Article

Platform Economics: Essays on Multi-Sided Businesses

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This volume collects a series of essays that I have written over the last decade on multi-sided platform businesses that create value by providing products that enable two or more different types of customers to get together, find each other, and exchange value. Part I presents background pieces on the economics of multi-sided platforms and industries in which these platforms are common. Part II examines the antitrust economics of two-sided markets including the difficult problem of defining the boundaries of competition. Part III comprises several papers that apply two-sided market analysis to web-based businesses. Part IV does the same for payment cards which is the industry that attracted much of the early two-sided analysis — in part because this framework was helpful for understanding the hotly debated issue of interchange fees. Part V collects several article and book chapters on software platforms. These platforms have become especially important in the last several years because they are now the basis for revolutionary developments with mobile devices (e.g. the iPhone and Android), social networking (Facebook in particular), and payments (PayPalX).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Reciprocal recommendations such as job recommendation (Mine et al., 2013) dating applications (Pizzato et al., 2010;Xia et al., 2015) is the real-world application of multi-stakeholder recommender system (MSRS). Multi-sided fairness in MSRS may be achieved by incorporating the preferences of each stakeholder in the RS (Evans et al., 2011). ...
... Additionally, these techniques do not investigate the utility gain of producer, cast and system. MSRS is based on the principle of multi-sided fairness in business (Evans et al., 2011). Group recommendations establish preference-based fairness toward user groups (De Pessemier et al., 2012;Pujahari and Sisodia, 2020a, b). ...
Article
Purpose In a multi-stakeholder recommender system (MSRS), stakeholders are the multiple entities (consumer, producer, system, etc.) benefited by the generated recommendations. Traditionally, the exclusive focus on only a single stakeholders' (for example, only consumer or end-user) preferences obscured the welfare of the others. Two major challenges are encountered while incorporating the multiple stakeholders' perspectives in MSRS: designing a dedicated utility function for each stakeholder and optimizing their utility without hurting others. This paper proposes multiple utility functions for different stakeholders and optimizes these functions for generating balanced, personalized recommendations for each stakeholder. Design/methodology/approach The proposed methodology considers four valid stakeholders user, producer, cast and recommender system from the multi-stakeholder recommender setting and builds dedicated utility functions. The utility function for users incorporates enhanced side-information-based similarity computation for utility count. Similarly, to improve the utility gain, the authors design new utility functions for producer, star-cast and system to incorporate long-tail and diverse items in the recommendation list. Next, to balance the utility gain and generate the trade-off recommendation solution, the authors perform the evolutionary optimization of the conflicting utility functions using NSGA-II. Experimental evaluation and comparison are conducted over three benchmark data sets. Findings The authors observed 19.70% of average enhancement in utility gain with improved mean precision, diversity and novelty. Exposure, hit, reach and target reach metrics are substantially improved. Originality/value A new approach considers four stakeholders simultaneously with their respective utility functions and establishes the trade-off recommendation solution between conflicting utilities of the stakeholders.
... The reciprocal recommendation [9,10], such as the job recommendation [11] and dating application, is the similar real-world application of multi-stakeholder. The multi-sided fairness concept seeds the ground for multi-stakeholder recommendation [12]. ...
... The term multi-sided fairness in business initiated the multi-stakeholder recommendation culture [12]. Further, the multi-stakeholder recommendation is implemented as a group of users in a group recommendation system [5,23]. ...
Chapter
The conventional way of recommendation is exclusively focused on end-user personalization and accuracy improvement. Nowadays, business models are adapting a multi-sided fairness policy, and the multi-sided fairness could be achieved with a multi-stakeholder recommendation model. Recent studies suggested that the existing end-user focused recommendation model lacks in justifying other stakeholders’ needs and does not create any personalized recommendation environment. Thus, this research proposes a multi-objective optimization-based personalized recommendation framework suitable for preferences for every stakeholder in the system. Particularly this work considers the two stakeholders in the proposed recommendation model producer and system. We design two dedicated objective functions to address the preferences of producer and system stakeholders. The producer’s objective function is to enhance the producer’s exposure in the recommendation list, and the objective function of the system is intended to observe balance and fair recommendation. Next, to optimize the conflicting utilities of stakeholders, we propose a stakeholder optimization-based recommendation framework. The proposed model aims to improve utility gain and establish a balanced trade-off recommendation solution between stakeholders. The proposed model is evaluated based on cumulative utility gain against the baseline algorithms. The evaluation result describes the significant improvement in cumulative utility gain when the standard algorithms are altered with proposed objective functions.
... Two-sided platforms generally create added value by matching of two social and economic autonomous systems, the supply side with the demand side (Evans et al., 2011;Mäntymäki et al., 2019), and their success is related to their capability to attract a large number of users on the two sides providing them with new services that helped both sides in co-creating value and in getting new opportunities (Hwang et al., 2018;Belleflamme and Peitz, 2018). Furthermore, these platforms could create more surplus for the parties by offering important value-added service (Dou et al., 2016;Kuo et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2015). ...
... This growth mostly depends on a sentence/decision of the Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato (Italian antitrust) that has freed taxi drivers to use more than a single platform (traditional or digital) to get the rides. These data show that this platform can be considered as a good example of best practice, and so it is interesting to explore and describe the main strategies its management has designed and implemented to reduce the complexity embedded in the chicken and egg paradox and to leverage effectively the interconnection between the two subsystems (both passengers and taxi drivers) to create a stronger set of value creation processes that enhance the possibility of platform diffusion (Evans et al., 2011;Belleflamme and Peitz, 2018;Mäntymäki et al., 2019;Wang and Yang, 2019) and increasing its chances of an emergent behavior (Walby, 2007;Galkina and Atkova, 2020). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the chicken and egg paradox in the taxi e-hailing business contributing to define a condition of system emergence. This paradox is a meaningful one as these platforms represent a system where the passengers systems have no reason to participate if they have no drivers-systems to answer their call, but, at the same time, the platform is not useful to the drivers-system if there are no passengers-systems using the platform. Design/methodology/approach To understand how this paradox has been dealt with in the taxi e-hailing business, this study focused on a case study on a best practice in Italian taxi e-hailing industry (i.e. MyTaxi/FreeNow). This study wants to comprehend which actions have been implemented to solve this paradox and has tried to identify the interconnections between the various strategies to create a closed loop diagram for further testing. Findings This study has found that the company did not choose a single “subsystem” (passenger or driver), but it has stimulated the creation of several mutually reinforcing motivation for have both subsystems interact to help the company grow. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paradox has never been studied using the complex adaptive system perspective. This perspective is particularly useful in this case and in the similar ones with several different interacting factors that cannot be really studied without using a higher order perspective.
... O advento das plataformas virtuais tem contribuído para uma intensa recomposição de várias estruturas de mercado tradicionalmente estabelecidas. Essa poderosa transformação foi impulsionada como resposta à competição baseada em preços entre produtores de produtos relativamente similares [Evans et al. (2011)]. Ela está baseada em elementos como o profundo encurtamento dos fluxos de transações entre agentes, por meio do casamento temporal e físico de atividades complementares, impactando a forma como adquirir e alocar insumo, alterando os processos produtivos, criação de valor e determinando novos paradigmas para as estratégias competitivas, entre outros. ...
... A literatura analisa o problema da firma em plataforma a partir de elementos clássicos de estruturação de mercado, sobretudo preços e estratégias competitivas associados à criação de valor e sua distribuição [Choudary, Alstyne e Parker (2016), Evans et al. (2011), Kenney e Zysman (2015), Rochet e Tirole (2003)]. Porém, fatores relacionados à economia de escala e escopo ainda não foram tratados adequadamente. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper objectives to characterize the firm's cost function in a platform environment, in order to assess its possible non-optimally condition or null measure indicated by the literature. We consider there is a negative volume effect on unit costs through access to new markets and preferences homogeneity, besides greater demand predictability. So, we presented theoretical evidence for global and multi-market firms, in addition to empirical evidence involving exporting companies. Theoretical results suggest that the firm plans a greater volume of production by acting more intensively along different trade margins, implying a reduction in its unit costs. This result is consistent with our estimates, exporting firms tend to have a less inclined marginal cost function.
... The main OLCB-platform operational features, such as the cross-knowledge of the public types of agents in the context of risk-related services, determine the need to include possible credit risk data in the set of dependent variables. An OLCB platform's dependency on the network externality effect (Banerjee et al. 2017;Evans et al. 2011) determines the need to include dependent variables that describe the number and qualities of creditors participating in a contest. As transaction prices are determined by agents, and the setting of unfavourable prices for a customer is one of the main risks in OLCB platform operations, variables describing the pricing aspects of provided loan offers should also be included in the model's dependent variables. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognised that the ability of e-commerce businesses to predict conversion probability, i.e., acceptance probability, is critically important in today’s business environment. While the issue of conversion prediction based on browsing data in various e-commerce websites is broadly analysed in scientific literature, there is a lack of studies covering this topic in the context of online loan comparison and brokerage (OLCB) platforms. It can be argued that due to the inseparable relationship between the operation of these platforms and credit risk, the behaviour of consumers in making loan decisions differs from typical consumer behaviour in choosing non-risk-related products. In this paper, we aim to develop and propose statistical acceptance prediction models of loan offers in OLCB platforms. For modelling, we use diverse data obtained from an operating OLCB platform, including on customer (i.e., borrower) behaviour and demographics, financial variables, and characteristics of the loan offers presented to the borrowers/customers. To build the models, we experiment with various classifiers including logistic regression, random forest, XGboost, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines. Computational experiments show that our models can predict conversion with good performance in terms of area under the curve (AUC) score. The models presented are suitable for use in a loan comparison and brokerage platform for real-time process optimisation purposes.
... Классификация платформ описана во многих исследованиях (см., например: [Katz, Shapiro, 1986;Shapiro, Varian, 1999;Roson, 2005;Rochet, Tirole, 2006;Rysman, 2009;Anderson, 2010;Evans, Schmalensee, 2010;Eisenmann et al., 2011;Evans, 2011]). ...
Article
This paper examines the impact of digital platforms on the development of industrial companies, their role for the development and formation of sustainable competitive advantages by industrial enterprises. It is investigated how digital platforms affect efficiency and what negative network effects industrial companies experience. As a method of empirical research, the case method of eight Russian industrial companies is used, the number of which varies from 38 to 996 people. All the industrial companies included in the sample have been working on digital platforms for more than 5 years. The results of the study were the conclusions that digital platforms are used as an opportunity to enter foreign markets only by small industrial companies, large and medium-sized companies use other sources of internationalisation; digital platforms are not used as a source of innovative development. Digital platforms serve as an ecosystem to create a better offer for customers. Digital platforms are also a source of sustainable competitive advantages due to the formation of relationships with partners and obtaining information about consumers and markets.
... The operation of data sharing platforms, such as social media, describes a process that takes accumulated data as an input and produces value as an output. In other words, the data shared by users accumulates to the platform, and it enables users to interact in a valuable manner [86], which becomes one of the core motivations to adopt and use the platform and also the chief denominator to measure changes in value across the platform [87]. ...
Article
Full-text available
People use social media to achieve particular gratifications despite expressing concerns about the related privacy risks that may lead to negative consequences. This inconsistency between privacy concerns and actual behaviour has been referred to as the privacy paradox. Although several possible explanations for this phenomenon have been provided over the years, they each consider only some of the obstacles that stand in the way of informed and rational privacy decisions, and they usually assume a static situation, thus neglecting the changes taking place over time. To overcome these limitations, this article incorporates all the key privacy obstacles into a qualitative system dynamics model and examines the conditions under which the privacy paradox emerges over time in the context of social media. The results show that the privacy obstacles prevent adequately accounting for the negative consequences by (1) reinforcing gratifications, thus inducing social media adoption and use, while (2) hampering the realisation of (all) negative consequences, thus reducing the motivation for social media discard. Moreover, gratifications kick off early and often seem to dominate even major long-term negative consequences, thereby resulting in users becoming only gradually concerned about privacy, by which time they are usually deeply engaged in the platform to consider discarding, and therefore arriving in a paradoxical situation that seems not viable to escape from (i.e., the boiling frog syndrome). Conversely, major short-term negative consequences are more likely to conflict with gratifications already earlier, thereby resulting in users becoming less engaged, more concerned, and therefore still able to discard the platform, thus resolving the paradoxical situation.
... Las plataformas digitales son infraestructuras físico-lógicas de procesamiento y comunicación de información en línea (Dantas, 2018) que permiten, a dos o más grupos de usuarios, interactuar entre sí. Esto incluye las plataformas de comercio electrónico, motores de búsqueda, redes sociales, servicios de mensajería, sistemas operativos, navegadores web y plataformas audiovisuales (Evans, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo analiza cuatro proyectos de ley propuestos por el Comité Judicial de la Cámara de Representantes de los Estados Unidos para promover la competencia en los mercados de la economía digital. Las plataformas propiedad de Amazon, Apple, Facebook y Google se posicionan como intermediarios entre sus usuarios y otros agentes económicos. Esto les permite cobrar tarifas supra-competitivas, imponer términos contractuales abusivos y extraer datos de las empresas que dependen de ellas. De esta manera, las plataformas constituyen y regulan un mercado para terceros en el que compiten simultáneamente. Desde la economía de plataformas y el derecho de la competencia, en este trabajo se examinan las legislaciones propuestas, su relación con el marco jurídico actual y sus efectos sobre las prácticas comerciales de las plataformas digitales. Las normas disponen: 1- adoptar presunciones estructurales e invertir la carga de la prueba sobre fusiones y adquisiciones anticompetitivas; 2- prohibir conductas discriminatorias que las plataformas dominantes practican contra los usuarios comerciales que dependen de ellas; 3- requerir la separación estructural entre las actividades que constituyen conductas discriminatorias; y 4- establecer requisitos obligatorios de interoperabilidad y portabilidad de datos. En conjunto, estas medidas tienen tres efectos sobre la competencia. En primer lugar, previenen la concentración de los mercados. Además, eliminan los conflictos de interés por la propiedad, o control simultáneo, de una plataforma y una línea de negocios complementaria. Finalmente, reducen las barreras de entrada al mercado al bajar los costos de cambiar el servicio.
... Two-sided platforms are specific multi-sided platforms that bring together two distinct but interdependent groups of customers which are the consumed (i.e., the customer side) and the supplied customers (the supplier side). A two-sided platform has proliferated rapidly with the Internet and this has led to the development of new business models to monetize innovative value propositions not only in online but also offline markets [2,[5][6][7]. Two different customer groups whose interactions are usually enabled over the platform. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the alternative mathematical modeling of the two-side platform. Two-sided platforms are specific multi-sided platforms that bring together two distinct groups of a model. The stochastic modeling by adapting various innovative mathematical methods including the first exceed theory and the stochastic pseudo-game theory has been applied for describing a two-sided platform more properly. A stochastic pseudo-game model is newly introduced to solve the two-sided platform more effectively. Analytically tractable results for operation thresholds for maximizing profits are provided and it also delivers the optimal balance of a two-sided platform. The paper includes how these innovative models are applied into various two-sided market situations. Additionally, users could conduct these multi-sided models to real business developments and the case practices of these unique models shall help the readers who want to find recommendations of their business situations easily even without having any mathematical background.
... CONCLUSION According to our analysis, internet platforms are mainly based on the size of the network externalities to conduct game competition[14]. There is a critical mass in the development and competition of platforms[15]. Before the critical mass, the role of external effects of the platform is very small, so it pursues rapid expansion of the size of the users, which can survive and avoid the establishment of failure. ...
... The literature on platform economies -rooted in digital labour studies -comes mostly from the global North, which has established a monopolistic narrative of the situation on a global scale (Evans 2011;Gillespie 2008;Rifkin 1995). However, it is essential to have specific analyses, and situated and geographically perspectives on the debates around platform economies that account for the complexity and difference of the socio-economic impacts on the global South. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article provides a decolonial and feminist analysis of a particular kind of platform economies, namely those working on location-based applications called on-demand delivery apps. The focus is on the impact of this platform work on women on-demand delivery workers in Ecuador. Through this analysis, the author aims to enrich the study of transnational organisational processes of platform labour by arguing for the importance of intersectional approaches, where gender and migration are essential categories. By drawing on decolonial theoretical and methodological approaches, this paper makes reveals that women face more vulnerability working with on-demand delivery apps, such as sexual harassment and care work overload, but also, that they must make their way into leadership positions in a highly masculinised sector. The article shows that women on-demand delivery workers have the capacity to organise and resist bad working conditions and that they utilise transnational networks to do so.
... The extant literature has classified platforms into four types: exchanges, transaction systems, advertisingsupported media, and software platforms (Evans, 2011;Sriram et al., 2015). The software platform is an extensible codebase of a software system that provides both core functionalities shared by the modules that interoperate with it and the interfaces through which they interoperate (Tiwana et al., 2010); it connects developers with users through the software on the platform, such as app stores (Apple App Store, Google Play), operating systems (e.g., Windows, Android), and video game platforms (e.g., Steam, Xbox). ...
Article
Considering a two-sided software platform with software developers on one side and software users on the other, we study whether the platform should adopt a penetration pricing strategy or skimming pricing strategy on the developer side. We propose a two-period analytical model with asymmetric cross-side network effects to analyze the platform’s optimal pricing strategy. Our analysis reveals that the platform should adopt a penetration pricing strategy if the user-to-developer network effect is strong and a skimming pricing strategy otherwise. If the platform does not charge users an access fee, the platform should consider subsidizing developers’ access in the first period only. However, when the platform charges users an access fee, subsidizing developers’ access in both periods can be viable for the platform. Charging the software user an access fee incentivizes the platform to subsidize developers in the first period if the user-to-developer network effect is weak. Finally, this study reveals that the optimal access fee charged or subsidy provided to developers in the two periods is determined by several key factors: developers’ basic expectations about the revenue to be gained from the platform (optimistic or pessimistic), intensities of cross-side network effects, the lengths of the two periods, and the access fee charged to users.
... In general, the platform owner acts as a provider of services while network members consume these services. Thus, owners of an e-commerce platform sell space for online advertising to advertising agencies and a service to consumers who pay a transaction fee for using the e-commerce platform (Evans, 2011). From the perspective of merchants and consumers, products 2 Literature Review 25 and services offered on the e-commerce platform are exchanged bilaterally between these parties (Moser & Gassmann, 2016) at an agreed price on the basis of the platform conditions. ...
... Early understandings of platforms within the fields of media and communication studies draw on business research and computational studies. Platform media is usually perceived as a (free, neo-liberal) marketplace (Evans, Schmalensee, Noel, Chang, & Garcia-Swartz, 2011), an 'operating system' (Bogost & Montfort, 2009) that facilitates the formation of 'platform-mediated networks' (McIntyre & Srinivasan, 2017). Platform capitalism is thus constructed on the asymmetric power relations between developers, operators and users; technological functionality and design are programmed with instructions to guide the users' mode of engagement and experience (Bucher, 2013;Galloway, 2006). ...
Article
This article examines the cultural production of ageing in China. Specifically, it studies the representation and cultural construction of ageing on Red (xiao hongshu), a popular e-commerce orientated social media application (app). By noting the local in-app and techno-political dynamics the ageing discourse operates in, this article argues that the representation of ageing on Red reflects Chinese platform’s dual ambitions of pursuing market success and securing political support from the party-state. Drawing on data collected from a mixed-method approach of platform and document analysis, it finds that Red’s representation of ageing is located within the state’s official discourse that shifts the caring responsibility and duty to younger family members. By governing the ageing body, the Chinese government is also governing the general population. This article advances knowledge of digital media use in producing cultural discourses around their role in shaping biopolitical governance in China.
... Unlike other inter-firm arrangements such as traditional supply chains or even integrated value-webs where data is primarily a market enabler (Papazoglou et al., 2000), platforms incorporate data as an intrinsic component within their pricing structure. Access to, and concession of, data occurs in valuable 'interactions' (Evans et al., 2011) that become the core goal of all platform participants and the chief denominator used to measure changes in value across the platform (Evans and Schmalensee, 2016). Therefore, while platforms broker valuable exchanges for their external communities in a similar manner to firms across a value chain, platforms that preside over data-based exchanges create value by incorporating data as a tradable asset within a market structure that both enables and incentivises stakeholders to participate. ...
Article
CONTEXT Across agriculture, data is produced, enriched, and consumed through the centuries-old practices of producing food and fibre. The adoption of Smart Farming and its connected services and techniques accelerates agriculture's dependence on data, yet the process of creating value from data is not well understood. OBJECTIVE What assets and management decisions comprise the process of creating value from data? What are the properties of this process, and where should resources be invested to increase the value created from agricultural data? METHODS We extend platform economics theory with the results from a recent systematic literature review of Big Data in Smart Farming to show the creation of value from data occurs in Data Sharing Platforms. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Data sharing platforms are systems that connect the layers of the ‘platform stack’ with pertinent management tasks to create value from data. We illustrate this arrangement as a sectioned, three-circle Venn Diagram and evaluate the efficacy of common data management techniques in the creation of value from data. This paper concludes that value is created from data only when each of the components of data sharing platforms are present and that the operation of a data sharing platform describes the process that takes data as an input and produces value as an output. Further conclusions relate to commercial and institutional aspects of the creation of value from Smart Farming data. SIGNIFICANCE The proposed model is useful for evaluating production processes that create value from data. This paper details several avenues for extension. Productive models of systems that rely on data as a core asset may now be assembled. Policies that trade off technical characteristics of data with social impacts of data may now be approached. Questions surrounding data ownership may be considered with greater clarity.
... Often in nightclubs, one group proportion is higher than the other one, and attending the nightclub will become unattractive for the one group. To influence the volume of the two groups, the two-sided market allows the club owner to charge different prices to the groups,thereby influencing the proportions of participants and the attractiveness to attend the nightclub in general (Evans, 2011). In conclusion, the term 2SP shows a certain way of organizing one's business by balancing and influencing two sides of the market by pricing strategies and benefiting from its effect on the number of participants. ...
Article
Digital platform business models are disrupting traditional business processes and reveal a new way of creating value. Current validation processes for business models are designed to assess pipeline business models. They cannot grasp the logic of digital platforms, which increasingly integrate Artificial Intelligence (AI) to ensure success. This study developed a new validation process for early market validation of digital platform business models by following the Design Science Research methodology. The designed process, the Smart Platform Experiment Cycle (SPEC), is created by combining the Four-Step Iterative Cycle of business experiments, the Customer Development Process, and the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop of the Lean Startup approach and enriching it with the knowledge of digital platforms. It consists of five iterative steps showing the startup how to design their platform business model and corresponding experiments and how to run, measure, analyze, and learn from the outcomes and results. To assess its efficacy, applicability, and validity, SPEC was applied in the German startup GassiAlarm, a service marketplace business model. The application of SPEC revealed shortcomings in the pricing strategy and highlighted to what extent their current business model would be successful. SPEC reduces the risk of building a product or service the market deems redundant and gives insights into its success rate. More applications of the SPEC are needed to validate its robustness further and to extend it to other types of digital platform business models for improved generalization.
... Often in nightclubs, one group proportion is higher than the other one, and attending the nightclub will become unattractive for the one group. To influence the volume of the two groups, the two-sided market allows the club owner to charge different prices to the groups and thereby influence the proportions of participants and also the attractiveness to attend the nightclub in general (Evans, 2011). In conclusion, the term 2SP shows a certain way of organizing one's business by balancing and influencing two sides of the market by pricing strategies and benefiting from the effect that it has on the number of participants. ...
Article
Digital platform business models are disrupting traditional business processes and reveal a new way of creating value. Current validation processes for business models are designed to assess pipeline business models. They cannot grasp the logic of digital platforms, which increasingly integrate Artificial Intelligence (AI) to ensure success. This study developed a new validation process for early market validation of digital platform business models by following the Design Science Research methodology. The designed process, the Smart Platform Experiment Cycle (SPEC), is created by combining the Four-Step Iterative Cycle of business experiments, the Customer Development Process, and the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop of the Lean Startup approach and enriching it with the knowledge of digital platforms. It consists of five iterative steps showing the startup how to design their platform business model and corresponding experiments and how to run, measure, analyze, and learn from the outcomes and results. To assess its efficacy, applicability, and validity, SPEC was applied in the German startup GassiAlarm, a service marketplace business model. The application of SPEC revealed shortcomings in the pricing strategy and highlighted to what extent their current business model would be successful. SPEC reduces the risk of building a product or service the market deems redundant and gives insights into its success rate. More applications of the SPEC are needed to validate its robustness further and to extend it to other types of digital platform business models for improved generalization.
... Many e-commerce sites operate as multisided platforms, a business model analyzed in the economics literature by Rochet and Tirole (2003) and Evans et al. (2011). One important nding in the economics of multisided platforms is that di erent applications require di erent distributions of utility. ...
Preprint
Recommendation, information retrieval, and other information access systems pose unique challenges for investigating and applying the fairness and non-discrimination concepts that have been developed for studying other machine learning systems. While fair information access shares many commonalities with fair classification, the multistakeholder nature of information access applications, the rank-based problem setting, the centrality of personalization in many cases, and the role of user response complicate the problem of identifying precisely what types and operationalizations of fairness may be relevant, let alone measuring or promoting them. In this monograph, we present a taxonomy of the various dimensions of fair information access and survey the literature to date on this new and rapidly-growing topic. We preface this with brief introductions to information access and algorithmic fairness, to facilitate use of this work by scholars with experience in one (or neither) of these fields who wish to learn about their intersection. We conclude with several open problems in fair information access, along with some suggestions for how to approach research in this space.
... В (Evans, 2011;Шаститко, Паршина, 2016) предлагается следующая классификация платформ: 1) для осуществления экономического обмена между покупателями и продавцами; 2) объединяющие рекламодателей и СМИ; 3) устройства для осуществления трансакций (платежные системы); 4) программные -объединяющие разработчиков программ и их приложений. ...
... Digital marketplaces aggregate the assortment of several supply-side participants and require a data model for the articles capable of storing much unstructured data (image, video, exploded-view drawings, spare parts with historical data, etc.). The data model must be designed flexible so that it is suitable for different product categories agglomerating the diverse assortments of a number of participants from independent markets (Kollmann, 2019;Evans, 2011). This may lead to a decoupling of the master data storage of a transaction processing system (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Multi-sided markets (MSMs) have entered the retail sector as digital marketplaces and have proven to be a successful business model compared to traditional retailing. Established retailers are increasingly establishing MSMs and also participate in MSMs of pure online companies. Retailers transforming to digital marketplaces orchestrate formerly independent markets and enable retail transactions between participants while simultaneously selling articles from an own assortment to customers on the MSM. The retailer’s dual role must be supported by the retail information systems. However, this support is not explicitly represented in existing reference architectures (RAs) for retail information systems. Thus, we propose to develop a RA for retail information systems facilitating the orchestration of supply- and demand-side participants, selling own articles, and providing innovation platform services. We apply a design science research approach and present seven architectural requirements that a RA for MSM business models needs to fulfill (dual role, additional participants, affiliation, matchmaking, variety of services, innovation services, and aggregated assortment) from the rigor cycle. From a first design iteration we propose three exemplary, conceptual architectural patterns as a solution for three of these requirements (matchmaking for participants, innovation platform services, and aggregated assortment).
... With the development of Platform Economics (Evans et al., 2011), online retail (e-retail) channels become increasingly more important to manufacturers. They allow transactions to occur beyond the limitation of time and space. ...
Article
Although online business has been growing for some time, third-party e-platforms and their impact on e-channels are an under-explored area in the literature on dual-channel supply chains. Considering different combinations of open and self-support e-platform, this paper develops dynamic game models in four dual-channel e-retail structures to study pricing strategies and channel preference for manufacturers. The results provide interesting insights. First, a manufacturer’s optimal prices vary in different e-channels. Second, e-retail prices on the self-support e-platform and open e-platform are both affected by the e-platform’s service quality and commission fee. Regardless of the channel structure, a better service quality by one e-platform leads to an increase in its own e-retail prices and forces the competing e-platform to either improve its service quality or take a lower price. Lastly and more importantly, we compare the manufacturer’s pricing strategies and performances in different dual-channel e-retail structures and identify its preferences. Specifically, if the commission fee is dynamic, we find that the manufacturer always prefers to use two e-channels provided by different e-platforms, and at least one of the e-channels is the self-support model, although it is a sub-optimal strategy.
... It is relevant to note a shift that occurred in microeconomics in the early part of the 21st century with the development of the theory of multi-sided platforms [61,135]. Prior to that time, the traditional business model focused on a firm's ability to produce products and deliver them to customers at a price that could ensure profitability. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Traditionally, especially in academic research in recommender systems, the focus has been solely on the satisfaction of the end-user. While user satisfaction has, indeed, been associated with the success of the business, it is not the only factor. In many recommendation domains, there are other stakeholders whose needs should be taken into account in the recommendation generation and evaluation. In this dissertation, I describe the notion of multi-stakeholder recommendation. In particular, I study one of the most important challenges in recommendation research, popularity bias, from a multi-stakeholder perspective since, as I show later in this dissertation, it impacts different stakeholders in a recommender system. Popularity bias is a well-known phenomenon in recommender systems where popular items are recommended even more frequently than their popularity would warrant, amplifying long-tail effects already present in many recommendation domains. Prior research has examined various approaches for mitigating popularity bias and enhancing the recommendation of long-tail items overall. The effectiveness of these approaches, however, has not been assessed in multi-stakeholder environments. In this dissertation, I study the impact of popularity bias in recommender systems from a multi-stakeholder perspective. In addition, I propose several algorithms each approaching the popularity bias mitigation from a different angle and compare their performances using several metrics with some other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature. I show that, often, the standard evaluation measures of popularity bias mitigation in the literature do not reflect the real picture of an algorithm's performance when it is evaluated from a multi-stakeholder point of view.
... It is relevant to note a shift that occurred in microeconomics in the early part of the 21st century with the development of the theory of multi-sided platforms [61,135]. Prior to that time, the traditional business model focused on a firm's ability to produce products and deliver them to customers at a price that could ensure profitability. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traditionally, especially in academic research in recommender systems, the focus has been solely on the satisfaction of the end-user. While user satisfaction has, indeed, been associated with the success of the business, it is not the only factor. In many recommendation domains, there are other stakeholders whose needs should be taken into account in the recommendation generation and evaluation. In this dissertation, I describe the notion of multi-stakeholder recommendation. In particular, I study one of the most important challenges in recommendation research, popularity bias, from a multi-stakeholder perspective since, as I show later in this dissertation, it impacts different stakeholders in a recommender system. Popularity bias is a well-known phenomenon in recommender systems where popular items are recommended even more frequently than their popularity would warrant, amplifying long-tail effects already present in many recommendation domains. Prior research has examined various approaches for mitigating popularity bias and enhancing the recommendation of long-tail items overall. The effectiveness of these approaches, however, has not been assessed in multi-stakeholder environments. In this dissertation, I study the impact of popularity bias in recommender systems from a multi-stakeholder perspective. In addition, I propose several algorithms each approaching the popularity bias mitigation from a different angle and compare their performances using several metrics with some other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature. I show that, often, the standard evaluation measures of popularity bias mitigation in the literature do not reflect the real picture of an algorithm's performance when it is evaluated from a multi-stakeholder point of view.
... В вопросе обобщения знаний о развитии цифровых платформ следует обратиться к работам американского исследователя D. Evans [5]. Платформы являются ключевыми участниками многосторонних рынков, которые обеспечивают непосредственный контакт между вовлеченными в работу с платформой субъектами взаимодействия. ...
Article
The actual aspects of functioning the modern economy service sector are considered in the article. According to the results of the analysis of the scientific publications, the features of high-tech and highly professional intellectual services are defined. Methodology concept models of the service market and information space in the globalization system of the world economy are proposed. In the context of the topic chosen by the author, it is formulated that the service in the conditions of the digital transformation of the economy is a relation of social labor in the form of its non-commodity exchange and as a directly useful process of labor activity of a natural or legal entity. The methodological concept models of the formation of the information space, its structure in the system of globalization of the world economy, as well as the structure of the service market in the conditions of the neo-economy are proposed. The characteristics of the digital economy in the conditions of the global information space and in the era of neo-economics are provided. The theoretical background of the digital transformation of high-tech and highly professional intellectual services in the conditions of the information space has been carried out. The links between the information network economy and digitalization tools and techniques of the intellectual service sector are identified. The following conclusions regarding the qualitative changes of the new economy in the conditions of the global information space are formulated: the degree and speed of using the achievements of the information revolution in the conditions of the development of the service market have a decisive influence on the pace of social economic growth; the development of the digital economy in the conditions of the information space ensures the realization of the potential of the new economic system and forms a new global ecosystem; the sector of highly professional intellectual services is characterized by fragmentation and the absence of established definitions, but allows for analytical and practical research related to the assessment of the impact of digital technologies on the information and network economy.
Article
Aim. The presented study aims to develop recommendations aimed at optimizing the entrepreneurial activity of a marketplace. Tasks. The author briefly describes the functioning of a marketplace; justifies the classification of the marketplace as a two-way platform; identifies and formalizes platform management tools; determines approaches to pricing; substantiates the need to choose different strategies depending on the stage of the marketplace lifecycle. Methods. Based on the performed analysis, the author uses Tirol and Roche's basic model of bilateral platforms, the concepts of subsidized pricing and price discrimination in combination with the basic methodological approaches of entrepreneurship theory. Results. Additions are made to the definition of the concept of marketplace, and the viability of considering it as a bilateral platform is substantiated. The study highlights and formalizes business management tools in the bilateral market, identifies the most effective approaches to pricing and substantiates the need to apply different strategies at different stages of the marketplace lifecycle. The author develops recommendations aimed at optimizing the entrepreneurial activity of the marketplace. Conclusions. Marketplace is actually a bilateral platform. At different stages of its lifecycle, different strategies are needed to optimize different indicators. It seems appropriate to use a subsidized pricing model.
Chapter
Wie digitale Plattformen innerhalb von Gesundheitsmärkten differenziert werden können und was Künstliche Intelligenz (KI) für sie im Einzelnen bedeutet, thematisiert dieser Beitrag. Er trägt damit zur Systematisierung des Forschungsstandes bei, indem Kriterien für die Differenzierung verschiedener Plattformarten benannt und die Rolle von KI als Gestaltungsdimension digitaler Plattformen reflektiert werden. Außerdem diskutiert er aktuelle Erkenntnisse zu Nutzern, Einsatzmöglichkeiten, Chancen und Herausforderungen KI-basierter digitaler Plattformen. In der Praxis ermöglichen damit verbundene Innovationen Patienten, Leistungserbringern und Kostenträgern sowohl individuelle als auch kollektive Vorteile, welche sich im Einzelnen auf die Bereiche Anamnese, Diagnose, Therapie, Medikation oder Prävention beziehen. Häufig zitierte Chancen sind Effizienz- und Qualitätsgewinne bestehender Behandlungsmöglichkeiten, Entscheidungsunterstützung/-überwachung, Kostenreduzierung, Zeitersparnis oder eine insgesamt bessere Patient- beziehungsweise Physician-Experience.
Chapter
During the turn of the millennium, the national framework conditions favored the rapid development of e-commerce business and allowed this form of trade to become an essential driver of the Chinese economy. Numerous success factors, such as rapid economic growth, digitalization, and the leapfrogging effect, contribute to the upswing in Chinese online trade. The e-commerce boom in China is not only subject to the success of private companies and market developments, but also to the active intervention of the Chinese state in the market. Since 2006, the Chinese government has been supporting digital innovation in its own country with the “Made in China 2025” program.
Preprint
Full-text available
Construction waste is a type of solid waste that is inevitably produced in the process of urban development and has a dreadful environmental impact due to inadequate management of it by the public sector. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate platform governance as an alternative strategy for muck waste management that will contribute to a circular economy. A comparison between the traditional governance process and platform governance of muck truck management is made by using Petri-net. Nanjing’s muck smart supervision platform is used as a case study to assess effectiveness of the platform governance mode. Results from Petri-net simulation modeling software reveal that the platform governance mode is more effective than the traditional mode. Based on the case study of Nanjing’s muck smart supervision platform, it is found that the success of Nanjing's muck waste management can be attributed to the platform governance mode. This means that the platform management approach can contribute to the sustainability of muck waste governance. It is feasible to utilize the platform governance mode for muck waste as an integrated and effective management mode for current practices of muck waste management and resource recovery in China. The platform governance mode can significantly improve the efficiency of muck waste management and provide economic and environmental benefits as part of a circular economy.
Article
Доведено значущість цифрових платформ для розвитку економіки. Розглянуто підходи до визначення терміну «цифрова платформа». Особливу увагу приділено багатостороннім платформам, які є значно складнішими, але надають більший простір для інноваційного розвитку. Виокремлено основні їх риси. Розглянуто типи цифрових платформ в залежності від функціональних особливостей. Відзначено позитивні ефекти від поширення платформ для економіки. Досліджено проблеми, які пов’язані з їх запровадженням в Україні. Відзначено, що успішний розвиток цифрової економіки та поширення цифрових платформ потребує формування відповідної державної політики, яка має бути спрямована на підтримку цифрових трансформацій. Сформовано основні пріоритетні напрями розвитку цифрової економіки в Україні на основі платформізації.
Article
The economic significance of Internet of Things (IoT) platforms is evident from the proliferation of smart home assistant platforms like Amazon Alexa and Google Home that center themselves around providing unique and connected experiences to users. Customers do not perceive these platforms valuable if they do not experience adequate levels of quality and security from both the platform and applications (apps) they use. Therefore, the IoT platform provider as well as app developers need to go beyond collaboration and co‐create quality and security for each app on the platform. In this setting, we study the dynamics of the financial sustainability of the platform provider and app developers and find that the collaborative nature of the IoT platform has a significant role in the behavior and profitability of all parties. Specifically, a neutral entrant to the platform not only increases the effort levels of all existing parties, but also increases the profits due to network effects that are intertwined with economies of scale. We further find that a substantial number of apps are needed in the platform for an economically viable platform and that a less efficient platform leader needs even a larger application base. However, based on the number of apps on the platform and which party is more effective in the collaboration, the platform provider might need to provide additional incentives, or sometimes, extract additional rent from the app developers to financially sustain the platform. Furthermore, we verify our results in the presence of competition or complementarity among apps and further derive additional interesting results and managerial insights. For example, we find that the entry of a competing app may be beneficial for existing apps under some conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Full-text available
In theory, e-commerce marketplaces connect buyers and sellers, open trade opportunities, and reduce transaction costs thereby creating opportunities for more inclusive trade and even GVC participation, especially for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). Further, there is some evidence that MSMEs are more likely to use e-commerce marketplaces than large firms given these websites reduce search frictions and transaction costs, which can be relatively more beneficial for smaller firms. This discussion paper explores non-traditional data to investigate whether e-commerce marketplaces may contribute to MSME GVC participation. By looking at the development of business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce marketplaces, the gross merchandise value (GMV) of regional e-commerce marketplaces, and MSMEs' overall participation in B2B e-commerce marketplaces, descriptive statistics are gathered that contributes to the overall discussion on this topic. This discussion paper also links B2B e-commerce marketplaces with GVC facilitation through a novel approach of cataloguing these platforms' merchandise and finds that on average, roughly one third of B2B e-commerce marketplace listings are intermediate goods.
Chapter
The chapter analyses case studies testifying the emerging reality of health data pools. The enquired case studies involve health data pooling arrangements between traditional pharmaceutical companies and big data companies as well as between public institutions and big data companies. The case studies reflect the emergence of outright innovation networks governing digital health research, based on the collaboration between both private and public stakeholders. The chapter finally illustrates the different interests involved in the regulation of health data pools, encompassing public good and consumer welfare stances, the advancement of the protection of the right to health, as well as commercial interests and competition concerns.
Chapter
E-marketplaces are platforms that are increasingly sought by consumers. They have the particularity of often being intermediaries between producers, brands, or stores and consumers allowing transaction processes and relationships between them. But intermediaries generally have different customer risk perception and trust vis-à-vis producers. This work allows us to create a conceptual model in order to understand the relationship between constructs such as risk perception, consumers trust, satisfaction, and loyalty in e-marketplaces, which will be followed by an empirical study based on these variables.
Chapter
Because of the multi-sided nature of online markets and indirect network effects, traditional economic methods (such as SSNIP) are not applicable for analysing data-driven online markets. There are arguments to support avoiding defining a relevant market and focusing on the anti-competitive effects of the particular business conduct. There are also discussions on how new economic methods could be developed to replace SSNIP when defining a relevant market is necessary. The fifth chapter analyses the definition of the relevant market, which includes determining the elements of the data monopoly-related market, limitations of the traditional relevant market determination methods, and the feasibility of the application of new economic analytical tools.
Article
Full-text available
Digital platforms, understood as multi-sided matchmakers, have amassed huge power, reimagining the role of consumers, producers, and even ownership. They increasingly dictate the way the economy and urban life is organized. Yet, despite their influential and far-reaching role in shaping our economic as well as sociocultural world, our understanding of their embeddedness, namely how their activities are embedded in systems of social and societal relationships and how they conceptualize their main functions and actions in relation to their wider setting, remains rudimentary. Consequently, the purpose of this frontier paper is threefold. Firstly, it reveals the need to discuss and evaluate (dis-)embedding processes in platform urbanism in order to understand the underlying dynamics of platform power and urban transformation. Secondly, it aims to reveal the main reasons in regard to the difficulties in pinpointing digital platforms embeddedness. Thirdly, it seeks to propose future research unravelling the (dis-)embeddedness of the platform economy. This paper argues for three main reasons namely unawareness, unaccountability and non-transparency of digital platforms that drive the lack of embeddedness and reaffirms platform power. This is mainly based on the configuration of new commodities, platforms’ strategic avoidance of labour protections and other regulatory frameworks as well as platforms’ secrecy in which they operate. This frontier paper argues that transferring the concept of embeddedness to the platform economy might serve as a valuable tool to understand and pinpoint essential dynamics and relationships at play, therefore proposing embeddedness as a basis for future research on the platform economy. It strongly argues that a more detailed understanding is urgently needed, in order to be able to understand, accompany and actively influence the development of the platform economy in regulatory terms.
Chapter
Full-text available
Using four-firm concentration ratio and their financial performances, this study found that the structure of e-Commerce multisided platforms in Thailand is highly concentrated but firms cannot exercise their market power effectively. During period of study, leaders in retailer and marketplace e-Commerce platforms suffer losses due to employing the zero-pricing strategy and incurring high operational costs for building up big data whereas those in cross-border e-Commerce platforms reap net profits from their cross-subsidization strategy across countries and vertical e-Commerce platforms from click and mortar business model. By using a comprehensive big data together with artificial intelligence through machine learning and price-setting algorithms, each platform can track instantly the price charged by their competitors and automatically reacts to price changes by competitors, leading to price parallelism and tacit collusion. This horizontal coordination is anticompetitive practices. In contrast, vertical restraints encourage platform competition whereas unilateral conduct cannot restrict competition due to strategic consumers’ capability to switch platforms. In dynamic competition, innovation in business models, such as shop-in-shop and platform-in-platform strategies, B2B2C business model and social commerce, innovation in services such as e-Wallet and automation in warehousing continually change e-Commerce landscape in Thailand, attract new comers and increase competition in various activities, and limit ‘the winner takes all’ component in the market. However, implementation of competition policy is still needed to maintain free and fair competition in retail trade in Thailand.
Chapter
This chapter argues that the data-driven economy needs to figure out how to apply both competition and personal data protection laws. The implementation has to aim at preventing the situation where a group of people disproportionately gains at the expense of another group of people, whose data have been processed by the former. Without proper enforcement of competition and personal data protection laws, we argue that the feedback loop of having more data, better performance and greater talents will eventually worsen the problem of inequality. Thailand serves as a good case study of how the problem exists, while the implementation of both laws is still in retard. We propose that the line separating between personal and public interests has to be drawn and the effective enforcement of competition and personal data protection laws is at the heart of it.
Article
Full-text available
La crisis de salud pública y económica ocasionada por la pandemia del COVID-19 ha ilustrado de manera palpable el valor económico y social de las plataformas y la economía digital, y ha ayudado a despejar dudas sobre su papel positivo en varios frentes como el crecimiento, la generación de ingresos y la bancarización. En particular, en la reconfiguración de las cadenas de valor que genera la pandemia, las plataformas son vitales para armonizar las restricciones de distanciamiento social con la circulación de bienes y servicios. Adicionalmente, la creación y retención de empleo que han podido proporcionar las plataformas ha sido y será una variable crítica de la política social y de reactivación; especialmente, si se tiene en cuenta que en el mes de abril se perdieron cerca de 5.4 millones de empleos (GEIH, 2020). Las plataformas digitales han pasado a constituir una parte importante y creciente de nuestro diario vivir. A tal punto que difícilmente podemos concebir actividades como desplazarnos, alimentarnos, hacer compras y cumplir con obligaciones familiares y burocráticas sin la existencia de las mismas. Así mismo, la mayoría de nosotros siente cierta tranquilidad al pensar que podríamos convertirnos en prestadores de servicios de plataformas ante eventualidades como pérdidas de empleo, crisis económicas o migraciones forzosas; o simplemente, nos agrada saber que existe una fuente alternativa de generación de ingresos adicionales en un entorno de flexibilidad y autodeterminacion. Sin embargo, a pesar de ser un tema de actualidad, el gobierno, y la sociedad en su conjunto, no conocen cómo funcionan las plataformas (como modalidad específica de organización de mercados) y su impacto sobre la economía. Por esta razón, Fedesarrollo, en conjunto con una serie de negocios organizados como plataformas, emprendió esta investigación que busca responder las siguientes preguntas: Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia ¿Cuál es la magnitud del sector de las plataformas en Colombia? ¿Cuál es el impacto que tienen y pueden tener las plataformas sobre la productividad y el empleo? ¿Cuáles son los retos que tiene el sector hacia el futuro? Dadas las características y la novedad de los negocios de plataformas, la metodología utilizada para analizarlos también es particular. En efecto, a diferencia de lo que sucede con los sectores tradicionales, donde los investigadores pueden buscar el código CIIU en las fuentes de información oficiales; en el caso de las plataformas no existe un “sector” delimitado que permita dimensionar su tamaño, las interrelaciones con otros sectores y con la mano de obra, o su impacto económico. Esto, entonces, es un llamado a las autoridades correspondientes, y en particular al Dane, para que avance en esta dirección, no sólo a nivel de cuentas satélites, sino como una parte integral de la Encuesta Integrada de Hogares (GEIH), la Encuesta Mensual y Anual de Comercio (EMC y EAC), la Encuesta Nacional de las TICS (ENTIC) y el Censo Económico. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, y mientras las autoridades incorporan la información relevante, la única alternativa para analizar el sector es la recolección de información de fuentes directas. Por esta razón, se adelantaron casi 15 mil encuestas diligenciadas en los meses de diciembre, febrero y marzo -antes de la pandemia del COVID19- y dirigidas a las tres puntas sobre las que descansa el modelo de plataformas: (I) 4,843 encuestas a los prestadores de servicios independientes que generan ingresos a través de las plataformas digitales, (II) 126 encuestas a los negocios aliados (clientes o asociados institucionales de las plataformas), acompañados de 10 encuestas a profundidad, y (III) 10,312 encuestas a los usuarios (personas naturales que utilizan las plataformas para satisfacer sus necesidades a través de la compra de bienes o servicios ofrecidos por los aliados comerciales). Estas encuestas, se obtuvieron a través de seis plataformas: tres plataformas de mensajería/domicilios (Rappi, Domicilios.com y Mensajeros Urbanos); dos plataformas de transporte (Didi y Beat) y una plataforma de alquiler de implementos de transporte (Grin); y se complementaron con datos individuales a nivel de cada plataforma y con información obtenida de entrevistas y medios de comunicación de otras plataformas como: Uber, Cabify, Grin, Voom, Ifood, Picap y Muvo. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia Por razones de confidencialidad toda la información no pública se presenta de manera agregada. Así mismo, vale la pena anotar que estas encuestas pasaron directamente de los encuestados a Fedesarrollo, sin la intermediación de las plataformas. Es imposible realizar un análisis formal de representatividad de la muestra recogida en las encuestas, porque no se conoce la dimensión de la población objetivo y porque la muestra se obtuvo a través del envío masivo, sin tener la posibilidad de estratificarla. Sin embargo, cálculos preliminares y aproximados nos indican que el número de prestadores de servicios de plataformas de transporte y domicilios es cercano a los 200 mil (0.9% de la población ocupada), con lo cual, la muestra recolectada equivaldría al 2.5% del referente. Así mismo, se estima que existen 3549 firmas de comercio y servicios de más de 10 trabajadores que realizan ventas de bienes y servicios por internet (EAS, EAC, 2018), con lo cual la muestra de 126 encuestas entre los negocios aliados equivaldría al 3.5% del referente. Por último, se estima que existen cerca de 3 millones de personas que utilizan internet para comprar bienes y servicios en las principales 7 áreas metropolitanas del país – 12% de la PEA (Dane, Encuesta de uso de la tecnología en los hogares 2018), con lo cual la representividad mínima de la encuesta de usuarios sería del 0.34%. El número de encuestas realizadas, también puede dimensionarse al compararlo con el tamaño de otras encuentas utilizadas para aproximar la economía GIG. La muestra de JPMorgan Chase Institute (2018) cuenta con 4000 observaciones para caracterizar la economía GIG en Europa y 2000 observaciones para Estados Unidos; el estudio de CIPPEC (2018) utiliza 603 observaciones para caracterizar la economía GIG en Argentina, y el BID (2019), cuenta con 1152 encuestas para analizar las características de UBER en Colombia. Así mismo, el hecho de que estas encuestas hayan sido realizadas justo antes de la pandemia, y que cuenten con un nivel considerable de preguntas, las convierte en una línea de base fundamental para la evaluación del comportamiento de las plataformas en períodos de crisis. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia La pregunta de investigación detrás de este análisis, es cuál es la contribución de las plataformas digitales a la economía y a la sociedad colombiana en su conjunto. Esta contribución se estimó a través de cinco variables: la inversión, la productividad, el empleo, el bienestar de los consumidores y el medio ambiente; que se resumen en una estimación de la participación de las plataformas en el PIB. LAS PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONES QUE SE PUEDEN DERIVAR DEL ESTUDIO SON LAS SIGUIENTES: En general se estima que la participación de las plataformas en el PIB puede estar entre 0.2% y 0.3% en una estimación conservadora y que depende de la definición de sectores que conforman las plataformas. Las plataformas favorecen la innovación, la bancarización, el uso de tecnologías, la formalización y en particular, el pago de impuestos por parte de los aliados. Las plataformas no son sinónimo de precarización laboral. Las plataformas generan beneficios diversos a diferentes tipos de colaboradores. Los colaboradores que ejercen esta labor como actividad complementaria, encuentran en las plataformas la posibilidad de completar sus ingresos laborales en circunstancias de necesidad; los colaboradores con alto nivel educativo encuentran en las plataformas la posibilidad de tener actividades de jornada flexible, que no se encuentran disponibles en el mercado laboral formal y una respuesta a necesidades apremiantes de ingresos; los trabajadores comúnmente excluidos del mercado laboral, encuentran en las plataformas una oportunidad de generar ingresos sin ser discriminados, y en condiciones laborales que incluso pueden ser superiores a las que encuentran en el mercado, y los colaboradores de educación media encuentran en las plataformas una alternativa a la informalidad y el desempleo Sin embargo, entre los colaboradores también se presentan menores niveles de cotización a seguridad social. Esta situación se da, en parte, por la falta de esquemas viables de contribución para trabajadores independientes que ganan menos de un salario mínimo o para migrantes. Lo anterior llama a acciones conjuntas de las plataformas, los usuarios y las autoridades, como el del piso mínimo de protección social. Estas medidas podrían hacer que las plataformas pasen de ser un factor de aumento en la informalidad a un canal de formalización. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia Las plataformas tienen efectos en dimensiones no medidas en las cuentas nacionales, como el bienestar al consumidor (estimado en 0.08% del PIB) y el medio ambiente (el impacto de las plataformas se estima en un ahorro de 40,000 toneladas anuales de CO2, proporción pequeña del total de emisiones de Colombia -237 millones de toneladas anuales- pero con algún impacto alto localizado en los clústeres que usan más los servicios de plataformas de envío). De acuerdo con las encuestas realizadas, 45% de los negocios aliados afirman que su afiliación a las plataformas los ha llevado a aumentar el uso del internet, 37% a aceptar medios digitales de pago, 30% a pagar más impuestos, 22% a llevar registro de contabilidad y 18% a registrarse en la Cámara de Comercio. Así mismo, 45% de los prestadores de servicios afirman que las plataformas los han llevado a abrir una cuenta bancaria. A partir de la Encuesta del Uso del Tiempo (ENUT, 2019), una cuantificación de las tareas que se realizan en el hogar, que podrían llegar a ser reemplazadas por las plataformas se estima en 6.7% del PIB. Este porcentaje establece una cota máxima del valor potencial de las plataformas; aunque por ejemplo, incluye las labores realizadas por la población rural, que serían muy dificiles de asumir por estos negocios. En el valor total de las actividades, las tareas de preparación y distribución de comidas y el lavado de ropa ocupan un lugar predominante. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia A pesar de que las condiciones laborales de los prestadores de servicios de plataformas son inferiores a las de los trabajadores asalariados en términos de ingresos y de afiliación a seguridad social, son ligeramente superiores a las de los trabajadores cuenta propia. Por esta razón, para establecer el impacto de las plataformas sobre el bienestar social es fundamental preguntarse qué estarían haciendo los prestadores de servicios de plataformas si no existiesen estos negocios. Para solucionar este interrogante replicamos las preguntas de caracterización de la encuesta de hogares y utilizamos las técnicas de analisis discriminante y de comparación de medias controlando por variables observables. De acuerdo con los resultados, la ocupación alternativa en caso de que no existieran las plataformas depende del tipo de prestadores de servicios independientes. Existe un importante grupo de prestadores de servicios a través de plataformas con educación terciaria que tendrían altas posibilidades de tener un trabajo formal con mayores ingresos; pero que probablemente realizan actividades con las plataformas porque tienen altas preferencias por la flexibilidad de horario y/o por actividades que se puedan realizar de manera complementaria al estudio o a otro trabajo; o porque tienen necesidades de ingresos apremiantes. Así mismo, existe un porcentaje importante de prestadores de servicios a través de plataformas que tradicionalmente son excluidos del mercado formal y tienden a realizar actividades en el mercado informal, como los migrantes y los trabajadores con bajos niveles de educación. Para este grupo, las plataformas implican en promedio mejores condiciones laborales en un entorno en el cual existen bajos niveles de discriminación para la elaboración de tareas. Para un tercer grupo de prestadores de servicios de plataformas, con educación media, las plataformas son una alternativa de generación de ingresos que compite en condiciones laborales con otras alternativas de ingresos. Uno de los resultados más interesantes de este trabajo es que la afiliación de los prestadores de servicios a plataformas es incluso superior a la de los trabajadores independientes, aún después de controlar por variables observables. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia Lo anterior sugiere que el problema de informalidad entre los prestadores de servicios de plataformas en realidad es un problema horizontal a todos los trabajadores independientes; y en particular, pone de presente las dificultades de formalización que existen en el país para aquellos trabajadores independientes que generan ingresos en tiempo parcial. En efecto, en Colombia la cotización mínima para los trabajadores independientes es de un salario mínimo. Esta disposición hace inviable financieramente la formalización por parte de trabajadores que, aún ganando un salario por hora superior al mínimo -como es el caso del promedio de prestadores de servicios a través plataformas- no trabajan las horas suficientes para obtener ingresos equivalentes a un salario mínimo mensual. Por esta razón, no sorprende que cerca del 45% de la informalidad del país corresponda a trabajadores independientes que ganan menos de un salario mínimo mensual. Así mismo, no existen incentivos para la cotización de los trabajadores migrantes provenientes del exterior. Lo anterior llama a las autoridades a promover medidas de flexibilización de los esquemas de cotización, que podrían aumentar las tasas de formalización entre trabajadores independientes, mejorando su protección en su vejez y en situaciones de crisis y enfermedad. Una estrategia de este tipo podría hacer que las plataformas pasen de ser un factor de aumento en la informalidad a un canal de formalización. Las plataformas digitales, la productividad y el empleo en Colombia Cuando se analizan los beneficiarios de las plataformas a nivel desagregado existen dos paradojas que merecen discusión. La primera es que, aunque las mujeres podrían ser las más beneficiadas por la libertad de horarios, su participación dentro del total de prestadores de servicios de plataformas es relativamente baja. La segunda es que los adultos mayores, que son los usuarios que podrían tener mayores ganancias del bienestar en el uso de las plataformas, son menos propensos a utilizar sus servicios. Lo anterior lleva a proponer campañas activas de inclusión de estos grupos como: los servicios de transporte de "socioconductoras" para usuarias femeninas, políticas de seguridad para los prestadores de servicios de plataformas o las campañas de educación digital entre los adultos mayores. Finalmente, vale la pena llamar la atención sobre la disponibilidad que señalan los clientes para contribuir con causas altruistas como la seguridad social de los prestadores de servicios o el cuidado del medio ambiente. Lo anterior sugiere la recomendación de que las plataformas continúen explorando los canales de contribuciones voluntarias.
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing digitization of the economy has led to the creation and functioning of platform model socio-economic systems. It is also reflected in the changes in patterns of energy consumption in households. In the first cross-section, it is an industrial revolution, with environmental benefits. However, platforms are primarily a revolution in the consumption sphere, and here, the effects of digitization are not fully recognized. Our social needs are increasingly met “through accessibility” without us leaving our home. Due to the home's multifunctionality, based on the availability of platform services, household energy consumption should be viewed differently today than before. The article aims to show the changes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) household energy consumption between 2008–2018 and their assessment through the prism of the economy’s platformization methods. The study presents the changes in energy consumption in households and determines the correlations between platformization (the author’s index) and changes in energy consumption in households with the use of taxonomic methods. The platformization leaders—Estonia and Lithuania—were subjected to a more detailed analysis. The presented method(s) may be useful in predicting the changes in households’ energy consumption caused by the digitization of other countries in the region (countries under transformation and outsiders-Bulgaria, Romania), in implementing household energy management systems, and in a better adjustment of regulations directed at these consumers.
Article
Platforms are everywhere. The rise of Uber, Netflix, and Facebook has attracted a lot of attention to this business model. However, despite its relevance and presence in the digital economy, the definition of platforms, their main characteristics, the intuitions about how they set prices, solve coordination issues, or choose their ownership structure seem to be scattered in many papers. This review attempts to organize the last two decades of research on multisided platforms around three essential elements of platforms: price structure, network effects, and control rights. We highlight which definitions are used in the literature, how they are related to the defining characteristics of platforms, and what research has been made on those characteristics. We pay special attention to the research done on pricing, coordination problems, and ownership structure. We conclude by reviewing the theoretical evidence around monopolization and competition policy in multisided markets.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.