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Food Quality Issues: Understanding HACCP and Other Quality Management Techniques



A basic understanding of food quality issues in developing countries and introduces the reader to HACCP, its evolution, and other dominant methodologies for improving food quality.
Electronic copy available at:
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
FOOD QUALITY ISSUES: understanding HACCP and other
quality management techniques
Daniele Giovannucci, Senior Consultant to the Markets and Agribusiness Thematic Team (MATT),
The World Bank
Morton Satin, Chief AGSI, FAO
This is part of a series of straightforward and practical (rather than an academic) papers by
leading experts and presented in a specially designed format as brief and basic teaching tools
with resources for more in-depth expertise. They address topics relevant to the design,
monitoring, and assessment of projects and interventions for the promotion of agricultural
enterprises and markets in developing countries. Original publication year: 2000
Keywords: food quality, food safety, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing
Practices (GMP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), international trade, ISO
Abstract: This teaching tool provides a basic understanding of food quality issues in developing
countries and introduces the reader to HACCP and other dominant methodologies for improving food
I. Introduction
Quality has long been a factor in the success of food trade transactions; however, recent food safety
issues have propelled quality control to the forefront of international trade concerns. Now with the
increasing globalization of trade, food quality is also becoming a factor in domestic markets as quality
and variety compete for a buyer's attention and regulatory bodies seek to better control potential
The 1990s have been a decade of revised views and altered perspectives for food scientists, health
officials, epidemiologists as well as produce growers and shippers. Food items historically not viewed
as vectors for human diseases are now being considered potentially significant contributors to the
occurrence of disease throughout the world. The global food chain is searching for possible mitigation
measures as a growing body of literature is raising issue with the various practices that have provided
consumers with unparalleled access to the widest selection of affordable fruits and vegetables ever
Various quality management systems are being applied to help ensure food safety. Currently,
perishable commodities have limited access to post-harvest food safety remedies. Of the limited
James Simon, PhD; and Primus Labs have made substantial contributions and Dr. Kerri Harris has kindly reviewed this
document. See Resources section V for details.
Electronic copy available at:
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
number of post harvest treatments available, many are perceived to have negative consumer appeal (i.e.
irradiation, fumigation, etc.). The best approach is to focus more on limiting potential contamination
during the growing, harvesting and processing of food. Such process management is used to address
food safety hazards that can be introduced at different points in the food chain or are difficult and
costly to measure2. There are several preventive methods applied, to different extents, by most
enterprises that export food in order to reduce the risk of microbial, chemical and physical
contamination. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) are the most widely used of these methods and part of a
strong trend in the more developed markets that are increasingly requiring their rigorous application3.
What is Food Quality
Despite its common use, the term "quality" is not easy to define. Unless it makes reference to particular
criteria or standards, the general term “quality” is subjective. In the most generic sense, quality refers
to the combination of characteristics that establish a product’s acceptability. In the food industry, this
is usually an integrated measure of purity, flavor, texture, color, appearance and workmanship. In a
highly competitive market, another criteria of quality can be ‘value’ or perception of the product's
Quality control systems typically vary based on the particular requirements of buyers and regulatory
agencies but one of their vital characteristics is the ability both to identify and to address such
requirements. They can also vary in response to the different exigencies of the production or supply
chain. For example, tomatoes grown in greenhouses will have a different quality control than those
grown in an open field.
There are two distinct aspects of food quality management for agro-enterprises yet they are both are
interrelated. The first approaches quality in terms of conforming to certain market requirements such
as a perceptible superiority of desirable traits or characteristics like size, coloration, or organoleptic
properties. The second approaches quality as a synonym for food safety, which can be also used as a
marketing tool to move product in countries with high food safety standards.
Accessing New Markets
Product quality is a prime criterion in gaining access to competitive markets that demand a stable
supply and a consistent quality. Standards for quality and reliability have already been established for
most raw materials and value-added commodities by the international agro-industry markets. Any
products which cannot reach equivalent levels of quality, functionality or reliability will not survive in
competitive global markets except perhaps certain niche or ethnic markets.
Globalization Risks Associated with Poor Quality
The tenfold increase in food exports over the last thirty years has brought new concerns fueled by
high-profile incidents such as Alar in apples and Mad Cow disease. Certain consequences of the
increased movement of goods and services must now be more carefully considered.
Unnevehr, L. J., Jensen, H.H., 1999. The Economic Implications of Using HACCP as a Food Safety Regulatory Standard.
Food Policy, 24:625-635.
Government regulation for HACCP now exist in significant parts of the food systems in the EU, U.S.A., Australia, New
Zealand, and Canada. National laws for certain industries also exist in countries as poor as Bangladesh (shrimp processing).
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Emerging Foodborne Infectious Diseases4
The popular demand for foreign imported products has increased our exposure to goods from around
the world. The loosening of restrictions on the movement of goods is symptomatic of globalization and
contributes to emerging disease proliferation. Moving together with the free trade of goods and
services, infectious diseases recognize no national boundaries. These diseases can journey with
finished food products or raw agricultural commodities.
Several new or emerging infectious diseases have begun to appear which harbor the threat of
significantly increased mortality. Vibrio vulnificus, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), and Cyclospora
cayetanensis are examples of newly described pathogens that often are foodborne. V. vulnificus was
identified in the bloodstream of persons who had infections after eating shellfish. E. coli (O157:H7)
was first identified as a pathogen in 1982 in an outbreak traced to contaminated ground meat; it was
subsequently shown to have a reservoir in healthy cattle. Cyclospora, emerged as a foodborne
pathogen in outbreaks traced to Guatemalan raspberries in 1996.
Ordinarily, pathogenic organisms come to some type of ecological balance with other forms of life in
their native environment. However, when these organisms are transferred to a new environment, they
will often demonstrate much greater virulence simply because natural immunity or appropriate social
or medical management practices have not been established. Even though the process of globalization
may be beneficial for international economic development, from the standpoint of public health it can
be very costly. Therefore the implementation of food safety mechanisms not only facilitates trade but
also contributes to preventing outbreaks of disease.
Prevention can be "built in" to the food industry by identifying and controlling the key points—from
field, farm, or fishing ground to the dinner table—at which contamination can either occur or be
eliminated. The general strategy known as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is
displacing, though not eliminating the necessary strategy of final product inspection.
II. Key Principles of Quality Control
Delivering safe, high quality food to international markets requires process and procedural controls
throughout the supply chain and also adequate mechanisms to certify to buyers and government
regulators that such controls are effective.
IIa. Quality management
The public sector has played a significant role in the development, implementation and enforcement of
agricultural safety standards and regulations, coordination with international organizations on
harmonization of standards and regulations, surveillance of foodborne diseases, consumer education,
training, extension, and research.5 The responsibility for food quality management, in practice, usually
falls to the private sector at the level of trade associations or agro-enterprises where these assess and
manage risk in response to market and regulatory requirements. On a broader scale, the costs, logistics,
This section draws considerably from Tauxe R V. Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving Public Health Challenge.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1997; Vol 3 No 4
World Bank. 1999. Animal and Plant Health and Food Safety (Agricultural Safety). Unpublished Issues Paper
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
and technical expertise required to effectively control quality even within a specific commodity
subsector are usually not within the range of most governments. Nevertheless developing countries
governments can fulfill some critical roles:
help design and deliver an educational component
promote a sound regulatory policy, licensing and certification
developed mechanisms for effective response to food safety crises
support testing facilities and reasonable access to them
control single source contaminations i.e. pests in imported products
For quality management to be successful it typically requires simultaneous attention to several areas:
education, grades and standards, and management practices. Although certain quality controls can be
imposed as regulations, achieving quality is more successful when the impetus to do so comes from the
stakeholders themselves.
Many quality requirements are dictated by buyers while government institutions provide regulatory
support. Although, the private sector has a primary role in food quality management, joint ventures
with governments can facilitate and help standardize quality control systems.
The burden on developing countries
International standards and the ever-increasing quality demands of developed markets require
developing countries to take a hard look at their approaches to quality management if they want to
participate in those markets. While it may be difficult for many agricultural enterprises in developing
countries to apply HACCP methods with any sort of rigor, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) are a practical step toward significantly improved quality and
It is worth noting several trends, led by more developed countries but which are catching on quickly in
other countries:
the growing technical sophistication and cost of certification arrangements particularly
involving laboratory testing
quality registration that requires suppliers to be accredited, often after undergoing a
conformity assessment to demonstrate that products and processes meet prescribed technical
vendor rating schemes that involve monitoring suppliers’ performance on the basis of quality
control systems, logistical capability, contract compliance, etc.
IIb. Quality Standards
Legal standards
Legal standards are commonly established by national governments and generally relate to safety.
These standards are often mandatory and represent minimum standards of quality and safety. The
major purpose of these is to ensure that products are not adulterated or do not harbor dangerous
contamination. These might involve undesirable microorganisms, insects/filth, pesticides or potentially
toxic additives; these can also include labeling standards or acid levels in canned foods. They may
even consider processing conditions to ensure that foods are not contaminated or unduly damaged.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Few would argue the importance of standards genuinely related to food product safety. Problems arise
when there is disagreement on what is actually required to ensure safety.
See Annex 3
Consumer standards
Another important area of standardization relates to the information presented to the consumer. In this
case it is not the product itself, but rather its description that must conform to a particular standard.
Much effort has been devoted to harmonizing labeling information and very large market segments do
have common requirements. There may be some disputes arising out of a culturally based philosophy
regarding the role of food in the diet. Some societies traditionally confer great health benefits to certain
foods while others may not. This may lead to health claims that are allowed in one country and not
There are even standards which are established to make buying decisions easier for the consumer.
Extra lean, lean and medium ground beef standards allow the consumer to make decisions based on
particular requirements of taste, health and available income. The same goes for the various choice
grades of products. These standards are not based on health or safety issues, but rather than on content
or perceptions of overall appearance and taste.
Industry standards
These are sometimes set by an organized industry association in order to establish a reliable identity
for a particular product. Normally such standards become effective because the majority of producers
agree to them. They are seldom related to safety, but more to a characteristic quality which the industry
feels is useful to establish credibility for the market. Products such as wheat, peanut butter, and corn
starch all conform to a set minimum standard established by the industry. These standards are
commonly referred to as commodity standards or standards of identity.
International standards
With over 180 national members, the Codex Alimentarius Commission is the most widely recognized
international body that sets food standards.6 Others include the Office International des Epizooties
(OIE), and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). The dual purpose of Codex is to
protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair international trade in food. Codex elaborates
numerical standards, codes of practice, and other guidelines through its committees and promotes
acceptance and implementation of its standards by national Governments. Particularly where domestic
capacity is limited, adoption of Codex standards ensures international acceptance.
Since 1962, Codex has produced numerous standards, guidelines, codes of practice, and
recommendations and has evaluated the safety of over 500 food additives and contaminants and set
maximum residue limits for approximately 2,500 pesticide/commodity combinations.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947 as a worldwide federation of national
standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. The mission of ISO is to promote
the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the
international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of
Ref. 1, Codex Procedural Manual, Ninth ed., FAO/WHO Rome, 1995
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. These standards identify the ‘what’ rather
than the ‘how’. The most popular is the general series on quality management known as ISO 9000.
With the growth in international trade, standardization pervades every aspect of the agribusiness and
agriculture supply chains. The internationally standardized freight container, for example enables all
components of a transport system - air and seaport facilities, railways, highways, and even packages -
to interface efficiently. This, combined with standardized documents to identify sensitive or dangerous
cargoes makes international trade cheaper, faster and safer7.
International standardization is market-driven and therefore based on voluntary involvement of all
interests in the market-place. Countries individually decide whether to mandate adoption of ISO’s or
other standards for agricultural food products. Most but not all of these standards are specified in the
work of Technical Committee number 34. Each national governing body is usually also a member
body of ISO (see Resources section V for link).
International Agreements
The WTO agreement on the technical barriers to trade (TBT) is relevant to aspects of agribusiness
quality management. It is intended to promote use by countries of standards, technical regulations, and
conformity assessment procedures that are based on work done by international standard-setting
bodies. In the TBT agreement, the term “standard'' is defined as follows: “A document approved by a
recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for
products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory.”
Although it is open to some interpretation, it is designed to cover of the terminology, packaging,
marking or labeling requirements for products, processes or production methods.
The 1994 SPS agreement of the WTO provides a framework for harmonizing and resolving sanitary
and phytosanitary (SPS) issues. The SPS agreement covers, among other things, measures intended: to
protect human or animal health arising from diseases carried by animals, plants, or products thereof
and from the risks of unsafe additives, contaminants, toxins, or disease-causing organisms in foods,
beverages, or feedstuffs.
The SPS agreement encourages members to consider international standards, guidelines, and
recommendations when establishing their own domestic SPS measures. A country is not required to
use an international standard, but must have scientific justification to establish or maintain a more
stringent measure to meet the country's chosen level of protection if that measure will unfairly hinder
trade. Standards established by Codex regarding food and substances in food have status under the SPS
Hotlink Multilateral Trade Agreements
III. The Basic Road Map
Achievements of ISO.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Quality control programs
Quality control ensures that raw materials and finished products are handled, stored, processed, or
packaged to the required standards. The fundamental purpose of a quality control program is to have
timely and dependable information on all the attributes of a product which affect its quality. The basic
functions of a Quality Control program include:
Physical and chemical evaluation of raw materials and processed products
In-process control of
a) Raw materials, ingredients and packaging supplies
b) Processing parameters
c) Finished products
Microbiological analysis and control of raw materials and finished products
Control of storage and handling conditions
Sanitation and waste products control
Assurance that final products are within the established legal and marketing standards.
At the enterprise level the assurance of quality depends to a large extent on how the program is
organized and how committed enterprise management is. Top management must not only want but
also actively support quality control. Consistent and regular training, at both management and non-
management levels, is required to ensure the effective monitoring and execution of such program.
The most effective control strategies are sometimes the most simple. For example:
When shipping broccoli, one should ensure that the iced used is made from water that has
been purified and tested for pathogens. If the ice is bought from another company, their
quality control procedures must be confirmed and microbial results should be periodically
requested from the supplier.
Temperature in cool-rooms and refrigerated transportation should be checked at least once
every two hours.
Oyster harvesters should only use toilets with holding tanks on their oyster boats as an
obvious way to reduce fecal contamination of shallow oyster beds.
Simple pasteurization provides the necessary barrier that will prevent E. coli O157:H7 and
other pathogens from contaminating a large batch of freshly squeezed juice.
Even such straightforward strategies may not be adhered to in localized situations where enterprises
have "done it the same way for 20 years". In such cases an educational component is critical if
improvements to food quality or access to distant markets is a priority.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) are basic food safety principles associated with minimizing
biological, chemical and physical hazards from field through distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables.
These principles are covered under the following categories: site selection, adjacent land use, water,
fertilizers (including manure and municipal bio-solids), pesticides, worker hygiene, field and facility
sanitation, cooling and transportation. Hotlink Annex Good Agricultural Practices
In the United States the guidelines are based on applicable state and federal laws as well as the Guide
to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards in Fruits and Vegetables published by the Food and Drug
Administration. Other countries, such as Mexico have developed their own Food Safety Guide,
sometimes based on the FDA’s and in some cases even exceeding the FDA’s requirements.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
In Europe, GAP guidance is provided by the Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group (EUREP) in the
“EUREP GAP Protocol 2000” (see Resources); it varies from the U.S. guidelines by including
consideration for issues such as wildlife and habitat protection, genetically modified organisms
(GMO), and integrated crop management (ICM). Although these are only guidelines, importers are
asking their developing countries suppliers questions about these issues and this could be the first stage
of potential changes in the operational standards for developing countries.
(See Annex 1 for GAP Table details.)
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) direct all persons working in direct contact with food, surfaces
that food might contact, and food packaging materials, to conform to sanitation and hygiene practices
to the extent necessary to protect against contamination of food from direct or indirect sources. One
benchmarks standard for these hygiene practices is the U.S. Federal Government’s Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) Current Good Manufacturing Practices, CFR 21 Part 110 which is summarized
in Annex 2.
In many developed countries, the expectation that processors will apply Good Manufacturing Practices
is widely accepted but there are also more specific rules for exporters wanting to enter more developed
markets such as those for the high-risk processes of uncooked meats and low-acid canned foods (to
avoid botulism in canned asparagus, for example).
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Systems (HACCP)
In the 1960's, NASA wanted to guarantee that the food for astronauts on space flights was totally safe.
The task of producing "Zero Defect" food was contracted to the Pillsbury Corporation who developed
the first system of Hazard Analysis - Critical Control Points or HACCP (pronounced Hassep).
HACCP is a risk management tool that provides a more structured and arguably more effective
approach to the control of processing or manufacturing hazards than that achievable by traditional
inspection and quality control procedures. Rather than testing the end product for failure it functions to
prevent failure by systematically controlling the process. It requires systematic analysis for potential
risks and then identification of appropriate control and monitoring systems, particularly those deemed
critical to the safety of the product. HACCP significantly reduces the risk of food contamination in
two ways: First, it anticipates potential problems or failures and does not depend only on a final
inspection. Second, because it identifies problems during the process rather than at the end of the
process or once the product moves into the supply or marketing chain there is a greater likelihood of
resolving the problem at hand as opposed to pursuing a product recall. Not surprisingly, HACCP can
thereby also yield potential cost savings in product wastage, reprocessing, or recalls should problems
HACCP has been incorporated into The Codex Alimentarius and is now required of many food
processing or manufacturing businesses in the EU and the US. Its use in export manufacturing
processes conveys a level of professionalism and safety that often facilitates foreign trade transactions.
Since HACCP has the potential to identify areas of concern where failure has not yet been experienced
it is particularly useful for new operations.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Many people, particularly those from industry, feel that the use of the HACCP system will
significantly reduce the need for traditional government inspection. However, the ability of the
HACCP system to deal with emerging pathogens has still to be determined. In fact, HACCP is far from
perfect; one weakness is related to the pre-existing presence of microorganisms, chemical, and
physical hazards in foods and the receiving of such contaminated foods into the processing plant. Once
contaminated raw materials have been allowed to come into a plant, an incredible amount of remedial
work has to be carried out in order to ensure that these microorganisms are killed during processing
and that cross-contamination does not take place. Since many products exposed to cross-contamination
do not have a definitive killing-step for microorganisms in their processing, the end result can be
contaminated products. Although it is a significant improvement in overall process control, HACCP is
definitely not a panacea for the problems of microbial contamination in foods.
In the U.S. HACCP has become a legal requirement for the fish, poultry and meat industries, and will
soon apply to juices as well. It has not been accepted in fresh produce because of the variation in
production and handling practices across commodities and source areas. There has been discussion of
introducing HACCP for all processed food, but it is not yet legally required. However, it has become a
de facto requirement for most supermarkets. The fresh cut produce segment, for example went far
beyond HACCP from the very start, because of the significant risks of micro-bacteriological
The Seven HACCP Principles
HACCP can best be defined by describing its seven basic principles. Familiarity with technological
processes may make the principles of HACCP appear simplistic. Yet, its simplicity belies an intrinsic
thoroughness of process that can be rather complex when properly applied.
Principle 1. Conduct a hazard analysis. Prepare a flow diagram of the steps in the process.
Identify and list the hazards and specify the control measures in use.
Step i) Clearly define the terms of reference.
Step ii) Select the HACCP team. Certification required?
Step iii) Describe the product or product cluster.
Step iv) Identify the intended use of the product, e.g. vulnerable target consumers.
Step v) Construct a flow diagram.
Step vi) On-site verification of flow diagram.
Step vii) List all the hazards associated with each process step and list all the measures
to control these hazards.
Principle 2. Identify the Critical Control Points (CCP) in the process using a decision tree.
Principle 3. Establish critical limits or target levels and tolerances which must be met to
ensure each CCP is under control.
Principle 4. Establish a monitoring system to ensure control of the CCP by scheduled testing
or observations.
Principle 5. Establish the corrective actions to be taken when monitoring indicates that a
particular CCP is moving out of control
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Principle 6. Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to
these principles and their application.
Principle 7. Establish verification procedures that include appropriate supplementary tests,
together with a review that confirms that HACCP is working effectively.
There are typically 3 ways to adopt a HACCP program:
1. External trainers or facilitators can help to prepare a HACCP system and train on-site staff
in its use. This method can be particularly effective in gaining acceptance from the work-force
and can better encompass workplace realities, rather than depending on management to
implement a system which they may not have an active part in maintaining.
2. An on-site team can be trained by one external expert on the principles, preparation, and
implementation of the system and this team can then train and monitor the enterprise’s staff.
This method can generate more buy-in in because of its participatory methodology, may be
more adaptable in the long run given that the designers are always on-site, and is usually less
expensive. It also takes longer and may not be of the same quality as one implemented by
seasoned experts.
3. For certain businesses computer software and template documents applicable to similar
industries is available to guide an enterprise through the basic steps of the process.
Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended. Verification procedures
may include such activities as review of HACCP plans, CCP records, critical limits and microbial
sampling and analysis. In the U.S. the Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS)
requires that the HACCP plan include verification tasks to be performed both by plant personnel and
FSIS inspectors.
How Is Quality Measured?
The measurement and evaluation of quality can be a complicated affair. Most organizations employ
professional technicians to carry out this task, but this has not always been the case. In the past, many
companies assumed that the quality of their raw materials could be guaranteed simply by paying the
highest prices. However, this did not prove to be very reliable and almost all firms now use various
analytical methods for quality determinations.
The methods used to measure quality can be subjective, as in taste tests or they can be objective, such
as physical, chemical or microscopic analysis. Subjective methods are based on the opinions of the
examiners and are often called sensory analysis. Training personnel to accurately describe their
responses to product quality can be difficult and costly although computerized sensory evaluation
systems are now available to facilitate the accurate reporting and statistical interpretation sensory
The physical, chemical and microscopic analytical methods are considered to be objective because
they are designed to exclude any subjective opinions of the examiner. These methods are usually
standard scientific tests which should be able to be reproduced with the same result by any trained
technician. Physical measurements include product attributes such as size, weight, color, texture,
headspace, and even impurities such as filth and insects. Sometimes these analyses are carried out with
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
the help of instrumentation and at other times with little more than a pair of good eyes and a paper and
Chemical methods are usually more complex and often require instrumentation that can be rather
sophisticated. Precise tests for moisture, protein, carbohydrates (total and specific), ash and fiber have
become standard practice in the food industry along with a myriad of others pertaining to specific
components of ingredients or products. Microscopic methods are used to determine the presence of
mold, insect fragments or foreign materials as well as for any spoilage or disease microorganisms the
product may harbor.
IV. Information and Resources
The people and organizations listed here are only intended to illustrate the sorts of resources available. Please note that
neither The World Bank nor the authors of this document suggest or imply any endorsement of them, their products or
services, nor is there any guarantee, implied or otherwise regarding their quality or usefulness.
Related teaching tools on this site
Hotlink Designing Effective Food Safety Interventions in Developing Countries
Hotlink Understanding Grades and Standards
Hotlink Multilateral Trade Agreements and Organizations
Hotlink Export Competitiveness
Organizations and experts
Search for standards for any product around the globe:
Quality Links (
Extensive links from private commercial site: the Internet Foodfront, a division of Foodfront
Consulting, Inc.
Food Safety Virtual University's College of Pathogen Reduction and HACCP programs
[Training and educational materials used by FSIS in training related to HACCP, available in this
electronic format for anyone seeking additional information on the regulatory components of HACCP
International HACCP Alliance Tex A&M University
HACCP is a U.S. government food safety Website
National Seafood HACCP Alliance sponsored by UC Davis
USDA, Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS)
FSIS Food Safety Education Staff
Room 2932-South Building; 1400 Independence Ave. S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20250
Phone: (202) 720-7943
Fax: (202) 720-1843
Home Page @ and then go to "HACCP Implementation"
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
HACCP/Pathogen Reduction (meat and poultry) run by the USDA
Seafood, Land Foods, Retail run by the USDA
USDA/ FDA HACCP Training Programs and Resources Database
FSIS Food Safety Education and Communications Staff
Public Outreach and Communications
Phone: (202) 720-9352
Fax: (202) 720-9063
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Current Good Manufacturing Practices
Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding human food
Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Exporting to the United States
Meat and poultry
Dan J. Sheesley, Associate Deputy Administrator, International Services (SPS resource) 202/720-7593, fax 202/690-1484,
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Viale Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome, Italy
( The FAO Food Quality and
Standards Service is concerned with the maintenance and improvement of the quality and safety of
foods at the international, regional, and national levels. email to:
Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group (EUREP) in the “EUREP GAP Protocol 2000”
Spenser Henson, University of Reading
IICA P.O.Box 55-2200; San José, Costa Rica; Phone: (506) 216-0184/0185 Fax: (506) 216 0164
Kevin Walker, Director, Agricultural Health and Food Safety
Benjamin Jara, Deputy Dir., Agricultural Health and Food Safety
Codex Alimentarius
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides and Veterinary Drugs in Foods
Food Hygiene - Basic Texts
Food labeling
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Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems - Combined Texts
Food Irradiation
U.S. Codex Activities
Food Manufacturing Forum ( Provides a dialogue and a resource
file for entrepreneur or manufacturer on how to build a small food manufacturing company.
National Food Processors Association (NFPA) ( is the principal scientific
and technical trade association for the U.S. food industry.
OIRSA - Food Safety links in Spanish (
OIRSA: Regional Organization for Agricultural Health (Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Dominican Republic)
Some HACCP consultants
Primus labs – provides food safety related services and free food safety manuals on the net.
HACCP International Ltd.
HACCP Consulting Group
Goodtimes, Inc
HACCP - Perry Johnson, Inc.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Home page
Member bodies of ISO
Fruits, Vegetables and Specialty Crops
Gateway to US Government food safety information
National Food Safety Initiative page of the FDA
U.S. Agency for International Development Information Center
Ronald Reagan Building ; Washington, D.C. 20523-0016
Telephone: 202-712-4810 FAX: 202-216-3524
Carol Wilson, Agricultural Trade and Development Manager; 202-712-0506
Food Safety Websites
Bauman, H.E., "The HACCP Concept and Microbiological Hazard Categories," Food Technology, 28
(9), 30-34, (1974).
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Caswell, J., M.E. Bredahl, N.H. Hooker, 1998. How Quality Management Metasystems Are Affecting
the Food Industry. Review of Agricultural Economics 20, 547-57.
FAO, 1999. The Importance of Food Quality and Safety for Developing Countries. Committee on
World Food Security, 25th Session, Rome, May 31-June3, at
Gould, Wilbur A. CGMP's Food Plant Sanitation.
Hathaway, S.C., 1995. Harmonization of international requirements under HACCP-based food control
systems. Food Control 6, 267-76.
Kauffman, L.F., "How FDA uses HACCP," Food Technology, 28 (9) 51, 84, (1994).
Pierson, M.D. and D.A.Corlett, Jr., 1992. eds. HACCP: Principles and Applications. Van Nostrand
Reinhold, New York.
Purdum, T.S. 1996."Meat Inspections Facing Overhaul, First in 90 years: Scientific Testing Will
Replace 'Sniff and Poke' Inspections," New York Times, 145 (50481), July 7.
Tauxe R V. 1997. Emerging Foodborne Diseases: An Evolving Public Health Challenge. Emerging
Infectious Diseases; Vol 3 No 4.
Unnevehr, L.J. (Ed.) 2000. The Economics of HACCP: Studies of Costs and Benefits, Eagan Press, St.
Paul MN.
Unnevehr, L. J., Jensen, H.H., 1999. The Economic Implications of Using HACCP as a Food Safety
Regulatory Standard. Food Policy, 24:625-635.
WHO (1998) Food Safety and Globalization of Trade in Food: A Challenge to the Public Health
Sector. WHO/FSF/FOS/97.8 Rev 1.
Anonymous. 1996. "Emerging Pathogens Seen Needing Military-Style Thinking," Food Chemical
News, 38(32), 7.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Annex 1.
Table of Good Agricultural Practices
Control Procedures
Hazard To Be
Biological “B”
Chemical “C”
Physical “P”
Actions to be Taken if
Deviation Occurs
“C & B”
Research site
history and
conduct a visual
-Restrict growing
to land with well
Each Land
Purchase or
Parcel is not purchas
ed or
Extensive chemical and/or
microbial analyses should
be conducted to confirm
Record site
history or
laboratory results
Adjacent or
uses should
intended use.
from runoff or
“B & C”.
Site selection
and/or physical
barrier (i.e.
trenches, etc.)
Select an alternative site
or develop adequate
barriers (i.e. wind break,
certification of no
recent non-crop
use of land.
uses and
Grazing or
movement of
livestock. Use of
the field for
disposal of waste
(i.e. incinerator
ash, sludge etc.)
Site selection
and/or physical
barrier (i.e.
fences, etc.)
Prohibit the disposal of
waste and restrict
movement of livestock.
certification of no
recent non-crop
use of land.
Microbiological or
“B” & “C”
Limit the use of
manure on all
fields and limit
manure and
mineral fertilizers
to approved
Limit supplier base to
approved vendors. Base
approval on State
approved guidelines
Record fertilizer
including lot #
Record all
Presence of E.
coli, etc. in
irrigation water
Test water supply
for presence of
E.coli & Coliform
reservoirs &
Stop use of contaminated
water, use furrow or drip
irrigation until
contamination is corrected
or access alternative
source. Determine and
address source of
Record test results
& corrective
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Control Procedures
Hazard To Be
Biological “B”
Chemical “C”
Physical “P”
Actions to be Taken
if Deviation Occurs
pesticide use
“B & C”
Restrict all pest
materials to those
registered by the
USEPA and use as
instructed by the
label. Pesticide
made by licensed
PCA or equivalent.
Each application
Delay harvest.
Sample the affected
crop. Analyze the
sample for
pesticide residues.
Evaluate, release or
reject the crop.
application date,
pesticide used and
application rate.
Selection of
waters used
Presence of E.
coli, etc. in
irrigation water
Test water supply for
presence of E.coli &
Underground wells-
yearly, reservoirs &
Stop use of
contaminated water;
access alternative
source. Determine
source of
contamination and
address cause of
Record test results
& corrective
and chemical
contamination of
“B & C”
Proper storage of all
cartons & containers
used to hold and
transport produce
Do not use
contaminated cartons,
inventory records
and storage
contamination of
commodities “B”
Employee hygiene
Enforce State &
Federal field
Provide educational
sessions on a
regular basis
Alter personnel
manuals and service
provider contracts to
reflect compliance as
a requirement of
employment or
employee non-
sessions; date,
topic, personnel in
attendance at
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
If rubber gloves
worn Supervisor(s)
provide adequate
supply of clean
Rubber gloves
cleaned daily using
a high alcohol
replaced at least
weekly as
necessary. Knives
should be cleaned
in chlorinated (100-
150 ppm total Cl)
Issue new gloves;
educate personnel on
hygiene requirements.
Clearly define
disciplinary action
and procedure for
Control Procedures
Hazard To Be
Biological “B”
Chemical “C”
Physical “P”
Actions to be Taken if
Deviation Occurs
Prohibit smoking
and eating on
equipment and
actively harvested
field areas
Examine each
carton prior to
Each carton
of harvested
Supply harvesters
with wash or dip
stations for cutting
All harvest
Inspect employee harvested
commodity for
contaminants; release or
destroy; re-educate
personnel on foreign
material control; consider
disciplining employees or
subcontractors who display a
disregard for foreign
material control
employee non-
Record date, topic,
and personnel in
attendance at the
to Cooler
Temperature of
harvested crop
transport to the
cooling facility
using vehicles
dedicated to crop
As necessary
Identify pallets with heat
stress on arrival at cooler;
inform sales; hold product at
cooler for evaluation of raw
product condition; release or
QC receipt report
Source: Adapted from Primus Laboratories (see Resources section IV)
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Annex 2.
Summary of GMP Requirements:
FDA 21 CFR Part 110
The U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act deems a food to be adulterated, among other things, “If it has
been prepared, packed, or held under unsanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with
filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health.” 21 U.S.C. 342(a)(4).
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP’s) remain the regulatory standard for all processed foods. GMP’s are
relevant to and supplement any additional pathogen reduction and HACCP requirements for the Meat, Poultry,
and Seafood industries. GMP’s regulations impose obligations on a manufacturer to control the risk of filth,
chemical, microbiological, and other contaminants in food. If a manufacturer does not comply with any of the
established GMP’s, an FDA investigator may determine that the food has been produced under conditions which
have rendered the food unfit or contaminated and may deem the food to be adulterated.
The quality and safety of finished food products is dependent on many factors. From the condition of the raw
product throughout the manufacturing and distribution process contamination may occur to render the products
alliterated. A review of these adulterated conditions is as follows.
Adulterated Foods
Poisonous or Deleterious Substances
Avoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances
Regulatory Limits
Action Levels
The plant management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to ensure the following:
Disease Control
Any person who, by medical examination is shown to have or appears to have, an illness, open lesion, including
boils, sores, or infected wound, or any other abnormal source of microbial contamination by which there is
reasonable possibility of food, food-contact surfaces, or food packaging materials being contaminated, shall be
excluded from any operations which may be expected to result in such contamination until the condition is
corrected. Personnel shall be instructed to report such conditions to their supervisors.
All persons working in direct contact with food, food-contact surfaces, and food packaging materials shall
conform to hygienic practices while on duty to the extent necessary to protect against contamination of food.
The methods for maintaining cleanliness include but are not limited to:
1. Wearing outer garments suitable to the operation in a manner that protects against the contamination of
food, food-contact surfaces, or food packaging materials.
2. Maintaining adequate personal cleanliness.
Washing hands thoroughly (and sanitizing if necessary to protect against contamination with
undesirable organisms) in an adequate hand washing facility before beginning work, after each absence
from the work station, and at ANY other time when the hands may have become soiled or contaminated
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
4. Removing all unsecured jewelry and other objects that might fall into the food, equipment and
containers, and removing hand jewelry that cannot be adequately sanitized during periods in which food
is manipulated by hand. If such hand jewelry cannot be removed, then gloves made of an impermeable
material (such as rubber) shall be worn.
5. Maintaining gloves in an intact, clean, and sanitary condition. The gloves should be of an impermeable
6. Wearing, where appropriate and in an effective manner, hairnets, headbands, caps, beard covers, or
other effective hair restraints.
7. Storing clothing or other personal belongings in areas other than where food is exposed or where
equipment or utensils are washed.
8. Confining eating food, chewing gum, drinking beverages, or using tobacco to areas other than where
food may be exposed or where equipment or utensils are washed.
9. Taking any other necessary precautions to protect against contamination of food, food contact surfaces,
or food packaging materials with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but not limited to,
perspiration, hair, cosmetics, tobacco, chemicals and medications applied to the skin.
Education and Training
Food handlers and supervisors should receive appropriate training in proper food handling techniques and food
protection principles and should be informed of the danger of poor personal hygiene and unsanitary practices.
Buildings and Facilities
Plant and Grounds
The areas leading and adjacent to the building shall be kept clean and free of debris that may cause
contamination of food products. Weeds and grasses shall not be allowed to grow against the building. A 36”
“clear zone” shall be maintained around the perimeter. Dust shall be controlled so that airborne contamination
is minimized. Areas that collect standing water shall be corrected so that the threat of microbial growth is
minimized. All waste products, solids and liquids, shall be disposed of in a appropriate manor.
Sanitary Operations
Buildings and equipment shall be maintained in a sanitary condition and shall be kept in repair sufficient to
prevent food from becoming adulterated. Facilities, equipment, and utensils shall be cleaned and sanitized in a
manor to minimize the risks of contaminating food products.
All materials and chemicals used for cleaning and sanitation shall be stored in a safe manor, which prevents
contamination of food products. No toxic materials may be stored on site unless that material is necessary to the
production or operation of the facility and/or equipment. All relevant regulations on the storage of toxic
materials shall be implemented and followed.
Effective Pest, Rodent, and Bird control measures shall be implemented to minimize the risk of food product
contamination. No Pests, Rodents, nor Birds are allowed within any area of the food plant. The use of
pesticides and rodenticides are allowed only when use of these materials will not contaminant any food neither
materials nor products.
Sanitation of all food contact surfaces, including utensils and equipment, shall be cleaned as frequently as
necessary to prevent food contamination. In wet processing, all food contact surfaces shall be cleaned and
sanitized prior to use. If any operation results in the contamination of any clean food contact surface, that
surface must again be cleaned and sanitized prior to use. Non food contact surfaces must be cleaned as
frequently as necessary to prevent food contamination. Single-service articles shall be stored, handled, used,
and disposed of in an appropriate manor that prevents food contamination. Sanitizing agents shall be adequate
and safe under conditions of use.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Sanitary Facilities and Controls
Each plant shall be equipped with adequate sanitary facilities and accommodations. An adequate water supply
from an appropriate source shall be available. Plumbing to distribute that water in reasonable quantities, remove
liquid wastes as to not create a health hazard, adequate floor drains, provide that there is not a back-flow from,
or cross connection between systems carrying waste and piping systems carry water to food processing. Sewage
disposal shall be adequate.
Employee toilet facilities shall be adequate, readily accessible, and maintained in a sanitary condition. Toilet
room doors shall be self-closing and not open into any food processing area unless alternate methods ensure
safety between rooms. Hand washing facilities shall be adequate, convenient, and furnished with suitable
temperature water. Suitable sanitary towels or drying services, water control valves to prevent recontamination,
understandable signage directing employees to sanitize their hands, refuse receptacles, and rubbish and offal
disposal are required as well.
Equipment and Utensils
All plant equipment and utensils shall be so designed and made of such materials and workmanship, as to be
adequately cleanable, and shall be properly maintained. The design and use of the equipment shall preclude
their adulteration of food products. All equipment must be installed as to allow its cleaning and cleaning of the
surrounding area. Equipment shall be made of non-toxic materials and food-contact surfaces shall be corrosion
resistant. Seams on food contact surfaces shall be smoothly bonded or maintained so as to minimize
accumulation of food particles, dirt, and organic matter to minimize the opportunity for microbial growth.
Coolers shall be fitted with an appropriate temperature device that shows the temperature within the
compartment. All instruments and controls used to measure, regulate, or record temperatures, pH, acidity,
water activity, or other conditions shall be accurate, adequately maintained, and adequate in number to perform
their designated use.
Compressed air or other gasses mechanically introduced into food or used to clean or operate equipment shall be
treated in such a way that food is not contaminated with unlawful indirect food additives.
Production and Process Controls
All operations in the receiving, inspecting, transportation, segregating, preparing, manufacturing, packaging, and
storing of food shall be conducted in accordance with adequate sanitation principles. Appropriate quality
control operations shall be employed to ensure that food is suitable for human consumption and that food-
packaging materials are safe and suitable. Overall sanitation shall be under the supervision of one or more
competent individuals assigned responsibility for this function. All reasonable precautions shall be taken to
ensure that production procedures do not contribute contamination from any source.
Chemical, microbial, and extraneous material testing procedures shall be used where necessary
All raw materials and other ingredients shall be inspected and stored under conditions that will protect against
contamination. Materials shall be washed to remove soils or other contaminates. Water used for washing,
rinsing, or conveying food shall be safe and of adequate sanitary quality. Water may be reused for washing,
rinsing, or conveying food if it does not increase the level of contamination of the food. Containers and carriers
of raw materials should be inspected on receipt to ensure that they have not contributed to the contamination of
the food.
Raw materials and other ingredients shall not contain levels of microorganisms that may produce food
poisoning or other disease in human, or shall be pasteurized or otherwise treated during manufacturing
operations so that they no longer contain levels that would cause the product to be adulterated.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Warehousing and Distribution
Storage and transportation of finished food shall be under conditions that will protect food against physical,
chemical, and microbial contamination as well as against deterioration of the food and the container
Defect Action Levels
The GMP regulation recognizes that some foods contain natural or unavoidable defects that are not hazardous to
human health at low levels. The FDA has established “defect action levels” for many naturally occurring
contaminants. These defect levels specify the level of contamination that may trigger an enforcement action.
Uncontaminated food may not be mixed or blended with a batch that exceeds the current defect action level.
Record Keeping Requirements
The Umbrella GMP’s does not require Record Keeping. It is however necessary to document and prove the
correct application of GMP principles within manufacturing and distribution. Daily production logs, receiver
logs, process control observations, and other written reports should be maintained to support the companies’
compliance with the intent of the GMPs.
Pallets, Bins & Totes
Pallets, Bins, and Totes (PBT) should be cleaned and free of soils and other debris at the time of receipt. If soils
or debris is evident, those PBT should be set aside and cleaned of all extraneous matter as is practical. If a
particular PBT is suspect of contamination it should be replaced and then disposed of.
Bins and Totes shall be cleaned after each use and before any reuse. Minimum cleaning will remove all
extraneous matter and debris. Additionally a sanitation step should be applied.
Used pallets must be clean and free of any extraneous mater, filth, and debris. No molds or other microbial
growths shall be allowed on any pallets. Used pallets should be used only for product that will not be cooled by
a cooling process that involves spraying or spreading of water over the product and pallet. This includes Hydro
Vacuum, Hydro Cooling, and Ice Injection.
A plastic or cardboard slip-sheet may be inserted between the pallet and the first layer of cartons to separate the
finished product from the used pallet.
Pallets shall be stored on a hard dust free surface and protected from airborne contaminants as possible. Pallet
storage areas require proper Rodent prevention programs for control. Nails shall not be exposed nor shall nails
be permitted to neither damage food product case nor package.
A Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises
Edited by Daniele Giovannucci
Annex 3.
Contraventions Cited for U.S. Food and Drug Administration Import Detentions.
Examples July 1996 to June 1997.
Reason for
Europe Asia
Food Additives
(5.0 %)
2 (0.7 %)
57 (1.5 %) 69 (5.8 %) 426 (7.4 %)
Pesticide residues 864
(7.7 %)
0 (0.0) 821 (21.1 %) 20 (1.7 %) 23 (0.4 %)
Heavy Metals 537
(4.8 %)
1 (0.3)
426(10.9 %) 26 (2.2 %) 84 (1.5 %)
Mould 570
(5.1 %)
19 (6.3 %) 475 (12.2 %) 27 (2.3%)
49 (0.8 %)
125 (41.3%)
246 (6.3 %) 159 (13.4%) 895 (15.5%)
Decomposition 890
(8.0 %)
9 (3.0 %) 206 (5.3 %) 7 (0.6 %) 668 (11.5 %)
Filth 3519
54 (17.8 %) 1253 (32.2 %)
175 (14.8%) 2037 (35.2%)
Low Acid
Canned Food
4 (1.3 %)
142 (3.6 %)
425 (35.9%) 829 (14.3 %)
Labeling 1098
38 (12.5%) 201 (5.2%) 237 (20.0%) 622 (10.8%)
Other 309
(2.8 %)
51 (16.8 %) 68 (1.7 %) 39 (3.3 %) 151 (2.6 %)
Totals 11166
303 (100%) 3895 (100%) 1184
5784 (100%)
Source: FAO, "The Importance of Food Quality and Safety for Developing Countries", Committee on World Food
Security, 25
Session, Rome, May 31-June3, 1999, at
Adapted from citing in Table 3 of Unnevehr, L.J. 2000. Food Safety Issues and Fresh Food Product Exports from LDCs.
Journal of Agricultural Economics, Forthcoming.
... New versions (V3.0-Mar07) of the normative documents for fruit and vegetables have been approved [74]. "EurepGAP Fruit and Vegetables" varies from the USA's guidelines by including consideration for issues such as wildlife and habitat protection, genetically modified organisms, and integrated crop management [75]. ...
... Kokkinakis et al. [77] monitored certain microbial-flora markers in order to check the efficiency of the Greek protocol AGRO 2-1 & 2-2 GAP system in agricultural farms to check microbial food quality of tomatoes and peppers grown in greenhouses, and to evaluate whether overall greenhouses-management under AGRO 2-1 & 2-2, could establish actual farming and handling conditions that are in compliance to basic EurepGAP requirements. Also, increasingly, exporters to Europe need to comply with the production standards determined by the EurepGAP certification scheme [75]. Even if these are only guidelines, importers are requiring from suppliers in developing countries, compliance with safety issues. ...
Purpose of the review: This review focuses on the complex task of the final implementation of HACCP by fresh-cut processors. In the face of recent episodes involving safety of produce and fresh-cut products, HACCP has been highly demanded for this industry by regulators, politicians, consumers and the market. Findings: The incidence of illnesses caused by foodborne pathogens associated with produce and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables has increased. A great amount of research continues to be done on interventions and on a hurdle approach to prevent contamination by microbial and other hazards. In the literature the importance of the prerequisite programs: GAPs, GMPs and SSOPs, as part of any quality and safety integrated system wherein HACCP may be the last step, is continuously stressed. Limitations/implications: The adoption of integrated safety systems by the fresh-cut industry is very important. Apart from GMPs (mandatory), specific legislation and guidance for these products is necessary (microbiological criteria, guides for GAPs, SSOPs, HACCP). This may be a problem since the market exerts a lot of pressure on produce and fresh-cut processors, and the system may act functionally as a trade barrier for small and medium size businesses and for developing countries. Implementation of HACCP system should occur in later stages. Directions for future research: The dynamic of the fresh-cut market and the severe safety requirements imposed especially by consumers, will lead and it is already observed in recent literature, to reflections and analysis on food safety management systems and safety strategies using new approaches and philosophies.
... 57 Small-scale food industry is confronted with practical challenges of developing, implementing and maintaining food safety and quality programs. 11 Major problems associated with small-scale food production especially in developing countries include; lack of right technology, inadequate power for industrial operations, poor water supply for processing and portable use, lack of traceability, failure to control inventory in warehouses and stores, inability to maintain the safety and quality of food or food products, lack of qualified personnel with experience and technical expertise in food safety, lack of training, poor equipment layout, lack of in-house microbial risk evaluation and insufficient funds for maintaining quality standards. 57 58 59 Due to these factors, the hygienic position of facilities in small-scale food production and processing is generally low and pose a great public health risk to consumers. ...
Full-text available
The quality of food products is determined by physical properties, chemical composition, the level of contaminants (microbiological and toxic substances) and sensory attributes. Consumers around the world demand consistent supply of quality food products that reflect the value of the price they pay for them. The nature of raw materials and ingredients reflect the quality of food products in the market. Raw materials as well as packaging materials should be purchased based on the quality specifications that suppliers should adhere to. This review aimed at highlighting the importance of using objective assessment tools and consumer/sensory evaluation in determining the quality and acceptability of new food products. Objective tests are used to measure one particular attribute of a food product rather than its overall quality. They are generally rapid, reliable and repeatable. On the other hand sensory methods measure the reaction to stimuli resulting from the consumption of a product. Sensory testing is often used to determine consumer acceptability of a food product and contributes to the design of quality systems hence considered as a technical support for quality assurance during food production. Not only that but also it helps to obtain feedback for making decisions and carrying out proper modification of a particular food product. Therefore objective methods and sensory evaluation are indispensable tools for routine quality control of new food products as well as the existing ones.
... Для виокремлення основних чинників впливу на систему контролю якості продукції вітчизняних м'ясопереробних підприємств нами проведене дослідження доступних літературних джерел. Загалом увага вчених приділяється чинникам, що впливають на якість продукції, тоді як питання системи контролю якості досліджені в недостатній мірі, зокрема дослідження потребують чинники, що впливають на систему контролю якості м'ясопереробних підприємств (Giovannucci & Satin, 2007;Li et al., 2017;Djenane & Roncalés, 2018;Leal-Ramos et al., 2018;Bechtel et al., 2018). ...
Full-text available
We have researched the scientists' opinions on the classification of product quality control and, based on the research conducted, organized a classification using a scientifically based approach. In general, the attention of scientists is paid to factors affecting the quality of products, while issues of the quality control system and factors of influence on it are insufficiently investigated. We have identified and grouped the factors influencing the quality control system of domestic meat processing enterprises by organizational, technical and subjective features. We conducted a survey of leading specialists of the most successful representatives of the meat processing industry today in order to identify the rating of negative factors. The most important factors of influence are the serviceability of equipment, devices, working tools and measuring instruments, through which the level of its quality is measured. We investigated the typical scheme of the production process, indicating the quality control points of domestic meat processing enterprises. We have found a lack of control of the value of meat raw materials at the entrance, which does not allow calculating with suppliers of raw materials, depending on the categories to which the pork actually belongs. We recommend that quality control be performed at the slaughter section between the 4th and 5th stages of the technological stage, namely after the sting of a pig with the use of special devices that are currently absent in domestic meat processing plants. The proposed measures to improve the quality control system will provide an opportunity for a comprehensive assessment of its quality and contribute to a reduction in the cost of production, resulting in increased profitability of enterprises, which suggests the feasibility of their use for meat processing enterprises in Ukraine. The three-dimensional matrix model of quality control of products of meat processing enterprises has been developed. The advantage of this model lies in the coherence of all parameters, as well as in establishing interrelationships and interdependencies between them. It is proved that the application of the proposed multivariate matrix model of product quality control in the indicated parameters enables to evaluate the quality of the meat-processing enterprise's products, taking into account all parameters of control, namely levels of control, types of control, stages of the control process and can be used for any subject of economic activity taking into account industry specifics and specific management objectives.
... Several scholars confirm this in different industries and in food industry in particular. Empirical study by Giovannucci and Satin (2000), which centred on the understanding of HACCP and other Quality Management Techniques, reveals that quality is essential to success and HACCP certification is a major step to improvement on quality. The research recommended that for organisations to be successful and sustain such a success, they need to be identified with high quality products or services. ...
Full-text available
This paper brings to the fore, an analysis of the performance of Hazard analysis and Critical Control point (HACCP) certified companies in terms of sales of liquid milk. The researcher used a sample size of 100 respondents and used both probability and nonprobability sampling in choosing respondents. The major conclusion was that there is no association between HACCP certification and sales of liquid milk. The research recommended that the government should ensure that they make these certifications mandatory and assist small and medium firms to be certified as to improve quality and protect consumers. The dairy firms should also take part in consumer education on the subject of quality and benefits of certification in order to increase sales.
... There is currently a World Bank-supported initiative (through a grant), with the Ministry of Agriculture. becoming barriers to market entry for those that are not prepared ( Giovannucci and Reardon 1999;Giovannucci 2000). ii. ...
Full-text available
El presente documento analiza la evolución del sector cafetero colombiano en la última década, periodo en el cual ha perdido valor. Se hace un diagnóstico de las causas que han generado el retroceso del sector y propone unas estrategias de política para que vuelva a ser competitivo en los mercados internacionales. De las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de mejorar la eficiencia en la producción para poder competir a precios cada día mas bajos en el mercado mundial, se propone una estrategia para desarrollar negocios en los nichos de los llamados cafés especiales a los que se les reconocen primas superiores por parte de los compradores, y en el plano regulatorio se recomienda que la parafiscalidad que afecta al sector sea reformulada para que el impuesto que tributan los cafeteros sea bajo, estable y fijo en el tiempo. Con los recursos que se generen por esta contribución se deberán financiar los programas prioritarios para beneficio de los caficultores. Programas que de manera individual no pueden ser acometidos (Investigación o promoción). El rol de la institucionalidad cafetera deberá ser reformulado. Los recursos del café no deben seguir suplantando los recursos del Estado en obras públicas en las regiones cafeteras, pero la organización cafetera regional puede convertirse en un ejecutor importante de proyectos de inversión con recursos del presupuesto general de la Nación.
... This implies a fundamental shift in the role of G&S (grades and standards) from just reducing transaction costs of commodity market participants, to serving as strategic tools for market penetration, system coordination, quality and safety assurance, brand complementing, and product niche deWnition" (Giovannucci and Reardon, 2000; see also Reardon et al., 2001). Increasing food safety concerns stimulate strong consumer market responses and are driving a set of quality-oriented and process-oriented changes in many markets (Giovannucci, 2000), particularly in the United States and Europe -and even many of the Asian and Latin American economies. ...
... Increasing food safety concerns 2 stimulate strong market responses and are driving a set of quality-oriented and process-oriented changes in many markets (Giovannucci 2000), particularly in the United States and Europe and even the advanced Asian and Latin American economies. This implies a fundamental shift in the role of grades and standards from simply reducing transaction costs as they have traditionally done. ...
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The paper begins with a macro view of the shifting regulatory, business, and consumer environments that are inducing fundamental changes in the global trade regime and increasing the demand for standards. This in turn has profound implications especially for small and medium producers. It discusses how in the case of organics, emerging trade standards may actually benefit the producers rather than being a barrier to entry. In order for organics to expand their appeal and enter mainstream distribution channels they will likely have to adapt some aspects of modern industrial agribusiness. However, a more industrialized approach means walking a fine line because this very approach may in some ways contradict the core organic values and risk alienating a loyal customer base. Recent research and examples outline the key issues like certification process, quality, and consistency that will require attention. The paper considers that further growth and meeting these demands and those of mainstream distribution channels will be difficult for most small developing country producers and will require a combination of public and private support.
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Introduction: Food safety concerns remain a challenge across nations and among citizens. Microbial contamination of foods and antibiotic resistance constitutes a global threat to food security. The present study assessed microbial quality of "Tuo-Zaafi" sold in the Tamale metropolis as well as antibiotic resistance of isolates from these products. Results: Samples were collected aseptically and transported to the Spanish laboratory complex of the University for Development Studies, Ghana, for microbial analysis. E. coli which recorded the highest occurrence was detected in 50% of the T.Z samples with bacterial loads ranging from < 100 to 2.3 × 106 cfu/g (4.49 × 105 ± 5.72 × 104 cfu/g). Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus aureus recorded the least occurrence representing 33.3%. There were significant differences in the levels of E. coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus (p < .001) across the four zones demarcated. Results of the antibiotic test revealed higher resistance to the antibiotics employed in the present study (81%). Susceptibility of microbes to ciprofloxacin (100%) was the highest, and higher resistance to gentamycin (100%) was observed in this study. Conclusion: The study revealed that T.Z sold in the business district of Tamale could constitute a likely health risk to consumers especially when it is consumed in a cold state. It is hereby recommended that the Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) should enforce food hygiene laws and ensure strict adherence. KEYWORDS E. coli and antibiotic sensitivity, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Tamale, Tuo-Zaafi
Food safety and quality as demanded by domestic and international trade are the major concerns in food production chains. Safeguarding these concerns presents challenging tasks across the entire farm-fork continuum. This progression is comprised of various segments that include governmental departments, farms, industries, transportation, retail markets and consumers. The devolution of these tasks among the stakeholders and the heterogeneous nature of safety measures at each stage require coherent good management practices. Thus, successful achievements of these need continuous efforts in identifying practical and cost-effective measures for reducing or eliminating food-borne risks to consumers, for example, the Avian H5N1 influenza. The recent outbreak of avian influenza (bird flu) in Asia, including Thailand, has heightened public awareness on requirements of good production practices in poultry and poultry products for both local and international needs. In addition, accurate and timely dissemination of information regarding diseases like bird flu are important issues that affect public perception and the implementation of preventive measures. Lessons from the avian influenza outbreak in terms of building cost-effective monitoring and surveillance systems can form a good basis for this and other poultry-borne diseases. The laid down regulations of "good" agricultural practices at each stage in the whole poultry production chain in Thailand are examined to assist in identifying the critical points that might have led to this outbreak. The knowledge gained is used in formulating preventive measures at these points.
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This article discusses the nature and role of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) as a food safety control system and, in particular, its role as an element of public food safety regulation. The notion of efficiency in food safety regulation is discussed and related to the nature of food safety controls. It is suggested that, if appropriately applied, HACCP is a more economically efficient approach to food safety regulation than command and control (CAC) interventions. The economic implications of HACCP are discussed with reference to estimates of the costs and benefits, in particular for the food industry. Finally, the use of HACCP as an international trade standard and the facilitation of trade in processed food products is considered.
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The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves.
The future competitiveness of the U.S. food industry depends on its ability to deliver high-quality products at competitive prices to domestic and international markets. Recent developments in the establishment and operation of quality management metasystems are having important effects on this competitiveness. Their use has the potential to enhance product quality, simplify contractual relationships, demonstrate compliance with regulations, and improve responsiveness to customers. Their use is also requiring novel internal organization and market linkages between firms.
Food Safety and Globalization of Trade in Food: A Challenge to the Public Health Sector
WHO (1998) Food Safety and Globalization of Trade in Food: A Challenge to the Public Health Sector. WHO/FSF/FOS/97.8 Rev 1.
Meat Inspections Facing Overhaul, First in 90 years: Scientific Testing Will Replace 'Sniff and Poke' Inspections
  • T S Purdum
Purdum, T.S. 1996."Meat Inspections Facing Overhaul, First in 90 years: Scientific Testing Will Replace 'Sniff and Poke' Inspections," New York Times, 145 (50481), July 7.
Emerging Pathogens Seen Needing Military-Style Thinking
  • Anonymous
Anonymous. 1996. "Emerging Pathogens Seen Needing Military-Style Thinking," Food Chemical News, 38(32), 7.