Article

Creating and Evolving an Open Innovation Ecosystem: Lessons from Symbian Ltd.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Firms that practice open innovation strategies rely on the cooperation of external firms to provide components, complements and customers for the innovations of the focal firm (Chesbrough, 2003). Such strategies can be quite complex in systems-based industries, which inherently require coordinating across a wide range of partners to deliver customer value (West, 2006).Open innovation researchers have theorised that value networks (or business ecosystems) can play an important part in such open innovation strategies (Vanhaverbeke, 2006; Maula et al, 2006). However, limited empirical work has been done on the process of creating such ecosystems and the forces and processes that cause them to evolve over time.In considering firm ecosystem strategies, we are interested in the linkage between firm motivations, ecosystem strategies and outcomes, and how these factors and their relationships evolve over time. To do so, we examine the complex ecosystem surrounding Symbian Ltd. that supports its mobile phone operating system.After reviewing prior research on open innovation networks, we present a longitudinal case study on the creation and evolution of Symbian’s ecosystem over three distinct phases in its first decade. From this, we identify inherent challenges of managing open innovation networks, including creating a new network for an unproven value proposition, and prioritising the conflicting needs of disparate network members.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... As a large-scale socio-technical system, the evolution of service ecosystem may follow different trends, either evolving from low level to high level, or degrading from high level to low level. Successful cases include Google's Android, Apple's IOS, etc.; failure cases, such as Nokia's Symbian operating system, etc [9]. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to reveal the laws behind the evolution of service ecosystem. ...
... Alistair Barros et al. defined five main roles in Web service ecosystem, thus to discuss the service provision, discovery and choreography, interaction, quality management, coordination and other key problems [22]. Moore pointed out that enterprises play different roles and occupy different ecological niches in service ecosystem depending on their own resources and abilities [9]. Villalba et al. designed the multi-agent-based simulation model to analyze the features of service ecosystem, including self-organization, self-adaptability and continuous evolvability, etc. [23]. ...
... Vision range Bounded random within the range of [3,9]. ...
Article
With the development of ICT (information and communications technology) and service economy, service ecosystem is emerging in a lot of fields, including E-commerce, O2O(Online To Offline) life service, healthcare service, cloud manufacturing, and so on. As a complex socio-technical system, the evolution of service ecosystem is the joint result of the interaction of the three heterogeneous networks, including social network, service network and value network. Under such circumstances, the traditional SOA (Service Oriented Architecture)-based analysis model is powerless. As a result, how to analyze the laws behind the evolution of service ecosystem is still a serious challenge in the field. This paper proposes a value oriented analysis framework (VOA) of service ecosystem, which can use value as a clue to describe the interaction of the three heterogeneous networks. In addition, a computational experiment system is established to verify the effectiveness of the VOA framework, which stimulates the effect of different intervention strategies on service ecosystem. The result shows that our analysis framework can provide new means and ideas for the analysis of service ecosystem.
... If an OSS community has a meritocratic coordination process in place [63], influence on the development direction of the community may be gained by participating in the development and maintaining a symbiotic relationship [5,10,12,39,53,60,67]. This may help steer the community including competitors and to manage potentially conflicting agendas [39,45,50,60,76]. ...
... For example, the idealistically motivated objective CO4 -Be a good open source citizen, implying that an organization should respect and understand the needs, governance and culture of the community [1,5,10,12,52]. Further, the commercially motivated costsaving objectives implied by the extended development workforce (CO12), and related benefits, has also been observed in a number of other studies (e.g., [23,27,42,48,66,68]). Support was also found for the survival, or more strategically, motivated objectives such as CO9 -Build a software ecosystem [74,76]. Some objectives, however, were not reflected among the reviewed literature, e.g., CO5 -Create price pressure on third-party vendors and suppliers. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Context: Software-intensive organizations' rationale for sharing Open Source Software (OSS) may be driven by both idealistic, strategic and commercial objectives, and include both monetary as well as non-monetary benefits. To gain the potential benefits, an organization may need to consider what they share and how, while taking into account risks, costs and other complexities. Objective: This study aims to empirically investigate objectives and complexities organizations need to consider and balance between when deciding on what software to share as OSS, when to share it, and whether to create a new or contribute to an existing community. Method: A multiple-case study of three case organizations was conducted in two research cycles, with data gathered from interviews with 20 practitioners from these organizations. The data was analyzed qualitatively in an inductive and iterative coding process. Results: 12 contribution objectives and 15 contribution complexities were found. Objectives include opportunities for improving reputation, managing suppliers, managing partners and competitors, and exploiting externally available knowledge and resources. Complexities include risk of loosing control, risk of giving away competitive advantage, risk of creating negative exposure, costs of contributing, and the possibility and need to contribute to an existing or new community. Conclusions: Cross-case analysis and interview validation show that the identified objectives and complexities offer organizations a possibility to reflect on and adapt their contribution strategies based on their specific contexts and business goals.
... Firstly, researches on innovation ecosystems are mostly conceptual and case studies in particular industries, such as IT and mobile communications with economies of scale (Gunasekaran and Harmantzis, 2008;Kim, et al., 2015;Rong et al., 2013;Zhang and Liang, 2011), while less attention is paid to CoPs manufacturing,. Secondly, limited work has been done on the process of creating and nurturing an innovation ecosystem considering both the emergent and intended forces interactively causing it to evolve over time (West and Wood, 2008). Lastly, prior studies mainly view innovation ecosystem from the technology dimension. ...
... Last, to generate continual improvement and indigenous innovation, CGN further opens its key interfaces by collaborating and sharing resources such as channels and complementary technologies with its prior competitors and local research institutions or universities. This open innovation practice proves to be more effective than keeping the technological domain concealed (West and Wood, 2008) (see Figure 7). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates how complex product systems (CoPs)-based innovation ecosystem is created in terms of structure and interactions among players, as well as how technology, value and capability evolve at different stages of an innovation ecosystem. Based on an exploratory case study on the innovation ecosystem of a nuclear power giant-China general nuclear power group (CGN) for the period 1987-2014, this paper presents a framework to explicate the micro-foundation of the formation mechanism of an innovation ecosystem for CoPs. Three ecosystem stages are identified: ecosystem incubation, ecosystem figuration and ecosystem self-renewal. Through the three stages, CGN has been extending its ecosystem gradually from core business to extended network and ecosystem periphery. This study provides theoretical and managerial implications for building and managing innovation ecosystems in developing countries.
... In recent years, some scholars have put forward innovative research ideas from the perspective of ecological system. West (2008) [3] presented major challenges in open innovation management by the case research of Symbian ecosystem. Li Haijian(2008), et al., [4] considered that enterprises have to seek external cooperation at various stages of innovation, and brought public sector, users, suppliers and other external resources into innovation ecological communities; Chen Jin, Chen Yu-fen ( 2006), et al., [5] considered the status of users, suppliers and partners should be enhanced, knowledge and resources of internal and external were fully used and integrated, innovative ecological system was built. ...
... In recent years, some scholars have put forward innovative research ideas from the perspective of ecological system. West (2008) [3] presented major challenges in open innovation management by the case research of Symbian ecosystem. Li Haijian(2008), et al., [4] considered that enterprises have to seek external cooperation at various stages of innovation, and brought public sector, users, suppliers and other external resources into innovation ecological communities; Chen Jin, Chen Yu-fen ( 2006), et al., [5] considered the status of users, suppliers and partners should be enhanced, knowledge and resources of internal and external were fully used and integrated, innovative ecological system was built. ...
... Open innovation is regarded as "the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively" (Chesbrough, 2006: 1). This large and rich body of literature assumes that at the core of open innovation is the ability to create an open innovation ecosystem, a social architecture that allows interdependent firms to access a broader pool of external resources, including knowledge, goods, and expertise (Bogers, Sims, & West, 2019;Chesbrough, Lettl & Ritter, 2018;West & Wood, 2008). According to Xie and Wang (2020: 29), "Firms in open innovation ecosystems expand organizational resources and allow for collaborations across organizations, which can promote the flow, aggregation, and integration of resources". ...
... Existing innovation theory shows that successful innovations require new knowledge, capabilities, and other resources that often come from external sources. A promising strategy for meeting this challenge is adopting open innovation and creating an open innovation ecosystem (West & Wood, 2008;Chesbrough et al., 2018;Bogers et al., 2019;Xie & Wang, 2020). Previous research on innovation ecosystems has examined a wide range of actors beyond the boundaries of a single industry, such as creative consumers, product users, communities, universities, government institutions, and competitors that all affect each other through their activities (Jacobides et al., 2018;Reynolds & Uygun, 2018;Tang; Ma; J. Xiao; & L. Xiao, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-firm openness is critical to creating an open innovation ecosystem. However, a method for measuring openness among ecosystem firms has not been developed. We demystify the largely implicit openness construct by introducing a five-dimensional, 20-item Inter-Firm Openness Scale (IFO-Scale). Using three qualitative and four quantitative data sets from two innovation hubs: Macquarie Business Park (Australia) and Silicon Valley (USA), we present the development and validation procedures in three interrelated studies. Study 1 generates a descriptive model of an open innovation ecosystem, identifies the critical openness dimensions among ecosystem firms, and refines items for measurement. Study 2 examines dimensionality and internal construct validity. Finally, Study 3 establishes the nomological- and criterion-related external construct validity. The IFO-Scale replicates across samples and demonstrates strong psychometric properties. The measure aids managers in assessing the degree of inter-firm openness in their innovation ecosystems and enable researchers to test and advance open innovation theory.
... If an OSS community has a meritocratic coordination process in place (Shaikh and Henfridsson 2017), influence on the development direction of the community may be gained by participating in the development and maintaining a symbiotic relationship (Linåker et al. 2019a;Magnusson 2005, 2006;Butler et al. 2018;Schaarschmidt et al. 2015;Syeed et al. 2017;Nguyen-Duc et al. 2019). This may help steer the community including competitors and to manage potentially conflicting agendas (Linåker et al. 2019a;West and Wood 2008;Munir et al. 2016;Schaarschmidt et al. 2015;Mäenpää et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Context Software-intensive organizations’ rationale for sharing Open Source Software (OSS) may be driven by both idealistic, strategic and commercial objectives, and include both monetary as well as non-monetary benefits. To gain the potential benefits, an organization may need to consider what they share and how, while taking into account risks, costs and other complexities. Objective This study aims to empirically investigate objectives and complexities organizations need to consider and balance between when deciding on what software to share as OSS, when to share it, and whether to create a new or contribute to an existing community. Method A multiple-case study of three case organizations was conducted in two research cycles, with data gathered from interviews with 20 practitioners from these organizations. The data was analyzed qualitatively in an inductive and iterative coding process. Results 12 contribution objectives and 15 contribution complexities were found. Objectives include opportunities for improving reputation, managing suppliers, managing partners and competitors, and exploiting externally available knowledge and resources. Complexities include risk of loosing control, risk of giving away competitive advantage, risk of creating negative exposure, costs of contributing, and the possibility and need to contribute to an existing or new community. Conclusions Cross-case analysis and interview validation show that the identified objectives and complexities offer organizations a possibility to reflect on and adapt their contribution strategies based on their specific contexts and business goals.
... Such features recall the idea of open innovation ecosystems, an expression which combines the concepts of business ecology and open innovation. According to West and Wood (2008) and , an open innovation ecosystem comprises communities of different stakeholders who, linked by competitive as well as cooperative relationships, co-create value by adopting an open approach. Based on that and building on Hirvonen-Kantola et al. (2015) and Nevens et al. (2013), we consider a urban lab as an open innovation ecosystem wherein open innovation practices are adopted to identify and address urban problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban labs are open innovation ecosystems, i.e. places, either promoted by companies or local institutions or spontaneously established by active citizens, wherein the current problems and challenges associated with a city are discussed and possibly innovative solutions are designed and implemented. Urban labs usually face complexity in managing the contributions of several heterogeneous actors. The paper presents the Urban Lab Methodology (ULM), which supports the management of urban labs by integrating Soft System Methodology with an open innovation framework previously developed by the authors. The former is a methodology to facilitate the structuration and solution of complex problems involving different stakeholders, whereas the latter aims at suggesting an association between the innovation context and the open innovation practices to be adopted. ULM is used to analyze the case study of Manifesto della Città Vecchia e del Mare (" The Old Town and Sea Manifesto "), a urban lab created in Taranto (Italy) in 2014. The analysis shows that theoretical prescriptions are to a great extent coherent with the real course of action and ULM is relatively easy to be adopted.
... The service provider offers all stakeholders a platform for trading alternative connectivity solutions, content or context information These four models can be seen as layered business model framework ( Figure 3) and forming an ecosystem where the lower level business models serve as enablers and value levers for the higher layers. Collaboration of the focal firm with its ecosystem is the one defining factor of business model openness, either as a decisive or novel element (Frankenberger et al., 2014;West and Wood, 2008) In the development of IoT related offerings, it is essential early on to consider the underlying business opportunities that are attractive and feasible for all the key stakeholders, thus bringing our attention to value co-creation and co-capture, thus expanding the value creation and value capture also to value sharing (Jansson et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This conceptual paper discusses the emerging theme of Industrial Internet and business models within the context of digital business. Industrial Internet under the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm connects the digital world with the physical one. Industrial Internet can be understood as a layered business ecosystem and hence, the business models within the context should be viewed through the ecosystemic lens as well. Companies are challenged in creating and capturing value beyond the physical product due to the complex nature of the IoT domain. Technology is there for many, but business application remains an issue. This stresses the crucial role of business models. However, majority of current business model conceptualizations do not consider the interconnected nature of firms that evolve in the same innovation ecosystem. The role of the external environment in value creation and capture processes has been neglected. This research addresses this gap in literature by presenting a new approach to business model thinking, the “oblique business model” that within co-evolving IoT business ecosystems builds on the value sharing perspective. We thus view the oblique business model as an ecosystemic business model.
... Investing in OSS may also be costly and create differentiation and property right protection challenges, as indicated by Stuermer et al. (2009) who studied the Nokia Internet Tablet, which was based on a hybrid of OSS and proprietary software development. West and Wood (2008) examined the complex ecosystem surrounding Symbian Ltd. and identified three inherent difficulties for organizations leading an OI ecosystem: 1) prioritizing the conflicting needs of heterogeneous ecosystem participants, 2) knowing the ecosystem requirements for a product that has yet to be created, and 3) balancing the interests of those participants against those of the ecosystem leader. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. Aim. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. Method. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Gerrit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. Results. The findings of the case study include five major themes: i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Conclusion. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to
... Google built a lively ecosystem around its Android open source community named the " Open handset Alliance ". On the other hand, Nokia's Symbian is an open source operating system that failed to create a vibrant ecosystem due to its inability to attract partners and develop a rich set of apps (West and Wood, 2008). The examples above show that choosing the right ecosystem strategies and governance mechanisms are life-or-death decisions for orchestrator organizations. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The field of Software ecosystems is a growing discipline that has been investigated from managerial, social, and technological perspectives. The governance of software ecosystems requires a careful balance of control and autonomy given to players. Orchestrators that are able to balance their own interests by bringing joint benefits for other players are likely to create healthy ecosystems. Selecting appropriate governance mechanisms is a key problem involved in the management of proprietary and open source ecosystems. This article summarizes current literature on software ecosystem governance by framing prevalent definitions, classifying governance mechanisms, and proposing a research agenda. We performed a systematic literature review of 63 primary studies. Several studies describe governance mechanisms, which were classified in three categories: value creation, coordination of players, and organizational openness and control. The number of studies indicates that the domain of software ecosystems and their governance is maturing. However, further studies are needed to address central challenges involved on the implementation of appropriate governance mechanisms that can nurture the health of ecosystems. We present a research agenda with several opportunities for researchers and practitioners to explore these issues.
... Investing in OSS may also be costly and create differentiation and property right protection challenges, as indicated by Stuermer et al. (2009) who studied the Nokia Internet Tablet, which was based on a hybrid of OSS and proprietary software development. West and Wood (2008) examined the complex ecosystem surrounding Symbian Ltd. and identified three inherent difficulties for organizations leading an OI ecosystem: 1) prioritizing the conflicting needs of heterogeneous ecosystem participants, 2) knowing the ecosystem requirements for a product that has yet to be created, and 3) balancing the interests of those participants against those of the ecosystem leader. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Ger-rit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. The findings of the case study include five major themes: Communicated by: Hakan Erdogmus Empir Software Eng i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to make their internal development process better for its software developers and testers.
... 12 Successful product platforms create innovation ecosystems where the platform benefits from any value-crating member of the ecosystem. 13 On two-sided or multisided platforms, creators and customers interact directly. For crowdsourcing-based business models, the two sides comprise creators and consumers. ...
Article
Technology has transformed individuals from mere consumers of products to empowered participants in value co-creation. While numerous firms experiment with involving a crowd in value creation, few companies turn crowdsourcing projects into thriving platforms with a powerful business model. To address this challenge, this article analyzes successful platforms to identify patterns of effective crowdsourcing-based business models. The results provide guidance for managers who need to create new (or adapt existing) business models.
... Google built a lively ecosystem around its Android open source community named the "Open handset Alliance". On the other hand, Nokia's Symbian is an open source operating system that failed to create a vibrant ecosystem due to its inability to attract partners and develop a rich set of apps [7]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a software ecosystem, organizations work collaboratively to remain profitable and survive market changes. For the relationship between these organizations to succeed, it is necessary to participate in the ecosystem software without violating rules of collaboration or to take advantages that destabilize the general health of the ecosystem. The application of governance mechanisms is essential for achieving this balance. Governance mechanisms are employed to define the level of control, rights of decision and scope of owner versus shared ownership in an ecosystem. Selecting appropriate governance mechanisms, organizations can gain strategic advantage over others leading them to better performance and, consequently, to be healthier. In this article, we report a systematic literature review that aggregates definitions of software ecosystem governance and classify governance mechanisms in three dimensions: value creation, coordination of players, and organizational openness and control. Additionally, we propose a research agenda that addresses relevant topics for researchers and practitioners to explore these issues. Initially, we performed a systematic literature review of 63 primary studies. In this extended article, we have included more 26 studies to analyze the relation between health and governance. In total, we reviewed 89 studies. 52 metrics were identified and classified into the three health elements (productivity, robustness, niche creation). Our results suggest that software ecosystems governance determines decision rights between platform owners and extension developers, control mechanisms used by the platform owner, and platform ownership. We posit that ecosystem health is under the direct influence of how governance mechanisms are implemented by ecosystem’s players.
... At the organizational level, collaboration matters for the mobile industry, because such a complex system requires the coordination of innovations from heterogeneous technological fields [Kelly, 2006;Maula et al., 2006]. According to Funk [2004, p. 202 there is a real interest in analysing these processes at the systemic level, from the very earliest stage, all the more so as the literature has only just started to address this question [Maula et al., 2006;West & Wood, 2008;Le Masson et al., 2009]. In other words, for Henderson & Clark [1990], architectural innovation requires reorganization and the acquisition of knowledge by firms. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The telecommunications industry currently undergoes a dramatic evolution. Faced with the development of new uses on mobile phones, incumbents of the mobile phone industry (network operators and devices manufacturers) must adapt to a new technological and competitive environment.This new environment technologically relies on expansions of uses of digital objects (software and contents that can be either of professional, personal or leisure use) and thereby serves as a launching pad for actors more or less mature coming from software industries, copyright-based industries or the Internet industry. Based on this observation, our thesis rests on the idea that incumbents of the mobile phone industry must adapt to this new environment in order to maintain their position, and must learn to coordinate with those new actors as coordination is required for this market to emerge. We therefore start with a historical analysis of the emergence of the mobile services industry so as to position the issues at stake regarding coordination. We then focus on “open source” projects for smartphone operating systems in order to analyse the interest of an open strategy. Last, we design an evolutionist simulation model so that to analyse the actors’ strategies linked with the structure of the industry and its effects on the technological structure.
... As the value is jointly created, partners usually team up throughout the whole product lifecycle (Chesbrough et al., 2014). Hence, value is generated through external relations within the ecosystem (West and Wood, 2008;Jansson et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In order to explore the dynamics of openness within SMEs, this study investigates how business model transformation relates to innovation strategy transformation. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research is conducted as a longitudinal qualitative single case study in order to fully follow transformation as a process. Findings: This research revealed that openness in SMEs is not about continuously increasing the level of openness, but SMEs can also begin to close their innovation strategy, even though the business model stays open. The level of openness varies based on strategic openness. Research limitations/implications: This study emphasizes that openness needs to be viewed as a continuum, where the level of openness may fluctuate during transformation. Furthermore, openness in business models and openness in innovation indeed are separate phenomena. Practical implications: Having an understanding how strategic openness guides business model transformation enables practitioners to better utilize open innovation as an innovation strategy. Originality/value: Through focusing on the relationship between business model transformation and innovation strategy transformation, we broaden the discussion on the dynamics of openness within SMEs.
... Fifth, I have followed the footsteps of many precious OI scholars (e.g. Rohrbeck et al. 2009;Schaffers et al. 2011;West and Wood 2008) by embracing an innovation ecosystem perspective (cf. Adner 2006; Adner and Kapoor 2010). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Public organizations are increasingly embracing open innovation (OI) practices. Still, little is known about how the challenges they face when doing so compare to the barriers that have been identified for OI in the private sector. Similarly, despite being recognized as imperative actors in private sector OI, the understanding of open innovation intermediaries' (OIIs) roles in public sector OI is limited. Given these two knowledge gaps, this licentiate thesis sets out to further the knowledge of what types of barriers impede public sector OI, and how OIIs can mitigate them. These issues are explored through four case studies within the public transport sector in Sweden. In all the cases, public organizations were trying to accelerate innovation through outbound OI practices, and in three of the cases, OIIs were utilized to facilitate the processes. A comparison of the case study findings and extant OI literature suggests that OI practices are harder to adopt for public organizations than for private firms. Public organizations face more rigorous regulations and more extensive bureaucracy, have fewer incentives to take risks, and are influenced by objectives and inner mechanisms that are difficult for external innovators to understand. Further, a cross-comparison of the case studies identifies that OIIs can mitigate the negative impacts of the aforementioned barriers by expanding the boundaries of innovation ecosystems, decreasing costs for distant search and data processing, fostering inter-organizational collaboration, and assisting public organizations in managing the innovation trajectory. Even so, the studied cases also illustrate that the introduction of OIIs can be contested, and that they might have hampering effects as well. Therefore, OIIs need to be carefully designed and launched so that they match the needs of the specific situations.
... Ecosystems where members share a common culture or stakeholder interests tend to most actively implement innovations [21]. Core enterprises play leading roles in the innovation ecosystem because they can make full use of internal and external resources for collaborative innovation to create and develop an open innovation ecology that meets the needs of various network members [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The characteristics of collaborative innovation and interactions among core enterprises, users, and partners are critical. Research is lacking on how to construct open innovation ecology through institutional design. This study explores how core enterprises effectively motivate users and partners to participate in innovation activities on the Internet and successfully constructing open innovation ecology, using the institutional logic theory and an exploratory case study of Xiaomi, a famous Chinese Internet enterprise. The findings are as follows: (1) three main characteristics of innovation carried out by core enterprises, users, and partners in the open innovation ecology—iterative innovation, social innovation, and joint innovation; (2) three new institutional practices—following, leading, and symbiotic mechanisms—which provide an effective institutional guarantee for interaction and innovation; (3) two kinds of institutional logic—administrative logic and social logic, which core enterprises follow to construct open innovation ecology on the Internet, and its change in innovation characteristics. Therefore, a full understanding of the changing rules of the institutional logic is fundamental for successfully building open innovation ecology. This study enriches both the open innovation ecology theory as well as the institutional logic theory. In addition, Xiaomi’s open innovation ecological development model proves that core enterprises can take the approach of building open innovation ecology. It provides a strong example to other enterprises on innovations on the Internet.
... According to the reviewed literature, many scholars have acknowledged the crucial role of orchestrators in innovation ecosystems with respect to managing conflicts and facilitating interactions (see Table VII). Studies have mainly focused on the role of the orchestrator in maximizing co-ownership and leading partners (Leten et al., 2013), in integrating and leading platforms to manage the challenges in the ecosystem (Adner, 2006(Adner, , 2012Adner and Kapoor, 2010;Dhanaraj and Parkhe, 2006;Nambisan and Sawhney, 2011;West and Wood, 2008), in adding value, leading and linking complementary products (Batterink et al., 2010), their dynamic role in the ecosystem development (Mankevich, 2014), and their individual and organizational capabilities (Ritala et al., 2009). Reflecting on the role of the orchestrator, Adner and Kapoor (2010) mentioned that the absence of a leader in managing the challenges with external partners could destroy competitive advantage and technology leadership of the actors in the ecosystem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Innovation ecosystems have not been defined univocally. The authors compare the different approaches to innovation ecosystems in the literature, the link with open innovation, the value creating and value capturing processes in innovation ecosystems, and the need to orchestrate them properly. In this way, the purpose of this paper is to provide a highly needed, concise overview of the state of the art in innovation ecosystem thinking. Design/methodology/approach A systematic screening of the literature searching for publications focusing on innovation ecosystems is carried out in the paper. The authors found 30 publications and compared the different approaches to innovation ecosystems: the authors classify them according to industries, the level of analysis, their central focus on innovation ecosystems, whether frameworks are developed in the publications, the main actors, focus on SMEs or large companies, the success of innovation ecosystems and the role of the orchestrator. Findings The authors found different approaches to innovation ecosystems in the literature. Some papers look at the link with open innovation, and others at the value creating and value capturing processes in innovation ecosystems, the role of orchestrators, etc. The authors also provide an overview about the industries, the level of analysis, the central focus of the research, the main actors in the networks and the success factors. The authors observe that most publications have been written in Europe and apply to European ecosystems. The approach in Europe is, to some extent, also different from the main focus of leading American scholars. Research limitations/implications The authors compare different approaches to innovation ecosystems. This provides a highly needed understanding of the state of the art in innovation ecosystem thinking. There are some limitations as well: the paper only does a literature review, and the authors are not developing a new framework to study innovation ecosystems. Practical implications The literature overview is not primarily focused on practitioners, but the tables in the paper provide a quick overview of good management practices for setting up and managing innovation ecosystems. Social implications Innovations ecosystems are, in some cases, established to solve major societal problems such as changes in healthcare, energy systems, etc. Therefore, they require the interaction between different types of partners including universities, research institutes and governmental agencies. Studying innovation ecosystems is crucial to facilitate social or societal changes. Originality/value The paper presents a highly needed overview of the literature about innovation ecosystems and a concise examination of the different aspects that are studied so far.
... al.(2017, p. 867) Times cited: 3 According toWest and Wood (2008) andChesbrough et al. (2014), an open innovation ecosystem comprises communities of different stakeholders who, linked by competitive as well as cooperative relationships, co-create value by adopting an open approach. al. (2017, p. 221) Times cited: 3 The term innovation ecosystem(Adner and Kapoor, 2010) refers to the set of innovative actors -upstream suppliers, buyers and downstream complementors -normally organised into a network. ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of innovation ecosystems has become popular during the last 15 years, leading to a debate regarding its relevance and conceptual rigor, not the least in this journal. The purpose of this article is to review received definitions of innovation ecosystems and related concepts and to propose a synthesized definition of an innovation ecosystem. The conceptual analysis identifies an unbalanced focus on complementarities, collaboration, and actors in received definitions, and among other things proposes the additional inclusion of competition, substitutes, and artifacts in conceptualizations of innovation ecosystems, leading to the following definition: An innovation ecosystem is the evolving set of actors, activities, and artifacts, and the institutions and relations, including complementary and substitute relations, that are important for the innovative performance of an actor or a population of actors. This definition is compatible with related conceptualizations of innovation systems and natural ecosystems, and the validity of it is illustrated with three empirical examples of innovation ecosystems.
... This value-driven operating process determines where the ecosystem is evolving. Successful cases include Google's Android, Apple's IOS, etc.; failure cases, such as Nokia's Symbian operating system, etc. [12]. So, it is very important to clarify the value operation mechanism of service ecosystem to identify the appropriate service operation strategy. ...
Preprint
With the development of cloud computing, service computing, IoT(Internet of Things) and mobile Internet, the diversity and sociality of services are increasingly apparent. To meet the customized user demands, Service Ecosystem is emerging as a complex social-technology system, which is formed with various IT services through cross-border integration. However, how to analyze and promote the evolution mechanism of service ecosystem is still a serious challenge in the field, which is of great significance to achieve the expected system evolution trends. Based on this, this paper proposes a value-driven analysis framework of service ecosystem, including value creation, value operation, value realization and value distribution. In addition, a computational experiment system is established to verify the effectiveness of the analysis framework, which stimulates the effect of different operation strategies on the value network in the service ecosystem. The result shows that our analysis framework can provide new means and ideas for the analysis of service ecosystem evolution, and can also support the design of operation strategies. Index
... Katri Valkokari, Marko Seppänen, Maria Mäntylä, and Simo Jylhä-Ollila than exploring the interdependency of evolving strategic choices in their context, in other words, within the ecosystem (West & Wood, 2008). Although the co-evolution of an ecosystem is an important characteristic and is strongly linked with the "when to compete" question (Adner, 2006), this perspective is quite case-specific, and therefore we focused on the two viewpoints of "where" and "how". ...
Chapter
Many companies experience a blurring of traditional industry boundaries. This challenge forces companies from various industries to look for alternative ways toward being innovative. One approach is to start initiatives for multi-cross-industry innovations. These cross-industry activities may lead to the development of new innovation ecosystems. In this context, I pose the central research question: By what kind of organizational framework are initiatives for multi-cross-industry innovation supported, and how can companies utilize this approach for the generation of new innovation ecosystems?
Article
Context: Open innovation (OI) is considered a main driver for inventions in general, and its challenges are touching software producing organizations (SPO) when they are moving from a closed innovation model to more open approaches, to accelerate their internal innovation process. Objective: This study aims to identify the OI state of the art in software engineering domain and report existing themes in the published research. Method: We launched a systematic mapping study and use existing themes of open innovation to conducted a thematic analysis. Moreover, the strength of the evidence was analyzed in the light of rigor and relevance criteria of research. Results: We identified 33 publications, divided into 9 distinct themes related to OI. We also found that 17 studies fall in the high–rigor/high–relevance category , suggesting the results are highly relevant to the industrial context. The research indicates that start-ups have higher tendency to opt OI compared to incumbents, however, evidence also suggests that firms familiar with absorp-tive capacity and assimilating knowledge into their internal R&D activities, has higher likelihood of gaining financial advantages.
Thesis
Full-text available
ملخص أظهرت العديد من الدراسات فعالية استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح حيث ركزت بشكل كبير على آثار الاستعانة بمصادر خارجية في الحصول على المعرفة الابتكارية، التعاون مع مؤسسات الطرف الثالث والتسويق الخارجي للتكنولوجيا؛ كما ركّز العديد من الكتاب على نموذج الاعمال كأداة تحليل لقياس مدى تحقيق الممارسات والآثار المختلفة لفلسفة الابتكار المفتوح في المؤسسات، وتتناول العديد من الادبيات الأنظمة البيئية والقدرات الديناميكية في إطار مناقشة تبني الابتكار المفتوح. من هذا المنطلق تحاول هذه الاطروحة أن تدرس العلاقة بين استراتيجيات الابتكار المفتوح وتحسين الأداء التنافسي، يتم ذلك بتحديد القضايا الإدارية الرئيسية النابعة من ممارسات وتطبيقات الابتكار المفتوح التي تساهم في تحسين الأداء التنافسي، تم الاعتماد على منهج دراسة حالة متعددة، وضحت النتائج وجود تأثير إيجابي لأنشطة الابتكار المفتوح على الأداء التنافسي، كما أظهرت تأثيرات إيجابية لاستراتيجية حجر الزاوية وللأنماط الابتكار المفتوح البيئية على نموذج الاعمال المفتوح، ودور معدّل للقدرات الديناميكية في هذه العلاقة. ABSTRACT Various studies have shown the effectiveness of Open Innovation strategies; basically they focused on the impact of outsourcing innovation knowledge, collaborations with third parties and external commercialization of technology. Other scholars emphasize on Business Model as an analyze tool to achieve different open innovation practices and implications, literature discusses ecosystems and dynamic capabilities in the context of adopting Open Innovation strategies. This study tries to assess the relationship between Open Innovation strategies and the competitive performance. We do that by identifying the managerial issues stemming from Open Innovation and positively enhance competitive performance; Multiple case study methodology is adopted; the results indicates a positive relation between different Open Innovation strategies, and the competitive performance, and also by the open Business Model, The keystone strategy and the open innovation ecosystem modes appear to have a positive impact on the open business model, dynamic capabilities positively moderates the relation.
Chapter
The study of cell’s electric properties began in XVIII. Since then, several researchers began focusing their studies in biomedical signals, making way for today’s high precision tech for modern medicine - expensive and used by professionals. However, the emergence of new research fields in the biomedical area like monitoring of human activity and human-machine interface brought the need to measure biomedical signals through simple devices. In addition, there was a growth of the DIY (do-it-yourself) movement boosted by prototyping platforms such as Arduino and Raspberry-pi. Thus, came the idea to develop YouMake, a platform for acquisition and conditioning of biomedical signals with low cost, easy prototyping, versatile and generic. For evaluation purposes, an experimental study using YouMake with twenty-four participants was divided into two groups, the first consisting of participants with experience in the study area and the latter represented by participants with no experience. Usability and prototyping time of the participants in the prototyping of the platform for the acquisition of three biological signals were evaluated: ECG, EMG and EOG. The usability and prototyping time of the participants were evaluated in the prototyping of the platform for the acquisition of three biological signals: ECG, EMG and EOG. The results were statistically analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk, Levene and t-student tests, which showed that there was no statistical difference between the means of the experienced and the non-experienced groups. This showed that both experienced and inexperienced people in the study have the same ease in using the platform.
Article
In software ecosystems, partner management concerns establishing and maintaining meaningful relationships with partners to improve ecosystem health. At the same time, software ecosystem orchestrators have insufficient insight into partner management tools. Because of this, they fail in attracting and maintaining partnerships with software producing organizations, ultimately hindering their ability to build healthy software ecosystems. This research presents a classification for partner management activities to aid orchestrators in establishing and maintaining partnerships. We contribute (1) a methodology to assess partner management in software ecosystems, (2) a classification of knowledge and activities for partner management, and (3) a starting point for the development of theory regarding partner management activities. The classification and the activities are evaluated in five case studies of software platform orchestrators.
Article
Full-text available
The trivialization of smartphones has given rise to an architectural reconfiguration of the mobile operating system innovation process. We have also seen the recent emergence of three “open source” consortia: the Symbian and LiMo Foundations, and the Open Handset Alliance. In this exploratory paper, we analyse the coherence of these consortia using an open source framework to perform the necessary reconfiguration at both the technological and organizational level. In order to evaluate the coherence of this strategy, we analyse the ability of these consortia to produce standards. Bearing in mind the exploratory nature of this research, this allows us to demonstrate that, although these consortia exhibit original forms of “open innovation”, they find it difficult to produce consortia standards by means of vertical coordination. Equally, we consider various scenarios dealing with the construction of standards, examining in particular horizontal collaboration between these consortia. JEL Codes: L15, L17, L86, L96, O33, O34
Article
Full-text available
Examines alternative theories of the technical compatibility standard-setting process as a means of co-ordinating component and sub-system suppliers in complex product systems industries, particularly those involving software, integrated circuits, and telecommunications. These industries are chosen to illustrate the different influences of the nature and pace of technological change on the choice of institution and the governance process involved in standard-setting. The focus of existing theories of standards governance on relative institutional efficiency will be contrasted with a theory in which the nature and pace of technical advance have a fundamental influence on institutional design and process.
Article
Full-text available
The literature on strategy formation is in large part theoretical but not empirical, and the usual definition of "strategy" encourages the notion that strategies, as we recognize them ex post facto, are deliberate plans conceived in advance of the making of specific decisions. By defining a strategy as "a pattern in a stream of decisions," we are able to research strategy formation in a broad descriptive context. Specifically, we can study both strategies that were intended and those that were, realized .despite intentions. A research program suggested by this definition is outlined, and two of the completed studies are then reviewed--the strategies of Volkswagenwerk from 1934 to 1974 and of the United States government in Vietnam from 1950 to 1973. Some general conclusions suggested by these studies are then presented in terms of three central themes: that strategy formation can fruitfully be viewed as the interplay between a dynamic environment and bureaucratic momentum, with leadership mediating between the two forces; that strategy formation over time appears to follow some important patterns in organizations, notably life cycles and distinct change-continuity cycles within these; and that the study of the interplay between intended and realized strategies may lead us to the heart of this, complex organizational process.
Article
Full-text available
Most research on open source software communities has focused on those that are community founded. More recently, firms have founded their own open source communities. How do sponsored open source communities differ from their autonomous counterparts? With comparative examination of 12 open source projects initiated by corporate sponsors, we identify three design parameters that together help form a participation architecture—the opportunity structure extended to potential external contributors. In exploring sponsors' community design decisions, we found that sponsored open source projects were more likely to offer transparency than they were accessibility and that this had implications for their communities' growth. We contribute theoretical constructs that offer a common basis of comparison for the future study of open source projects and illustrate how the tension between control and growth affects open source community design and creation.
Article
Full-text available
Theorists often speculate why open source and free software project contributors give their work away. Although contributors make their work publicly available, they do not forfeit their rights to it. Community managed software projects protect their work by using several legal and normative tactics, which should not be conflated with a disregard for or neglect of intellectual property rights. These tactics allow a project’s intellectual property to be publicly and freely available and yet, governable. Exploration of this seemingly contradictory state may provide new insight into governance models for the management of digital intellectual property.
Article
As has been shown in books such as Charles Perrow's Normal Accidents, it is difficult to build reliable complex technologies. The primary reasons revolve around the communication of deep and heterogeneous information between design engineers, compounded by the difficulty of assuring foolproof manufacturing and integration of thousands of components. This chapter will show that most technical failures ultimately result from human error or miscommunication, and that the solutions to these problems, including systems integration, are likewise social in nature. Both engineering and historical analysis are used to point to the social basis of failure and dependability.
Article
This article addresses the issues of competitive advantage and competitor imitation. It is argued that tacitness, complexity, and specificity in a firm's skills and resources can generate causal ambiguity in competency-based advantage, and thus raise barriers to imitation. Reinvestment in causally ambiguous competencies is necessary to protect the advantage. Without reinvestment, attritional effects of continued competitive action will cause decay in the barriers to imitation. From this theorizing, research propositions are suggested, which, ultimately, will lead to an improved understanding of competitive advantage sustainability.
Article
Current research offers alternative explanations to the ‘linkage’ between the pattern of diversification and performance. At least four streams of research can be identified. None of these can be considered to be a reliable, predictive theory of successful diversification. They are, at best, partial explanations. The purpose of this paper is to propose an additional ‘linkage’, conceptual at this stage, that might help our understanding of the crucial connection between diversity and performance. The conceptual argument is intended as a ‘supplement’ to the current lines of research, rather than as an alternative explanation.
Article
The strategic group concept provides an attractive middle ground between firm and industry for both theory development and empirical analysis. To date, this concept has been defined by researchers in terms of secondary accounting and financial data, and a number of critics have questioned the validity of this work. Our research shows that industry participants share perceptions about strategic commonalities among firms, and that participants cluster competitors in subtle ways not reflected in extant academic research on strategic groups. Decision makers' perceptions and cognitions are phenomena that can be expected to influence industry evolution. They are of research interest as an additional source of data on firm commonalities which helps address concerns about previous strategic group research.
Book
From its first glimmerings in the 1950s, the software industry has evolved to become the fourth largest industrial sector of the US economy. Starting with a handful of software contractors who produced specialized programs for the few existing machines, the industry grew to include producers of corporate software packages and then makers of mass-market products and recreational software. This book tells the story of each of these types of firm, focusing on the products they developed, the business models they followed, and the markets they served. By describing the breadth of this industry, Martin Campbell-Kelly corrects the popular misconception that one firm is at the center of the software universe. He also tells the story of lucrative software products such as IBM's CICS and SAP's R/3, which, though little known to the general public, lie at the heart of today's information infrastructure. With its wealth of industry data and its thoughtful judgments, this book will become a starting point for all future investigations of this fundamental component of computer history.
Article
This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Article
Computer platforms provide an integrated architecture of hardware and software standards as a basis for developing complementary assets. The most successful platforms were owned by proprietary sponsors that controlled platform evolution and appropriated associated rewards.Responding to the Internet and open source systems, three traditional vendors of proprietary platforms experimented with hybrid strategies which attempted to combine the advantages of open source software while retaining control and differentiation. Such hybrid standards strategies reflect the competing imperatives for adoption and appropriability, and suggest the conditions under which such strategies may be preferable to either the purely open or purely proprietary alternatives.
Article
This paper attempts to explain why innovating firms often fail to obtain significant economic returns from an innovation, while customers, imitators and other industry participants benefit Business strategy — particularly as it relates to the firm's decision to integrate and collaborate — is shown to be an important factor. The paper demonstrates that when imitation is easy, markets don't work well, and the profits from innovation may accrue to the owners of certain complementary assets, rather than to the developers of the intellectual property. This speaks to the need, in certain cases, for the innovating firm to establish a prior position in these complementary assets. The paper also indicates that innovators with new products and processes which provide value to consumers may sometimes be so ill positioned in the market that they necessarily will fail. The analysis provides a theoretical foundation for the proposition that manufacturing often matters, particularly to innovating nations. Innovating firms without the requisite manufacturing and related capacities may die, even though they are the best at innovation. Implications for trade policy and domestic economic policy are examined.
Article
We explore the theoretical foundations of value creation in e-business by examining how 59 American and European e-businesses that have recently become publicly traded corporations create value. We observe that in e-business new value can be created by the ways in which transactions are enabled. Grounded in the rich data obtained from case study analyses and in the received theory in entrepreneurship and strategic management, we develop a model of the sources of value creation. The model suggests that the value creation potential of e-businesses hinges on four interdependent dimensions, namely: efficiency, complementarities, lock-in, and novelty. Our findings suggest that no single entrepreneurship or strategic management theory can fully explain the value creation potential of e-business. Rather, an integration of the received theoretical perspectives on value creation is needed. To enable such an integration, we offer the business model construct as a unit of analysis for future research on value creation in e-business. A business model depicts the design of transaction content, structure, and governance so as to create value through the exploitation of business opportunities. We propose that a firm's business model is an important locus of innovation and a crucial source of value creation for the firm and its suppliers, partners and customers.
Article
As with all new ideas, the concept of Open Innovation requires extensive empirical investigation, testing and development. This paper analyzes Procter and Gamble's 'Connect and Develop' strategy as a case study of the major organizational and technological changes associated with open innovation. It argues that although some of the organizational changes accompanying open innovation are beginning to be described in the literature, more analysis is warranted into the ways technological changes have facilitated open innovation strategies, particularly related to new product development. Information and communications technologies enable the exchange of distributed sources of information in the open innovation process. The case study shows that furthermore a suite of new technologies for data mining, simulation, prototyping and visual representation, what we call 'innovation technology', help to support open innovation in Procter and Gamble. The paper concludes with a suggested research agenda for furthering understanding of the role played by and consequences of this technology.
Article
In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the value chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies.
Article
Our understanding of how markets and businesses operate was passed down to us more than a century ago by English economist Alfred Marshall. It is based on the assumption of diminishing returns: products or companies that get ahead in a market eventually run into limitations so that a predictable equilibrium of prices and market shares is reached. The theory was valid for the bulk-processing, smokestack economy of Marshall's day. But in this century, Western economies have gone from processing resources to processing information, from the application of raw energy to the application of ideas. The mechanisms that determine economic behavior have also shifted--from diminishing returns to increasing returns. Increasing returns are the tendency for that which is ahead to get further ahead and for that which is losing advantage to lose further advantage. If a product gets ahead, increasing returns can magnify the advantage, and the product can go on to lock in the market. Mechanisms of increasing returns exist alongside those of diminishing returns in all industries. But, in general, diminishing returns hold sway in the traditional, resource-processing industries. Increasing returns reign in the newer, knowledge-based industries. Modern economies have split into two interrelated worlds of business corresponding to the two types of returns. The two worlds have different economics. They differ in behavior, style, and culture. They call for different management techniques, strategies, and codes of government regulation. The author illuminates those differences by explaining how increasing returns operate in high tech and in service industries. He also offers advice to managers in knowledge-based markets.
Article
The authors examine thirty years of computer industry market structure. Their analysis explains the persistence of dominant computer firms, their recent decline, and the changing success of competitive entry. It emphasizes the importance of technological competition between computer 'platforms,' not firms. This aspect of competition has changed little over time. Two things did change. Young platforms serving newly founded segments eventually challenged established platforms across segment boundaries through a process of indirect entry. Vertically disintegrated platforms have led to divided technical leadership in important segments. The result is an industry with far more technological competition. Copyright 1999 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Expansion of “MOAP” Software Platform for Mobile Terminals
  • Yoshizawa
  • Yuichi Masafumi
  • Yurin Ichikawa
  • Kogetsu
Yoshizawa, Masafumi, Yuichi Ichikawa and Yurin Kogetsu (2006).“Expansion of “MOAP” Software Platform for Mobile Terminals,” NTT DoCoMo Technical Journal, 8 15-18 (2006)
Smart mobile device shipments hit 118 million in
Canalys (2008). " Smart mobile device shipments hit 118 million in 2007, up 53% on 2006, " press release, February 5, URL: http://www.canalys.com/pr/2008/r2008021.htm Chesbrough, Henry W. (2003) Open Innovation, Boston: Harvard University Press.
Symbian for smartphone leaders: principles of successful smartphone development projects
  • David Wood
Wood, David (2005) Symbian for smartphone leaders: principles of successful smartphone development projects, Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2005.
From value chain to value network: designing interactive strategy
  • Richard Normann
  • Rafael Ramirez
Normann, Richard and Rafael Ramirez (1993), " From value chain to value network: designing interactive strategy, " Harvard Business Review, 71 65-77.
1.15 billion Mobile Phones Sold
  • Eric Zeman
Zeman, Eric (2008) " 1.15 billion Mobile Phones Sold in 2007, " InformationWeek.com, 25 January, URL: http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2008/01/115_billion_mob.html 31
The Business of Software
  • Michael A Cusumano
Cusumano, Michael A. (2004). The Business of Software. New York: Free Press.
The U.S. Software Industry: An Analysis and Interpretive History The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure
  • W E Steinmueller
Steinmueller, W. E, (1996). " The U.S. Software Industry: An Analysis and Interpretive History, " in Mowery, David C., ed., The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 15-52.
Partnering goals, 1H 2003 " internal document
  • David Wood
Wood, David (2003). " Partnering goals, 1H 2003 " internal document, Symbian Ltd., London, January 2003.
How Smartphones Work: Symbian and the Mobile Phone Industry
  • Phil Northam
Northam, Phil, ed. (2006). How Smartphones Work: Symbian and the Mobile Phone Industry, Chichester, UK: Wiley.