Peroxiredoxin 3 Is a Redox-Dependent Target of Thiostrepton in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

Virginia Commonwealth University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2012; 7(6):e39404. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039404
Source: PubMed


Thiostrepton (TS) is a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits expression of FOXM1, an oncogenic transcription factor required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress. The mechanism of action of TS is unclear and strategies that enhance TS activity will improve its therapeutic potential. Analysis of human tumor specimens showed FOXM1 is broadly expressed in malignant mesothelioma (MM), an intractable tumor associated with asbestos exposure. The mechanism of action of TS was investigated in a cell culture model of human MM. As for other tumor cell types, TS inhibited expression of FOXM1 in MM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression of FOXM1 expression and coincidental activation of ERK1/2 by TS were abrogated by pre-incubation of cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), indicating its mechanism of action in MM cells is redox-dependent. Examination of the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 (TR2)-thioredoxin 2 (TRX2)-peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) antioxidant network revealed that TS modifies the electrophoretic mobility of PRX3. Incubation of recombinant human PRX3 with TS in vitro also resulted in PRX3 with altered electrophoretic mobility. The cellular and recombinant species of modified PRX3 were resistant to dithiothreitol and SDS and suppressed by NAC, indicating that TS covalently adducts cysteine residues in PRX3. Reduction of endogenous mitochondrial TRX2 levels by the cationic triphenylmethane gentian violet (GV) promoted modification of PRX3 by TS and significantly enhanced its cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate TS covalently adducts PRX3, thereby disabling a major mitochondrial antioxidant network that counters chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress. Redox-active compounds like GV that modify the TR2/TRX2 network may significantly enhance the efficacy of TS, thereby providing a combinatorial approach for exploiting redox-dependent perturbations in mitochondrial function as a therapeutic approach in mesothelioma.

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    • "Unlike Prx1 or Prx2, which are mainly localized in the cytosol, Prx3 is a mitochondria protein that is also overexpressed in human lung cancer [37]. Disruption of Prx3 in mitochondria may function as a novel mechanism of cellular response to cancer chemotherapeutics [38]. Prx4 is mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cellular inflammatory response [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the Peroxiredoxin (Prx) family are major cellular antioxidants that scavenge hydrogen peroxide and play essential roles in oxidative stress and cell signaling. 2-Cys Prxs, including Prx1, 2, 3 and 4, have been indicated in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and thus may contribute to various processes of cancer development. The significance of 2-Cys Prxs in lung cancer development and their biological function in signal transduction have not been fully investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of 2-Cys Prxs in lung cancer, and examined their levels of expression in a variety of cell lines established from human lung normal or cancer tissues. We found that 2-Cys Prxs, in particular, Prx1 and Prx4, were preferentially expressed in cell lines derived from human lung cancer. Through isoform specific knockdown of individual Prx, we demonstrated that Prx1 and Prx4 (but not Prx3) were required for human lung cancer A549 cells to form soft agar colony and to invade through matrigel in culture. Knockdown of Prx1 or Prx4 significantly reduced the activation of c-Jun and repressed the AP-1 mediated promoter activity. In mouse xenograft models, knockdown of Prx4 in A549 cells reduced subcutaneous tumor growth and blocked metastasis formation initiated through tail vein injection. Moreover, overexpression of Prx1 or Prx4 further enhanced the malignancy of A549 cells both in culture and in mouse xenografts in vivo. These data provide an in-depth understanding of the contribution of Prx1 and Prx4 to lung cancer development and are of importance for future development of therapeutic methods that targeting 2-Cys Prxs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · American Journal of Cancer Research
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    • "In C10 cells transfected with the expression vector for TR1-U498C levels of TR activity were not significantly greater than in C10 cells transfected with the pCDNA3.1 vector alone (Fig. 2B and C). The increased TR1 protein and activity levels after transfection of C10 cells with WT TR1 reflect those in malignant mesothelioma and other tumor cell types [9]. Transfection of siRNAs targeted to TR1 reduced expression of TR1 by 90% (data not shown) and reduced TR activity to 10% of endogenous levels (Fig. 2C). "
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    ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX), which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1-4), thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX) and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1) and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2) that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2). In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP), but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic responses to oxidative insults.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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    • "Recent studies showed that GV may have potent inhibitory activity against NADPH oxidase Nox2 and Nox4 (15) and to induce cell death by disruption of the mitochondrial system (16). GV enhances the cytotoxic activity of thiostrepton (TS), a thiazole antibiotic that inhibits the expression of oncogenic transcription factor FOXM1, required for cell cycle progression and resistance to oncogene-induced oxidative stress (17). The GV and TS combinatorial approach may thus be particularly useful in treating tumors with aberrant mitochondrial oxidant production. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that gentian violet (GV) may have anticancer activity by inhibiting for instance NADPH oxidases (Nox genes) whose overexpression is linked to tumor progression. Nox1 overexpression has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activity of the oncosuppressor p53, impairing tumor cell response to anticancer drugs. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that, upon cellular stress, is activated to induce target genes involved in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, its activation is important for efficient tumor eradication. In this study, we examined the effect of GV on wild-type (wt) p53 activity in cancer cells. We found that GV was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of the NADPH oxidase Nox1 on p53 transcriptional activity. For the first time we show that GV was able to directly induce p53/DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In vitro, GV markedly induced cancer cell death and apoptotic marker PARP cleavage in wtp53-carrying cells. GV-induced cell death was partly inhibited in cells deprived of p53, suggesting that the anticancer activity of GV may partly depend on p53 activation. GV is US Food and Drug Administration approved for human use and may, therefore, have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer through p53 activation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
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