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The Chicago School, Hayek, and Neoliberalism

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Friedrich A. Hayek taught at the University of Chicago from the fall semester of 1950 through 1962, a period during which the second, or new, Chicago School of Economics was formed. The question naturally arises: What was his role in its formation? A quick look at the historical record, and common sense itself, suggests that it must have been close to nil. Milton Friedman, whom many would consider the central figure in the School, was hired in 1946, before Hayek had arrived. Hayek tried to get a job in the economics department in 1948, but they declined to make him an offer. He ended up instead on the Committee on Social Thought. During his time at Chicago (1950–1962) Hayek worked principally on political philosophy rather than economics, with The Constitution of Liberty (1960) being the end result. And Hayek famously disagreed with the leader of the Chicago School, Milton Friedman, on monetary theory and methodology, two of the defining aspects of Friedman’s legacy.

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... In the United States, meanwhile, Chicago became the pole of this academic movement that Paris acted as in Europe. 42 This prominence of the University of Chicago in Neoliberal academia can be traced back to Henry Simons, a contemporary of the Lippmann Colloquium whose work was discussed there, 43 though he did not attend. 44 The main difference between Simons' work and the work of the Parisian Neoliberals of the time was his emphasis on using monetary aggregates to keep real prices stable. ...
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The period between 1980 and 2020 has been one of the most socially transformative in recent human history. This paper will address the relationship between two social trends which have emerged over the course of the past four decades. The first of these trends is the rise to prominence of policies and programs meant to operationalize Neoliberal monetary policy. The world economy experienced a period of uncertainty after the U.S. abandoned the gold standard and its production edge waned, its new competitors abandoned the dollar standard, culminating in a financial crisis by the end of the decade. As a result, the 1980s saw the start of a reimagined global economy centered around the United States. Particularly significant to this paper will be policies of developmental economics in the global financial system during this period. The second trend which will be addressed in this paper is the emergence of transnational organized crime groups as competitors to legitimate African states. A United Nations report published in July of 2020 reports that Boko Haram, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Al-Shabaab, as well as their smaller competitors, have dramatically expanded their already integrated roles in the, “licit economies,” and begun a, “push further into communities,” in this region. Even further, it has long been held that the illicit economy of this region is significantly larger than the licit one. In order to understand the development of these organizations into this current form one must analyze the broader changes which have taken place in their social systems and the relationship between these groups and those changes. Thus, this paper will investigate the cause and nature of this social change throughout the period by evaluating these societies’ interaction with the practioning of this new ideology. This will be done in three sections: background, puzzle and argument meant to respectively establish the societies and the practitioners of this ideology, provide a framework for assessing their interactions and apply that framework to the past four decades of events in order to ultimately assess their extent and implications. It is the author’s stated goal, which will be returned to in this paper’s conclusion, for the implications of this study to be elaborated upon in such a way that it addresses in depth not only the contemporary status of the world, but may provide concepts of evaluating societal change deducible to any social system and operational within one's own.
... SeeVan Horn and Mirowski (2009), Caldwell (2011), Mitch (2016, andEbenstein (2018) for various aspects of this part of the story. ...
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This paper revisits Friedrich Hayek’s book, The Road to Serfdom, on the seventy-fifth anniversary of its publication. Though the book is well-known, its arguments are often mischaracterized. The paper traces the origins of the book, noting the various people and arguments that Hayek was responding to, and places it in the context of its times. The structure of the book is explored and some common criticisms addressed. Finally, it is shown how, after its publication, the book took on a life of its own. (JEL B25, B31, P11, P16, P21, P26)
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The precarity of the humanities today is symptomatic of the broader reassessment of the value and utility of the public university. This helps explain the prevalent role of humanists in the recent struggles for public education, but it now also demands from humanists a new level of institutional engagement and reflexivity about the conditions of their labor. REPRESENTATIONS 116. Fall 2011 (C) The Regents of the University of California. ISSN 0734-6018, electronic ISSN 1533-855X, pages 1-18. All rights reserved. Direct requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content to the University of California Press at http://www.ucpressjournals.com/reprintinfo.asp. DOI:10.1525/rep.2011.116.1.1.
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Chapter
Hayek was at the University of Chicago from 1950 to 1962 and worked as part of the Committee on Social Thought. Despite his 12-year tenure at Chicago and his eventual influence on the trajectory of post-war economics in the United States, the historical record indicates that Hayek had little influence on the rise of post-war Chicago School during his time there.1 Most of the seminal figures of the post-war Chicago School — Milton Friedman, Allen Wallis, and Aaron Director — had all been hired in 1946, four years before Hayek arrived at Chicago. When Hayek came, because he joined the Committee on Social Thought, he did not work in the Economics Department, the Law School, or the Business School — the three pillars of the post-war Chicago School. Moreover, Hayek principally focused on political philosophy, not economics, while he served as part of the Committee.
Chapter
In 1950, Friedrich Hayek abandoned the title of University of London Tooke Professor of Economics and Statistics, to become the Professor of Social and Moral Science at the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago (with an intervening Visiting Professorship at the University of Arkansas). The new title is commonly seen as a consolation prize after his failure to obtain a position in the Economics Department at the University of Chicago or, indeed, any other prestigious American universities. In fact, Hayek was recruited by the Committee on Social Thought: he viewed his position as ‘a scholar’s dream’ (Mitch 2010, 2011). The one prior attempt to consider Hayek by the Department of Economics had been in early 1946 (before Milton Friedman’s arrival), was unknown to Hayek and was not taken even moderately seriously by most members of the Chicago Department.
Chapter
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Chapter
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Cambridge Core - Political Economy - The Age of Fragmentation - by Alessandro Roncaglia
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[Claire Poppe - STS 901 - Fall 2006] Fleck focuses on the cognitive and social structures idea and fact development and acceptance. - All ideas stem from "proto-ideas" - hazy, unspecific, unscientific concepts accepted as truth in their time period and existing in a socio-cognitive system. - The social structure involved in cognition is conceived as the relationship between: 1) the knowing subject (individual) 2) the object to be known (objective reality) 3) the existing fund of knowledge (provided by the thought collective). - The thought collective is a community of persons mutually exchanging ideas; it is the bearer of collective knowledge and the historical developer of knowledge. The individual's role is to decide whether results fit within the conditions specified by the collective. In this, he/she is influenced by the "thought style," an ambiguous cloud which directs perception and limits the options for interpretation without the perceiver being aware that they are being influenced. - A scientific fact is a signal of resistance opposing free, arbitrary thinking. Facts are 1) in line with the interests of the collective, 2) accepted by the general membership of the collective, and 3) expressed in the style of the collective. - Truth is only true within a single collective. It changes as collectives gradually change with the incorporation/adaptation or rejection of challenges to the thought style. - Within a thought collective, there is a hierarchy consisting of two different groups: a) Esoteric: a small group of experts with specialized knowledge who develop exoteric, popular knowledge b) Exoteric: a larger, more "popular" group that creates public opinion, though not the entire public - Categories of science from more exoteric to esoteric, more concrete to more flexible: a) Popular science: attractive, lively, readable, artificially simplified science in which facts are reality and truth is objective b) Vademecum science: a closed, organized system of the "commonly held" view of science where facts become fixed c) Journal science: a personal, cautious and modest system open to contradictions and explorations
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Originally published in German in 1935, this monograph anticipated solutions to problems of scientific progress, the truth of scientific fact and the role of error in science now associated with the work of Thomas Kuhn and others. Arguing that every scientific concept and theory—including his own—is culturally conditioned, Fleck was appreciably ahead of his time. And as Kuhn observes in his foreword, "Though much has occurred since its publication, it remains a brilliant and largely unexploited resource." "To many scientists just as to many historians and philosophers of science facts are things that simply are the case: they are discovered through properly passive observation of natural reality. To such views Fleck replies that facts are invented, not discovered. Moreover, the appearance of scientific facts as discovered things is itself a social construction, a made thing. A work of transparent brilliance, one of the most significant contributions toward a thoroughly sociological account of scientific knowledge."—Steven Shapin, Science
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Provides a systematic presentation of the economic field of industrial organization, which is concerned with how productive activities are brought into harmony with the demand for goods and services through an organizing mechanism, such as a free market, and how variations and imperfections in the organizing mechanism affect the successful satisfying of an economy's wants. Of the three market mechanisms (tradition, central planning, and free markets), the field of industrial organization deals primarily with the market system approach. This book primarily emphasizes the manufacturing and mineral extraction sectors of industrialized economies, with less discussion of wholesale and retail distribution, services, transportation, and public utilities. Beginning with a discussion of the welfare economics of competition and monopoly, the structure of industries in the U.S. and abroad and their determinants are described, including motives for mergers and their effects. Extended analysis of pricing, product policy, and technological innovation then follows. Antitrust, price fixing, related restraints, structural monopolies, regulation, and price discrimination are examined, as are the complex policies governing pricing relationships between vertically linked firms. The role of advertising in product differentiation and the roles of market structure and product variety are identified. Innovation, patents, and their relation to market structure are explored. Overall, this analysis seeks to identify attributes or variables that influence economic performance and to build theories about the links between these attributes and end performance. (TNM)
Introduction The Road to Serfdom: Texts and Documents of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek
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Chicago: University of Chicago Press. _____. 2007. “Introduction.” In F.A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom: Texts and Documents. Bruce Caldwell, ed., vol. 2 of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 1 – 33
Cognition and Fact: Materials on Ludwik Fleck
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Cohen, Robert S. and Schnelle, Thomas, eds. 1986. Cognition and Fact: Materials on Ludwik Fleck, vol. 87 of Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: D. Reidel
The Meaning of Freedom
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Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism
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Hülsmann, Jörg Guido. 2006. Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism. Auburn, AL:
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_____. [1966] 1967. " The Principles of a Liberal Social Order. " In Hayek, ed. Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 160-177.
Bookshelf: Economic Thought Over 1000 Years The Wall Street Journal
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Stigler, George. 1987. " Bookshelf: Economic Thought Over 1000 Years, " The Wall Street Journal. October 2. p. 1.
Economics as Ideology: Keynes, Laski, Hayek, and the Creation of Contemporary Politics
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Hoover, Kenneth. 2003. Economics as Ideology: Keynes, Laski, Hayek, and the Creation of Contemporary Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek
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Paris: Librarie de Médicis
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A Life of Friedrich August von Hayek
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Cubitt, C.E. 2006. A Life of Friedrich August von Hayek. Bedfordshire, UK: Authors Online Ltd.
The Road to Serfdom: Texts and Documents of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek
_____. [1944] 2007. The Road to Serfdom: Texts and Documents. Bruce Caldwell, ed., vol. 2 of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Hayek, F.A. [1933] 1991. " The Trend of Economic Thinking, " in The Trend of Economic Thinking. W.W. Bartley, III and Stephen Kresge, eds., vol. 3 of The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 17-34.
A Positive Program for Laissez Faire Economic Policy for a Free Society
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Review: Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government
_____. 1944. " Review: Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government, " Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 236, November, pp. 192-93.