Article

Quercetin Triggers Apoptosis of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Osteoclasts and Inhibits Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Cells

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, PR China.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.88). 06/2012; 30(1):123-36. DOI: 10.1159/000339052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aims: Quercetin, a flavonoid present in vegetables, has anti-inflammatory properties and potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption. Up to date, the effect of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis has not yet been reported. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis and bone resorption. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were non-treated, treated with LPS alone, or treated with both LPS and quercetin. After treatment, the number of osteoclasts, cell viability, bone resorption and osteoclast apoptosis were measured. The expressions of osteoclast-related genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Protein levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB (RANK), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax, Bcl-2 and mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured using Western blotting assays. The MAPK signaling pathway was blocked by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors. Results: LPS directly promoted osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and upregulated the protein expression of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2; while quercetin significantly decreased the number of LPS-induced osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. None of the treatments increased cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Quercetin inhibited mRNA expressions of osteoclast-related genes and protein levels of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2 in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Quercetin also induced apoptosis and inhibited bone resorptive activity in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, quercetin promoted the apoptotic signaling pathway including increasing the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases

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    • "Quercetin has been reported to reduce bone resorption in vitro via the direct targeting of the mature osteoclasts by a mechanism involving ERs[9,10]. Moreover, it inhibits mRNA expression of osteoclast related genes[11]and osteoclast differen- tiation[12,13]. However, the results about the effect of quercetin on osteoblast function are contradictory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Statement of significance: The pharmacological activities of the flavonoid quercetin include anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties, as well as capability to prevent bone loss. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize hydroxyapatite functionalized with different amounts of quercetin and obtain new composite materials which display both the good bioactivity of the inorganic phase and the therapeutic properties of the flavonoid. The innovative in vitro model developed in this study, which involves co-culture of osteoblast, osteoclast and endothelial cells, allows to state that the new materials exert a beneficial action onto bone repair microenvironment, stimulating osteoblast proliferation and activity, downregulating osteoclastogenesis, and supporting microangiogenetic processes necessary for new bone formation.
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    • "However, it is supposed that the former represents more accurate results than the later does, since histochemical staining often detects a non-specific artifact, and thereby, shows inconsistent results. It is important to note that an increase in the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic/pro-survival protein ratio is required for apoptosis in various cells, including OCs [30]. All of the extracts increased expression of Bax, Bad and Bak, whereas the effects on expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL differed for each extract (Figure 4). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Archidendron clypearia Jack. (Fabaceae) is a representative ethnomedicinal herbal plant prescribed for various inflammatory diseases such as pharyngolaryngitis and tonsillitis. However, the pharmacology behind this plant's anti-inflammatory properties has not been fully understood. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of a 95% methanol extract (Ac-ME) was explored. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ac-ME on the AP-1 activation pathway, which plays a critical role in the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages and in induction of acute gastritis caused by HCl/EtOH, was investigated using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation analyses, and reporter gene activity assays. In particular, enzyme assays and HPLC analysis were employed to identify direct target enzymes of Ac-ME and to detect active chemical components from the plant extract. Results: Ac-ME clearly reduced the nuclear levels of total and phospho-forms of c-Jun, FRA-1, and ATF-2. Consequently, this extract suppressed both the production of PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 and peritoneal macrophage cells and PGE2-dependent induction of gastritis lesion in stomach under EtOH/HCl exposure. Analysis of AP-1 upstream signalling revealed that the AP-1 activation pathway consisting of IRAK1, TRAF6, TAK1, MKK3/6, and p38 was predominantly inhibited by Ac-ME. Similarly, this extract directly blocked the enzyme activity of IRAK1, indicating that this enzyme is an inhibitory target of Ac-ME and is involved in the suppression of the AP-1 pathway. HPLC analysis showed that quercetin, which inhibits PGE2 production, is an active component in Ac-ME. Conclusion: Ac-ME is an ethnomedicinal remedy with an IRAK1/p38/AP-1-targeted inhibitory property. Since AP-1 is a major inflammation-inducing transcription factor, the therapeutic potential of Ac-ME in other AP-1-mediated inflammatory symptoms will be further tested.
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