internship opportunities with community partners, created a new dual‐title PhD program open to students in five academic departments, and facilitated the coproduction of knowledge with external partners. This model bridges the gaps between research, education, and application, providing an integrated, rigorous graduate training program that fosters collaborative problem‐solving between STEM graduate students and the broader community of professionals conducting sustainability work in a postindustrial urban setting.
... However, in traditional science and educational models situated within disciplinary silos, there are limitations to the successful transfer of scientific findings into action (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006), a situation known as the "knowing-doing gap" (Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999), which has been identified in a variety of environmental science-related fields such as landscape ecology (Montgomery et al., 2018), restoration ecology (Reyers et al., 2010), and ecosystem management (Matzek et al., 2014). ...
... Alternative models of knowledge transfer involve integration and active engagement among key stakeholders (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006), where sharing of knowledge between researchers and nonscientists is an ongoing process using adaptive management approaches. Collaboration among ecologists and other professionals, in addition to an integrated understanding of urban ecological systems, is essential for sustainable management of urban environments (Lang et al., 2012;Norström et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Efforts to make research environments more inclusive and diverse are beneficial for the next generation of Great Lakes researchers. The global COVID-19 pandemic introduced circumstances that forced graduate programs and academic institutions to re-evaluate and promptly pivot research traditions, such as weekly seminar series, which are critical training grounds and networking opportunities for early career researchers (ECRs). While several studies have established that academics with funded grants and robust networks were better able to weather the abrupt changes in research and closures of institutions, ECRs did not. In response, both existing and novel partnerships provided a resilient network to support ECRs at an essential stage of their career development. Considering these challenges, we sought to re-frame the seminar series as a virtual collaboration for ECRs. Two interdisciplinary graduate programs, located in different countries (Windsor, Canada, and Detroit, USA) invested in a year-long partnership to deliver a virtual-only seminar series that intentionally promoted: the co-creation of protocols and co-led roles, the amplification of justice, equity, diversity and inclusion throughout all aspects of organization and representation, engagement and amplification through social media, the integration of social, scientific and cultural research disciplines, all of which collectively showcased the capacity of our ECRs to lead, organize and communicate. This approach has great potential for application across different communities to learn through collaboration and sharing, and to empower the next generation to find new ways of working together.
... As part of these commitments, an emphasis on knowledge co-production can invite attention to the specific practices through which multiple forms of knowledge are combined to shape emerging social orders (Jasanoff, 2004). Focusing on knowledge co-production also raises questions about how science should be conducted to promote more just and anticolonial social orders that can emerge within academic organizations and institutions of science (Van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;TallBear, 2013). Along these lines, Suldovsky et al. (2018) recommend that collaborators should have early and ongoing conversations that focus explicitly on whose knowledge is prioritized to begin to identify and negotiate epistemic authority on scientific projects. ...
... Our ethnographic methodology defines how we conduct ongoing observations in diverse organizational settings to observe how communication shapes this transdisciplinary collaboration through time (Rai, 2016;Lindlof and Taylor, 2017). When paired with an ethnographic methodology, an engaged research design can bring situated social knowledge to bear on addressing differences in perspective and powerrelated tensions that inherently shape efforts to link knowledge with action (Trickett and Espino, 2004;Van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). This methodology involves showing up; observing; and, when permission is granted, audio recording diverse project meetings, including those of research and administrative leadership teams as well as project-wide annual meetings. ...
Article
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Transdisciplinary collaboration offers great potential for meaningfully addressing complex problems related to climate change and social inequities. Communication shapes transdisciplinary collaboration in myriad ways, and interdisciplinary and rhetorical approaches to communication can help identify these influences as well as strategies to transform inequitable communication patterns. In this paper, we share results from an engaged and ethnographic research project focused on strategic communication in a large-scale transdisciplinary collaboration to develop environmental-DNA (eDNA) science for coastal resilience. In this context, definitions of eDNA, perspectives about communication, and constructions of audience and expertise shape the ways in which collaborators co-produce knowledge across disciplines and with diverse partners. Identifying relationships among strategic communication, knowledge co-production, and power enables the development of strategic collaborative practices, including asking questions as a means to identify and negotiate differences in definitions of eDNA and using participatory methods and anti-oppressive data management platforms for ethical praxis.
... The field of sustainability science has developed frameworks for how research and knowledge production can increase the effective management of institutions, frameworks, and concepts designed to achieve practical outcomes like agronomic and environmental sustainability (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). For instance, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) is an example of an institutional boundary object for which knowledge is crucial to advance international agricultural development (Clark et al., 2016). ...
... First, this is not a framework to increase the use of soil information per se. There is already a large body of academic work on the general aspects of knowledge use (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). There are also many general frameworks for recommendations on how to generate useful scientific research (Fisher et al., 2020). ...
Article
Defining what makes a “good” soil has long been of interest to soil scientists. Over the years, several conceptual frameworks have emerged to serve this purpose: tilth, soil fertility, soil quality, soil security, and soil health. There has been a growing body of research assessing how various management practices impact indicators of “good” soils. We argue that the growing body of research on soil health parameters has advanced our knowledge of how these indicators respond to land management, but produced little insight into how lands should be managed to improve their sustainability. We believe this lack of insight is due to under-emphasis of several knowledge areas: Is an increase in a soil health property good or bad? How much do desirable outcomes change when a soil property changes, and is the relationship between the two linear? Can land management change soil indicators by a sufficient magnitude to cause the desired change in outcome? And, what new indicators are needed to enable innovation in agricultural systems? Innovation in soil health measurements is important because the lack of practical insight into how to manage land risks dampening enthusiasm and innovation about the role soils can play in transitioning to sustainable food systems; it means that policy & practice risks moving forward without a strong evidence base.
... They have been accompanied by an emphasis on the need for social learning and knowledge conducive to action that contributes to fundamentally changing human-environment interaction (Berkes & Folke, 2002;Dietz et al., 2003;Holling et al., 2002;König, 2018). Relying on governments and scientific information and data alone is not sufficient (Evans, 2012;Kates et al., 2001;König, 2018;Ostrom et al., 2002;van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006). Nongovernmental actors and human agency are key in governance systems and their transformation (Pahl-Wostl, 2015;Wiek & Larson, 2012). ...
... The present thesis positions itself in the field of sustainability science. Generally speaking, sustainability researchers seek to better understand interactions between society and the biophysical environment and to contribute to making interactions more sustainable entailing efforts of linking knowledge to action (Kates et al., 2001;van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006) or, put differently, to bridge the gap between disciplinary science and society . The Brundtland definition and the UN 2030 Agenda for sustainable development provides the field with a frequently cited common denominator (UN, 2015;WCED, 1987): ...
Thesis
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The thesis offers in-depth empirical insights into diverse factors that foster or hinder collective capacities of actors to address sustainability challenges at the water-land nexus. It focuses on how relations, knowledge, and practices in diverse organisations and professions engaged in governance and social learning processes in the Syr and Upper Sûre river basins in Luxembourg have changed following the entering into force of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. Finding that contradictions in water and land systems grow while spaces for self-organisation and meaning-making shrink, the thesis raises fundamental questions concerning both dominant supply- and productivity-oriented paradigms and managerial approaches to sustainability. New governance approaches are needed to foster social learning and actionable knowledge, embracing interrelations between ecological and social dimensions of sustainability.
... The questions of how, by whom, and for what knowledge from scientific research is used for the benefit of society has long been investigated in the context of impact evaluation, follow-up research, and similar approaches (Larsen, 1980;Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;Nilsen et al., 2013;Kläy et al., 2015;Verwoerd et al., 2020). But assessments have often focused on what happens when knowledge has already been created, in a sense of "putting it out there" (Nagy et al., 2020). ...
... So while Transmission/communication is necessary, it is not sufficient to achieve transformation, because it does not necessarily involve a reaction. However, a linear concept of bringing knowledge into practice has been acknowledged as still deeply rooted in understandings of science as well as policymaking (Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;Nagy et al., 2020), and it is possible that it was an underlying factor for the respondents of our survey. This may help to explain our results, as during our analysis, we also got the impression that many respondents had answered the questions from a rather traditional, linear perspective. ...
Article
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Our study aimed at understanding the utilization of research knowledge generated in sustainable development research. Drawing on a sample of 54 recent research projects, we investigated how and by whom the knowledge was used, what changes were achieved, and how non-academic actors were involved. As a conceptual framework we combined a concept of "stages of knowledge utilization" with a spiral model that co-creates three forms of knowledge - systems knowledge, target knowledge, and transformation knowledge, and which spans from joint problem definition to concrete sustainability transformations. We analysed questionnaires from 94 academic and non-academic actors using cross-tabulation, chi-squared tests, and qualitative content analysis. The early involvement of non-academic actors from key groups such as local enterprises was positively related to the utilization of research knowledge, as was their involvement in diverse roles. However, only little of the research knowledge generated has so far resulted in changes in policy and practice, partly because sustainability transformations are larger societal processes. Utilization of research knowledge for sustainability transformations cannot be achieved without employing a transdisciplinary approach that brings together academic and non-academic actors in a setting that enables discussions on an even footing and the empowering of actors who are often not heard. In such settings, researchers are also part of the change rather than mere observers, an additional factor that came up in our participatory results validation activities and that requires further research. For more influence on policies and practice, research for development requires active participation of non-academic actors from the outset, when the project contents are defined.
... En este sentido, es importante promover un desarrollo conjunto entre todas las comunidades para así darle un mejor manejo a estos recursos y a su explotación, y con el fin de generar mejor calidad de vida en el tema medioambiental. Esto es posible con ayuda de la educación, la innovación, la participación, el financiamiento y el liderazgo y respaldo políticos; elementos importantes de las respuestas exitosas a la sostenibilidad en las ciudades (Van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006). b. ...
... Therefore, it is important to promote joint development among all communities in order to better manage these resources and their exploitation, in order to generate a better quality of life in environmental matters. All of this with the help of education, innovation, participation, financing and leadership and political support, all of which are important elements of successful responses to sustainability in cities (Van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006). b. ...
... Knowledge breadth or scope is influenced by a diversity of disciplinary backgrounds, such as sciences and engineering, as well as whether disciplines are applied, empirical or normative (Max-Neef, 2005). Knowledge breadth is also a function of forms of knowledge, be it practical, scientific or indigenous knowledge (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). The potential of harnessing the breadth of knowledge is based on individual and organisational capacity to form relationships and networks to share information. ...
... As the multidimensional survey had to be adapted to fit public-sector environmental organisations, the researcher used factor analysis to asses if all the questionnaire items were reliable and to represent the correlations of interrelated variables (Tredoux et al., 2006). By interpreting the correlations of the variables, the researcher was able to see how each item was related, to which dimensions the items were related and whether any of the items should be deleted (Tredoux et al., 2006;Jolliffe, 2002). ...
Thesis
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In a time of global environmental instability, public-sector organisations that manage and protect natural resources, which are needed for human wellbeing, play an increasingly important role. These organisations frequently have to weigh up the costs and benefits of managing natural resources and their services for the public good. Management of social-ecological systems is commonly characterised by uncertainty, disagreement and trade-offs. In South Africa, these challenges are compounded by the fact that mandated organisations are often inadequately resourced in terms of finances, skilled staff and infrastructure. In order to maintain the resilience and robustness of social-ecological systems, public-sector organisations need to cultivate a set of dynamic capabilities, with strong emphasis on learning from their experiences and adapting their management strategies, to innovate and improve their performances. Absorptive capacity (AC) has been described as the ability of an organisation to recognise the value of new external information, acquire it and assimilate it within the organisation, transforming it by applying it with existing knowledge and exploiting the new knowledge for benefit. Organisations with good AC are able to recognise rapidly changing environments and address them by renewing and building on their levels of skill, knowledge and capability to deal with change. This construct has been extensively researched in industries related to business and technology, where its development has been found to stimulate innovative capabilities. There has, however, been little research into its relevance for public-sector organisations or organisations with environmental mandates. This study used methodological triangulation to assess the attitudes of employees on the current state of AC in three public-sector organisations with environmental mandates. This was done to gain insight into their capacity to absorb information and apply their new knowledge in decision-making, in a manner that navigates through environmental change. The key findings of this research suggest that knowledge transformation and exploitation are enhanced by in-house research capabilities and cross-functional interface between internal departments. These findings also suggest that the acquisition of knowledge is not only determined by the in-house research capacity but also depends on the resources available to these departments in terms of time, finances and skilled staff. There was minimal evidence of knowledge exploitation; however, obstacles that were highlighted as hindering this process included individual responsibility and motivation, as well as general organisation capacities, such as communication hierarchies, funding, time and organisational silos. This research found that the well-studied concept of AC can be used as an institutional mechanism to assess and promote adaptive capacity in public-sector organisations with environmental mandates to navigate and innovate through the Anthropocene. Key words: Absorptive capacity, adaptive capacity, environmental change, public-sector organisations
... However, this gap is more complex than a linear one-way process. It requires the establishment of a two-way relationship between the different actors in the policy process (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;Lövbrand, 2011). This argues for the joint construction of knowledge which will increase the time and funds required, but will also increase perceived precision, as well as relevance and legitimacy (van den Hove, 2007). ...
Article
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Ecosystem services valuation (ESV) is increasingly used to provide the impetus to sustainably manage and restore ecosystems. When undertaking an ESV study, the available resources, desired scope, and necessary precision must be considered before determining the most appropriate approach. A broad range of techniques exist to support valuation studies, requiring a range of financial, time, and personnel resources. We surveyed authors that completed 56 responses around valuation studies regarding their total costs (including personnel costs) and the perceived precision of their results. Results show that the perceived precision of their results is statistically significant and increases with the cost of a study (adjusted R² = 0.29, p = 0.018) and the number of person years required to complete it (R² = 0.31, p = 0.22). Understanding the trade-offs between the costs of the study and the precision of the results allows policymakers and practitioners to make more informed decisions about which ESV methods are most cost effective for their needs. For example, basic value transfer techniques require minimal resources to implement but lack precision in the final estimates, while integrated modelling techniques provide dynamic, spatially explicit, and more precise estimates but are significantly more expensive and time consuming to implement. However, these techniques are not mutually exclusive. A quick, inexpensive initial analysis may support and motivate more elaborate and detailed studies.
... The present programme highlighted that the conventional linear approach to knowledge dissemination, initially followed during the first year, is not entirely suitable for researchaction partnerships (Lang et al. 2012;van Kerkhoff & Lebel 2006). For scientists to provide recommendations after the research and publication is complete, is not an effective TD practice. ...
... ). Some important strategies include the use of knowledge co-production, wherein scientists, policymakers, and other actors work together to exchange, generate, and apply knowledge(van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006), and action research, an iterative process in which teams of researchers develop hypotheses about real-worldChapter 1Climate Change: New Dimensions in Disaster Risk, Exposure, Vulnerability, and Resilience ...
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Disaster signifies extreme impacts suffered when hazardous physical events interact with vulnerable social conditions to severely alter the normal functioning of a community or a society (high confidence). Social vulnerability and exposure are key determinants of disaster risk and help explain why non-extreme physical events and chronic hazards can also lead to extreme impacts and disasters, while some extreme events do not. Extreme impacts on human, ecological, or physical systems derive from individual extreme or non-extreme events, or a compounding of events or their impacts (for example, drought creating the conditions for wildfire, followed by heavy rain leading to landslides and soil erosion). [1.1.2.1, 1.1.2.3, 1.2.3.1, 1.3] Management strategies based on the reduction of everyday or chronic risk factors and on the reduction of risk associated with non-extreme events, as opposed to strategies based solely on the exceptional or extreme, provide a mechanism that facilitates the reduction of disaster risk and the preparation for and response to extremes and disasters (high confidence). Effective adaptation to climate change requires an understanding of the diverse ways in which social processes and development pathways shape disaster risk. Disaster risk is often causally related to ongoing, chronic, or persistent environmental, economic, or social risk factors. [1.1.2.2, 1.1.3, 1.1.4.1, 1.3.2] Development practice, policy, and outcomes are critical to shaping disaster risk (high confidence). Disaster risk may be increased by shortcomings in development. Reductions in the rate of depletion of ecosystem services, improvements in urban land use and territorial organization processes, the strengthening of rural livelihoods, and general and specific advances in urban and rural governance advance the composite agenda of poverty reduction, disaster risk reduction, and adaptation to climate change.
... In this way, ResNet is made up of researchers committed to building links with local communities and pushing scientific knowledge to action. Where traditional science might aim for 'transfer and translate' science, in which scientific results are 'translated' for use by decision-makers, or even a 'trickle down' model, where scientific results will be taken up by decisionmakers with no need for additional work by scientists (van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006), translational ecology calls for engaging decision-makers early in the process on question development and research design (Matson et al. 2016). In other contexts, this has also been called transdisciplinary research (Lang et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Place-based social-ecological research is often designed to improve local environmental governance, but it can also inform decisions at larger scales or in other places. However, the focus on local perspectives in such research creates challenges for transferring insights to other locations, and for aggregating understanding to larger scales. In this paper, we discuss how ResNet, a new pan-Canadian network of researchers working on place-based social-ecological case studies via ecosystem services, will face (and hopefully overcome) these challenges while taking advantage of the unique benefits of a place-based approach. Drawing on insights from the literature and from the first 10 years of the Programme for Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), we outline solutions to six key challenges to multi-scale knowledge integration across place-based cases, and explore how ResNet is employing some of these solutions.
... However, there is no need for perfect information to act. Research in sustainability science, and translating that knowledge into action (Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006) must go hand in hand with sustainable development diplomacy to overcome the many sustainability challenges that the world faces. ...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the origins of the concept of sustainability and its evolution toward becoming one of the defining concepts of our times. It then presents sustainable development as a means to develop society and the economy while protecting the environment and other life support systems in the long term. Finally, the chapter explores the global and regional practice of sustainable development and describes the scientific knowledge needed to pursue it, particularly sustainability science. Sustainability, however, does not exist in a vacuum. Other paradigms, such as human rights and resilience, often complement it, and sometimes compete against it, as movers of collective action in international relations. In recent decades, a number of institutions and policy instruments have been crafted to promote sustainability, including multilateral environmental agreements, environmental assessments, global funds, the High-Level Political Forum to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and more (Haas et al. 1993; Young 2002). These endeavors to keep humanity within planetary boundaries and preventing ecosystem collapse have met with mixed results. Fulfilling the SDGs requires effective diplomacy around a number of “wicked” – that is, extremely difficult to solve – socio-ecological challenges. Sustainable Development Diplomacy is a collection of approaches toward the negotiation and implementation of measures to achieve sustainability. Drawing on various disciplines – including international negotiations, global environmental governance, and socio-ecological systems – this chapter identifies core principles to assess ongoing sustainable development diplomacy (SDD) efforts toward achieving sustainability. To be successful, such approaches must incorporate diverse stakeholders and flexible solutions that match the growing complexity and scale of current sustainability challenges, while avoiding reliance on panaceas that are inadequate to the task.
... 8 This statement underlines how orally traded forms of knowledge, which may be culturally sanctioned within local communities, are a poor fit for adaptation processes primarily driven by development aid adaptation knowledge and practices and by Western science epistemologies that, focus on 'measurable' or 'observable' evidence as a trigger for adaptation action (cf. Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006). In other words, what is understood and acknowledged as forms of 'adaptation to climate change' may differ significantly depending on a person's cultural and ontological perspective. ...
Article
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Reducing vulnerabilities is at the core of climate change adaptation interventions. This goal is usually approached from the perspective of increasingly universal adaptation methodologies, tools and services that are grounded in Western scientific thought and knowledge. Questions of (in-)justices and new or reproduced vulnerabilities play a marginal role in adaptation interventions. In this paper, we argue that a failure to acknowledge, let alone address, the intricate linkages between knowledge and power risks creating fundamental injustices as part of well-intended adaptation processes and their outcomes. Using the Kiribati Adaptation Project (KAP) as a case study, we examine how knowledge hegemonies lead to unsatisfactory adaptation processes and outcomes when viewed from a justice perspective. Environmental justice lenses provide a useful framework for applying distributional, procedural and epistemic notions of injustice to tackle and interrogate the knowledge-power relations, which we identify as a profound part of adaptation interventions.
... However, this is not changing the rising environmental degradation mainly related to water pollution, in the country. This might be attributed to lack of an appropriate link between policy and scientific activities [16,17]. It is often the case that, the scientific advancements in water and wastewater treatment technologies and water quality monitoring strategies to avert pollution are far known by the policy makers and implementers [17]. ...
Article
In this paper, we appraised the link between policy and research advancement in the area of membrane technology to maximize its application in developing countries. First, the water pollution and water scarcity challenges in Ethiopia are discussed together with the national policy. The minimum allowable concentration for pollutants set by the Ethiopian water resource authorities is significantly higher than the one set, for example, by WHO due to lack of suitable wastewater treatment technologies. To support population growth, Ethiopia urgently needs stringent legislation backed up by alternative treatment technologies in order to implement multi-sectoral water protection and provision programs. The current-status of membrane technologies and the availability of raw materials for membrane fabrication are presented. Key types of membrane technologies that are currently practiced and the obtained merits compared to traditional treatment strategies are thoroughly reviewed. Membrane technology can be used as a two-way tool: (i) to fill gaps in policy implementation with more stringent minimum allowable pollutants concentration and (ii) to reduce water pollution and scarcity. Implementing hybrid membrane process for resource recovery and wastewater reclamation can lead us towards a green resilient circular economy. We strongly believe that this work provides useful information for membrane researchers as well as water managers thereby motivating further research and planning on membrane processes in water and wastewater treatment in Ethiopia and other developing economy countries. © 2022 Amirkabir University of Technology - Membrane Processes Research Laboratory. All rights reserved.
... Enhancing credibility, salience, and legitimacy of knowledge production has also been noted to increase the effectiveness of knowledge production (Cash et al., 2003;Opdam, 2010). Furthermore, efforts need to go beyond linear approaches, taking cognizance of institutional, power and participation dynamics (Cvitanovic et al., 2015;Leeuwis et al., 2021;van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006) and how researchers must deal with these dynamics (Lahsen and Turnhout, 2021). Fragmentation of knowledge and absence of systems thinking has been noted as a key problem for sustainability transitions (Kok et al., 2019;Saviano et al., 2019), therefore efforts are needed to address such fragmentation through long term thinking, systemic research, efforts to address disciplinary silos and more streamlined funding. ...
Article
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In the past few years, we have seen growing calls for a transformation in global food systems in response to multiple challenges, including climate change. Food systems are responsible for a third of global greenhouse gas emissions from human activity and agricultural yields are at risk due to climate change impacts. Although many proposals have been made, there are fewer insights on what these imply for knowledge and innovation systems. We seek to advance the literature on transforming food systems under a changing climate, by identifying concrete next steps for scientists and practitioners. We do this by adapting a theory of change proposed by Campbell et al. (2018). We used the adapted theory of change to design the 5th Global Science Conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture, which brought together different stakeholders within global food systems. Through conference sessions and a survey with 262 of the participants, we validate elements of the Campbell et al. framework, identify additional elements, and offer further nuance. The findings point at nine priority areas for a transformation in food systems under climate change: (1) Empowering farmer and consumer organizations, women and youth; (2) Digitally enabled climate-informed services; (3) Climate-resilient and low-emission practices and technologies; (4) Innovative finance to leverage public and private sector investments; (5) Reshaping supply chains, food retail, marketing and procurement; (6) Fostering enabling policies and institutions; (7) Knowledge transfer; (8) Addressing fragmentation in the knowledge and innovation systems; (9) Ensuring food security. We have identified three types of scholarly insights from innovation, transition and sustainability transformations studies that may inform the next steps: these relate to stimulating novelty across the priority areas, ensuring participation in knowledge production, and reconfiguring incumbent systems to enable implementation of the theory of change.
... Thereby, the focus was on research-based knowledge (as used in e.g. Van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006) reaching public policy (meaning an authoritative statement by a government or other public authority, see Bridgman and Davis (2000), and including both policy-makers and decision-makers). We acknowledge that such distinctions can be difficult, for example around land or protected area management or where several stakeholder groups are included. ...
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As anthropogenic pressures on the environment grow, science-policy interaction is increasingly needed to support evidence-informed decision-making. However, there are many barriers to knowledge exchange (KE) at the science-policy interface, including difficulties evaluating its outcomes. The aims of this study are to synthesize the literature to elucidate the a) intended and b) claimed outcomes of KE processes at the interface of environmental science and policy, as well as the c) evidence used to evaluate them and d) methods used for collecting evaluation data. Results from systematically identifying and analyzing 397 articles show that co-production, knowledge brokerage, boundary organizations, and social connections were the most common strategies for KE. KE processes commonly aimed, claimed and referred to evidence regarding the usability of knowledge (e.g. credibility, salience, legitimacy) and social outcomes (e.g. networking, awareness, learning, trust-building). They also aimed for deeper policy/economic/societal impacts and actual use of scientific knowledge within decision-making. These additional goals, however, were seldom claimed to have been achieved, although products (e.g. maps/tools) and process attributes (e.g. equity, power-relations, transparency) were commonly used for evidencing impact. Hence, this study found that success from KE at the interface of environmental science and policy comes in diverse forms and showed a divergence between what studies aim for (ambitious) and what they evidence or claim as an achievement (more modest). This may represent failures of KE processes to reach intended goals, shortcomings in evaluation literature/approaches, or mismatches between timescales of evaluation and impact. Overall, this suggests a need to better align goals with evaluation measures to plan, facilitate, and appreciate the diverse impacts of KE processes.
... Defining the scope of community engagement in research is a clear challenge. Yet, sustainability science practitioners emphasize that sustained engagement and iterative processes are most likely to result in useful research (e.g., Van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006). Similarly, hands-on engagement and collaboration between local actors and experts is likely to be necessary for planning and implementing community resilience efforts for OCA in the Northeast and elsewhere. ...
Article
Ocean and coastal acidification (OCA) present a unique set of sustainability challenges at the human-ecological interface. Extensive biogeochemical monitoring that can assess local acidification conditions, distinguish multiple drivers of changing carbonate chemistry, and ultimately inform local and regional response strategies is necessary for successful adaptation to OCA. However, the sampling frequency and cost-prohibitive scientific equipment needed to monitor OCA are barriers to implementing the widespread monitoring of dynamic coastal conditions. Here, we demonstrate through a case study that existing community-based water monitoring initiatives can help address these challenges and contribute to OCA science. We document how iterative, sequential outreach, workshop-based training, and coordinated monitoring activities through the Northeast Coastal Acidification Network (a) assessed the capacity of northeastern United States community science programs and (b) engaged community science programs productively with OCA monitoring efforts. Our results (along with the companion manuscript) indicate that community science programs are capable of collecting robust scientific information pertinent to OCA and are positioned to monitor in locations that would critically expand the coverage of current OCA research. Furthermore, engaging community stakeholders in OCA science and outreach enabled a platform for dialogue about OCA among other interrelated environmental concerns and fostered a series of co-benefits relating to public participation in resource and risk management. Activities in support of community science monitoring have an impact not only by increasing local understanding of OCA but also by promoting public education and community participation in potential adaptation measures.
... Scientific research produces a wealth of knowledge about potential solutions to important social problems and global health challenges. Unfortunately, this information often fails to find its way into decision-makers' hands (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). And even when it does, that information may not always be translated into action because civil servants and practitioners have considerable discretion in utilizing scientific findings for crafting and carrying out public policies (Lipsky, 1980;Brodkin, 1990). ...
Article
Scholars and practitioners often promote direct engagement between policymakers, health workers, and researchers as a strategy for overcoming barriers to utilizing scientific knowledge in health policy. However, in many settings public health officials rarely have opportunities to interact with researchers, which is a problem further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. One prominent theory argues that policy actors will trust and utilize research findings when they perceive them to be salient, credible, and legitimate. We draw on this theory to examine the conditions facilitating greater uptake of new knowledge among health officials when engagement is out of reach and they are instead exposed to new ideas through written mass communication. Using data from a survey experiment with about 260 health workers and administrators in Honduras, we find that messages from a technocratic sender based on statistical evidence improved perceptions of salience, credibility and legitimacy. Additionally, perceptions of salience, credibility, and legitimacy are three contextual features that operate as joint mediators between knowledge and action, and several individual characteristics also influence whether officials trust research findings enough to apply them when formulating and implementing health policies. This research can help inform the design of context-sensitive knowledge translation and exchange strategies to advance the goals of evidence-based public health, particularly in settings where direct engagement is difficult to achieve.
... Furthermore, achieving a sustainable global food system requires input, buy-in, and coordination from a vast array of stakeholders-public and private, profit and non-profit, consumer and producer, owner and worker, poor and richto successfully agree on issues, choose indicators, collect data, develop strategies, implement projects, improve practices, and ultimately achieve a sustainable path forward (Pretty, 1995;Cash et al., 2003;van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;Beddington et al., 2012). Defining and measuring sustainable food systems, therefore, must be an inclusive, "bottom-up" effort that allows all interested parties to provide input. ...
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A variety of stakeholders are concerned with many issues regarding the sustainability of our complex global food system. Yet navigating and comparing the plethora of issues and indicators across scales, commodities, and regions can be daunting, particularly for different communities of practice with diverse goals, perspectives, and decision-making workflows. This study presents a malleable workflow to help different stakeholder groups identify the issues and indicators that define food system sustainability for their particular use case. By making information used in such workflows semantically-consistent, the output from each unique case can be easily compared and contrasted across domains, contributing to both a deeper and broader understanding of what issues and indicators define a resilient global food system.
... Sustainability-oriented research has often been described as focusing on studying and solving real-world wicked problems such as climate change, the overuse of resources, poverty, and social conflict (Kates et al. 2001;van Kerkhoff and Lebel 2006;Wiek 2007). Wicked problems are defined as being long-term, urgent, highly complex, and cannot be solved by simple solutions (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993;Liu et al. 2007). ...
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This dissertation investigates the factors that contribute to the cultural characteristics of sustainability among higher education institutions (HEIs) in the United States to shed light on how they represent themselves as sustainable. It documents four-year HEIs in the United States that self-identify as sustainable; evaluates how these institutions portray themselves to society as sustainable; and documents who is leading sustainability on U.S. college campuses. This dissertation fills an important gap in the literature on sustainable development in higher education that Holm and others (2016) have identified. Although education for sustainable development (ESD) has been recognized as an important topic, and many higher education institutions have integrated sustainability components into their policies and procedures, there is a profound need to analyze the integration of sustainability into HEIs in a more holistic fashion (Holm et al. 2016). While scholars have published studies of HEIs and their commitment to sustainability, most of this literature is limited in scope and focuses on a single university or university sector. Other data sets, such as STARS Assessment Reports is based on self-reported information by universities willing to participate. My goal is to understand sustainability in higher education more broadly through a systematic study of all four-year HEIs in the United States. By doing so, college and university administrators can better understand how to integrate sustainability on their campuses and communicate these efforts on their websites. Readers will also learn about some of the benefits of HEIs implementing sustainability and the growing importance of sustainability leaders in college and university communities.
... Competency in sustainability research and problem-solving means having the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for successful task performance and problem solving with respect to real-world sustainability challenges and opportunities (Wiek, Withycombe, Redman, & Banas Mills 2011). To solve realworld sustainability challenges five key competencies are introduced, which are systems-thinking competency, anticipatory competency, normative competency, strategic competency, and interpersonal competency (van Kerkhoff & Lebel 2006). Later, interpersonal competency was renamed collaboration competency, and three new competencies were added to the list (UNESCO 2017; Table 1). ...
Article
This study surveyed Finnish subject student teachers’ views on their competencies in environmental issues in sustainability education (SE). The study questions were as follows: (1) Which competencies were demonstrated in the respondents’ answers concerning the environmental problems that they mentioned?; (2) How do the answers reflect the eight key competencies for SE?; and (3) How do the answers differ between the groups of subjects with respect to the competencies displayed? A qualitative content analysis was carried out by focusing on the respondents’ competencies in SE (n = 138). Of the eight competencies defned by UNESCO, seven were found in the answers. The most common were collaboration, integrated problem solving, and strategic thinking. The least common were the normative, critical, and systems-thinking competencies. While the prevalence of the key competencies mentioned in the answers varied, there was no systematic or thematic difference between the different subject groups. The fndings indicate that the practice of cultivating self-reflective competencies in teacher education is important for a future teaching career.
... Competency in sustainability research and problem-solving means having the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for successful task performance and problem solving with respect to real-world sustainability challenges and opportunities (Wiek, Withycombe, Redman, & Banas Mills 2011). To solve realworld sustainability challenges five key competencies are introduced, which are systems-thinking competency, anticipatory competency, normative competency, strategic competency, and interpersonal competency (van Kerkho & Lebel 2006). Later, interpersonal competency was ff renamed collaboration competency, and three new competencies were added to the list (UNESCO 2017; Table 1). ...
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This study surveyed Finnish subject student teachers' views on their competencies in environmental issues in sustainability education (SE). The study questions were as follows: (1) Which competencies were demonstrated in the respondents' answers concerning the environmental problems that they mentioned?; (2) How do the answers reflect the eight key competencies for SE?; and (3) How do the answers di er between the groups of subjects with respect to the competencies displayed? ff A qualitative content analysis was carried out by focusing on the respondents' competencies in SE (n = 138). Of the eight competencies defined by UNESCO, seven were found in the answers. The most common were collaboration, integrated problem solving, and strategic thinking. The least common were the normative, critical, and systems-thinking competencies. While the prevalence of the key competencies mentioned in the answers varied, there was no systematic or thematic di erence between the di erent subject groups. The fndings indicate that the practice of cultivating self-ff ff reflective competencies in teacher education is important for a future teaching career. In: R. Hildén, P. Portaankorva-Koivisto, & T. Mäkipää (toim.). Aineenopetus ja aiheenopetus. Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja, Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia 20, 180-199. Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura ry. Helsinki. ISBN 978-952-5993-33-2 (verkkojulkaisu), ISSN-L 1799-9596, ISSN 1799-960X (verkkojulkaisu). https://researchportal.helsinki.fi/fi/publications/aineenopetus-ja-aiheenopetus-ainedidaktisia-tutkimuksia-20
... 9,10]. At the same time, model outputs associated with scientific publications are relatively difficult for decision-makers to independently discover and use [11]. Web-based DSTs have the potential to make SDM outputs more accessible, enhance efficiency by providing information on problematic invaders of interest to multiple user groups, and may be co-produced with users to deliver model results in an interpretable manner relevant to established decision-making processes. ...
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Narrowing the communication and knowledge gap between producers and users of scientific data is a longstanding problem in ecological conservation and land management. Decision support tools (DSTs), including websites or interactive web applications, provide platforms that can help bridge this gap. DSTs can most effectively disseminate and translate research results when producers and users collaboratively and iteratively design content and features. One data resource seldom incorporated into DSTs are species distribution models (SDMs), which can produce spatial predictions of habitat suitability. Outputs from SDMs can inform management decisions, but their complexity and inaccessibility can limit their use by resource managers or policy makers. To overcome these limitations, we present the Invasive Species Habitat Tool (INHABIT), a novel, web-based DST built with R Shiny to display spatial predictions and tabular summaries of habitat suitability from SDMs for invasive plants across the contiguous United States. INHABIT provides actionable science to support the prevention and management of invasive species. Two case studies demonstrate the important role of end user feedback in confirming INHABIT's credibility, utility, and relevance.
... The social values may be related, for example, to rural traditions and cultures, or to business stakeholders. Because sustainable development is locally based and context-specific, such that action and solutions are grounded in local needs [58], it follows that the social values considered would be tailored to the presenting issue. ...
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Background This paper presents a review of the literature and trends related to social values and sustainable development and describes a set of case studies from a variety of community-based projects which illustrate the advantages that social values bring about as part of efforts to promote sustainability. Three approaches were used to develop this study: a bibliometric analysis of the topic “social values and sustainable development”, an analysis of case studies that concretely present community projects addressing social values and sustainability, and the development of a framework linking up bibliometric clusters and the cases studies. Results While the bibliometric analysis revealed clusters where social values are strongly connected with sustainable development, the case studies indicated the lack of a common terminology and understanding of the relation between social values, sustainable development, and community-based projects. Conclusions The study concludes by suggesting a set of measures that could be deployed to better take social values into account when planning policies or making decisions related to community projects.
... The scale and urgency of sustainability problems worldwide has leaders and groups across sectors calling for "transformation" and "transformative action, " with explicit demands for structural transformations in socio-technical systems, cities, regions, and nations (Olsson et al., 2014;Wolfram et al., 2016;Abson et al., 2017). Such calls for transformation persist at the same time as knowledge of potential solutions to sustainability challenges accumulate, perpetuating a so-called "knowledge-to-action gap" between scientific knowledge production and policymaking (Van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006;Muñoz-Erickson, 2014;Rathwell et al., 2015; c.f., Matson et al., 2016). Complaints about the utility of sustainability science knowledge for decision making and action predate the establishment of the field (Funtowicz et al., 1998) and remain a recognized problem (Caniglia et al., 2020). ...
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The scale and urgency of sustainability problems the world over has led to calls for sustainability transformations in cities, regions, and countries. Such calls for transformation are underlain by a persistent knowledge-to-action gap between scientific knowledge production, policy, and practice. To rise to the challenges of sustainability and resilience, municipal administrators need to set evidence-based and ambitious sustainability targets and develop strategies to achieve them. Simultaneously, transdisciplinary sustainability science researchers need to generate scientific knowledge to further enable cities along pathways of transformation. This paper details a collaborative backcasting game, AudaCITY, developed to build transformative capacity in city administrations while also generating deep contextual knowledge to inform a transformative sustainability science research agenda. We present AudaCITY's key features, potential applications and adaptations, and exemplary outputs and outcomes for cities and researchers. We conclude with recommendations for adopting and adapting AudaCITY for use in action-oriented and transformational sustainability science and capacity building.
... I understand knowledge as a justified belief used to claim a truth (Jacobson, 2007). The truth or falsehood of knowledge is not a determining feature of knowledge but the acceptance of it in a context based on different sets of criteria (van Kerkhoff & Lebel, 2006). Widespread acceptance within society is what determines a 'credible knower', while knowledge is determined by the ways in which a given society acknowledges knowledge claims (McConkey, 2004). ...
Thesis
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Achieving just transformations towards sustainability requires the inclusion of diverse people and perspectives into ecosystem governance. Inclusivity can be approached through the concept of plurality, necessitating the development of techniques for eliciting and managing the different epistemic (knowledge related) understandings of human-nature connections and allowing for contestations of views. Collaborative modes of knowledge production are increasingly used to navigate complex interactions between science, society and policy to create actionable knowledges. They can provide gateways into further understanding plurality in ecosystem governance. However, despite the proliferation of these approaches, there is currently little evidence about how to recognise and deal with the plurality of diverse knowledges and associated power structures held at different scales of ecosystem governance and knowledge production. This thesis approaches the question of inclusivity in sustainability science by introducing the epistemic dimension of human-nature connections and studying it in different contexts and at scales including local and transnational ecosystem governance and international science-policy interfaces. The thesis consists of four scientific articles which employ qualitative and quantitative methods in a mixed method research design.
... The GMB process also revealed differences in the understanding of the system by local stakeholders (context experts) compared to researchers and academics (content experts). According to Van Kerkhoff and Lebel (2006), this dichotomy derives from the orientation of the researcher, who often generates theories devoid of local context, unlike stakeholders who are often embedded in that context. ...
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There is a scarcity of research on building nutrition-sensitive value chains (NSVCs) to improve diets and nutrition outcomes of populations in the Caribbean. This study contributes to filling this research gap by outlining a participatory approach to evaluating a NSVC model for “farm to fork” (F2F) school feeding in the Eastern Caribbean Island of St. Kitts. Using a combined group model building (GMB) and theory of change (ToC) approach, policy actors and other stakeholders (n = 37) across the school feeding value chain were guided through a facilitated process to evaluate the ToC underlying a series of F2F interventions designed to enhance childhood nutrition. Stakeholders at the workshop engaged collaboratively to create a causal map of interconnected “system factors” that help explain behaviors contributing to unhealthy eating among children that extended well-beyond the original F2F project ToC that had been used to inform interventions. Through this facilitated GMB process, stakeholders proposed additional food system interventions, and identified multiple “impact pathways” and “mediating influences” underlying local availability and consumption of nutritious foods in local school environments. Workshop participants were also able to identify leverage points where community-level efforts, alongside research interventions, may ensure that initiatives for building local NSVCs are ultimately institutionalized. Results of this study suggest that developing NSVCs for school feeding and food systems in the Caribbean requires both locally driven innovation and the leveraging of system-wide resources, with lessons for project intervention strategies.
... Competency in sustainability research and problem-solving means having the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for successful task performance and problem solving with respect to real-world sustainability challenges and opportunities (Wiek, Withycombe, Redman, & Banas Mills 2011). To solve realworld sustainability challenges five key competencies are introduced, which are systems-thinking competency, anticipatory competency, normative competency, strategic competency, and interpersonal competency (van Kerkhoff & Lebel 2006). Later, interpersonal competency was renamed collaboration competency, and three new competencies were added to the list (UNESCO 2017; Table 1). ...
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Tämän artikkelin tavoitteena on vastata siihen, miten oppiainerajoja ylittävien aihepiirien ymmärtämistä ja kriittistä ajattelua voi kehittää ja vahvistaa yleissivistävässä koulutuksessa. Tutkimuksen kohteena olivat lukio-opiskelijoiden argumentaatiotaidot yhteiskunnallisissa ympäristöaiheissa. Tutkimus oli laadullinen tapaustutkimus. Aineisto koostui lukio-opiskelijoiden (n=21) opintopäiväkirjojen teksteistä, jotka olivat kirjoitettu lukion maantieteen kurssilla. Aineisto analysoitiin ARRA-analyysiin (Analysis of Reasoning, Rhetorics and Argumentation) perustuen. Tutkimustulosten mukaan opiskelijat esittivät omia väitteitä muodostavaa kriittistä ajattelua, mutta väitteiden argumentoinnissa oli haasteita. Lähes puolet yhtä oppituntia käsitelleistä teksteistä oli ilman väitettä tai hyvin vajavaisesti argumentoituja. Tutkimuksen tulokset ovat ajankohtaisia ja tärkeitä lukio-opetuksen sekä opettajankoulutuksen ympäristöpedagogiikan kehittämisen osalta. Teoksessa: R. Hildén, P. Portaankorva-Koivisto, & T.Mäkipää (toim.). Aineenopetus ja aiheenopetus. Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja, Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia 20, 235-253. Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura ry. Helsinki. ISBN978-952-5993-33-2 (verkkojulkaisu), ISSN-L 1799-9596, ISSN 1799-960X (verkkojulkaisu). http://hdl.handle.net/10138/340235 – julk. 14.2.2022
... In efforts to combat incumbencies (e.g., Stirling, 2019) and undesirable resilience (e.g., Oliver et al., 2018) of unsustainable and locked-in socio-technical systems (e.g., Geels and Schot, 2007), and to help foster transformative innovations and sustainability transitions, various governance approaches 3 that bridge the gap between knowledge and action (cf. van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006) have emerged in recent decades (see overviews by Grin et al., 2010;Köhler et al., 2019;Scoones et al., 2020). While different in scope, focus and underlying philosophy, these approaches share deep commonalities in embracing normative directionalities toward sustainable transformation, focusing on stimulating experimentation, including societal stakeholders in research, innovation and policy making while fostering deliberation, learning and reflection among participating actors. ...
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In this paper, we explore the relation between democracy and justice in governing agri-food transitions. We argue that a deeper understanding of democracy is needed to foster just transitions. First, we present a multi-dimensional understanding of justice in transitions and relate it to scholarship on democratizing transitions. Then, we argue that three paradigm shifts are required to overcome current unsustainable dynamics: (1) from expert toward pluralist understandings of knowledge; (2) from economic materialism toward post-growth strategies; and (3) from anthropocentrism toward reconnecting human-nature relationships. We explicate what these paradigm shifts entail for democratizing transitions from distributive, procedural, recognition and restorative justice perspectives. Finally, we highlight six challenges to institutionalizing deep democratic governance. These entail balancing tensions between: multiple justice dimensions, democracy and urgency, top-down and bottom-up directionalities, local and global scales, realism and idealism, and roles of incumbent scientific systems. This requires thoroughly rethinking transition studies’ normative and democratic ambitions.
... Built into these nexus conceptualisations are strong assumptions about (neutral and objective) knowledge generation, their translation into policy (a linear process), their implementation (from knowledge to action) and their effectiveness of policies (assuming more integrated policies enhance sustainability). All these assumptions have been discussed intensely as being overly simplistic, blind to structural barriers to system change, as well as the role of power in creating knowledge for resource governance (van Kerkhoff and Lebel, 2006). Questioning the normative power and knowledge base of the nexus raises our critique of precisely whose knowledge, norms, and practices are being articulated and represented in the WEF debate. ...
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In recent years, the water-energy-food nexus gained traction in science and policy debates to address the relationships between water, energy and food sectors. Inspired by Political Ecology thinking, we advocate for a nexus understanding that acknowledges the political nature of the concept and points to lived and experienced nexus realities. We draw on literature from heterogeneous infrastructures, giving attention to the socio-material entanglements that configure a nexus dynamically over time and space. We substantiate our conceptual arguments based on three different cases from Sub-Saharan Africa, that reveal the ways in which people access, maintain or disrupt infrastructure that links water, energy, and food systems. This may occur through practice forms of tinkering or improvisation of infrastructural components, intermediate (decentralised) technologies, through theft, or through some form of self-empowerment. Methodologically, the role of practices is emphasized as they help to understand Nexus heterogeneity and disparate forms of agency to (re-)configure a nexus. The findings demonstrate that the nexus is not just there but is constantly in-the-making. Practices stabilise, build, or alter differentiated nexus configurations within uneven nexus in/securities. Moreover, this article disrupts a “one-size-fits-all” nexus concept by offering a nuanced understanding of nexus realities that are more complex, heterogeneous, and plural than commonly described. Our analysis shows that re-thinking the nexus by focusing on people and practices draws the attention towards agency and change – and thus enables to identify leverage themes rendering a more just nexus.
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The field of transdisciplinary sustainability science offers limited guidance on what it means to mobilize knowledge outside of conventional policy and decision-making settings. Research within this field tends to emphasize knowledge mobilization for conventional environmental policy venues and decision-makers such as state and industry actors. Place-based communities often make critical management decisions to advance sustainability and inform policy, yet the evaluation of sustainability science in these contexts is underexamined. Using a case study, community-based research approach, we explored how social processes in place-based communities shaped interpretations of sustainability science by those involved in and/or affected by research. We used core criteria for knowledge mobilization—salience, legitimacy, and credibility, as established by Cash et al. (2003) — to guide our analysis of how research knowledge was evaluated. Our analysis highlighted that specific relationships, perspectives and worldviews, and historical contexts shaped how salience, legitimacy and credibility were interpreted. We affirm that for knowledge to be effectively mobilized, it must be salient, legitimate and credible, but find that the definitions of these terms are highly dependent on the social contexts in which the research takes place. These insights are critical to future transdisciplinary research aimed at addressing complex sustainability problems impacting place-based communities.
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Increasing evidence suggests that climate change poses direct and indirect threats to national and human security. However, the degree to which such knowledge of the risks informs decision-making remains poorly understood for key security communities, including the U.S. Department of Defense. Here, through document analysis and interviews with climate security researchers and practitioners from the U.S. military community, we evaluate perceptions about and the degree to which (i) these individuals believe climate change is a threat to U.S. national security interests, and (ii) the U.S. Department of Defense integrates climate security science into its decision-making. Our research suggests a complex answer. Public statements and reports indicate U.S. Department of Defense leadership considers climate change a security threat of strategic importance, and most researchers interviewed believe the U.S. Department of Defense prioritizes climate security as a near-term threat. However, evidence of climate security threats is only selectively integrated into planning and decision-making. Interviews suggest several barriers and enablers to evidence-based decision-making within the U.S. Department of Defense. Barriers include mixed beliefs in the near-term urgency of the threat, changing political environments, and insufficient co-production of actionable science across the levels of war, including issues of data collection, sharing, and analysis. Enablers include increased awareness after climate-related impacts, strong leadership support, and knowledge transfer and convening forums. Improved insight into the production and use of climate security knowledge is crucial for the task of safeguarding human and national security in a changing climate.
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Bu kitap, dünyada ve Türkiye’de suyun özelleştirilmesinin tarihsel arka planını, bunun yarattığı sosyal, ekonomik, ekolojik ve kültürel sorunları, bu sorunların çözülmesine yönelik alternatif arayışlarını geniş bir çerçevede ele alıyor.
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Effective knowledge exchange at science-policy interfaces (SPIs) can foster evidence-informed policy-making through the integration of a wide range of knowledge inputs. This is especially crucial for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES), human well-being and sustainable development. Early-career researchers (ECRs) can contribute significantly to knowledge exchange at SPIs. Recognizing that, several capacity building programs focused on sustainability have been introduced recently. However, little is known about the experiences and perceptions of ECRs in relation to SPIs. Our study focused on SPI engagement of ECRs who conduct research on biodiversity and ES, as perceived and experienced. Specifically, we addressed 'motivations', 'barriers' and 'opportunities and 'benefits'. A total of 145 ECRs have completed the survey. Our results showed that ECRs were generally interested to engage in SPIs and believed it to be beneficial in terms of contributing to societal change, understanding policy processes and career development. Respondents perceived lack of understanding about involvement channels, engagement opportunities, funding, training, perceived credibility of ECRs by other actors and encouragement of senior colleagues as barriers to engaging in SPIs. Those who have already participated in SPIs generally saw fewer barriers and more opportunities. A key reason for dissatisfaction with experience in SPIs was a lack of impact and uptake of science-policy outputs by policymakers-an issue that likely extends beyond ECRs and implies the need for transformations in knowledge exchange within SPIs. In conclusion, based on insights from our survey, we outline several opportunities for increased and better facilitation of ECR engagement in SPIs.
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The idea of faculty engaging in meaningful dialogue with different publics instead of simply communicating their research to interested audiences has gradually morphed from a novel concept to a mainstay within most parts of the academy. Given the wide variety of public engagement modalities, it may be unsurprising that we still lack a comprehensive and granular understanding of factors that influence faculty willingness to engage with public audiences. Those nuances are not always captured by quantitative surveys that rely on pre-determined categories to assess scholars’ willingness to engage. While closed-ended categories are useful to examine which factors influence the willingness to engage more than others, it is unlikely that pre-determined categories comprehensively represent the range of factors that undermine or encourage engagement, including perceptual influences, institutional barriers, and scholars’ lived experiences. To gain insight into these individual perspectives and lived experiences, we conducted focus group discussions with faculty members at a large midwestern land-grant university in the United States. Our findings provide context to previous studies of public engagement and suggest four themes for future research. These themes affirm the persistence of institutional barriers to engaging with the public, particularly the expectations in the promotion process for tenure-track faculty. However, we also find a perception that junior faculty and graduate students are challenging the status quo by introducing a new wave of attention to public engagement. This finding suggests a “trickle-up” effect through junior faculty and graduate students expecting institutional support for public engagement. Our findings highlight the need to consider how both top-down factors such as institutional expectations and bottom-up factors such as graduate student interest shape faculty members’ decisions to participate in public engagement activities.
Chapter
This chapter will provide a perspective on microbiology as a significant contributor for timely delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals defined by the United Nations, with examples stemming from the Pasteurian era during which the ‘prepared minds’ played a key role.
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Capacity building is defined as a process by which stakeholders increase their knowledge, skills and resources in order to improve their ability to adapt in a fast-changing world. Universities play a key role in the promotion of sustainability and implementation of the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through capacity building. However, universities in developing countries face significant challenges in the implementation of capacity building programmes for sustainability given the lack of procedures that facilitate the systematic integration of multiple stakeholderś epistemologies, methodologies and objectives. In this paper, we present a capacity building approach as a problem-focused process that follows a multi-domain/multi-stakeholder scheme, and provides alignment with the functions and responsibilities of different sectors of society. The approach involves the use of a decision-support tool for sustainability that enables stakeholders to actively participate in decision-making processes. We illustrate the implementation of the capacity building approach through two case studies and show how general and specific capacities tailored to the different stakeholders can be developed. Our approach to capacity building accentuates the role of universities in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean as research and innovation hubs that could help design and implement flexible, transparent and robust strategies towards achievement of sustainability in the region. Key policy insights: Capacity building to address the sustainable development goals should aim to develop sets of interlinked capacities for sustainability across stakeholder groups. Capacity building should take into account the regional institutional contexts in which universities in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean are embedded. Effective implementation of capacity building must be tailored to the different roles and functions of the actors involved. Thematic, technical, evaluative and procedural domains provide a comprehensive framework to build capacities, which can be continuously adapted according to the functions and responsibilities of the actors. Capacity building approaches to address climate change vulnerability require decision-support tools to inform policy-making.
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Background The linkage between group members’ characteristics, group cohesiveness, knowledge application, and competitive performance has rarely been studied. Purpose This study aimed to explore the correlations among individual characteristics (i.e. prosociality), collective mind (i.e. collective efficacy and cohesiveness), and how these variables affect scientific knowledge application. Sample This study examined a STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) competition, called the GreenMech contest, which required four members in a group to assemble all parts into many configurations for a ball to run and trigger the next junctures. Design and methods The competition groups assembled their configurations in the morning, with judges assessing their efforts in the afternoon. The bulk of the scoring index in the assessment focused on groups’ scientific knowledge application in the overall design. In addition to this assessment, this study additionally used questionnaire surveys for participants to self-rate their perceptions of those individual traits and collective states. Results Prosociality is positively related to collective efficacy and cohesiveness, while collective efficacy is positively related to cohesiveness. Moreover, these two types of collective mind were both positively related to the application of scientific knowledge. Conclusion The findings suggest that team members with a higher level of prosociality may provide collective efficacy and cohesiveness, which in turn can facilitate their achievement of competition goals by increasing their application of scientific knowledge in a STEAM contest.
Article
We investigated the success of the Koala Conservation and Education Program conducted in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia from 2000-2009 by interviewing 28 individuals, from various stakeholder groups involved in the project. Transcripts were analysed using grounded theory to identify common themes, keywords and phrases. We conclude that the chosen 'flagship' species, the koala, was crucial for the success of the project which culminated in the adoption of the Koala Plan of Management and habitat overlays into the City of Ballarat's planning scheme. Local people were concerned about the koala based on its conservation status nationally and globally rather than because of its local or Victorian status. We conclude that the concept of 'flagship' species in the case of the koala, is more a global than a local construct. He is committed to exploring the connections that people have with the flagship species, Koala. He has been working collaboratively on a series of journal articles on various aspects of koala conservation through his association with the Koala History and Sustainability Research Cluster and Koala Research-CQ. Honorary Professor Barry Golding AM is widely published in the international adult education field. His research has gravitated towards informal learning in community settings, with a specialization in older men's learning and community Men's Sheds: see www.barrygoanna.com. Barry Kentish (EdD) worked with Federation University and its predecessors, for almost three decades. His diverse research included aspects of freshwater ecology, bird pest management and latterly environmental ethics and the links to higher and community environmental education. The movement of his research towards a more philosophical basis is founded on his contention that it is essential for ethical considerations to underpin and inform environmental management decisions. Gabrielle McGinnis is a PhD graduate from the University of Newcastle, with research interests in Indigenous methodologies, biocultural heritage conservation and sustainable tourism development using digital technologies. Gabrielle is CEO and Founder of BrodiMapi LLC, whose mission is to provide digital mapping and marketing services to those who wish to preserve, conserve and share biocultural heritage. She is currently focusing on koala tourism and its history as a researcher, digital media manager and is a co-founding member of the Koala History and Sustainability Research Cluster. Ian D. Clark is an Adjunct Professor at Federation University and Monash University. He holds a PhD from Monash University in Aboriginal historical geography and has been researching Victorian Aboriginal and settler colonial history since 1982. His research interests include biography, local history, toponyms, the history of tourism, and genealogy. He is a co-founding member of the Koala History and Sustainability Research Cluster, a collaboration of researchers from different disciplines concerned with the future of the iconic koala. Tim Cadman is a Research Fellow in the Institute for Ethics, Governance and Law and the Law Futures Centre at Griffith University. Tim specialises in the governance of sustainable development, natural resource management including forestry, and climate change. He is currently overseeing the implementation of a research project in Nepal focused on the protection of the Red panda through habitat conservation and restoration at the landscape level, in collaboration with local communities. Fred Cahir (PhD) lives and works on Wadawurrung Country at Ballarat, Victoria. He is Associate Professor of Aboriginal History in the School of Arts at Federation University Australia. His research in recent decades has been focused on Victorian Aboriginal history during the colonial period, and on understanding the contribution Aboriginal people made to the foundations of our nation-state, and of the roles they played on the frontier, especially in connection to fire, flood and food. Flavia Santamaria!s PhD researched the impact of translocation on the health, food selection and movement of koalas from French Island to forests around Ballarat, Victoria. Flavia has worked on projects that included GIS koala habitat mapping and koala surveys in Victoria and Queensland. Her current and future research foci are on koalas' response to stress and kKoala ecology, and in particular the impact of anthropogenic environmental changes on koala populations, including the potential pressure of environmental stress on their health (i.e., Chlamydia). She is committed to educating communities on sustainability using the koala as a flagship species. Statement of authenticity: This manuscript is an original work that has not been submitted to nor published anywhere else."
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The pervasiveness of threats posed by biological invasions presents significant challenges to human well-being, biodiversity conservation, and natural resource management, which has contributed to the growth of invasion science as a discipline. However, several studies have shown that the social-ecological complexity of invasions, the compartmentalisation of knowledge into disciplines and the lack of integrative research approaches, current invasion research has not informed management decision making effectively. Thus, to maximise the impact of research investments, there is a need to explore and evaluate how research informs management practices and processes linked to biological invasions. Accordingly, this dissertation outlines the state of invasion management-related research in South Africa, using the internationally recognised Working for Water (WfW) programme as a case study. Drawing on insights from science studies and evaluation research, a mixed-method approach is used to assess the processes, conditions and outputs associated with research produced under the programme’s auspices. The research comprised two areas of inquiry 1) the exploration of textual information (journal articles, grey literature, and their content), and 2) the social dimensions of research and decision making linked to invasion science and management, with a specific focus on collaborative relationships amongst scientists and decision makers. It sought to determine the extent to which published research aligned with the programme’s needs, research and management strategies. The research also aimed to identify effective ways for organising and producing knowledge relevant to decision making; and to provide insights into how the social dimensions, the people and organisations, their interactions and impact, have shaped research and decision-making processes. Findings suggest that there are significant gaps in the knowledge base particularly in relation to the social dimensions of biological invasions, which were poorly represented and aligned with the mandate and priorities set by the programme. This research showed significant deficiencies in knowledge management and the uptake of research funded by the programme, despite its potential relevance to decision making as evidenced by the recommendations presented in the research. Moreover, research produced under WfW’s auspices was authored by a handful of key researchers who fulfil a significant role in shaping research collaborations both across disciplines and institutions. The loss of these key individuals, including those involved in management-related decision making, would be detrimental to the stability of collaboration networks and research productivity. Finally, findings show that research productivity, collaborative relationships between scientists within and across research organisations, and between research and decision-making processes are positively influenced by collegiality and cooperation between actors, while increased competition and bureaucratisation in the workplace negatively influence research productivity. To address the shortcomings concerning the invasion research and management identified in this dissertation, efforts towards improving the relationship between researchers and decision-makers and building more resilient collaboration networks need to be implemented. Firstly, institutions must engage in and fund more targeted, long-term transdisciplinary or integrative research that incorporates appropriate structures that foster collaboration, knowledge coproduction and knowledge sharing. Secondly, systems and strategies for monitoring and evaluating research, including the use of bibliometric indicators, social network analyses and qualitative assessments, should be developed to ensure that research relevant to managing biological invasions is not lost to the decision-making process. Such an undertaking would in turn require the development of an integrated research strategy and action plan that accounts for both the knowledge management and the social processes underpinning research and decision making.
Article
Transdisciplinarity, which seeks to transcend the limits of existing disciplines and the boundaries between science and society, has become a hallmark of sustainability science. Since transdisciplinarity requires researchers to co-produce knowledge by drawing together diverse knowledge systems, knowledge integration becomes a key challenge. However, the practice of knowledge integration brings to the fore tensions around philosophy, methodology and the role of the researcher. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value of applied critical realism in enabling knowledge integration in transdisciplinary research, and in engaging these important tensions. I introduce tools from applied critical realism to enable knowledge integration across disciplinary and science-society boundaries in sustainability science. Using an illustrative case of place-based social-ecological research from South Africa, I demonstrate the application of these tools. I conclude with a reflection on how they enable reflection on tensions related to philosophy, methodology and researcher positionality, identifying some of the challenges I experienced in putting these tools to work.
Conference Paper
Without a doubt, the implementation, management, and accountability of the recruitment and placement intervention – an intervention that applies to all public and private sectors of the economy – has improved with the introduction of monitoring and evaluation. However, discrepancies still linger in the Gauteng Provincial Department of Labour's recruitment and placement efforts. Unfortunately, other than persistent high unemployment in the province, there is limited evidence to show the ineffectiveness of the intervention in Gauteng. This paper provides some initial thoughts towards conceptualising research that consequently should interrogate the implementation and management of the recruitment and placement intervention in Gauteng Department of Labour. Generally, the paper employs a summative thematic content analysis of literature around this issue focussing focuses on (i) the research physical context or setting, (ii) the research problem, and (iii) past and current studies that have attempted to evaluate this intervention or any other similar interventions. Further, to interrogate the research problem, this paper makes use of the problem tree, trend analysis, and the theory of constraint to provide a structure that allows us to appreciate the extent of the problem. In all, this interrogation provides for effectively stating the research problem that an evaluation on the implementation and management of recruitment and placement intervention in Gauteng Department of Labour should be pursuing as well as the accompanying research purpose and the research questions. We then use this detail to propose the appropriate research strategy, design, procedure and methods as well as an interpretive framework that we can use to interpret our anticipated empirical research results.
Article
Boundary spanning is a focused effort to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and information between producers (i.e., analysts, scientists, researchers, etc.) and users (i.e., decision-makers, policy makers, managers, etc.) in support of evidence-informed decision-making. Here we provide specific examples of approaches and products by a boundary spanning organization as part of a regional ecosystem-based management program. These examples illustrate a range of potential boundary spanning activities while also describing a more holistic boundary system that employs several complimentary and related approaches to improve the use of knowledge in decision-making across interfaces separating different institutions. This system is supported by, and indeed requires, a larger institutional framework that provides scaffolding upon which the boundary spanning operates. As described, the institutional framework is often not supplied solely by a single boundary spanning organization, but rather by a suite of cooperating institutions. Last, we discuss approaches to evaluating the various impacts of boundary spanning.
Article
Before problems can be solved, they must be defined. In global public policy, problems are defined in large part by institutions like the World Bank, whose research shapes our collective understanding of social and economic issues. This article examines how research is produced at the World Bank and deemed to be worthwhile and legitimate. Creating and capturing research on global policy problems requires organizational configurations that operate at the intersection of multiple fields. Drawing on an in-depth study of the World Bank research department, this article outlines the structures and technologies of evaluation (i.e., the measurements and procedures used in performance reviews and promotions) and the social and cultural processes (i.e., the spoken and unspoken things that matter) in producing valuable policy research. It develops a theoretically informed account of how the conditions of measurement and evaluation shape the production of knowledge at a dominant multilateral agency. In turn, it unpacks how the internal workings of organizations can shape broader epistemic infrastructures around global policy problems.
Chapter
Narrowing the knowledge-implementation gap is an essential step for conservation to achieve impact in an effective and timely manner. To do so requires an understanding of this “gap” and the processes, challenges, and enablers that are associated with it. For conservation science, these reflections and scholarship have only gained traction in the past ten years compared to the medical and social sciences where research in this field dates back to the 1970s. Narrowing the gap can occur at all stages from production, the mediation and the transfer of knowledge, and its output or action. These stages describe the knowledge-action framework, which encapsulates the narrative of this book. This chapter synthesizes terminologies used in the context of the knowledge-implementation gap, barriers and challenges that exacerbate it, and processes and conditions that enable bridging of the gap with reflections inspired from other disciplines. We acknowledge that a geographical bias exists toward the Western world and democracies in evaluating the knowledge-implementation gap in conservation science. This is an issue as some of the most endangered biomes/ecosystems are found in the developing world and cultures. As such, we identify the need to highlight the status of the gap including bright spots in developing regions of the globe where very different factors will affect knowledge implementation. We hope this book will provide a foundation for scholarship and reflections on the knowledge-implementation gap in nature conservation.
Chapter
This chapter provides you with an overview allowing you to characterize the subsequent chapters in Part II in the context of sustainability science. Reflecting that perspective, the author focuses on the types of ways in which the various kinds of research approaches incorporating a playful mindset are discussed in the literatures dealing with sustainability issues. Specifically, the author in this chapter shows the research trends of gamification in the fields of sustainability and classifies original articles and review articles from the perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals. In addition, the author tackles the categorization of types of ways in which the gamification approach is discussed through the case studies of the 21 extracted papers dealing with gamification.
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Analyzing actions of climate change adaptation as envisaged by stakeholders enables to draw a shared vision or, conversely, alternative pathways imagined for a territory; and to question their inclusion in governance. This article focuses on the adaptation levers devised by 170 local stakeholders (state services, elected officials, agriculture, forest and river technicians, farmers, inhabitants) in the French Drôme Valley. Data was collected through a visioning process combining interviews and workshops designed around three collectively identified structuring issues: quality of life, agricultural production and tourist attractiveness. We characterized the 300 proposed actions according to: (1) stage of implementation, (2) the degree of socio-ecological transformation they imply, (3) the type of strategy for co-production of associated Nature’s Contributions to Adaptation through: ecosystem management, mobilization, social appreciation, and associated social dynamics (socio-economic demand, governance, knowledge systems), (4) proponents’ roles in governance of the socio-ecological system, (5) the repertoire of values to which they participate as part of collective visions for a desirable future. We identified three typical visions and associated normative goals: sustainable development, ecological and social transition, and ecosystem wealth and self-sufficiency. Each vision was characterized by the set of actions proposed by stakeholders as a pathway to the vision. We compare these three typical pathways with actions already implemented (the current trajectory), and with actions proposed according to the social roles of participants to discuss the cross-cutting nature of desired actions, and convergences or divergences across stakeholders according to their involvement and capacity to influence ecosystem management.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the contributions of graduate research to social innovation and change for learning and improved transdisciplinary practice. Universities, as centers of teaching and research, face high demand from society to address urgent social and environmental challenges. Faculty and students are keen to use their research to contribute to social innovation and sustainable development. As part of the effort to increase societal impact, research approaches are evolving to be more problem-oriented, engaged and transdisciplinary. Therefore, new approaches to research evaluation are also needed to learn whether and how research contributes to social innovation, and those lessons need to be applied by universities to train and support students to do impactful research and foster an impact culture. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a theory-based evaluation method to assess the contributions of three completed doctoral research projects. Each study documents the project’s theory of change (ToC) and uses qualitative data (document review, surveys and interviews) to test the ToC. This paper uses a transdisciplinary research (TDR) quality assessment framework (QAF) to analyze each projects’ design and implementation. This paper then draws lessons from the individual case studies and a comparative analysis of the three cases on, namely, effective research design and implementation for social transformation; and training and support for impactful research. Findings Each project aimed to influence government policy, organizational practice, other research and/or the students’ own professional development. All contributed to many of their intended outcomes, but with varying levels of accomplishment. Projects that were more transdisciplinary had more pronounced outcomes. Process contributions (e.g. capacity-building, relationship-building and empowerment) were as or more important than knowledge contributions. The key recommendations are for: researchers to design intentional research, with an explicit ToC; higher education institutions (HEI) to provide training and support for TDR theory and practice; and HEIs to give more attention to research evaluation. Originality/value This is the first application of both the outcome evaluation method and the TDR QAF to graduate student research projects, and one of very few such analyses of research projects. It offers a broader framework for conceptualizing and evaluating research contributions to social change processes. It is intended to stimulate new thinking about research aims, approaches and achievements.
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Discussions about “new forms of knowledge-production” refer to purportedly fundamental changes in the organization of science. A closer look reveals that these changes pertain to a particular sector of science, i.e. policy-related fields. It is suggested that a better understanding of the kind and scope of changes would be achieved by viewing them as resulting from a “scientification” of society and a correlate “politicization” of science, both of which processes signify the emergence of the knowledge society. Ironically, the “finalization thesis”, which foresaw much of this two decades ago, met with opposition, while the new claims were embraced. This is explained by the context of legitimation
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While speaking truth to power has long been a major theme in political science and policy studies, commentators are increasingly skeptical about whether modelers and scientists are capable of developing truth, and whether power ever listens to them anyhow. This paper asks when does power listen to truth, and what lessons may be drawn from the last thirty years of multilateral environmental governance for improving the prospects for scientific advice for sustainable development? It focuses on the limited notion of truth called 'usable knowledge' and elaborates the political and institutional channels by which usable knowledge may be developed and better circulated and applied by policy-makers.
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Sustainable development has broad appeal and little specificity, but some combination of development and environment as well as equity is found in many attempts to describe it. However, proponents of sustainable development differ in their emphases on what is to be sustained, what is to be developed, how to link environment and development, and for how long a time. Despite the persistent definitional ambi-guities associated with sustainable development, much work (over 500 efforts) has been devoted to developing quantitative indicators of sustainable development. The emphasis on sustainability indicators has multiple motivations, which include decision making and management, advocacy, participation and consensus building, and research and analysis. We select a dozen prominent examples and use this review to highlight their similarities and differences in definition of sustainable development, motivation, process, and technical methods. We conclude that there are no indicator sets that are universally accepted, backed by compelling theory, rigorous data collection and anal-ysis, and influential in policy. This is due to the ambiguity of sustainable development, the plurality of purpose in characterizing and measuring sustainable development, and the confusion of terminology, data, and methods of measurement. A major step in reducing such confusion would be the acceptance of distinctions in terminology, data, and methods. Toward this end, we propose an analytical framework that clearly distin-guishes among goals, indicators, targets, trends, driving forces, and policy responses. We also highlight the need for continued research on scale, aggregation, critical limits, and thresholds.
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We explore the social dimension that enables adaptive ecosystem-based management. The review concentrates on experiences of adaptive governance of social-ecological systems during periods of abrupt change (crisis) and investigates social sources of renewal and reorganization. Such governance connects individuals, organi-zations, agencies, and institutions at multiple organizational levels. Key persons provide leadership, trust, vision, meaning, and they help transform management organizations toward a learning environment. Adaptive governance systems often self-organize as social networks with teams and actor groups that draw on various knowledge systems and experiences for the development of a common understanding and policies. The emergence of "bridging organizations" seem to lower the costs of collaboration and conflict resolution, and enabling legislation and governmental policies can support self-organization while framing creativity for adaptive comanagement efforts. A re-silient social-ecological system may make use of crisis as an opportunity to transform into a more desired state.
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Knowledge-based approaches to the study of international environmental cooperation tend to treat knowledge as a single variable. It is more useful to distinguish between different types of information and to analyze their roles in policy formation separately. Disaggregating knowledge reveals important aspects of the interplay between knowledge, interests, and power which otherwise remain hidden, and helps solve empirical puzzles and theoretical contradictions. Its utility is illustrated in a comparison between two prominent cases of regime-making efforts: deforestation (non-regime) and ozone depletion (regime). The study relies on analysis of multilateral scientific assessments, observation of UN meetings, and interviews with scientists and policymakers. The evidence suggests that reliable information about the cross-border consequences of a problem is of critical importance in regime formation as it facilitates utility calculations and the formation of interests. By contrast, other types of seemingly relevant scientific knowledge appear to be of far lesser importance. Moreover, contrary to power-over-knowledge theorizing, the state of knowledge cannot be easily explained with reference to political power.
Article
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In this paper we propose a framework for understanding how dominant perspectives, or worldviews, influence the crafting of institutions, and how these, in turn, constrain the functions and goals of knowledge systems. Alternative perspectives carry their own set of assumptions and beliefs about who should be making the rules, where the best knowledge lies to guide decisions, and about where more knowledge is needed. Initially, four contrasting perspectives are elaborated: state-, market-, greens-, and locals-know-best. We illustrate the framework by exploring the recent history of forest governance in Southeast Asia, finding several examples of battles of perspectives leading to a new dominant perspective. In each case the dominant perspective itself, old or new, is shown to be defective in some critical way and was, or should be, replaced. The problem is that each of the perspectives considers the world as knowable, manageable, and relatively constant, or at most changing only slowly. Ecological and socio-political crises, however, are recurrent. Management plans and regulations or policies that aim to establish the land-use allocation, the best crop, the best forest management system or the best price or system of incentives, are doomed to failure. If uncertainties are accepted as fundamental, solutions as temporary, and scientific knowledge as useful but limited, then Nobody Knows Best is a modest, but effective heuristic for forest governance.
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The sustainable use of resources requires that management practices and institutions take into account the dynamics of the ecosystem. In this paper, we explore the role of local ecological knowledge and show how it is used in management practices by a local fishing association in a contemporary rural Swedish community. We focus on the local management of crayfish, a common-pool resource, and also address the way crayfish management is linked to institutions at different levels of Swedish society. Methods from the social sciences were used for information gathering, and the results were analyzed within the framework of ecosystem management. We found that the practices of local fishing association resemble an ecosystem approach to crayfish management. Our results indicate that local users have substantial knowledge of resource and ecosystem dynamics from the level of the individual crayfish to that of the watershed, as reflected in a variety of interrelated management practices embedded in and influenced by institutions at several levels. We propose that this policy of monitoring at several levels simultaneously, together with the interpretation of a bundle of indicators and associated management responses, enhances the possibility of building ecological resilience into the watershed. Furthermore, we found that flexibility and adaptation are required to avoid command-and-control pathways of resource management. We were able to trace the development of the local fishing association as a response to crisis, followed by the creation of an opportunity for reorganization and the recognition of slow ecosystem structuring variables, and also to define the role of knowledgeable individuals in the whole process. We discuss the key roles of adaptive capacity, institutional learning, and institutional memory for successful ecosystem management and conclude that scientific adaptive management could benefit from a more explicit collaboration with flexible community-based systems of resource management for the implementation of policies as experiments.
Chapter
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This volume offers an exploration of major changes in the way knowledge is produced in science, technology, social science, & humanities, arguing that a new mode of knowledge production promises to replace or radically reform established institutions, disciplines, practices, & policies. A range of features - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - associated with the new mode of knowledge production are identified to illustrate the connections between them & the changing role of knowledge in social relations. Methodological difficulties inherent in attempts to describe a new mode of knowledge production are discussed, & implications of this mode for science policy & international economic competitiveness, collaboration, & globalization are treated. The book is particularly relevant for those concerned with educational systems, the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, & the connections between research & development, & social, economic, & technological development. The book is presented in 7 Chpts with a Preface & an Introduction. (1) Evolution of Knowledge Production. (2) The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge. (3) Massification of Research and Education. (4) The Case of the Humanities. (5) Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation. (6) Reconfiguring Institutions. (7) Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge. References accompany each Chpt. 2 Tables. W. Howard (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
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Despite the widely recognised importance of knowledge as a vital source of competitive advantage, there is little understanding of how organisations actually create and manage knowledge dynamically. Nonaka, Toyama and Konno start from the view of an organisation as an entity that creates knowledge continuously, and their goal in this article is to understand the dynamic process in which an organisation creates, maintains and exploits knowledge. They propose a model of knowledge creation consisting of three elements: (i) the SECI process, knowledge creation through the conversion of tacit and explicit knowledge; (ii) ‘ba’, the shared context for knowledge creation; and (iii) knowledge assets, the inputs, outputs and moderators of the knowledge-creating process. The knowledge creation process is a spiral that grows out of these three elements; the key to leading it is dialectical thinking. The role of top management in articulating the organisation's knowledge vision is emphasised, as is the important role of middle management (‘knowledge producers’) in energising ba. In summary, using existing knowledge assets, an organisation creates new knowledge through the SECI process that takes place in ba, where new knowledge, once created, becomes in turn the basis for a new spiral of knowledge creation.
Article
The demarcation of science from other intellectual activities-long an analytic problem for philosophers and sociologists-is here examined as a practical problem for scientists. Construction of a boundary between science and varieties of non-science is useful for scientists' pursuit of professional goals: acquisition of intellectual authority and career opportunities; denial of these resources to "pseudoscientists"; and protection of the autonomy of scientific research from political interference. "Boundary-work" describes an ideological style found in scientists' attempts to create a public image for science by contrasting it favorably to non-scientific intellectual or technical activities. Alternative sets of characteristics available for ideological attribution to science reflect ambivalences or strains within the institution: science can be made to look empirical or theoretical, pure or applied. However, selection of one or another description depends on which characteristics best achieve the demarcation in a way that justifies scientists' claims to authority or resources. Thus, "science" is no single thing: its boundaries are drawn and redrawn inflexible, historically changing and sometimes ambiguous ways.
Book
The ethnographic study performed by Bruno Latour engaged him in the world of the scientific laboratory to develop an understanding of scientific culture through observations of their daily interactions and processes. Latour assumed a scientific perspective in his study; observing his participants with the "same cold, unblinking eye" that they use in their daily research activities. He familiarized himself with the laboratory by intense focus on "literary inscription", noting that the writing process drives every activity in the laboratory. He unpacked the structure of scientific literature to uncover its importance to scientists (factual knowledge), how scientists communicate, and the processes involved with generating scientific knowledge (use of assays, instrumentation, documentation). The introduction by Jonas Salk stated that Latour's study could increase public understanding of scientists, thereby decreasing the expectations laid on them, and the general fear toward them. [Teri, STS 901-Fall; only read Ch. 2]
Article
The participation of citizens and other stakeholders is increasingly important for policy making in sustainability and environmental development. The contributors to this book examine methods for facilitating public participation on local and international levels. Policy makers must consider a complex network of social and natural interactions. The study suggests consultation procedures integrating technical scientific modelling with democratic decision-making processes.
Article
Before science and technology studies can play more important roles in the research agendas for science communication, science and engineering education, and science and technology policy, the field must first restore its credibility among scientists, address its internal fragmentation, and reestablish its relevance to public affairs. Accomplishing these goals will require the reassessment of tools and approaches that the field has already developed, as well as an open appraisal of where the field has fallen short in the past.
Article
Participation has been widely touted as “the answer” to a number of problems facing sustainable development programs. It is not enough, however, to involve rural people as workers and informants in research and planning endeavors defined by outsiders. A truly collaborative approach will depend upon our ability to broaden our definitions of research and participation, to accommodate a wide spectrum of land users and local knowledge, and to expand our repertoire of research methods. This paper presents a critique of facile approaches to participation, outlines a more inclusive framework for who participates on what terms, and reviews a variety of methods that address the complex realities of rural livelihoods and landscapes. The final section of the paper suggests a multi-institutional model that combines the complementary strengths of several types of organizations in participatory field research and planning.
Article
In recent decades, governments have increasingly employed expert assessments and formal decision-making technologies. While these promise objectivity and transparency, they are just as likely to buffer decisions from public scrutiny. Countries such as Britain and the United States have experienced a sharp decline in electoral participation. Social scientists have responded with participatory techniques to resituate the non-expert citizen at the heart of decision making. This paper explores three specific problems with such methods: evaluation; representation; and agenda setting. It concludes that participatory techniques may have significant potential to inform and supplement representative democracy. However, under current arrangements, it is impossible for them to escape political-cultural constraints that reduce complex moral and aesthetic issues to scientific framings. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.
Article
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a well-known innovation that accords with modern environmental management "best practice". In this paper it is examined in two related ways. First, attention is focused on the role of Agricultural Extension Workers (AEWs) as learning facilitators in a non-formal setting. Second, the paper relates the IPM project and the role of AEWs to adult continuing education theory and practice. As contextual background, a recent IPM diffusion project in a region of Thailand, where durian is grown extensively, as a process of innovation adoption is outlined. The research focused on the factors influencing the durian growers to adopt IPM. The sample of 120 durian growers reported on the importance of AEWs in persuading them to give IPM a proper trial. In sum, the intelligent way IPM knowledge was transferred, through the mediating role of AEWs, reflected the current emphasis on collaborative partnerships and learning as an effective means of managing change in complex environments. The paper provides an illustration of the "search for social relevance" theme of adult education from the less well-known field of agricultural extension in rural communities and a developing country.
Article
Scholarship in the social studies of science has argued convincingly that what demarcates science from nonscience is not some set of essential or transcendent characteristics or methods but rather an array of contingent circumstances and strategic behavior known as "boundary work" (Gieryn 1995, 1999). Although initially formulated to explain how scientists maintain the boundaries of their community against threats to its cognitive authority from within (e.g., fraud and pseudo-science), boundary work has found useful, policy-relevant applications-for example, in studying the strategic demarcation between political and scientific tasks in the advisory relationship between scientists and regulatory agencies (Jasanoff 1990). This work finds that the blurring of boundaries between science and politics, rather than the intentional separation often advocated and practiced, can lead to more productive policy making. If it is the case, however, that the robustness of scientific concepts such as causation and representation are important components of liberal-democratic thought and practice (Ezrahi 1990), one can imagine how the flexibility of boundary work might lead to confusion or even dangerous instabilities between science and nonscience. These risks could be conceived, perhaps, as the politicization of science or the reciprocal scientification of politics. Neither risk should here be understood to mean the importation to one enterprise from the other elements that are entirely foreign; that is, science is not devoid of values prior to some politicization, nor politics of rationality, prior to any scientification. Rather, both should be understood to mean the rendering of norms and practices in one enterprise in a way that unreflexively mimics norms and practices in the other. These concerns have been central to the socalled science wars, and to the extent that they are implicated in public discussions of such policy issues as health and safety regulation, climate change, or genetically modified organisms, they are real problems for policy makers and publics alike.'
Article
Bruno Latour , trained in philosophy and anthropology, teaches sociology at the Ecole des Mines in Paris. He is visiting professor at the London School of Economics and Social Sciences. ![Figure][1] I n the last century and a half, scientific development has been breathtaking, but the
Article
The heated controversy over “citizen participation,” “citizen control”, and “maximum feasible involvement of the poor,” has been waged largely in terms of exacerbated rhetoric and misleading euphemisms. To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered using examples from three federal social programs: urban renewal, anti-poverty, and Model Cities. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens' power in determining the plan and/or program.
Book
* The Study of Public Policy Processes Hank C. Jenkins-Smith and Paul A. Sabatier. The Advocacy Coalition Framework * Policy Change over a Decade or More P. A. Sabatier. * The Dynamics of Policy-Oriented Learning H. C. Jenkins-Smith and P. A. Sabatier. Qualitative Case Studies Of Policy Change And Learning * An Advocacy Coalition Approach to Change in Canadian Education Hanne B. Mawhinney. * Competing Advocacy Coalitions, Policy Evolution, and Airline Deregulation Anthony E. Brown and Joseph Stewart Jr. * California Water Politics: Explaining Policy Change in a Cognitively Polarized Subsystem John F. Munro. * Managing Technological Change in Federal Communications Policy: The Role of Industry Advisory Groups Richard P. Barke. Quantitative Analyses Of Policy Change * The Politics of Offshore Energy: Empirically Testing the Advocacy Coalition Framework H. C. Jenkins-Smith and Gilbert K. St. Clair. * From Vague Consensus to Clearly Differentiated Coalitions: Environmental Policy at Lake Tahoe, 19641985 P. A. Sabatier and Anne M. Brasher. Conclusion * The Advocacy Coalition Framework: Assessment, Revisions, and Implications for Scholars and Practitioners P. A. Sabatier and H. C. Jenkins-Smith. Methodological Appendix * Measuring Longitudinal Change in Elite Beliefs Using Content Analysis of Public Documents H. C. Jenkins-Smith and P. A. Sabatier. *
Article
International environmental agreements (IEAs), legally binding inter-governmental efforts directed at reducing human impacts on the environment, are common features of global environmental governance. Using a clear definition al-lowed creation of a comprehensive database [available online at (31)] listing over 700 multilateral agreements (MEAs) and over 1000 bilateral agreements (BEAs), which included treaties, protocols, and amendments that address numerous pollutants; preser-vation of many species; and, increasingly, protection of various habitats. Research into the factors that explain the timing, content, and membership in environmental agree-ments clarifies that the interests and power of influential states create pressures for, or constraints on, progress in global environmental governance but that discourse, actors, and processes also play important roles. Variation in the effects of these agreements on environmental behaviors and outcomes often depends as much on characteristics of member countries, the international context, and the underlying environmental problem as on the differences in agreement design.
Article
Abstract We test two sets of hypotheses concerning the association between gender and various structural and attitudinal variables, using data collected in two surveys (1979 and 1995–1996) from random samples of land-grant agricultural scientists. The first set of hypotheses centers on the expectation that the resources and rewards of agricultural science are distributed unequally by gender. We find significant gender differences in scientists' postdoctoral work experience, academic rank, employment of graduate students, rate of book publication, and links with private industry. Our second set of hypotheses, drawing on the literatures of feminist epistemology and situated knowledge, focuses on the relationship between scientists' gender and perceptions of the goals of agricultural research. Our findings indicate that gender is unimportant in explaining differences in scientists' commitment to agricultural sustainability, environmental issues, and family farm preservation as important goals of land-grant research. Yet we find significant gender differences in attitudes toward biotechnology and the growing links between land-grant universities and private industry.