Sharing and copying are two very fundamental human activities, but they face fierce opposition in today's knowledge economy, which is fueled by the privatization and the management of originality and creativity. In fact, the current knowledge economy exploits creativity not only as a commodity for profit but also as capital itself, making creativity, like labor and raw materials, a major factor in late-capitalist production. As a result, creativity is highly fetishized, and it is directly associated with wealth and power. Any activities that might diffuse the values of creativity, like sharing and copying, would be condemned. Creative industries have become an important part of this new knowledge economy.1 As one of the most prominent creative industries in the world, the Japanese cartoon industry has yet to consciously turn itself into a full member of this new economy. In this essay I want to examine its ambiguous position in relation to the new global cultural environment. I choose to portray this industry from an alternative angle: instead of directly explaining how the industry functions, I examine "peripheral" activities - pertaining to sharing and copying - To analyze the relationship between the reception of the Japanese cartoon and the global knowledge economy. Sharing and copying may be very different activities with regard to the consumption and the production of cultural products, but both are acts related to the establishment of human relationships, and both are criminalized in the global legal regime of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). Analyzing the sharing and copying activities related to the Japanese cartoon culture in East Asia, we might be able to gain a more pertinent view to understand the specificity of this culture and, more broadly, the antagonistic relationship between knowledge economy and societal bonding. I believe we can identify many practices within the current global knowledge economy that harm that same economy in most forceful ways. However, in order to identify these alternative practices, we must resist theorization at the universal level, precisely because these practices are localized, particular, and are results of and responses to dominant discourses. The more subversive, I believe, are the effects of those parasitical activities corroding the dominant power from within, and the most destructive actions are often "anti-political" in nature - They are not consciously constructed as oppositional politics but as everyday embodied experiences that transcend and overwhelm the structures that engendered them. The analysis of sharing and copying activities as ambiguous or even destructive by-products of creative industries, as this essay shows, provides one perspective from which to analyze how the knowledge economy might be interrogated. In this essay, I study pirated Japanese cartoon materials circulated in China, to demonstrate how this kind of "sharing" challenges creative industries, and I examine animation as a creative industry in itself to understand the intimate relationship between creativity and copying. I also show that sharing and copying interact extensively in popular culture. As Henry Jenkins reminds us, there is always a creative and subversive side to fan culture, because fans often poach (interpret, recycle, and appropriate) original sources in imaginative and socially embedded ways;2 but the fan culture I address herein is even more indeterminate, because the texts themselves are highly amorphous and their popularity in China is mainly realized through piracy and the culture of online sharing. © 2009 by Hong Kong University Press, HKU. All rights reserved.