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This note describes the theory and interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, perhaps the most widely used assessment instrument today. The note is brief and appropriate for single, short sessions involving the Myers-Briggs. For more extended treatment, see the book entitled Please Understand Me by David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates (Del Mar, CA: Gnosology Books, 1984).
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
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This case was prepared by James G. Clawson with acknowledgement of John Pickering for his helpful comments
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At this point, you should have already completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
(MBTI) and been instructed by the booklet or your instructor how to score it. This scoring
procedure will give you a four-letter classification such as ENTJ or ISTP. If you have not
already done this procedure, please do so before you read on. The instrument is available only to
qualified test administrators and only through Consulting Psychologists Press of Palo Alto,
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is arguably the most commonly used assessment
instrument in American industry today. Many companies conduct seminars and, indeed, many
consultants have built their entire clienteles around this particular instrument. This level of
activity means that new versions of the instrument continue to be developed and that training
seminars on how to use the instrument are growing in number. Given the instrument’s unique
history, this development is significant.
Before World War II, Katherine Myers and her daughter, Isabel Myers Briggs, became
increasingly interested in the behavior of Isabel’s husband, Clarence G. Myers. In the midst of
their affection for him, they found that he behaved differently from what they, as mother and
daughter, were used to. This observation and family interactions surrounding it, along with an
interest in the recent (1921) publication of a theory of psychological types by Carl Jung,
stimulated their interest in understanding human behavior, particularly the differences in human
Do Not Read This Until You Have
Completed the MBTI
Distributed Separately
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behavior. This mother-daughter team embarked on what was to become a remarkable
professional stream of research that has lasted thus far over 40 years. That such a work should
begin in large part out of the desire to understand a son-in-law and a husband illustrates how
significant insights often grow out of reflection on ‘simple’ daily events by ‘usual’ people. This
underscores our fundamental thesis that you, while not trained in psychological assessment, can
understand the theoretical underpinnings of the various instruments that we will use and can
make reasoned, conservative conclusions from data generated by them.
Carl Jung
Carl Jung was a student of Sigmund Freud’s. Theirs was a close relationship, one often
reviewed as a example of mentor-protege relationships. After a highly publicized break with
Freud, Jung continued to develop and establish his own reputation in the field of psychology. He
proposed and then spent much of his career refining a theory of psychological types suggesting
that human behavior was not so random and chaotic as it seemed but, given the proper
framework for viewing it, really quite regular and predictable. His work grew largely from his
studies of his patients in psychotherapy over many years.
Jung’s theory, in brief summary, said that, in a person’s conscious mental activity, there
were four fundamental psychological processes: Sensing (S), Intuition (N), Thinking (T), and
Feeling (F). These, ‘functions’ as Jung called them, were distinct and unique from each other.
The four formed two bi-polar dimensions, S-N and T-F. People used all these activities or
processes but not all in predominant ways, and these characteristic patterns endured over time
and across situations. This patterned use of each mental activity gives rise to a certain predicta-
bility in a person’s behavior that allows an observer to categorize the individual according to a
relatively simple classification scheme.
Furthermore, one can observe distinct variations in these patterns depending on an
individual’s orientation to life, or ‘attitude’ (in the sense of posture) toward the outside world.
People seemed to attend more to either things outside them (which Jung called the extraverted
world) or to the inner world of thoughts and ideas (the introverted domain). This distinction
provided a third dimension, E-I. These three dimensions allowed Jung to categorize people
according to eight fundamental types: extraverts with a dominant sensing activity, introverts
with a dominant sensing activity and so on.
Myers and Briggs added a fourth ‘preference’ dimension to Jung’s theory by noting that
some people are generally open to new information while others are more interested in reaching
closure. They termed the ‘open’ characteristic Perceptive and the ‘closure’ characteristic
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These four dimensions can be
summarized as shown in Figure 1. The E-I
scale relates to a person’s orientation to the
outside world. The S-N dimension has to do
with focus of data collection, with the
perception of information. The T-F
dimension has to do with decision making,
and the J-P scale relates to openness to the
outside world. In Myers-Briggs parlance, the S-N and T-F are referred to as functions or mental
processes and the E-I and J-P dimensions as attitudes. From a broad perspective, the functions
on the left are ‘outer’ functions and the ones on the right are ‘inner.’ This perspective is
important to note because as individuals develop over time, they usually build complementary
strengths in the outer and inner functions.
Each of the four function/preference dimensions and the categories formed by them are
descriptive not prescriptive in nature. That is, each process has its strengths and weaknesses,
and none is preferred, in a general sense, more than another. Of course, the strengths and
weaknesses associated with each will affect a person’s ability to function in various jobs.
Therefore, the types may suggest better fits to one job over another, but by themselves, one type
is no more preferable or socially acceptable or good in any broad sense than another. In fact, as
you will see later, the diversity in types allows for greater strength in a variety of social settings.
Let’s examine each of the four dimensions more carefully. Note that Jung did not use the
labels of his dimensions in just the same way as lay language would suggest. One cannot read
the labels and immediately know what they mean. Look for the distinctions between what Jung
meant when he used the term ‘sensing’, for instance, and what the common English meaning
might be.
Jung’s definition of extraversion was that one’s attention was centered on things outside,
on people and objects external to the individual. Extraverts deal directly with the things around
them and are often more given to action than introverts. They process information externally,
often ‘thinking out loud’ and actively using others around them. One way to think of this is as a
flow of energy from outside to the inside; extraverts absorb energy from what is happening
around them.
Introverts, in contrast, generate energy internally. In a crowd, introverts typically lose
energy and are drained by the experience. This feature is not necessarily one of shyness; it is
one of focus of attention. Introverts take in and process internally, often in silence. The silence
does not mean that they are uninterested or shy, only that their mental processes are private and
inward. Crowds force attention to the external world and pull energy out of the introvert. The
flow of energy and information is from the inside out. John Pickering, an experienced MBTI
Extraversion --------- Introversion
Sensing --------- Intuition
Thinking --------- Feeling
Judgment --------- Perception
Figure 1. Myers-Briggs Type Dimensions
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trainer, notes that extraverts and introverts have the same proportion of good and bad ideas, but
everyone knows about the extraverts’ ideas.
Another way to think about the E-I scale is to ask: from where does an individual get
energy? What causes one to lose energy? If being in a crowd is draining, then one is probably
an introvert. If being in a crowd is exhilarating and energizing, then one is probably an
extravert. Another useful question is: Where does one prefer to process ideas, inside or outside?
And a third useful discriminating question is: Is one more action-oriented or more reflective?
Sensing relates to data collected through the five physical senses--sight, smell, touch,
taste, and hearing. Our physical senses do not deal with the future; they yield information on the
present and have offered data to be recorded in the past. Hence, those who use the sensing
process predominantly are, by definition, focused on the present.
Intuitive types rely on a sixth sense, intuition. They focus more on possibilities, what
could be, relationships among things, on concepts, theories, and alternative meanings. Rather
than describing a thing, they will imagine its connections with the future, with other things in the
past or present. Jung thought that the subconscious, rather than the outside, tangible, sensory
world, informed the intuition.
Thinking relates to the connections between ideas and concepts. As Jung used it, thinking
meant seeing logical, analytic, impersonal, and objective links from one thing to another.
Thinking types make judgments about the truthfulness of something, always asking, “Is it true or
false?” They tend to use impersonally held and ‘objectively’ applied moral principles to make
decisions, and they tend to focus on events, on facts, and on things.
Feeling to Jung, on the other hand, was a subjective activity based on value strength.
People who use the feeling process are sensitive to their own values and priorities and to the
values of others. This process is more personal than thinking. It is not just the emotional side of
a person, although values may give rise to emotions. Rather it comes from what an individual
holds to be important. Feeling types make judgments about the worth of something, asking, “Is
it good or bad?” They tend to be people and relationship oriented, using personally held values
and moral principles ‘subjectively’ applied to make decisions. These values may not necessarily
be ‘good’ in the eyes of society; the point is that they are personally and tightly held by the
feeling type.
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Judging types are desirous of organizing and concluding activities. They want to
accomplish something and move on. It is not that they are ‘judgmental’ in the usual sense of the
word, rather that they just do not want to linger over the alternatives and possibilities. Judging
types need control; they like to have plans, make decisions, reach conclusions, and work to
schedules and lists. They feel time pressure early on in a project or situation and press for
wrapping things up. Judging types want to control not only their own lives but the lives of those
around them and to control all the things that affect them. It would be difficult, for instance, for
a J to accept the prayer “Lord, grant me the strength to work on the things I can do something
about, the courage to avoid worrying about the things I can’t do anything about, and the wisdom
to know the difference.” They are impatient and often implement the process of “Ready, fire,
aim” or even just “Fire, fire, fire.”
Perceivers are looking for new information. They are receptive, open, adaptable, willing
to bring in additional data. Perceiving types need information, options, flexibility. They resist
control, plans, decisions, conclusions, closures, and schedules. They feel time pressures only
very late, often too late. They are loathe to make decisions too early, or even at all. In the early
stages of a decision-making process, they are useful and productive because they are not likely to
close down the data-collection process too soon. On the other hand, they often implement the
process “Ready, aim, aim, aim . . .”
A Developmental Model
Jung’s type theory is a developmental one. Born with a proclivity for one type and shaped
by their environment, individuals continue to develop skills in their chosen type over their
lifetimes. Jung taught that developing skill in one type precluded the development of skill in
another type. Some find this limitation disconcerting and prefer to believe that people can be or
should be expert in all types and their attendant behaviors. To Jung, such an effort would be the
mark of a less-developed mentality. The maturing adult, he argued, has chosen a type and has
become confident and at ease in it. Trying to develop superior skill in all types would leave one
underdeveloped in all. So, to Jung, people have dominant functions and subordinate functions.
This was not to say people were totally unable in their subordinate functions, but rather that the
well-developed personality was in part a result of having made an implicit choice of type and of
having developed skill and confidence in it.
As an individual developed a type in life by choosing to be involved in one setting above
another, Jung observed that the dominant process or function (S-N or T-F) was usually played
out in the preferred orientation (extraversion or introversion). For example, a dominant Sensing
type with a preference for extraversion would play the sensing function out in the external world.
At the same time, most people would then develop a counterbalancing subordinate function to
be played out in the other preference. The sensing extrovert was likely to develop a
complementary set of ‘inner’ functions. In this way, people were not completely incompetent in
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settings that played to their subordinate functions but were able to develop abilities that allowed
them to function quite well in various situations. Jung believed, however, that mature individuals
functioned more easily, more competently, and more naturally in settings that played to their
dominant functions.
On the other hand, John Pickering, for one, believed that ‘maturity’ meant that people over
their lifetimes developed skills in their nonpreferred styles that allowed them to function in
various settings.
Interpreting Type
The four-letter summary of your scores on the MBTI is your type. The numbers
associated with the letters indicate the clarity and consistency of your answers to the items on the
instrument. A high E score, for example, means that your answers were consistently clear in
favor of the Extraversion related items on the test. Your type will be arranged by function in the
order E-I, S-N, T-F, and J-P--for example, your type might be ESFJ.
One place to begin interpreting your type is to look at the numbers associated with each
letter. The larger number determines which function is noted in your type. The larger that
number is relative to its opposite, the stronger that function is in you. These numbers can be
displayed on a continuous scale in several ways. One way is to consider the mid-point between
them as zero and plot the difference between the scores as Steven Taylor and Carrie Baugh did
in the cases that follow. Plotting your scores on such a chart will help you visualize the
consistency of your answers on each scale. The scores you receive will depend in part on the
version of the instrument that you used; there are long forms and short forms of the official
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and many other instruments that purport to measure the same
The next thing to do is to recognize the dominant and auxiliary behavioral patterns that
your type suggests. Myers and Briggs have outlined an approach for identifying dominant and
auxiliary functions, and while this is an useful exercise, it is one that probably should be left to
those who wish to pursue the understanding of type much further than we can in this context.
The procedure for doing this makes several assumptions including the one that the J-P dimension
is an indicator of the dominant function and that it `points’ to the second function, S or N.
For our purposes, without wrestling through the technique of determining dominant and
auxiliary functions, we shall just note that four predominant temperaments emerge from the
Jungian types—SPs, SJs, NTs, and NFs. Keirsey and Bates (see bibliography) describe how
other psychological theories throughout history can be melded with Jung’s to describe, in
remarkably consistent fashion, these four broad temperamental behavioral types. Here is a brief
overview of these temperaments.
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The SP Temperament
Relying on their senses and eager to take in rather than close out, SPs are impulsive, tuned
to the moment. They want to be free, able to respond to whatever the current situation will
suggest. SPs resist preparing for doing for they would rather be doing, now. They are quite
happy to engage in activities with unknown outcomes. Tools are their forte; they love using
tools so much that they become experts with them. Charming, impulsive, light-hearted, cheerful,
SPs make acquaintances easily yet people often note years later that they have learned little more
about them than what they knew the first time they met. Having little goal orientation, SPs
display amazing endurance in the face of hardships; because they are living in the present,
worrying about the future does not weigh them down and they carry on. SPs, spontaneous and
engulfed in the excitement of the moment, become great performers and artisans and athletes.
Their practicing is doing while the other types practice for the performance later, SPs are
performing constantly. For the SP, whatever is now, is, and that’s what life is about. SPs are
relatively common comprising about 38% of the population of the United States.
The SJ Temperament
SJs are also about as common as SPs. Their behavior is focused around the concept of
duty, especially duty to the group. For them, loyalty is a central value. Loyalty brings with it
obligation and acceptance of rules. SJs learn the rules, obey the rules, and live by shoulds and
oughts. SJs save, prepare, plan for the safety of the group. SJs believe, in fact, must have
written, Murphy’s Law that if something can go wrong, it will. They work to prevent violations
of law and social order. They maintain and build institutions of social order. Their devotion to
the group and to orderliness lead them to professions where service is required—they teach, they
nurse, they serve, they care for others. They are the repositories of culture and tradition.
The NT Temperament
NTs are more rare than their SP and SJ cousins, only about 12% of American society.
Thus, they often feel like minorities in an alien world. For them, power is the dominant drive,
gaining and exercising power over their surroundings. NTs value knowledge, learning,
intelligence, improving, understanding, and perhaps above all, competence. NTs are highly self-
critical, holding themselves and others to high standards of insight and understanding. They
make lists of things they should do and should be able to do. NTs are less willing to accept
authority especially in matters of intelligence, preferring instead to understand the primary
rationale of a conclusion and sort it out for themselves. NTs fear failure and are driven to prove
to themselves and others that their competence will overcome any such probability. Like the
central theme for the other temperaments, this need to express competence for the NT is not an
issue that is ever resolved, rather one that must be demonstrated daily. NTs get caught up in
work and have a hard time playing or relaxing. Others find NTs discomforting and demanding;
consequently, this temperament is often isolated from others. NTs speak concisely and without
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elaboration. They say what they mean, say it once, and often wonder that others should find it at
all interesting since after all their study, things begin to seem `obvious’ to them and therefore
uninteresting. At the same time, others often see what the NTs have to say as abstract and
difficult to follow. NTs gravitate to the sciences, engineering, and mathematics. They focus on
the future and forget about the past. Having understood one set of phenomena, they move on to
The NF Temperament
NFs find in searching for themselves the meaning of life. To the other three
temperaments, this is a frustrating and inexplicable activity around which to organize life. For
the NF, the process of becoming one’s self, is what it is all about. About as rare as the NTs, NFs
exert unusual influence on society through their commonly chosen professions such as writers,
playwrights, journalists, and teachers. They are constantly searching for deeper and higher
meanings, insights that will shape and help society. NFs question themselves, their being, their
values, their beliefs, their roles. NFs often become overwhelmingly committed to their search,
sacrificing virtually everything else in their lives in favor of their quest. They search from one
intellectual group to another, hoping for answers, discovering inevitably shallow ones, and
moving on. They focus on people and their relationships, especially their relationships with
themselves. It is in the exploration of these relationships through intense and continuing
interactions, that the NFs find daily sustenance.
With this introduction to the four dimensions and the four temperaments that provide a
first level of analysis of type, we can move one step deeper to consider each of the 16 types
themselves. This further refinement shows how each temperament can differ internally and yet
be similar enough to be different from the other temperaments.
Characteristics of Types
The four dimensions outlined above can be
arranged in a variety of fashions. If we arrange them
according to the four temperaments we have just
discussed we can see a matrix of individual types as
shown in Figure 3.
While our primary focus here is the use of the
MBTI for individual analysis, a large version of this
matrix can be effectively used with small groups by
having each member of the group mark their type on it
and then opening a discussion of what the resultant
pattern means for the group’s ability to work together.
Figure 3. Myers-Briggs Types arranged
by temperaments
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Each intersection on this matrix represents a type with broadly predictable patterns of
mental and related behavioral activity. Although mental and behavioral indicators for each cell
are not constrictive in reality, they can help us to understand why people behave the way they do
and therefore to be better able to manage or deal with them. In the context of making career
decisions, these indicators can help us identify patterns in our lives that will help us choose
careers, industries, companies, and specific jobs that will allow us to utilize our strengths rather
than forcing us to play to our lesser developed sides. Figures 4 and 5 give some simple
preliminary indicators of the characteristics of each type. For more detailed information on each,
consult the test booklet from which you took the instrument or any of the many publications that
deal with the MBTI listed in the references at the end of this note. A particularly good and
readily available one is Please Understand Me by David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates.
Using Your Type
There are many ways you can use the information about yourself that the MBTI provides.
First, an understanding of your type and of that of people close to you can help you relate to and
understand these people. If, for instance, your spouse is an ENTJ and you are an ISTP, you can
anticipate that there will be times when the overt discussion of ideas in an animated way that
your spouse wants to engage in will be overwhelming to your desires to more quietly gather
some hard facts at hand and reach a ‘more solid’ conclusion. At the same time, you both share
an interest in the logical connections of things, but your spouse will want to process that with
you while you are likely to want to do that alone or in silence. These insights can help you talk
logically and effectively about how you deal with each other and to improve your relationship.
Obviously, this is also true of working colleagues, peers, bosses, and subordinates. For this
reason, the MBTI is, again, widely used in industry.
For this course, the main use of your type will be to use it in conjunction with other data to
develop themes that describe you and will help you formulate implications for the kind of work
you should be seeking. To the extent that sales requires one to focus on the values and feelings
of others, clear ISTJ types may find selling activities stressful since that is not their natural style.
For ISTJ’s there is a logical answer dictated by the strength of present facts. The natural
tendency to interact with others to see what they want or to help them see the ‘truth’ of the facts
is not as available to them as it is to ENFP’s, for instance. That is not to say ISTJ’s never make
good sales people. In certain kinds of environments, perhaps research labs or engineering
companies, they may indeed have the right kind of chemistry with the people they would be
working with.
Beware! This brings us to a major caveat. The MBTI is often misused. With its
increasing popularity and use, comes some unfortunate superficiality. The MBTI is a seemingly
simple yet very complex instrument. The more one delves into the meaning of mental functions
and orientations and how they dynamically affect each other, the more powerful the model
becomes. And it is not the final answer to human behavior in career choosing or organizational
life. It is one tool, a tool if used with other data can provide useful insights.
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Some MBTI seminar participants have gone back to the work place and begun using the
MBTI type as a form of greeting or labeling as in, “Hi, you old ISTJ! Feel like talking today?”
This kind of misguided boxing of others and over-use of the type indicators offends both the
business colleague and those who have worked long and hard to develop and understand the
power of this model. Psychologists trained in several psychological theories are perhaps best
able to appreciate the usefulness of the MBTI as well as its limitations. Yet to the credit of Mrs.
Briggs and her daughter, the instrument has been made available to trainers and instructors in a
variety of educational settings. We encourage you to be responsible in your use of the data you
receive about yourself and about others during your discussion of the MBTI. Further, if you
encounter the instrument again in your career, we hope you will lend to the discussions a
sensitivity to the deeper implications of the theory and encourage others to work at getting
beyond the superficial interpretations of the four type letters.
Before you attempt to analyze your own data, look at the cases which follow. What
inferences can you draw about these people from their types? What implications do your
inferences have for the kinds of work these people should be seeking? Once you have finished
practicing on the cases, answer the same questions for your own type.
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Sensing Types
Quiet, thorough, logical, organized, conventional thinkers, managers
Reserved, detached, humor flashes, logical connections and principles
Problem solvers, enjoy the moment, sports, adaptable, tolerant, action
Practical, head for business, like to manage, can forget others’ feelings, leaders
Friendly, quiet, loyal, stable, conscientious.
Sensitive, kind, modest, avoid contention, followers, not so achievement oriented, not
Easygoing, see the positive and fun, joiners, eager, facts not theories, common sense
Talkative, popular, committees, need harmony, doing nice things, like to affect peoples’
Figure 4. Sensing Types
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Intuitive Types
Persevering, do what’s necessary, quiet, forceful, clear convictions
Seldom talk, loyal, like to learn, try to do too much, absorbed
Imaginative, capable, quick solutions, improvisers, persuasive, unrealistic, unfocused
Responsible, concerned about what others think, comfortable discussion leaders,
sociable, responsive
Original thinkers, skeptical, independent, determined, maybe stubborn
Reserved, like theories and science, problem solvers, not good at small talk, focused,
multiple interests
Quick, stimulating, talkative, resourceful, overlook routine and details, multiple interests
Hearty, frank, leaders, public speakers, like to learn, may be overconfident
Figure 5. Intuitive Types
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Myers, Isabel Briggs, and McCaulley, Mary H. Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use
of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Jung, C. G. Psychological Types, H. G. Baynes, Trans.; revised by R. F. C. Hull. Volume 6 of
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Originally
published in 1921.
Kiersey, David, and Bates, Marilyn. Please Understand Me. Gnosology Books, Ltd., 1984.
Distributed by Prometheus Nemesis Book Company, Box 2082, Del Mar, CA 92014.
... The word clouds for the dataset's negative and positive sentiments are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. The number of times a word appears in a document divided by the total number of words in the document. A term frequency is assigned to each document [15]. ...
... The total number of papers divided by the number of papers with the word 'w'. Inverse data frequency [15] determines the weight of unusual words across all documents in the corpus. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social media has become a massive surge in this generation for everyone to communicate with others, which on one half connects the world while on the other half has a depressing side with people suffering from mental illness. People nowadays express their thoughts and feelings more easily on social media platforms. In addition, numerous studies have proven that by analysing social media posts, we may identify people with mental problems using machine learning. Twitter is one such platform that covers a wide target audience from all parts of the world and from the tweets we can detect the early stage of depression by analyzing its linguistic markers and emotions. Using a sentimental analysis dataset we have created a model with the help of Naïve Bayes Classifier which will support our primary model that will recognize different emotions from the tweets. We've also performed clinical tests by using the MBTI Types (Myer Briggs Type Indicator), a well-known personality test that identifies a person's traits by indicating one of 16 types.
... In order to make practical applications of the instrument possible for research, the MBTI was published by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The MBTI is a widely used personality inventory with positive evidence of its construct validity (Thompson and Borelo, 1994). Mendelsohn (1965, p. 321) reported that "an unusually large body of reliability and validity data" has been completed on the MBTI. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
... (3) type theory assumes interactions among the preferences with each of the dichotomies modifying the effects of the others in predictable ways (McCaulley, 1981). In addition, critiques of the MBTI have noted that data utilizing complete types or combinations of scales were preferable to single scale data (Willis, 1984). a40 were missing--function scores of less than 5 were excluded from the analyses. ...
... Collected MBTI replies were analysed and scored according to routine MBTI analysis. 14) To assess quantitavely and objectively the oral hygiene habit, frequency of tooth brushing per day was rated on the following 1 to 4 rating scale, where 1 indicated once, 2 indicated twice, 3 indicated three times, and 4 indicated four times or more per day. 15) Time needed for each brushing was rated on the following 1 to 5 rating scale, where 1 indicated less than 30 seconds, 2 indicated from 30 seconds to 1 minute, 3 indicated more than 1 minute to 2 minutes, and 4 indicated more than 2 minutes to 3 minutes, 5 indicated more than 3 minutes. ...
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality type and oral hygiene controllability. Methods: Four hundred eighty-two college students in Gyeonggi-do completed the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) and a questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by SAS 9.2 program. Results: Compared to extroverted subjects, a significantly increased percentage of introverted subjects demonstrated oral malodor and stress (p
... Sin embargo, antes de juzgar su actividad o pasividad debería tenerse en cuenta su personalidad como uno de los factores afectivos importantes a la hora de calcular y evaluar la participación en una tarea; es decir, si se trata de una persona extrovertida o introvertida, a la que le gusta en mayor o menor medida correr riesgos, o que no tiene costumbre de trabajar en una clase centrada en el estudiante (Brown, 2000). Por lo general, los extrovertidos prefieren situaciones en las que la interacción y la independencia jueguen un importante papel frente a los introvertidos, quienes suelen preferir trabajar en grupos poco numerosos Myers (1962). Junto con la personalidad del estudiante, otros factores como el tamaño del grupo (Weaver y Qi, 2005), la disposición del mobiliario en el aula (Fritschner, 2000), la hora de clase o el semestre en el que se imparta la asignatura (Howard & Henney, 1998) pueden incidir en una mayor o menor participación. ...
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Bearing in mind that among the competences which are most valued by engineering corporations are the ability to make decisions, the capacity for teamwork, one’s initiative and the capacity for solving problems together with an efficient communication, an experience based on active learning and team-working was carried out where participants had to put them into practice. Before starting the experience with the active learning strategy, students had to decide on what they understood by participation in multi-task teamwork and the way to measure it in order to self-assess their own participation and evaluate their peers’ after the team-working experience; this study includes the rubric designed and tested by the participants. A quantitative analysis of the grades indicated that there were no significant differences between self and peer-assessment, except with regard to the students’ preparation time to solve the team-working multitask.
... In order to help our students understand their own assumptions, perspectives on teaching and learning, and past experiences, we have employed a variety of learning preference tools in our teaching. Along with the students, we have completed multiple learning preference tools (i.e., Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), (Myers & McCaulley, 1987), multiple intelligences, and adult development models). These tools allowed us to talk freely about our preferences and ask probing questions without offending each other. ...
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We share our self-study research of faculty-building a successful collaborative culture and team teaching experience in a unique Master's program for experienced teachers. As part of self-study and reflective practice, this faculty team shared its collaborative experiences with teachers. This transparency had positive effects on the teachers' perceptions of faculty and on their own teaming experiences. To frame our work, we use the perspective of learning zones adapted from Vygotsky's conception of zone of proximal development. A multi-vocal perspective on the processes of faculty professional development and program development is presented.
... In order to make practical applications of the instrument possible for research, the MBTI was published by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The MBTI is a widely used personality inventory with positive evidence of its construct validity (Thompson and Borelo, 1994). Mendelsohn (1965, p. 321) reported that "an unusually large body of reliability and validity data" has been completed on the MBTI. ...
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This document contains the papers on research from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference. Topics covered include: concerns of administrators and teachers in the diffusion of information technology; preservice elementary mathematics teachers' computer self efficacy, attitudes, and perceptions; information and communications technology (ICT) in high schools; technology education and practices of preservice teachers; multimedia tools and case-methods pedagogy; helping third grade low achievers through dynamic modeling software; instructional technology doctoral programs; predictive relationships among certain personality factors and novice teachers' use of the newer technologies; the Technology in Education Competency Survey; teacher mediation in development of hypertext projects; evaluating the impact of a teacher-focused technology integration program; teachers' perceptions of self efficacy and beliefs regarding ICT; graduate action research assessment; student rating of instruction in distance education and traditional courses; a model for courseware design; social and academic uses of the Internet by high school students; analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional software by computer science students and public school teachers; technology and the academic and social culture of a university campus; applying technology to restructuring and learning; evaluation of information technology courses in teacher education; using the Internet as a source of data for qualitative research in the social sciences; computer confidence and attitudes of students attending a notebook or traditional university; science concepts, technology, and higher order thinking skills; effects of peer status and self-efficacy on small group interactions; national technology standards; multimedia tools and case-method pedagogy; computer use in English as a Second Language instruction; the changing role of the teacher; assessing technology-assisted use of information; creative uses of digital technologies; classroom community in postsecondary classes; teachers' and principals' perceptions of barriers to the use of computers; a "blended-technology" approach to distance education; scoring activities on integrating technology during preservice training; benefits of an educational technologist in middle school environments; enhancing attitudes toward technology for middle school girls; effects of multimedia training on teacher-centered versus student-centered classroom behaviors; comparison of preservice, inservice, and non-teacher education majors on technology confidence, ability, and use; domains of adaptation in technologically-mediated classrooms; impact of instructional technology on student achievement; use of Nvivo for classifying synchronous dialog resulting from Web-based professional development; professional development online; a Web-based precision teaching approach to undergraduate physics; teachers' roles in classrooms with/without computers; Internet-based learning environments in higher education; and technology in Arizona. Most papers contain references. (MES)
Educational theorists and researchers have often overlooked potential links between successful teaching and a teachers personal qualities. This investigation explored associations among three psychological characteristics and classroom performance ratings of prospective teachers. Fifty‐three students enrolled in a teacher education program participated in the study. The students were assessed on personality style, creative thinking, motivation, and classroom performance competency during student teaching. Correlational statistical analysis found significant relationships among three creativity measures and ratings of preservice teachers’ classroom performance. Further, regression analysis revealed originality, one subscale of creativity, was a significant predictor of effective student teaching. Findings indicate that creative constructs may have potential value in assessing teacher education candidates.
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In a paradigm of physician performance we propose that both "cognitive" and "noncognitive" components contribute to the performance of physicians-in-training and in-practice. Our review of the relevant literature indicates that personality, as an important factor of the "noncognitive" component, plays a significant role in academic and professional performances. We describe findings on 14 selected personality instruments in predicting academic and professional performances. We question the contention that personality can be validly and reliably assessed from admission interviews, letters of recommendation, essays, and personal statements. Based on conceptual relevance and currently available empirical evidence, we propose that personality attributes such as conscientiousness and empathy should be considered among the measures of choice for the assessment of pertinent aspects of personality in academic and professional performance. Further exploration is needed to search for additional personality attributes pertinent to medical education and patient care. Implications for career counseling, assessments of professional development and medical education outcomes, and potential use as supplementary information for admission decisions are discussed.
Conference Paper
Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um curso prático de Interação Humano-Computador, integrado ao estudo de Engenharia de Requisitos, em uma universidade chilena. A disciplina tem como objetivo explorar as relações interdisciplinares entre as duas áreas, mostrando como elas podem ser complementares. Propõe-se a identificação dos estilos de aprendizagem dos alunos como uma estratégia para potencializar a adaptação aos diversos papéis no processo de desenvolvimento de software.
  • C G Jung
  • H G Types
  • Baynes
Jung, C. G. Psychological Types, H. G. Baynes, Trans.; revised by R. F. C. Hull. Volume 6 of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Originally published in 1921.
Distributed by Prometheus Nemesis Book Company
  • David Kiersey
  • Marilyn Bates
Kiersey, David, and Bates, Marilyn. Please Understand Me. Gnosology Books, Ltd., 1984. Distributed by Prometheus Nemesis Book Company, Box 2082, Del Mar, CA 92014.