Article

Machinability investigations on hardened AISI 4340 steel using coated carbide insert

International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials (Impact Factor: 1.99). 07/2012; 33. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2012.02.019

ABSTRACT

Hard turning AISI 4340 high strength low alloy steel Coated carbide inserts Machinability Design of experiments Response surface methodology The hard turning process with advanced cutting tool materials has several advantages over grinding such as short cycle time, process flexibility, compatible surface roughness, higher material removal rate and less en-vironment problems without the use of cutting fluid. However, the main concerns of hard turning are the cost of expensive tool materials and the effect of the process on machinability characteristics. The poor selection of the process parameters may cause excessive tool wear and increased work surface roughness. Hence, there is a need to study the machinability aspects in high-hardened components. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the influence of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and machining time on machinability characteristics such as machining force, surface roughness and tool wear using response surface methodology (RSM) based second order mathematical models during turning of AISI 4340 high strength low alloy steel using coated carbide inserts. The experiments were planned as per full factorial design (FFD). From the para-metric analysis, it is revealed that, the combination of low feed rate, low depth of cut and low machining time with high cutting speed is beneficial for minimizing the machining force and surface roughness. On the other hand, the interaction plots suggest that employing lower cutting speed with lower feed rate can reduce tool wear. Chip morphology study indicates the formation of various types of chips operating under several cut-ting conditions.

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    • "In that study, it was found that in tool wear, the most influential factor is cutting time interval while for surface roughness, the feed rate was the most effective parameter. Suresh et al. [5] investigated effects of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and machining time on cutting forces, tool wear and surface roughness during turning operation of an AISI 4340 hardened steel by using the RSM method. They stressed that in order to minimise cutting force and surface roughness, it is necessary that high cutting speed, low feed rate, low depth of cut and short machining time are employed whereas minimisation of tool wear requires low feed rate and low cutting speed. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study involves modelling of experimental data of surface roughness of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (spindle rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius). In order to determine critical states of the cutting parameters variance analysis (ANOVA) was applied while optimisation of the parameters affecting the surface roughness was achieved with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) that is based on the Taguchi orthogonal test design. The validity of the developed models necessary for estimation of the surface roughness values (Ra, Rz), was approximately 92%. It was found that for Ra 38% of the most effective parameters is on the tool tip radius, followed by 33% on the feed rate whereas for Rz tool tip radius occupied 43% with the feed being at 33% rate. To achieve the minimum surface roughness, the optimum values obtained for spindle rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0.7 mm and 0.8 mm.
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    • "Suresh et al. [16] reported the following (i) the tool wear increases with the increase in cutting speed for all values of feed rates and the tool wear is sensitive to feed rate variations for all values of cutting speed, (ii) the tool wear is also sensitive to variations in depth of cut at lower values of cutting speed as compared to higher values, and (iii) the tool wear is minimum at low values of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and machining time. Abrasion is the principal tool wear mechanism and cutting speed has the highest influence on tool wear followed by feed rate and depth of cut [17]. At low cutting speeds, the flank wear of the tools is due to adhesive, abrasive and fatigue fracture and the flank wear increases with increase in feed rate [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Flank wear of multilayer coated carbide (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN) insert in dry hard turning is studied. Machining under wet condition is also performed and flank wear is measured. A novel micro-channel is devised in the insert to deliver the cutting fluid directly at the tool-chip interface. Lower levels of cutting parameters yield the minimum flank wear which is significantly affected by cutting speed and feed rate. In comparison to dry and wet machining, insert with micro-channel reduces the flank wear by 48.87% and 3.04% respectively. The tool with micro-channel provides saving of about 87.5% in the consumption of volume of cutting fluid and energy.
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    • "Results revealed that cutting speed and interaction of feed with tool corner radius are affecting the flank wear significantly, while cutting speed and nose radius have significant effect on surface roughness. Suresh et al. [14] used a similar approach by considering the influence of cutting parameters (v,f,d) and machining time on machinability aspects like surface roughness, tool wear and machining force in turning AISI 4340 steel hardened at 48 HRC with coated carbide inserts. Davim and Figueira [15] applied statistical techniques to evaluate the machinability such as surface roughness, specific cutting pressure and flank wear in turning AISID2 steel hardened at 60 HRC with ceramic tool. "

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