Received: 23 July, 2009. Accepted: 25 October, 2010.
Original Research Paper
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology ©2010 Global Science Books
Medicinal Plants in Farwest Nepal:
Indigenous Uses and Pharmacological Validity
Ripu M. Kunwar1,2* • Chundamani Burlakoti2 •
Chhote L. Chowdhary2 • Rainer W. Bussmann3
1 Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, GPO Box 5220, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 Center for Biological Conservation, GPO Box 19225, Kathmandu, Nepal
3 William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, USA
Corresponding author: * firstname.lastname@example.org
Medicinal plants have been used indigenously since ancient past as medicines for the treatment of various ailments. However, the
knowledge of indigenous therapies have been distorting to these days due to changing perception, acculturation, commercialization and
socio-economic transformations. The present study compares indigenous knowledge of therapies of 48 medicinal plants with the latest
common pharmacological findings. Traditional indigenous plant knowledge and phytomedicine are consistently gaining acceptance in
global society. The present study found that over two-thirds of traditionally used plants in the region show clear pharmacological efficacy.
Total 23 species possessed strong resemblances and the species Euphorbia royleana, Ricinus communis, Plantago major, Chenopodium
album, Cordyceps sinensis, etc. contributed the most. The complementarity of indigenous therapies and pharmacological uses is obvious
and it is base of the modern therapeutic medicine. The increasing use of indigenous therapies demands more scientifically sound evidence,
therefore further investigation and phytochemical screening of ethnopharmacologically used plants and assessment of the validity to the
indigenous uses is worthwhile.
Keywords: Baitadi district, Chenopodium album, coumarin, pharmacology, traditional therapy
Archaeological discoveries of 60,000 year-old Neanderthal
burial grounds in Shanidar, Iraq, pointed to the use of seve-
ral plants like Marshmallow, Yarrow and Groundsel that are
still used in contemporary folk medicine (Lietava 1992).
Evidence for the medicinal use of Papaver somniferum, the
opium poppy, dates back to 8,000 years (Stockwell 1989;
Lewington 1990). Concomitantly, the earliest written record
of plants used as medicine in the Himalayas is found in the
Rigveda in about 6,500 years ago (Malla and Shakya 1984),
in the Atharvaveda in about 4,000 year ago (Nambier 2002)
and in the Ayurveda in about 2,500 year ago (Kunwar et al.
2006). Hippocrates (460–377 B.C.) described the usage of
leaves and bark of willow tree to treat fever and pain (Jul-
kunen-Tuto and Tahvanainen 1989). According to Schmid
and Heide (1995), there is a report of preparation of salicy-
late pain remedies for indigenous uses from Birch bark in
North America in 200 B.C. Therefore, until the 19th century,
plants were the main therapeutic agents used by humans,
and even today their role in medicine is immense (Bhattarai
et al. 2009; Uprety et al. 2010).
The first medically useful alkaloid was morphine iso-
lated from Opium poppy Papaver somniferum (Solanaceae)
in 1805 (Fessenden and Fessenden 1982); the name mor-
phine comes from the Greek Morpheus, god of dreams. A
drug used in indigenous culture transformed into a medica-
tion and research tool since 1864 after the first systematic
studies of Claude Bernard (Bernard 1966) on physiologic-
Therefore, the essence of phytomedicine recounts pre-
historic and isolation of useful plant constituents and resear-
ches are imminent. Scientific study of traditional medicines
and research of drug discovery through traditional medi-
cines is designated as ethnopharmacology (Bussmann 2002)
was first used in 1967 by Efron et al. (1970) in a book, Eth-
nopharmacological Search for Psyactive Drugs (Heinrich
and Gibbons 2001). Tubocurarine was the first ethnophar-
Fig. 1 Some Himalayan medicinal plants. (Left) Rhus parviflora. Fruits are indigenously used for diarrhea and dysentery. (Center) Urtica dioica. Stem
juice is valued for sprain and fractures. (Right) Euphorbia royleana. Plant is kept in roof of house for protecting from evil.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
macological drug, derives from Menispermaceae (Chondro-
dendron spp.) and Loganiaceae (Strychnos spp.), researched
and medicated extensively (Bisset 1991). There are many
other examples (quinine from Cinchona succirubra, colchi-
cine from Colchicum autumnale, etc.) of pharmaceutical
relevant substances, which were developed based on obser-
vations of indigenous drugs during the last century (Hein-
rich 2001). Quinine, the cure for malaria, was originally the
ritual medicine of Incas of Peru (Osujih 1993). The phyto-
compound used for medication and entered into the interna-
tional market was ephedrine, an amphetamine like stimulant
from Ephedra sinica (Patwardhan et al. 2005).
Numerous other traditional therapy base phyto-drugs
artimisinin from Artemisia annua as a potent antimalarial
drug, alkaloids of Rauvolfia serpentina as hypertension,
phyllanthin of Phyllanthus emblica as antiviral, etc. deserve
special interest. Some other plants and their compounds
worth from traditional therapy to modern medicine are
Holarrhena for amoebiasis, Mucuna pruriens for Parkin-
son’s disease, Commiphora as hypolipidaemic, Asclepias as
cardiotonic, psoralens for vitiligo, curcumines for inflam-
mation, baccoside for mental retention, picrosides for
hepatoprotective, indirubin for cancer, diosgenin for the
synthesis of steroidal hormones, guggulsterons as hypolipi-
demic, piperidine as bioavailability enhancers, asarone as
hallucinogenic, withanolides and many other steroidal lac-
tones and their glycosides as immunomodulators, etc. (Jain
1994; Patwardhan 2000). Till 2002, 1141 different traditio-
nal plant drugs were registered for their therapeutic activi-
ties (Patwardhan et al. 2005) and it is estimated that about
25% of the prescription drugs contain active principles of
higher plants (Farnsworth and Morris 1976; Tiwari and
Joshi 1990; Cox 1994), and most are entrenched from tradi-
tional therapies. In some cases, about 60% of the anti-
tumoral and antimicrobial medicines currently available in
the markets are derived mainly from the higher plants
(Cragg et al. 1997). Therefore, global demand of herbal
medicine is accelerating and its worth was US $ 19.4 billion
in 1999 (Laird and Pierce 2002). Herbal trade of over US
$ 60 billion per year and its 7% annual increment was esti-
mated (Nagpal and Karki 2004). Its market was valued for
2.3 and 2.1 billion in 1994 respectively in Asia and Japan
(Grunwald 1995). The worth annual growth rate about 20%
was reported in India (Srivastava 2000; Subrat 2002).
Interest of phytomedicine is gradually renewed (Bhat-
tarai et al. 2010) or increased and numerous medicinal plant
based drugs have spread into the international market
through exploration of ethnopharmacology and indigenous
therapies (Bussmann 2002). The search for pharmacological
principles from existing indigenous therapies is encour-
aging and complemented the achievements of modern
medicine. With increasing use of traditional therapies of
plant resource base (Acharya and Acharya 2010), a verifica-
tion of efficacy by western scientific means would be inter-
esting, because the traditional health system adopt cus-
tomized and multi-pronged strategies in treatment involving
drug, diet and therapy (Patwardhan et al. 2005). Moreover,
the indigenous therapies have been criticized due to inade-
quate research, critical evaluation, in vivo studies and vali-
dations (Houghton 1995; Fong 2002).
Despite growing interest in assessing phytochemical
constituents of plants with pharmacological activities and
modern medicine (Dalvi et al. 1994; Gupta 1994; Vaz et al.
1998; Dahanukar et al. 2000), to date only about 5% of the
total plant species have been thoroughly investigated (Gos-
wani et al. 2002; Patwardhan et al. 2005; Palombo 2006) to
ascertain safety and efficacy of traditional remedies. More-
over, the current species extinction rate (the world is losing
one major drug every two years) (Groombridge and Jenkins
2002) and distortion and percolation of indigenous know-
ledge, use and ethnopharmacology (Bussmann et al. 2007)
aggravating the situation further. In this connection, present
study aimed at surveying and assessing indigenous know-
ledge of uses and therapies of medicinal plants and their
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Field study for primary data collection was carried out in Baitadi,
Dadeldhura and Darchula districts of West Nepal in May-June,
December 2006 and Jan-Feb 2007, March-April 2008. Study sites
Anarkholi, Dasharathchand, Jhulaghat, Khodpe, Kulau, Panches-
wor, Patan, Salena, and Sera from Baitadi; Brikham, Jakh, Jog-
budha, Patram and Rupal from Dadeldhura and Dumling, Gokule,
Joljibi, Khalanga, Lali, and Uku from Darchula district were vis-
ited. All three districts are delineated as western borders to the
country and adjacent to India. Dadeldhura district ranges with
29°–29°30?N latitude, 80°03?–80°50?E longitude and altitude 390-
2950 m; Baitadi district with 29°22?–29°57?N latitude, 80°05?–
80°57?E longitude and altitude 390-2950 m; and Darchula district
lies within 29°26?-30°15?N latitude, 80°22?-81°9?E longitude and
357-7132 m altitude. Owing to varied topography, bioclimate and
elevation, the districts harbor diversity of forest products (Devkota
and Karmacharya 2003, Pant and Panta 2004), and the products
have been collecting by local ethnic groups since time immemorial
for both the subsistence and commercial purposes, however the
subsistence use is profound particularly for home herbal healing
(Burlakoti and Kunwar 2008; Kunwar et al. 2009).
Primary data collection was facilitated by ten local assistants.
Group discussions, informal meetings, questionnaire surveys and
field observations were made for primary data collection. Group
discussions, as informal interactions and meetings were held at the
immediate spot and they were managed within the community
forest user groups. Altogether 172 questionnaires were asked to
the particular respondents representing ethnic groups: Badi, Bijale,
Chanda, Chuhar, Dadal, Dhami, Hodke, Lawad, Lohar, Pali, Pari-
yar, Parki, Sitoli, Tamata, Uud, etc; age groups (25-74 year), sexes
(both male and female), and occupations (collectors, cultivators,
traders, herders, traditional healers). Information was validated by
common responses (at least by three responses) and responses
from less than three respondents were considered as insignificant.
Species with common responses were preceded for crosschecking
and key informant survey. Elders, traditional healers - Baidhyas,
medicinal plant cultivators and collectors were individually asked
for detail analysis. The species possessed highest common res-
ponses were considered for the present assessment. The assess-
ment was made with comparing the present observations and latest
and common phytochemical findings.
Observations (*significant and # partial affinities)
#Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Maidenhair fern (English),
Gophale (Nepali), Hansapadi, Nilkanthasikha (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Root juice is applied for snake bite, mig-
raine, and scorpion sting.
Principal chemical compounds: Adiantone, carotenoid,
filicene, flavonoides, kaemferol, leucopelarcogonidin, mol-
lugogenol, quercetin, tannins (CSIR 1988).
Pharmacological uses: Whole plant extract possess hypo-
glycaemic activity (Jain and Sharma 1967). It showed pot-
ent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Tricho-
phyton rubrum and Aspergillus terreus (Singh et al. 2008).
Plant extract is potential elicitor of phytoalexins in sorghum
and soybean (Meinerz et al. 2008).
*Rhus parviflora Roxb. (Fig. 1) Nepal Sumac (English),
Bewoti (Local), Satibayer (Nepali), Tintideek (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Fruit decoction is taken for diarrhoea and
Principal chemical compounds: Abinoside, biflavonoides,
hetriocontane, kaemferol, lignoceric acid, myricetin, quer-
cetin, rhamnoside, sitosterol (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Methanolic extracts of the ripen
fruits possess antidiarrhoeal effect (Thangpu and Yadav
2004). Rhus species have reactive oxygen (RO) which can
damage DNA resulting in mutagenesis, aging, carcino-
genesis, and antimicrobial effect (Lin et al. 2008). Plant ex-
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
tract is also antibacterial (Mahato 2006) in effect.
*Angelica archangelica L. Angelica (English), Gannano
Indigenous uses: Dried roots are anthelmintic and useful in
gastric, and stomachache.
Principal chemical compounds: Angelicin, coumarin,
furocoumarin, isoimperatorin, pinene, prangolarin, umbelli-
ferene (Anonymous 1948; Kaul 1997).
Pharmacological uses: Ethanol extract of root of this plant
shows anti-trypanosomal activity (Schinella et al. 2002).
#Pleumeria rubra L. Pagoda tree (English), Choya phool
(Local), Galaincha phool (Nepali), Kshirchampaka, Sweta-
champa (Sanskrit), Apocynaceae.
Indigenous uses: Flowers are useful in indigestion and cho-
Principal chemical compounds: Acetonine, amyrin, borne-
sitol, farnesol, fluroplumierin, kaemferol, lignan, lupeol,
melilotic acid, oleanic acid, para-coumaric acid, plemeride,
plumeric acid, plumerinine, quercetin, rubrinol, syringic
acid, vanilic acid (Cambie and Ash 1994; Coppen and Cobb
Pharmacological uses: Plant extract is antibiotic, anti-
tumour, antiviral, analgesic, antispasmodic, etc. and fluro-
plumierin inhibits mycobacteria (Sundarrao 1993; Cambie
and Ash 1994).
Ageratum conyzoides L. Goat weed (English), Nilgandhe
(Local), Kalo jhar (Nepali), Visamusti, Osari (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Stem juice is useful in bleeding control.
Principal chemical compounds: Ageratochromene deriva-
tives, caffeic acid, chromenes, conyzorigun, coumarin, echi-
natine, eupalestin, friedelin, fumaric acid, kaemferol, lycop-
samine, quercetin, rhamnoside, scutellarein, sitosterol, stig-
masterol (Cambie and Ash 1994; Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu
Pharmacological uses: Embryotoxic, tannin is insecticidal,
antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, muscle
relaxant, analgesic (Sharma et al. 1978; Cambie and Ash
1994). Fumaric acid shows hepatoprotective properties
(Sharma et al. 1995). Caffeic acid is effective against
viruses, bacteria and fungi (Brantner et al. 1996).
Ainslea latifolia (D.Don) Sch. Bippekuro (Local), Astera-
Indigenous uses: Root juice is taken for stomach pain.
Principal chemical compounds: Plant contains flavonoids
(Chandel et al. 1996).
Pharmacological uses: Ethanolic extract plant roots is
diuretic (Chandel et al. 1996). Flavonoides are anti-inflam-
matory and anti-aggregant in properties (Mekhfi et al. 2004;
Artemisia indica Willd. Mug wort (English), Kurje pati
(Local), Titepati (Nepali), Surparnaa, Nakuli, Nagadamni,
Damanaka (Sanskrit), Asteraceae.
Indigenous uses: Plant is used in headache, fever and it is
also used as insecticide. Leaves are used in skin itching and
Principal chemical compounds: Artemisin, exiguaflavo-
none, maackiain, sesquiterpene, thujone.
Pharmacological uses: Root extracts possessed insignifi-
cant hypoglycaemic effects (Villasenor and Lamadrid 2006).
Plant infusion is used to reduce the post operative blood
loss and relieve purulent inflammation (Davidov et al.
1995). Artemisin and its derivative ?-arteether are used as
antimalarial (Vishwakarma 1990).
*Cirsium verutum (D.Don) Spreng. Creeping thistle (Eng-
lish), Thakil, Dhande kanda (Local), Thakailo (Nepali),
Indigenous uses: Root is used as refresher and for calmness.
It is also applied for stomachache and abdominal pain.
Principal chemical compounds: Cicin, monogalactosyl-
diacyl glycerol, sterols, terpenes, etc. (Lee et al. 2002).
Pharmacological uses: Methanolic extract of whole plant
juice is antimicrobial (Lee et al. 2002; Barbour et al. 2004).
#Inula racemosa Hook.f. Elecampane (English), Rithaula
(Local), Puskarmul (Nepali), Puskaram (Sanskrit), Astera-
Indigenous uses: Root extract is useful in severe stomache-
ache, dysentery and blood pressure.
Principal chemical compounds: Alantolactone, aplotaxene,
curcumine, elemene, inunolide, ionone, tetraene (Husain et
Pharmacological uses: Methanol extract of root exhibited
antimycobacterial activity (Cantrell et al. 1999) and its al-
coholic extract enhanced liver glycogen and lowered blood
glucose level (Tripathi and Chaturvedi 1995). Lung fibrosis
(Thresiamma et al. 1996), blood pressure control (Dikshit et
al. 1995) and anti-inflammatory properties (Kohli et al.
2005) are due to curcumine of the plant.
*Xanthium strumarium L. Sheep burr, Bur weed (English),
Musekuro (Local), Bhede kuro (Nepali), Sankesvara, Arista
Indigenous uses: Seed powder is useful in earache, dysen-
tery and skin diseases.
Principal chemical compounds: Atractyloside, caffeyol-
quinic acid, carboxyatractyloside, caffeoylquinic acid, gly-
cosides, hydroquinone, isoxanthanol, oxalic acid, strumaro-
side, thiazinedine, xanthanol, xanthin, xanthostrumarin,
xanthanolide (Badam et al. 1988; Joshi 2004).
Pharmacological uses: Plant extract is antitussive, antibac-
terial, antifungal, antimalarial, hypoglycemic, stomachic,
cytotoxic (Kupiecki et al. 1974; Gautam et al. 2007). Fruits
are anti-inflammatory in effect (Han et al. 2007).
*Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Light-
ening weed (English), Abijalo (Nepali), Caryophyllaceae.
Indigenous uses: Leaf is used as calmness, fresh and for
Principal chemical compounds: Plant contains methoxy-
canthin, starch, etc.
Pharmacological uses: The methanolic extract of Dry-
maria was active against Gram-positive bacteria (Taylor et
al. 1995). The extract of the plant has been reported to be
useful in sinusitis, cold attack, burns and skin diseases
(Mukherjee et al. 1995) which could suggest anti-inflam-
matory and antitussive activities (Mukherjee et al. 1997).
The pounded leaf is applied to snake bites in China (Duke
and Ayensu 1985). Uses of plant extract as emollient, febri-
fuge, laxative and stimulant have also been reported (Chop-
ra et al. 1986).
*Chenopodium album L. Goose foot, Pigweed (English),
Bethe (Local, Nepali), Vastukah (Sanskrit), Chenopodia-
Indigenous uses: Whole plant is useful in constipation and
Principal chemical compounds: Ascariodes, beta-carotene,
catechin, caffeic acid, ecdysteroides, ethereal oil, ferulic
acid, furanocoumarins, linolenic acid, oxalic acid, oleanic
acid, phenolic acid, polypodine, sitosterol, vitamin C (CSIR
1988; Joshi 2004).
Pharmacological uses: Oil, leaf infusion and whole plant
parts possess anthelmintic activity against sheep gastro-
intestinal nematodes (MacDonald et al. 2004; Jabbar et al.
2007). The compounds like betain, oxalic acid, oleanolic
acid and furanocoumarins (Nicholas et al. 1955; Hegnauer
1989) may be responsible for anthelmintic activity. The
ethanolic extract reveals anti-inflammatory (Matsuda et al.
1997) and antipruritic effects (Dai et al. 2002).
*Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Caterpillar fungus (Eng-
lish), Jara (Local), Yarsagumba (Nepali), Sanjiwani (San-
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
Indigenous uses: Whole plant is tonic and aphrodisiac and
useful to increase memory and immune system.
Principal chemical compounds: Adenosine, cadoverin,
campesterol, cerevisterol, cordycepic acid, cordycepin, dau-
costerol, ergesterol, guanosine, mycosporin, quinic acid,
spermidine, uracil, uridine (Halpern 1999; Watanabe et al.
Pharmacological uses: Cordyceps has been used as an
anti-tumor herb and an adjuvant of chemo and radiotherapy
for various cancers (Bok et al. 1999; Huang et al. 2000; Wu
et al. 2007). It is also used as haemostatic, mycolytic, anti-
asthmatic, expectorant and tonic (Wang and Shiao 2000;
Kunwar 2002). Cordycepin and polysaccharides are most
widely detected cytotoxic, antibiotic, antitumor (Chen et al.
1997; Kodama et al. 2000), anti-oxidation (Li et al. 2001),
and potentiating the immune system (Liu et al. 1992).
*Coriaria napalensis Wall. Musoorie berry (English),
Dahikamlo, Bhojinsi (Local), Machhaino (Nepali), Masuri
Indigenous uses: Bark paste is applied on burns and scalds.
Principal chemical compounds: Coreolic acid, coriamyr-
tin, heptulose, naringenin, tannin, ursolic acid (Buckingham
Pharmacological uses: Methanolic extract of plants and
fruits showed significant antimicrobial activity on Escheri-
chia and Staphylococcus bacteria (Joshi and Bhatta 1999).
Ursolic acid shows hepatoprotective (Saraswat et al. 1996)
and antitumor properties (Bilia et al. 2004).
Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. Deltoid yam (English), Vyakur
(Local), Gittha (Nepali), Brahmakanda, Varahi (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Yam is used as pesticide and anthelmintic.
Principal chemical compounds: Diosgenin, epismilagenin,
kryptogenin, nitrogenin, rhamnopyranoside, smilagenin,
yamogenin (Husain et al. 1992; Sharma 2004).
Pharmacological uses: Diosgenin is used as anabolic,
antiarthritic, antinflammatory, antiinfertility (Sharma 2004).
Rhizome extract reveals cytotoxic activity against human
cancer (Hu and Yao 2002).
*Euphorbia royleana Bioss. (Fig. 1) Cactus spurge (Eng-
lish), Siudi (Local, Nepali), Snuhi (Sanskrit), Euphorbia-
Indigenous uses: Stem latex is used in joint pain/leg pain.
Principal chemical compounds: Amyrin, campesterol,
cycloroylenol, diterpene, ellagic acid, ingenol, luepol, octa-
cosanol, phenolics, sitosterol, stigmasterol, succinic acid,
taraxerol, terpenes, tetracosanol (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Ethanolic plant extract shows anti-
inflammatory (Amatya 1994) and latex reveals anti-arthritic
activities (Bani et al. 1996).
*Ricinus communis L. Castor bean (English), Indeya
(Local), Arandi (Nepali), Eranda (Sanskrit), Euphorbiaceae.
Indigenous uses: Root juice is analgesic and seed is used in
Principal chemical compounds: Avenasterol, avercetin, ?-
amarin, brassicastrol, campesterol, carotene, casbene, chlo-
rogenic acid, coumarin, ellagic acid, haemaglutinin, lupeol,
lectin, linolenic, palmitic acid, phenolics, quinic acid, rici-
nin, ricin, ricinoleic acid, stearic acid, sitosterol, stigma-
sterol, tannins, terpene, vitamins B6, B1 (Cambie and Ash
1994; Singh 1986).
Pharmacological uses: Plant is diuretic, larvicidal, anticho-
lestatic, antiamoebic, analgesic, estrogenic, laxative, cyto-
toxic, arbortifacient (Singh 1986; Desta 1993) and antimy-
cotic (Rai 1996) and its seed is hepatoprotective (Reddy et
al. 1993) and antidote for scorpion sting. Phenolics are anti-
septic and anti-inflammatory when taken internally (Baner-
jee et al. 1991; Sharma 2004).
#Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Camel’s foot climber (Eng-
lish), Malu (Local), Bhorla (Nepali), Murva (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Bark is used in cuts, wounds, sprain and
fracture. Root is tonic.
Principal chemical compounds: Agathisflavone, betulinic
acid, campesterol, kaemferol, quercetin, sitosterol, stigma-
sterol (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Methanolic extract of the plant
possesses activity against herpes simplex virus (Taylor et al.
1996). Quercetin is effective in reducing infectivity (Cowan
1999). Betulinic acid is anti-inflammatory (Mukherjee et al.
Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth.) Alston. Black bonduc,
Fever nut (English), Ulto Kanda (Nepali), Lata karanja
Indigenous uses: Bark is poisonous and used in fish poi-
Principal chemical compounds: Braziline, caesalpine,
heptocosan, sitosteroide, etc. (Datte et al. 2004)
Pharmacological uses: Fruit extract shows inhibitory effect
against Candida albicans (Kumar et al. 2006) and anthel-
mintic effect (Datte et al. 2004), however failure reports on
inhibition had also been noted (Rai 1996).
*Cassia tora (L.) Roxb. Sickle pod (English), Tinkosi,
Chakramandi (Local), Tapre (Nepali), Ayadham, Chakra-
mardha (Sanskrit), Fabaceae.
Indigenous uses: Plant relieves bronchitis and its juice is
anthelmintic and antiseptic.
Principal chemical compounds: Anthraquinones, cassia-
side, chrysophanol, emodin, obtusifolin, rubrofusarin, tora-
lactone, torachrysone, toralactone (Buckingham 1994).
Pharmacological uses: Plant seed extract is antibacterial,
anticoagulant, antifungal, hepatoprotective (Mukherjee et al.
1995). Alcoholic extract of seeds exhibited hypoglycemic
effect (Simon et al. 1987; Rao et al. 1994). Methanolic ex-
tract of seeds insignificantly inhibits leukotriene, which
causes pain, inflammation and broncho-muscular constric-
tion (Kumar and Muller 1999). Anthraquinones contracts
intestinal walls and stimulate bowel movement and make
stool loose (Sharma 2004).
Entada pursaetha DC. Mackay bean, Ladynut (English),
Pangar (Local, Nepali), Kakavali, Gilagaccha (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Fruits are used in cuts and wounds, and
Principal chemical compounds: Entadamide, entanin,
myristic acid, palmitic acid, phaseoloidin, phenylacetic acid,
prosapognine, thionine, threonine, tryptophan (Buckingham
1994; Joshi 2004).
Pharmacological uses: Seed saponin is spasmolytic and
central nervous system active (Chandel et al. 1996). Enta-
nin is an antitumor saponin. Saponins have strong haemo-
lytic action and depressant effect (Joshi 2004).
Milletia extensa (Benth.) Baker Milletia (English), Gaujo
Indigenous uses: Root is useful as insecticide and piscicide.
Principal chemical compounds: Auriculatin, aurimillone,
iso-flavones, miletin, sumatrol (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Milletia have chemoprotective
(Shirwaikar et al. 2003), antipyretic (Srinivasan et al. 2003),
anti-inflammatory (Yankep et al. 2003) and cytotoxic pro-
perties (Ito et al. 2004). Leaf methanolic extract showed
antimycobacterial activity (Taylor et al. 1996).
Mimosa pudica L. Sensitive plant (English), Lajjabati
(Nepali), Lajja, Saptaparni (Sanskrit), Fabaceae.
Indigenous uses: Leaves are used in skin diseases.
Principal chemical compounds: Amino acid, amyrin, cro-
cetin, ?-sitosterol, friedelin, gentisic acid, jasmenic acid,
mimosine, nor-epinephrine, pinitol, sitosterol (Husain et al.
1992; Cambie and Ash 1994; Joshi 2004).
Pharmacological uses: Plant juice is used as antiviral, anti-
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic (Singh
#Sophora mollis (Grah. ex Royle) Himalayan laburnum
(English), Chunnjado (Nepali), Fabaceae.
Indigenous uses: Roots are taken for rheumatism, and cold.
Principal chemical compounds: Cystine, matrine, rutin,
Pharmacological uses: Matrine is anti-inflammatory, anti-
diarrhoeal, analgesic and antotumorous, and it inhibits liver
fibrosis (Tan and Zhang 1985; Zhang et al. 2001) and
reduces body weight (Cheng et al. 2006). Rutin, a flavonoid
protects heart (Chopra and Singh 1994), relieves acute and
chronic inflammations (Lee et al. 2000) and strengthens
capillary walls (Sharma 2004).
#Didymocarpus villosa D.Don. Kumkum dhup (Nepali),
Indigenous uses: Leaf infusion and dust are useful in res-
piratory problem of children and chronic asthma.
Principal chemical compounds: Anthraquinone, chalcone,
didymocalyxin, isoflavone, onyselin, pedicinin (Segaw et al.
Pharmacological uses: Plant oil is weak antimicrobial
(Chandel et al. 1996). Plant is also affirmative in body
weight reduction (Rao et al. 1999).
*Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. Morel mushroom (English),
Mathyaura (Local), Guchhi chyau (Nepali), Helvellaceae.
Indigenous uses: Plant stalk and cap are aphrodisiac in
properties and used as tonic and immunostimulant.
Principal chemical compounds: Amino acid, carotene,
protein, saponins (Zheng et al. 1998).
Pharmacological uses: Methanolic extract of plants in-
hibits leukotriene, which causes pain, inflammation and
broncho-muscular constriction (Kumar et al. 2000).
Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm. Bedmauri (Local), Dhursool
Indigenous uses: Leaf juice is taken for skin disease.
Principal chemical compounds: Chrysin, flavonene, lada-
nein, negletein, sitosterol, triacontane, triacontalol (Husain
et al. 1992; Yang et al. 1996).
Pharmacological uses: Ethanolic root extract is central ner-
vous system active (Chandel et al. 1996).
#Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Galeno (Nepali), Kakanasika
Indigenous uses: Leaf is useful in spleen problems. Young
leaves are digestive.
Principal chemical compounds: Eicosanol, farnesol, gallic
acid, leeaoside, lupeol, palmitic acid, phthalic acid, sitos-
terol, solanesol, ursolic acid (Srinivasan et al. 2008).
Pharmacological uses: The methanolic extract of L. indica
was reported to possess strong antioxidant and nitric oxide
inhibitory activities (Saha et al. 2004) and it was due to
gallic acid, a well known antioxidant compound (Srinivasan
et al. 2008). Plant extract is antiviral and anticancer in pro-
perties (Jain et al. 1991).
#Melia azedarach L. Bead tree, Persean lilac (English), Ba-
kaino (Local, Nepali), Mahanimba (Sanskrit), Meliaceae.
Indigenous uses: Bark and leaf juice is useful in spleen
Principal chemical compounds: Azaridin, azadirachtin,
bakalactone, bakayanin, benzoic acid, deacetylsalanin, di-
hydronimocinol, fraxinellone, quercetin, meliacarpinin,
meliacine, meliotannic acid, melazolide, nimbolinin, rutin,
salanin, salannal, vilasinin (Husasain et al. 1992; Watanabe
et al. 2005).
Pharmacological uses: The extract of leaf suppresses nitric
oxide (NO) synthesis, since increased NO production is
associated with acute and chronic inflammation (Lee et al.
2000) and it is antioxidant (Virgili et al. 1998). Methanol
extract of root, stem bark and leaves showed a broad spec-
trum of antibacterial activity (Khan et al. 2001). Meliacine
can be used as a therapeutic agent against HSV-1 ocular
infection (Petrera and Coto 2003).
*Psidium guajava L. Guava (English), Ambak (Local),
Amba, Belauti (Nepali), Amratphala, Peruk, Mamsala (San-
Indigenous uses: Fruit is laxative, colic, astringent to bowls
and beneficial to constipation.
Principal chemical compounds: Amritoside, arjunolic acid,
asiatic acid, brahmic acid, daucosterol, ellagic acid, eugenol,
gallic acid, guavin, isostrictin, latechin, lupol, maslinic acid,
pedunculagin, procyanidin, quaverin, quercetin, oleanolic
acid, strictinin trans-cinnamic acid, ursolic acid, zeatin
(Buckingham 1994; Cambie and Ash 1994).
Pharmacological uses: Leaves are antidiabetic due to ped-
unculagin, and are antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifun-
gal, antimalarial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory (Suksamrarn
et al. 2002), antidiarrhoeal, anticough, antiamoebic, muscle
relaxant, hypoglycaemic (Cambie and Ash 1994; Lozoya et
al. 1994; Tona et al. 1999; Antoun et al. 2001).
#Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo. Marsh orchid, Salep
(English), Hathajadi (Local), Panchaunle (Nepali), Salam-
misri, Munjatak (Sanskrit), Orchidaceae.
Indigenous uses: Root juice is taken in cuts and wounds.
Principal chemical compounds: Albumin, butanedic acid,
dactylorhizin, hydroquinone, lesoglossin, militarrin, py-
ranoside, pyrocatechol, volatile oil (Kizu et al. 1999).
Pharmacological uses: The decoction and plant extract
with sugar are useful in pierce, cuttings, wounds, and the
plant is tonic and aphrodisiac (Thakur and Dixit 2007).
*Oxalis corniculata L. Creeping sorrel (English), Chalmaro
(Local), Chari amilo (Nepali), Changeri, Amla patrika (San-
Indigenous uses: Leaves are stomachic and useful for
Principal chemical compounds: Carotene, citric acid, eu-
genol, glycoxylic acid, malic acid, pentylfuran, pyruvic acid,
tartaric acid, tocopherols, votexin, etc. (Ayyanar and Igna-
Pharmacological uses: The plant is antihypertensive, hypo-
glycemic, uterine relaxant, muscle relaxant and rich source
of Vitamin B (Cambie and Ash 1994). Eugenol is con-
sidered a bacteriostatic and fungistatic (Duke 1985). Alco-
holic leaf extract is antibacterial (Joshi 2004).
*Plantago major L. Blond psyllium (English), Ishabgol
(Nepali), Ashvagola, Snigdhabija (Sanskrit), Plantagina-
Indigenous uses: Plant seeds are useful in diarrhea, dysen-
tery and indigestion.
Principal chemical compounds: Apigenin, ascorbic acid,
aucubin, baicalein, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, catalpol, chlo-
rogenic acid, cinnamic acid, papa-coumaric acid, ferulic
acid, hispidulin, loliolide, luteolin, majoroside, nepetin,
plantagonine, planteose, scutellarein, syringic acid, van-
nillic acid, vitamin A (McCutcheon et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Root and seed extract is antibacte-
rial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antitumor, hypotensive,
oestrogenic, wound healer, kidney stone disintegration, diu-
retic (McCutcheon et al. 1992). Ethanolic root extract show
little inhibitory effect of human tumor cell growth (Whelan
and Ryan 2003). Caffeic acid is effective against viruses,
bacteria and fungi (Brantner et al. 1996). Seeds are useful
in diarrhea and amoebic dysentery (Sharma 2004).
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda, Dog’s teeth grass
(English), Dubi (Local), Dubo (Nepali), Durva (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Plant paste is effective on sprain. Inflo-
rescence is grinded with water and applied for earache.
Principal chemical compounds: Coumarin, ferulic acid,
phytol, stigmasterol, syringic acid, tricin, vanilic acid
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
(Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Rhizome juice possesses antiviral
property (Foster and Duke 2000). The aqueous extract of
Cynodon dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with
significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects (Singh
et al. 2007). The aqueous plant extract is used as anti-
inflammatory, diuretic, anti-emetic and purifying agent (Ah-
med et al. 1994) and used in treating dysentery, dropsy and
secondary syphilis (Chopra and Handa 1982). The ethanolic
extracts of the plant showed antioxidant activity (Auddy et
*Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauvois. Cogon grass (English),
Siru (Local, Nepali), Sarba (Sanskrit). Poaceae.
Indigenous uses: Rhizome paste is applied for urinary
Principal chemical compounds: Arundoin, chromone,
cylindrene, cylindol, fernenol, flidersiachromone, grami-
none, imperanene (Matsunaga et al. 1995; Yoon et al. 2006).
Pharmacological uses: Rhizome extracts possessed insig-
nificant hypoglycaemic effect (Villasenor and Lamadrid
2006), weak antibacterial activity (Risal 1994) and de-
creased the urine volume (Kanchanapee 1966; Sripanidkul-
chai et al. 2001). Imperanene showed inhibitory activity on
platelet aggregation (Matsunaga et al. 1995) and chromone
is neuroprotective (Yoon et al. 2006).
*Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Sheep sorrel (English), Ban
haldi (Local), Halhale (Nepali), Amlavetasa (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Root extract is applied in joint pain and
Principal chemical compounds: Anthraquinones, chryso-
phanol, emodin, lupeol, musizin (nepodin), orientalone,
physcion, sitosterol, tannins (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Methanol extract significantly pos-
sesses the hypotensive effect and shows the property of
muscle relaxant and tranquilizer (Murugesan et al. 1999;
Ghosh et al. 2002). Tannins draw the tissues closer and im-
prove the resistance to infection (Sharma 2004).
*Thalictrum cultratum Wall. Meadow rue (English), Pel-
jadi (Local), Dampate (Nepali), Peet ranga (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Root juice is commonly used in stomache-
ache and dysentery.
Principal chemical compounds: Berberine, diterpene, jat-
rorhijine, magnoflorine, palmatine, thalictrine (Husain et al.
Pharmacological uses: Root extract is antiperiodic, diuretic,
purgative (Chauhan 1999) and antimicrobial (Omulokoli et
al. 1997; Schmeller et al. 1997; Iwasa et al. 1998). Ber-
berine is antibacterial and antimalarial (Yamamoto et al.
1993) and Thalictrine has inhibitory effect on lymphoma,
sarcolymphoma and hepatoma (Jain et al. 1991).
*Agrimonia pilosa (D.Don) Nakai. Hairy agrimony, Couch
grass (English), Kathlange (Nepali), Rosaceae.
Indigenous uses: Plant is used to cure dysentery and root
juice is used as antidote for snake bite.
Principal chemical compounds: Agrimonolides, agrimo-
phol, apigenin, coumarins, ellagic acid, flavonoides, luteo-
lin, phenylpropanoides, quercetin, pilosanol, pyranoside,
triterpenes, tormentic acid (Kimura et al. 1995).
Pharmacological uses: Antitumor, bacteriostatic, antiyeast,
antidysenteric (Kimura et al. 1996, Peter 1969). Triterpenes
show antitumor and expectorant properties (Sharma 2004).
Ellagic acid is antimutagenic (Kaur et al. 1997) and anti-
microbial (Gyamfi and Aniya 2002). Luteolin has better
antiviral activity against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
(Ma et al. 2002). RSV is a major cause of pneumonia and
bronchiolitis in infants, in young children, and even in
adults. Luteolin demonstrates anti-inflammatory effect
(Park et al. 2001; Panthong et al. 2007). Luteolin and quer-
cetin inhibit proliferation of cancer cells (Elangovan et al.
Rubus ellipticus Sm. Golden raspberry (English), Ainselu
(Nepali), Gauriphala (Sanskrit), Rosaceae.
Indigenous uses: Root juice is given for relieving fever and
diarrhoea and dysentery.
Principal chemical compounds: Amyrin, arjunetin, rosa-
multin (Bilia et al. 1994)
Pharmacological uses: Antiimplantation and early abortifa-
cient activities of Rubus ellipticus were denoted (Dhanabal
et al. 2000).
Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) A. Rich. ex Walp. Wild
cinchona (English), Kadam (Nepali), Kadamba (Sanskrit),
Indigenous uses: Fruits are used in urinary problems.
Principal chemical compounds: Cadambine, dihydro-
cadambine, geraniol, linalool, linalylacetate, nonanol, phel-
landrene, saponins, sitosterol, selinine (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Bark extract is astringent and useful
in snake bite poison (Yusuf et al. 1994). Linalool exhibits
significant antimutagenic and antioxidative properties
(Deans et al. 1993; Stevic et al. 2004).
*Citrus medica L. Adam’s apple, Citron (English), Bimiro
(Nepali), Mahulunga (Sanskrit), Rutaceae.
Indigenous uses: Leaf is antipyretic and used as insect or
Principal chemical compounds: Aureusilin, bergamotene,
caffeine, grandmarin, hesperidine, kinocoumarin, limonene,
lumbelliferone, nomilinic acid, resveratrol, rutaevin, theo-
phylline, xanthyletin (Buckingham 1994; Kretschmar and
Baumann 1999; Govindachari et al. 2000).
Pharmacological uses: Leaf extract is useful in fever and
febrile illnesses (Ajaiyeoba et al. 2003). Peel is aromatic
and tonic (Font Quer 1992). Seeds, leaves and fruit pulp
have anticancer property due to their limonin content (Tian
et al. 2001; Arias and Laca 2005). Oil from leaves pos-
sesses antibacterial property (Limyati and Juniar 1998).
Osyris wightiana Wall. Wild tea (English), Nundhikya
(Local), Jhuri, Nundhiki (Nepali), Santalaceae.
Indigenous uses: Bark infusion is given to stop bleeding.
Leaf and bark decoction is used in sprains and fractures.
Principal chemical compounds: Lanceol, proline, tannins,
etc. (Chandel et al. 1996)
Pharmacological uses: Leaf extracts possess antiviral acti-
vity (Chandel et al. 1996). Tea made from the leaves of O.
wightiana stimulated the flow of breast milk and also acted
as a labor-inducing agent (Osujih 1993).
Aesandra butyracea (Roxb.) Baehni. Butter tree (English),
Chiura (Local), Chiuri (Nepali), Sapotaceae.
Indigenous uses: Oil cake is used to escape out snake, and
it can be used as fish poisoning. Oil or ghee is taken to cure
cracked heels and lips. Root juice is useful in dysentery.
Principal chemical compounds: Betulinic acid, friedelin,
hentriacontane, linoleic acid, oleanic acid, palmitine, proto-
basic acid, quercetin, rhamnoside, stearic acid, sitosterol
(Husain et al. 1992; Bhattacharjee et al. 2002).
Pharmacological uses: Betulin and quercetin of Butter tree
are anti-infectivity (Cowan 1999) and anti-inflammatory in
properties (Mukherjee et al. 1997).
*Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don. Astilbe (English),
Sutkeribelo (Local), Thulo okhati, Budho okhato (Nepali),
Indigenous uses: Root juice is used for easy delivery and
control bleeding during child birth. It is valued for diar-
rhoea, dysentery and hemorrhage.
Principal chemical compounds: Aesculatin, astilbic acid,
astilbin, aticoside, bergenin, dimethylaesculatin, daucosterol,
eucryphin, palmitine, peltoboykinoleic acid, scopoletin,
sitosterol, stilbene (Jain et al. 1991; Buckingham 1994).
Pharmacological uses: Pharmacological experiments indi-
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
cated the extracts from Astilbe chinensis had antineoplastic
and immunopotentiating activities (Chen et al. 1996). Dried
rhizome is used as substitute drug for Shengma (Han et al.
1998). Astilbic acid is beneficial in regulating various in-
flammatory processes (Moon et al. 2005).
*Urtica dioica L. (Fig. 1) Stinging nettle (English), Sisnu
(Local, Nepali), Agni damani (Sanskrit), Urticaceae.
Indigenous uses: Stem is valued for sprain and fractures.
Root juice is given for gastric problems and maintaining
Principal chemical compounds: Acetylcholine, betaine,
choline, flavonoides, histamine, linoleic acid, oleic acid,
palmitic acid, plastoquinone (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: The aqueous extract has antihyper-
glycaemic effect (Bnouham et al. 2003; Farzami et al.
2003), and it is also a good antioxidant (Pieroni et al. 2002),
hepatoprotective (Lebedev et al. 2001), analgesic (Gulcin et
al. 2004), antiviral (Manganelli et al. 2005), diuretic and
hypotensive in properties (Tahri et al. 2000; Testai et al.
2002). Flavonoides shows the anti-aggregant property
(Mekhfi et al. 2004).
#Callicarpa arborea Roxb. Urn fruit, Beauty berry (Eng-
lish), Gotmelo (Local), Dahikamlo (Nepali), Gandhaphali
Indigenous uses: Fruits are edible and help in indigestion.
Principal chemical compounds: Amyrin, apigenin, astilbin,
beta sitosterol, calliterpenone, cartegolic acid, luteolin, mas-
linic acid, oleanoic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, ursoleic
acid (Husain et al. 1992).
Pharmacological uses: Luteolin has antiviral (Cheng Ma et
al. 2002) and anti-inflammatory effects (Park et al. 2001;
Panthong et al. 2007). Along with quercetin, luteolin in-
hibits cancer cell proliferation (Elangovan et al. 1994).
*Viscum album L. Mistletoe, Devil’s fuge (English), Had-
chur (Local), Ainjeru (Nepali), Viscaceae.
Indigenous uses: Plant is used in fractures and sprains.
Principal chemical compounds: ?-sitosterol, caffeic acid,
dimethoxyflavone, eleutheroside, flavonoides, glycopro-
teins, kaemferol, lectin, oleanic acid, pectin, quercetin, syr-
ingin, triterpene, ursolic acid (Husain et al. 1992; Ergun and
Deliorman 1995; Lyu et al. 2000; Deliorman et al. 2005).
Pharmacological uses: Immuno-regulatory, diuretic, anti-
bacterial, antiviral, inhibits cell proliferation (Yoon et al.
1999), diuretic, anti-inflammatory as well as immunosti-
mulant effects (Yesilada et al. 1998). The extract produces
antihypertensive (Ofem et al. 2007) and antioxidant effect
(Ucar et al. 2006).
Cissus repens Lam. Wild grape (English), Pureni (Nepali),
Asthisamharaka (Sanskrit), Vitaceae.
Indigenous uses: Stem juice is useful in eye redness.
Principal chemical compounds: ?-sitosterol, luteolin, pice-
atannol, pallidol perthenocissin, resveratrol (Adesanya et al.
1999; Gupta and Verma 1991).
Pharmacological uses: Pharmacological studies revealed
the bone fracture healing property (Chopra et al. 1976;
Deka et al. 1994) and antiosteoporotic effect (Shirwaikar et
al. 2003). Murthy et al. (2003) reported the antibacterial
and antioxidant activities of the extract. Plant demonstrates
anti-inflammatory effect (Singh et al. 1984) due to ?-sitos-
terol and luteolin of the plant (Park et al. 2001; Panthong et
Traditional medical systems
Prehistoric uses of medicinal plants as therapy for illness in
farwest Nepal has been investigated in present study. Tradi-
tional therapies abound in nearby medicinal plants (Bhat-
tarai et al. 2010), and the tribal people/ethnic groups,
wherever they exist, chiefly rely on herbal medicines.
Traditional medicines are conferred in ancient, natural
health care practices such as folk/tribal practices, home her-
bal remedy, Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi healing systems.
Folk-lore medicine, home herbal remedy and Baidhya prac-
tices are indigenous to farwest Nepal and are partly influ-
enced by the Ayurveda (Kunwar and Bussmann 2008).
Baidhyas are traditional herbalists of far western Nepal
(Bhattarai 1992) and adjoining areas of India (Kala 2005)
and they pursue their remedies to cure diseases and aliments,
taking advantage of the abundance of nearby medicinal
plants. Amchi healing system is widely accepted and prac-
ticed throughout high altitude areas (Kunwar et al. 2006)
and the Darchula district is particularly influenced, albeit
with varying degrees of modifications (Lama et al. 2001).
All these traditional medicinal systems are popular with a
long tradition in the use of medicinal plants (Uprety et al.
2010) and they are due to easy and open access, availability
and cheaper in use (Shale et al. 1999; Kunwar and Buss-
mann 2008). Ayurveda is most important in bio-prospecting
of new medicines (Patwardhan et al. 2005) in among. Con-
sequently, acceptance of the Ayurveda is gearing up (Kun-
war et al. 2009).
The traditional therapies have played vital roles in
health care delivery systems especially in high hills and
remote areas of study districts where clinics and hospitals
are absent or sparsely located. Moreover the extensive
usage of traditional therapies is due to high cost of western
pharmaceuticals and healthcare. Inadequate modern medi-
cal facilities (Sherpa 2001) and government subsidies, and
intensive uses of plants (Bussmann and Sharon 2006) also
made home herbal remedies pertinent in the Himalayas.
Modern medicines are also difficult to find (Manandhar
2002) when needed particularly in the Himalayas due to
complex geomorphology. Such situation consents to the
data where there is one traditional healer for less than 100
people (Gillam 1989) and one physician for 6,000-20,000
people (WRI 2005, Pradhan 2007).
Since the apposite of traditional therapies, the role of
natural products and herbal medicine is being increasingly
appreciated (Cragg et al. 1997) in recent years. The thera-
pies mostly using plants and plant products of western
Nepal incorporate ancient beliefs and are passed down from
generations to generations by oral tradition and/or guarded
literatures (Bhattarai 1997; Kunwar and Bussmann 2008).
This study shows that information obtained from traditional
healers and local herbal medicine practitioners can support
to renew and increase in use of herbal medicines and dis-
covery of therapeutically useful agents and vice versa.
However, changing perception of local people, accultura-
tion, commercialization and socio-economic transforma-
tions have jeopardized the indigenous knowledge of phyto-
therapies. Furthermore, some tribal therapies were not sup-
ported by systematic ethnopharmacological findings. There-
fore validity assessment of indigenous therapies of plant
resources base received greater attention.
We compared the traditional and modern pharmacological
uses of 48 medicinal plant species commonly used in folk-
lore of farwest Nepal. The species represented from 34
families and 34 genera. Families Fabaceae and Asteraceae
contributed the most and provided 7 and 6 species res-
pectively. Euphorbiaceae and Rutaceae families possessed
the most contribution in earlier study (Kunwar et al. 2009)
and moderate contribution in present study, rendered two
and one species respectively. Among the surveyed 48 spe-
cies in the present study, 15 species possessed weak ana-
logy or their indigenous uses were differed to the pharma-
cological findings. It was may be due to knowledge distor-
tion. Changing perception of local people, commerciali-
zation and socio-economic transformations are prevalent in
study area (Kunwar et al. 2010) and they contributed mis-
leading situations to the traditional therapies. Moreover,
younger generations were uninterested on traditional thera-
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
pies. The situation was also provoked due to research lim-
itations and diverse resource users. As a result, essence of
ethnopharmacological surveys and cross-referencing ap-
proaches on those species revealing trivial affinities is war-
ranted. Misled of indigenous knowledge and use of ethno-
medicine out of the experience or ignorance and willful
deception may deviate knowledge out of standard and ulti-
mate cause illness and even fatal (Zhao et al. 2006; Kumar
Approximately 68% (33) species used in indigenous
medicine of the present study demonstrated some analogous
effects and the 23 species (48%) bestowed the strong sup-
ports. This fair corroboration of pharmacological activity
gives the claims by traditional healers a significantly high
credibility and such similar conceivable remarks were also
observed in abroad by Marles and Farnsworth (1995),
Chandel et al. (1996), Hamza et al. (2006) and Gautam et al.
(2007). These results substantiated the importance of sur-
veys of indigenous knowledge of utilization plant resources
for screening plants as a potential source for bioactive com-
pounds. Hence ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology
could result in discovery of novel constituents because they
are developed through long trial and error operations (Rijal
Strong affinities between indigenous and
There were two species: Euphorbia royleana and Ricinus
communis from Euphorbiaceae exhibited strong ethnophar-
macological properties in present study. Ethnopharmacolo-
gical usage of latex of Euphorbia royleana for joint/leg pain
is supported by phytochemical investigations: ethanolic ex-
tracts of plant latex has anti-arthritic activities (Bani et al.
1996). Root juice of Ricinus communis is indigenously
taken as analgesic and antidiarrhoeic in study area resem-
bled to the findings of pharmacology where plant possessed
anticholestatic, antiamoebic, analgesic, arbortifacient, estro-
genic (Singh 1986; Desta 1993), antiseptic and anti-inflam-
matory effects when taken internally; are due to phenolics
(Sharma 2004). The phenolic acid of the plant acts as chola-
gogues, stomach refresher, and immuno-stimulants, as well
as anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal
agents (Hamauzu et al. 2005; Mishima et al. 2005). Ricino-
leic acid, an active component of castor oil causes irritation
and inflammation to the intestinal mucosa, results an in-
crease in the net secretion of water and electrolytes into the
small intestine (Pierce et al. 1971; Luderer et al. 1980) and
induces diarrhea (Gaginella et al. 1975). Euphorbiaceae that
is rich in active compounds including terpenoids, alkaloids,
phenolics and fatty acids, having various ethnopharmaceu-
tical uses (Rizk 1987). Terpenenes are active against bac-
teria (Kubo et al. 1992; Habtemarium et al. 1993), fungi
(Taylor et al. 1996; Rana et al. 1997), viruses (Fujioka and
Kashiwada 1994), and protozoa (Vishawakarma 1990).
Root juice of Cirsium verutum (Asteraceae) is ethno-
pharmacologically applied for stomachache and abdominal
pain, and the use is coincided to biological activity of ter-
penes. Plant is rich in cicin, glycerol, sterols and terpenes
(Lee et al. 2002) and its uses as antimicrobial (Lee et al.
2002; Barbour et al. 2004) supports the folklore. Topical
anti-inflammatory properties of Xanthium strumarium
(Asteraceae) fruits (Han et al. 2007) supports the use of
plants’ seeds and fruits for treatment of inflammatory dis-
eases in folk medicine. The natural xanthones showed good
inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungi (Gopalakrish-
nan 1997). Juice from the plant Drymaria diandra is used to
treat coughs, fever and eye disease (conjunctivitis) (Man-
andhar 1990), which could all possibly be caused by bac-
teriostatic properties (Mukherjee et al. 1997). The metha-
nolic extract of Drymaria diandra was active against Gram-
positive bacteria. Various researches have already shown
that Gram positive bacteria are more susceptible towards
plant extracts as compared to Gram negative bacteria (Lin
et al. 1999; Parekh and Chanda 2006). Gram-negative bac-
teria are multilayered in structure and more resistant (Yao
and Moellering 1995).
Diterpenoid alkaloids, commonly isolated from the
plants of Ranunculaceae family, are commonly found to
have antimicrobial properties (Omulokoli et al. 1997). Root
juice of Thalictrum cultratum (Ranunculaceae) commonly
used in stomachache and dysentery in study area is af-
firmative to the in vitro antimicrobial properties. Berberine,
a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, acted as an antibacterial and
antimalarial drug (Yamamoto et al. 1993), is a principal
chemical constituent of T. cultratum. Berberine shows
strong antimicrobial activity to both Gram-positive and
-negative bacteria as well as to other microorganisms
(Schmeller et al. 1997; Iwasa et al. 1998). It is potentially
effective against trypanosomes (Frieburghaus et al. 1996)
and plasmodia (Omulokoli et al. 1997). Ethanol extract of
root of Angelica archangelica (Apiaceae) also shows resis-
tant to the trypanosomes (Schinella et al. 2002). Dried roots
of Angelica are anthelminthic and useful in gastritis and
stomacheache in the study area.
Root juice or raw roots of Astilbe rivularis (Rosaceae)
are consumed for easy delivery and control bleeding during
child birth. Because of its effects, it is called as sutkeribelo
in local dialect i.e. plant is useful in parturition for easy
delivery and controlling bleed. Because of its astilbic acid,
it is beneficial in regulating various inflammatory processes
(Moon et al. 2005). Stilbene and asiaticoside from Astilbe
rhizomes have wound healing properties (Gomathi et al.
2003; Kapoor et al. 2004) and accentuate burn and wound
healing. Furthermore, astilbin and bergenin are effective in
treatment of obesity (Han et al. 1998). Astilbin has anti-
arthritic and antiallergy effects (Cai et al. 2003) and Berge-
nin, an isocoumarin prevents arrhythmia, liver injury (Pu et
al. 2002), and gastric troubles (Goel et al. 1997). Scopo-
lamine (hyosine) of Astilbe rhizomes is used as analgesic
(Yamamoto et al. 1993; Iwasa et al. 1998) and is tranquili-
zer in property (Duke 1992).
We observed anti-arthritic and anti-paralytic effects of
plant juice of Rumex nepalensis (Polygonaceae). Tannin
from Rumex nepalensis (Polygonaceae) draws tissues toge-
ther and improves their resistance to infections (Sharma
2004). Polygonaceae is also widely used as anthelmintic
due to its anthraquinones (Midiwo et al. 1994). R. nepalen-
sis is also persuaded as antipyretic (Suresh et al. 1994) and
its lupeol and its derivatives regulate genito-urinary systems
(Anand et al. 1995). Coriaria nepalensis (Coriariaceae)
contains tannins and ursolic acid as main constituents. Tan-
nin is antinflammatory, muscle relaxant, analgesic, etc.
(Sharma et al. 1978; Cambie and Ash 1994) and ursolic
acid shows hepatoprotective (Saraswat et al. 1996) and anti-
tumor properties (Bilia et al. 2004). Tannin cures and pre-
vents variety of illness (Scortichini and Rossi 1991; Haslam
1996). In folklore, Coriaria bark is applied on burns and
scalds and it is coincided to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic,
antibacterial, muscle relaxant and antimicrobial properties
(Joshi and Bhatta 1999).
It is well known that Plantago major (Plantaginaceae)
has demonstrated antineoplastic activity against cancer of
the breast, anus, stomach, eye, foot, intestine and liver, and
against neuroblastoma cancer (Duke 1985). P. major con-
tains caffeic acid which is effective against viruses, bacteria
and fungi (Brantner et al. 1996). Plant seeds are used in
indigestion and dysentery as ethnomedicine. Ethnomedi-
cinal use was beneficial due to its antibacterial and antiviral
properties of caffeic acid. Ageratum conyzoides and Viscum
album also contain caffeic acid. Caffeic acid, coumarins and
tannins of A. conyzoides (Asteraceae) possess antibacterial
(Mahato and Chaudhary 2005), anthelmintic, anti-inflam-
matory, analgesic (Hedberg et al. 1983; Namba et al. 1988;
Tandon et al. 1994) and anticoagulant and muscle relaxant
(Cambie and Ash 1994) effects. Anti-inflammatory activity
was also shown by sterols, especially stigmasterol (Garcia
et al. 1999). Coumarin of A. conyzoides is a potential insec-
ticide (Kamboj and Saluja 2008). Folk use of stem juice of
A. conyzoides as bleeding control was supported by haemo-
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
static (Akah 1988) and antibacterial (Mahato and Chaud-
hary 2005) effects. Plants’ use as bleeding control could be
a part of further research because the juice of plant is exten-
sively used in cuts, wounds and bleeding control in western
Nepal (Bhattarai 1993; Manandhar 1998; Joshi and Joshi
Agrimonia pilosa (Rosaceae) is indigenously used to
cure dysentery and its root juice is taken as antidote for
snake bite. The purport of indigenous uses was substanti-
ated by pharmacological findings, A. pilosa plant extract
and its active constituent the coumarin act as bacteriostatic,
antiyeast and antidysenteric, etc. (Peter 1969; Kimura et al.
1996). Coumarin also act as antithrombotic (Thastrup et al.
1985), anti-inflammatory (Piller 1975), and vasodilatory
(Namba et al. 1988). Ellagic acid of the plant is antimicro-
bial (Gyamfi and Aniya 2002) and supports ethnopharma-
Antibacterial and antiviral properties of caffeic acid of
Viscum album (Viscaceae) (Yoon et al. 1999) support its in-
digenous use for sprain and fracture. Leaf and fruit extracts
of V. album possesses immunostimulant effects (Yesilada et
al. 1998). Viscum album, Psidium guajava and Coriaria
nepalensis species of present survey contains ursolic acid.
Ursolic acid and its derivatives have shown a significant
activity against P-388 and L-12 10 lymphocytic leukemia
cells as well as human lung carcinoma (Bilia et al. 2004).
These biological studies indicate that the antitumor activity
of the plant could be due to presence of triterpenes. Eugenol,
available in plant extract of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae)
and Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae), was found as bac-
teriostatic and fungicidal (Thomson 1978) corroborates eth-
nopharmacological uses of Psidium fruits for constipation
and colic. Gallic acid derivatives from Psidium fruits are
more effective against both types of Staphylococcus aureus
(Sato et al. 1997) and they show potent antimicrobial pro-
perties (Gyamfi and Aniya 2002). Pedunculagin of P. gua-
java is anti-inflammatory (Suksamrarn et al. 2002) in
effects. In our observation, O. corniculata has been used to
cure throat pain and mouth problems. The cure of aphthae
might be due to eugenol and supplement of Vitamin B com-
plex to quick healing and there by relieving of pain. The
mechanism of action of these plants on aphthae is worth for
The compounds like betalain alkaloids, phenolic acids,
betain, oxalic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, furanocouma-
rins and saponins may be responsible for anthelmintic acti-
vity of Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) (Nicholas et
al. 1955; Hegnauer 1989). The oil and infusion of plant
leaves possess worth anthelmintic activity against gastroin-
testinal nematodes (MacDonald et al. 2004; Jabbar et al.
2007). Catechin, a flavonoid of C. album also exhibited
antibacterial, antiviral and antimicrobial properties (Saka-
naka et al. 1992; Vijaya et al. 1995; Borris 1996). The indi-
genous use of C. album species for constipation and indi-
gestion is rational to its antibacterial, antiviral and antimic-
Indigenous use of Rhus fruits decoction for diarrhea and
dysentery concurred its antidiarrhoeal properties (Galvez et
al. 1993; Su et al. 2000). Because, most naturally occurring
flavonoids of plant show an antioxidant and antidiarrhoeal
effects (Galvez et al. 1993; Thangpu and Yadav 2004), but
some flavonoids are mutagenic in bacterial and mam-
malian systems (Mdee et al. 2003) and have antiviral and
anti-inflammatory activities (Farnsworth 1966; Sharma
2004). Flavonoides, essential constituents of the cells of all
higher plants (Brouillard and Cheminat 1988), play a major
role in successful medical treatment of ancient times and
their use has preserved till date (Dixon et al. 1998). Rhus
species, widely distributed in the subtropical regions of the
world and used medicinally in various ways, are rich in
biflavonoids. Flavonoides along with sterols work as bio-
active for diabetes (Rhemann and Zaman 1989; Patil et al.
2005). Plant extract of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) also con-
tains active flavonoides. Flavonoides pose anti-inflam-
matory, antibacterial and wound healing properties (Afolo-
yan et al. 2008) and have shown to increase mucus sec-
retion, prostaglandin synthesis and blood flow (Singh et al.
1998). Urtica stem is indigenously valued for sprain and
fractures and its root juice is valued for gastric and blood
pressure problems. Aqueous U. dioica plant extract control
blood sugar level (Bnouham et al. 2003; Farzami et al.
2003), and it is a good antioxidant (Pieroni et al. 2002) and
hypotensive (Tahri et al. 2000; Testai et al. 2002) due to
flavonoids (Galvez et al. 1993). Antiviral, anti-inflam-
matory and anti-aggregant properties of flavonoides (Farns-
worth 1966; Su et al. 2000; Mekhfi et al. 2004; Sharma
2004) of U. dioica are consistent to the folk uses.
Polysaccharide is one of the active components in Co-
rdyceps sinensis (Clavicipitaceae) that has multiple pharma-
cological activities. It has high concentrations of adenosine,
guanosine and uridine (Li et al. 2001) among these; adeno-
sine is most worth in pharmacology. Adenosine has wide-
spread effects on circulation of blood, cerebral and coronary
(Berne 1980; Toda et al. 1982), prevention of cardiac ar-
rhythmias (Pelleg and Porter 1990), inhibition of neuro-
transmitter release and the modulation of adenylate cyclase
activity (Ribeiro 1995), potentiating immune system (Liu et
al. 1992; Xu et al. 1992) and antitumor activity (Chen et al.
1997). The indigenous uses of plants as tonic, aphrodisiac,
immuo-stimulative and useful in memory longetivity
throughout Nepal (Uprety et al. 2010) are justifiable to the
pharmacological observations. Inhibition of LTB4 biosyn-
thesis and lipoxygenase activity by the Morchella esculenta
(Helvellaceae) extracts supports their indigenous uses in
various diseases known to be mediated by 5-lipoxygenase
products, i.e. leukotrienes. Plant stalk and cap are con-
sidered as aphrodisiac (Kunwar 2006) and are used as tonic
and immunostimulant in folklore. Methanolic extract of
plants facilitates healing and soothing (Kumar et al. 2000).
Lipoxygenase induces inflammation and the activity of
lipoxygenase can also be inhibited by the rhizome extract of
Imperata cylindrica (Matsunga et al. 1995). Rhizome ex-
tracts of I. cylindrica (Poaceae) decreased the urine volume
(Kanchanapee 1966). Alike to pharmacological findings,
ethnomedicinal use of the plant rhizome paste was for uri-
Pharmacological literatures reveal antipyretic, digestive
and tonic properties of Citrus fruits and leaves (Font Quer
1992; Ajaiyeoba et al. 2003) since the antipyretic effect of
Citrus (Rutaceae) is recognized by folklore in Nepal Wes-
tern Himalaya. Anticancer properties have been associated
with the components of various natural products including
polyphenols, resveratrol, and limonene (Kaegi 1998). Res-
veratrol and limonene of Citrus fruits have multiple biolo-
gical activities including vasodilatory (Duarte et al. 1993),
anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral
effects, etc. (Brown 1980; Middleton and Kandaswami
1992). Cassia tora (Fabaceae) is used for bronchitis and its
juice is applied as anthelmintic and antiseptic in study area
argued with the antibacterial, antifungal (Mukherjee et al.
1995), anti-inflammatory and broncho-dilator efficacies of
the plant (Kumar and Muller 1999). Seed extracts is anti-
coagulant (Mukherjee et al. 1995) and hypoglycaemic
(Simon et al. 1987; Rao et al. 1994). Plant anthraquinones
placate intestinal walls and stimulate bowel movement and
make stool loose (Sharma 2004).
Moderate affinities between indigenous and
Alcoholic extract of Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) enhanced
liver glycogen and lowered blood glucose level (Tripathi
and Chaturvedi 1995). Lung fibrosis (Thresiamma et al.
1996), blood pressure control (Dikshit et al. 1995) and anti-
inflammatory properties (Kohli et al. 2005) are due to
curcumine of the plant. Root extract of the plant is useful in
stomachache, dysentery and blood pressure in study area.
Indigenous use of plant for stomachache and dysentery
infers connotation of antibacterial and antiviral properties.
Antibacterial (Negi et al. 1999) and antiviral (Bourne et al.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
1999) properties of curcumin are suggested. Curcumin, a
yellow colored phenolic pigment, is found to inhibit arachi-
donic acid metabolism, cytokines, and release of steroidal
hormones. It has strong oxygen radical scavenging activity
which is responsible for anti-inflammatory property (Kohli
et al. 2005; Singh et al. 2008).
Rutin, a flavonoid from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)
strengthens capillary walls (Sharma 2004), relieves acute
and chronic inflammations (Lee et al. 2000) and protects
heart (Chopra and Singh 1994). Methanol extract of plant
root, stem bark and leaves showed a broad spectrum of anti-
bacterial activity (Khan et al. 2001) and it is partially con-
sented to the indigenous usage as bark and leaf juice is the-
rapeutically used for spleen disorders. Rutin from Sophora
mollis (Fabaceae) protects heart (Chopra and Singh 1994),
and relieves acute and chronic inflammations (Lee et al.
2000) and capillary wall infections (Sharma 2004). The
cardioprotective action of the plant is traditional therapy
base where the plant roots are taken for rheumatism, and
cold. Antiviral property of Leea indica (Leeaceae) (Jain et
al. 1991) and indigenous use of plant leaves as digestive are
partially justified. Leaves of Artemisia are used in skin it-
ching and scabies in ethnopharmacology, and in phytoche-
mical studies plant leaf extract possessed activities against
bacteria (Bhattarai et al. 2009) which produce malodors in
skin surface (Moulari et al. 2004).
Pleumeria rubra (Apocynaceae) is antibiotic, antiviral,
etc. and fluroplumierin of the plant inhibits mycobacteria
(Sundarrao 1993; Cambie and Ash 1994) which consented
to the indigenous uses as digestive and anticholeric. Fruit of
Callicarpa arborea (Verbenaceae), considered as edible and
digestive in study area, has antiviral property because of its
luteolin (Cheng Ma et al. 2002). Bark of Bauhinia vahlii
(Fabaceae) is used in cuts, wounds, and fractures and this is
substantiated by quercetin and betulin of the plant which are
respectively anti-infectivity (Cowan 1999) and anti-inflam-
matory in properties (Mukherjee et al. 1997).
Discrepancies between indigenous and
Antiimplantation and early abortifacient activities of Rubus
species were denoted (Dhanabal et al. 2000). The results are
in agreement with the traditional use of this plant as abor-
tifacient by the tribal of Nilgiri, India but such folklore was
not observed in study area. Rubus root juice was given for
relieving fever, diarrhea and dysentery in far-western Nepal.
Caesalpinia bonduc has been cited as a cure for cutaneous
eruptions and stomachache (Kerharo and Adams 1974) but
we observed only its usage as fish stupefying. Rhizome
juice of Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae) possesses antiviral
pro-perty (Foster and Duke 2000) and its aqueous extract
has anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anti-emetic effects (Ahmed
et al. 1994) and is useful in treating dysentery, dropsy and
secondary syphilis (Chopra and Handa 1982). The ethanolic
extracts of the plant showed antioxidant activity (Auddy et
al. 2003). However, the plant rhizome paste was recognized
only for sprain and its grinded inflorescence was applied for
earache by local people in farwest Nepal. Several instances
were rational behind a certain function of a chemical cons-
tituents of a species therefore further research is imperative
to delve the actual medicinal effect of a species against par-
Plant resources have been used as immediate and ultimate
ingredients for therapies and the indigenous therapies have
been employed and appreciated by local populace for cen-
turies. Because of prolong existence and uses, the therapies
have become an integral part of the culture. Knowledge
base for therapies were also stemmed from customs, liveli-
hood strategies and available nearby resources. The ethno-
medicinal and ethnopharmacological information gleaned
from the present research provided the potential to identify
which plants are most likely to be useful in treatment of
diseases. Despite the high potential plants have as sources
of new antimicrobial agents, they may soon disappear
because of over-population, indiscriminate exploitation and
irrational managements (Fabry et al. 1998). The environ-
ment where people learnt and experienced folklore is im-
periled on account of deforestation and overexploitation
(Bhattarai 1997) and acculturation and social transforma-
tion of aboriginal life (Kunwar and Bussmann 2008). It is
therefore important that the age-old plant based indigenous
therapy to be explored and documented properly for future
uses before it is lost. Significant corroboration of pharma-
cological activity gives the claims by traditional healers a
significantly high credibility albeit with varying degrees of
modifications. Some plants that were thought to be effective
in ethnopharmacology were ineffective while pursuing their
comparative assessment with phytochemical findings, as a
result. Several instances are rational behind a certain func-
tion of a phytomolecule. Such species can be reevaluated in
the fields for their effect therefore further research is im-
Acharya KP, Acharya M (2010) Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants
used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Sardikhola VDC, Kaski, Pok-
hara, Nepal. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 4 (2), 235-239
Ahmed S, Reza MS, Jabbar A (1994) Antimicrobial activity of Cynodon dac-
tylon. Fitoterapia 65, 463-464
Ajaiyeoba EO, Oladepo O, Fawole OI, Bolaji OM, Akinboye DO, Ogunda-
hunsi OAT, Falade CO, Gbotosho GO, Itiola OA, Happi TC, Ebong OO,
Ononiwu IM, Osowole OS, Oduola OO, Ashidi JS, Odoula AMJ (2003)
Cultural categorization of febrile illness in correlation with herbal remedies
used for treatment in southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Akah PA (1988) Haemostatic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ageratum
conyzoides L. International Journal of Crude Drug Research 26, 97
Amatya MP (1994) Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia royleana. In: Pro-
ceeding of II National Conference on Science and Technology, National Aca-
demy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp 813-815
Anand R, Patnaik GK, Roy K, Bhaduri AP (1995) Antioxaluric and anticalci-
uric activity of lupeol derivatives. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 27, 265-
Anonymous (1948) Report of the Committee on Indigenous System of Medicine
(Vol I), Ministry of Health, Government of India, New Delhi, 254 pp
Antoun MD, Ramos Z, Vazques J, Oquendo I, Proctor GR, Gerena L,
Franzblau SG (2001) Evaluation of the flora of Puerto Rico for in vitro anti-
plasmodial and antimycobacterial activities. Phytotherapy Research 15, 638-
Arias BA, Laca LR (2005) Pharmacological properties of citrus and their an-
cient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Ethnophar-
macology 97, 89-95
Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi
PC, Seal T, Mukherjee B (2003) Screening of antioxidant activity of three
Indian medicinal plants; traditionally used for management of neurodegene-
rative diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 84, 131-138
Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S (2005) Traditional knowledge of Kani tribals in
Kouthalai of Tirunelvelli hills, Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharma-
cology 102, 246-255
Badam L, Bedekar SS, Sonawane KB, Joshi SP (2002) In vitro antiviral acti-
vity of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr) upon human coxsackieviruses B1-B6.
Journal of Communicable Diseases 34, 88-99
Banerjee S, Bandhopadhyay SK (1991) Further studies on the anti-inflam-
matory activities of Ricinus communis in albino rats. Indian Journal of Phar-
macology 22, 149-152
Bani S, Chand D, Suri KA, Suri OP, Sharma OP (1996) Anti-inflammatory
effects of an ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia royleana. Phytotherapy Re-
search 10, 285-291
Barbour EK, Sharif MA, Sagherian VK, Habre AN, Talhouk RS, Talhouk
SN (2004) Screening of selected indigenous plants of Lebanon for antimicro-
bial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93, 1-7
Bernard C (1966) Physiologische Untersuchungen uber einige amerikanische
Gifte. In: Das C, Bernard C, Mani N (Eds) Ausgewahlte Physiologische
Schriften, Huber Verlag. Bern. [frz. orig. 1864], pp 84-133
Berne RM (1980) The role of adenosine in the regulation of coronary blood
flow. Cancer Research 47, 807-813
Bhattarai NK (1992) Medical ethnobotany in the Karnali zone, western Nepal.
Economic Botany 46, 257-261
Bhattarai NK (1993) Medical ethnobotany in the Rapti zone, western Nepal.
Fitoterapia 64, 483-493
Bhattarai NK (1997) Folk medicinal uses of indigenous aromatic plants of
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
Nepal. In: Handa SS, Kaul MK (Eds) Supplement to Cultivation and Utiliza-
tion of Aromatic Plants, Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research, India, pp 469-483
Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Taylor RSL, Ghimire SK (2009) Biological
activities of some Nepalese medicinal plants used in treating bacterial infec-
tions in human beings. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 10, 83-90
Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Quave CL, Taylor RSL (2010) The use of medi-
cinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal. Jour-
nal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6, 14
Bilia AR, Palme E, Catalano S, Flamini G, Morelli I (1994) New terpenoid
saponins from the roots of Potentilla tormentilla. Journal of Natural Prod-
ucts 57, 333-338
Bisset NG (1991) One man's poison, another man's medicine. Journal of Ethno-
pharmacology 32, 71-81
Bnouham M, Merhfour FZ, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Aziz M, Legssyer A (2003)
Antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica. Fitoterapia
Bok JW, Lermer L, Chilton J, Klingeman HG, Towers GH (1999) Antitumor
sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phytochemistry 51, 891-898
Borris RP (1996) Natural products research: perspectives from a major phar-
maceutical company. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 51, 29-38
Brantner A, Males Z, Pepeljnjak S, Antolic A (1996) Antimicrobial activity
of Paliurus spina-christi Mill. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 52, 119-122
Brouillard R, Cheminat A (1988) Flavonoides and plant color. Progress in
Clinical and Biological Research 280, 93-106
Brown JP (1980) A review of the genetic effects of naturally occurring flavo-
noides, anthraquinones and related compounds. Mutation Research 75, 243-
Buckingham J (1994) Dictionary of Natural Products (Vol 7), Chapman and
Hall, London, UK, 1938 pp
Burlakoti C, Kunwar RM (2008) Folk herbal medicines of Mahakali water-
shed Area, Nepal. In: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, Thapa CB,
Shrestha BB (Eds) Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contempo-
rary Research, Ecological Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp 187-193
Bussmann RW (2002) Ethnobotany and biodiversity conservation. In: Ambasht
RS, Ambasht NK (Eds) Modern Trends in Applied Terrestrial Ecology, Klu-
wer publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 345-362
Bussmann RW, Sharon D (2006) Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern
Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture. Journal of Ethnobiol-
ogy and Ethnomedicine 2, 47
Bussmann RW, Sharon D, López A (2007) Blending traditional and western
medicine: medicinal plant use among patients at clinical Anticona in El Por-
venir, Peru. Journal of Ethnobotany Research and Applications 5, 185-189
Cai Y, Chen T, Xu Q (2003) Astilbin suppresses collagen-induced arthritis via
the dysfunction of lymphocytes. Inflammation Research 52, 334-340
Cambie RC, Ash J (1994) Fijian Medicinal Plants, CSIRO, Canberra, Austra-
lia, 365 pp
Cantrell CL, Lu T, Fronczek FR, Fischer NH, Adams LB, Franzblau SG
(1996) Antimycobacterial cycloartanes from Borrichia frutescens. Journal of
Natural Products 59, 1131-1136
Chandel KPS, Shukla G, Sharma N (1996) Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aro-
matic Plants in India, ICAR, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources,
New Delhi, India, 239 pp
Chauhan NS (1999) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Himanchal Pradesh,
Indus Publication Company, New Delhi, India, 632 pp
Chen PF, Lai PF, Zhang P, Chen LL (1996) Antineoplastic activity of Heiji
(rhizome of Astilbe chinensis). China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 21,
Chen YJ, Shiao MS, Lee SS, Wang SY (1997) Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on
the proliferation and differentiation of human leukaemic U937 cells. Life Sci-
ences 60, 2349-2359
Cheng H, Xia B, Zhang L, Zhou F, Zhang YX, Ye M, Hu ZG, Li J, Wang
ZL, Li C, Guo QS (2006) Matrine improves 2,4,6 TNB sulphonic acid-
induced colitis in mice. Pharmacological Research 53, 202-208
Cheng MS, Du J, But PPH, Deng XL, Zhang YW, Ooi VEC, Xu HX, Lee
SHS, Lee SF (2002) Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory
syncytial virus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79, 205-211
Chopra K, Singh M (1994) Involvement of oxygen free radicals in cardiopro-
tective effect of rutin-A naturally occurring flavonoid. Indian Journal of
Pharmacology 26, 13-18
Chopra RN, Handa KL (1982) Indigenous Drugs of India (2nd Edn), Acade-
mic Publishers, India, 504 pp
Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC (1986) Glossary of Indian Medicinal
Plants (Including the Supplement), Council of Scientific and Industrial Re-
search, New Delhi, India, total pp
Chopra SS, Patel MR, Awadhiya RP (1976) Studies of Cissus quadrangularis
in experimental fracture repair: a histopathological study. Indian Journal of
Medical Research 64, 1365-1368
Coppen JJW, Cobb AL (1983) The occurrence of iridoids in Pleumeria and
Allamanda. Phytochemistry 22, 125-128
Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiol-
ogy Reviews 12 (4), 564-582
Cox PA (1994) The Ethnobotanical Approach to Drug Discovery: Strength and
Limitations, Ethnobotany and the search for new drugs. Ciba Foundation
Symposium. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. New York, USA, pp 25-36
Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM (1997) Natural products in drug dis-
covery and development. Journal of Natural Products 60, 52-60
CSIR (1988) Wealth of India (Vol I-XI), Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research, New Delhi, India
Dahanukar AS, Kulkarki RA, Rege NN (2000) Pharmacology of medicinal
plants and natural products. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 32, 81-118
Dai Y, Ye WC, Wang ZT, Matsuda H, Kubo M, But PPH (2002) Antipuritic
and antinociceptive effects of Chenopodium album in mice. Journal of Eth-
nopharmacology 81, 245-250
Datte JY, Yapo PA, Kouame-Koffi GG, Kati-Coulibaly S, Amoikon KE,
Offoumou AM (2004) Leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. (Caesal-
piniaceae) induces an increase of contractile force in rat skeletal muscle in
situ. Phytomedicine 11, 235-241
Davidov MI, Goryunov VG, Kubarikov PG (1995) Postadenomectomy
phytoperfusion of the bladder. Urologiyai Nefrologiya 5, 19-20
Deans SG, Simpson E, Noble RC, MacPherson A, Penzes L (1993) Natural
antioxidants from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) volatile oil: the beneficial effects
upon mammalian lipid metabolism. Acta Horticulturae 332, 177-182
Deka DK, Lahon LC, Saikia J, Mukit A (1994) Effect of Cissus quadrangu-
laris in accelerating healing process of experimentally fractured radius-ulna
of dog: a preliminary study. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 26, 44-45
Deliorman DO, Aslan M, Sendogdu N, Ergun F, Yesilada E (2005) Evalua-
tion of the hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant activity of three Viscum
album subspecies in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharma-
cology 98, 95-102
Desta B (1993) Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial acti-
vity of 63 medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 39, 129-139
Devkota R, Karmacharya SB (2003) Documentation in indigenous knowledge
of medicinal plants in Gwallek VDC, Baitadi, Nepal. Botanica Orientalis 3,
Dhanabal SP, Prasanth S, Ramanathan M, Elango K, Suresh B (2000) Vali-
dation of antifertility activity of various Rubus species in female albino rats.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 62 (1), 58-60
Dikshit M, Rastogi L, Shukla R, Srimal RC (1995) Prevention of ischaemia-
induced biochemical changes by curcumin and quinidine in cat heart. Indian
Journal of Medical Research 101, 31-35
Dixon RA, Howles PA, Lamb C, He XZ, Reddy JT (1998) Prospects of the
metabolic engineering of bioactive flavonoides and related phenylpropanoid
compounds. Advanced Experimental Medical Biology 439, 55-66
Duarte J, Perez-Vizcaino F, Zarzuelo A, Jimenez J, Tanargo J (1993) Vaso-
dilator effects of Quercetin in isolated rat vascular smooth muscle. European
Journal of Pharmacology 239, 1-7
Duke JA, Ayensu ES (1985) Medicinal Plants of China, Reference Publica-
tions, Inc., Algonac MI, 705 pp
Duke, JA (1992) Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of Grass, Herbs and
Other Economic Plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 654 pp
Efron D, Farber SM, Holmstedt B, Kline NL, Wilson RHL (1970) Ethno-
pharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs, Government Printing Office.
Public Health Service Publications No. 1645. (orig. 1967) Reprint, Washing-
ton, DC, 468 pp
Elangovan V, Ramamoorthy N, Balasubramanian S (1994) Studies on the
antiproliferative effect of some naturally occurring bioflavonoidal compounds
against human carcinoma of larynx and sarcoma-180 cell lines. Indian Jour-
nal of Pharmacology 26, 266-269
Ergun F, Deliorman D (1995) Chemical constituents of Viscum album L. Jour-
nal of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science Ankara 24, 95-108
Fabry W, Okema PO, Ansorg R (1998) Antibacterial activity of east African
medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 60, 79-84
Farnsworth NR (1966) Biological and phytochemical screening of plants.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 55, 225
Farnsworth NR, Morris RW (1976) Higher plants – the sleeping giant of drug
development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 148, 46-52
Farzami B, Ahmadvand D, Vardasbi S, Majin FZ, Khaghani S (2003)
Induction of insulin secretion by a component of Urtica dioica leaf extract in
perifused Islets of Langerhans and its in vivo effects in normal and strepto-
zotocin diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 89, 47-53
Fessenden RJ, Fessenden JS (1982) Organic Chemistry (2nd Edn), Willard
Grant Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 497 pp
Fong HHS (2002). Integration of herbal medicine into modern medical prac-
tices: issues and perspectives. Integrative Cancer Therapies 1, 287-293
Font Quer P (1992) Plantas Medicinales, El Dioscórides renovado, Editorial
Labor, Barcelona, 1033 pp
Foster S, Duke JA (2000) Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants and Herbs (2nd
Edn), Massachusetts, Houghton Mifflin Co., USA, 411 pp
Freiburghaus F, Kaminsky R, Nkunya MHH, Brun R (1996) Evaluation of
African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 55, 1-11
Fujioka T, Kashiwada Y (1994) Anti-AIDS agents. 11. Betulinic acid and pla-
tanic acid as anti-HIV principles from Syzigium claviflorum, and the anti-HIV
activity of structurally related triterpenoids. Journal of Natural Products 57,
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
Gaginella TS, Stewart JJ, Oslon WA, Bass P (1975) Actions of ricinoleic acid
and structurally related fatty acid on the gastro-intestinal tract II. Effect on
water and electrolyte absorption in vitro. Journal of Pharmacology and Expe-
rimental Therapy 195, 355-361
Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Lorente MD, Ocete MA, Jimenez J
(1993) Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an
active flavonoidal constituent. Planta Medica 59, 333-336
Garcia MD, Saenz MT, Gomez MA, Fernandez MA (1999) Topical anti-
inflammatory activity of phytosterols isolated from Erygium foetidum on
chronic and acute inflammation models. Phytotherapy Research 13, 78-80
Gautam R, Saklani A, Jachak SM (2007) Indian medicinal plants as a source
of antimycobacterial agents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 200-234
Ghosh L, Arunachalam G, Murugesan T, Pal M, BP Saha B (2002) Studies
on the psychopharmacological activities of Rumex nepalensis Spreng. root
extract in rats and mice. Phytomedicine 9, 202-206
Gillam S (1989) The traditional healer as village health worker. Journal of Ins-
titute of Medicine 11, 67-76
Goel RK, Maiti RN, Manickam M, Ray AB (1997) Antiulcer activity of natu-
rally occurring pyrano-coumarin and isocoumarins and their effect on prosta-
noid synthesis using human colonic mucosa. Indian Journal of Experimental
Biology 35, 1080-1083
Gomathi K, Gopinath D, Rafiuddin AM, Jayakumar R (2003) Quercetin in-
corporated collagen matrices for dermal wound healing processes in rat. Bio-
materials 24, 2767-2772
Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G (1997) Evaluation of the anti-
fungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their syn-
thetic derivatives. Journal of Natural Products 60, 519-24
Goswami S, Annalakshmi C, Panda N, Banerjee S, Sahu NP, Achari B, Das
PK (2005) Preclinical experimental evidence for anti gastric ulcer activity in
an Indian medicinal plant. In: Abstract presented in the 2nd International
Conference on Recent Advances in Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences, 6-8
January 2005, Bundelkhand University, India
Govindachari TR, Suresh G, Gopalakrishnan G, Masilamani S, Banumathi
B (2000) Antifungal activity of some tetranortriterpenoids. Fitoterapia 71,
Grünwald J (1995) The European phytomedicines market: figures, trends, ana-
lysis. Herbal Gram 34, 60-65
Gulcin I, Kufrevioglu OI, Oktay M, Buyokokuroglu ME (2004) Antioxidant,
antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle Urtica dioica L.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90, 205-215
Gupta MM, Verma RK (1991) Lipid constituents of Cissus quadrangularis.
Phytochemistry 30, 875-878
Gyamfi MA, Aniya Y (2002) Antioxidant properties of Thonningianin – iso-
lated from the African medicinal herbs. Thonningia sanguinea. Biochemical
Pharmacology 63, 1725-1737
Habtemariam S, Gray AI, Waterman PG (1993) A new antibacterial sesqui-
terpene from Premna oligotricha. Journal of Natural Products 56, 140-143
Halpern GM (1999) Cordyceps: China’s Healing Mushroom, Avery Publishing
Group, New York, USA, 116 pp
Hamauzu Y, Yasui H, Inno T, Kume C, Omanyuda M (2005) Phenolic pro-
file, antioxidant property, and antiinfluenza viral activity of Chinese quince
(Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and
apple (Malus domestica Mill.) fruits. Journal of Agriculture and Food Che-
mistry 53, 928-934
Hamza OJM, Carolien BB, Mecky INM, Moshi MJ, Mikx F, Selemani HO,
Mbwambo ZH, Ajam Van der Ven, Verweij PE (2006) Antifungal activity
of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infec-
tions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108, 124-132
Han LK, Ninomiya H, Tanigochu M, Baba K, Kimura Y, Okuda H (1998)
Norepinephrine-augmenting lipolytic effectors from Astilbe thunbergii rhi-
zomes. Journal of Natural Products 61, 1006-1011
Han T, Li HL, Zhang QY, Han P, Zheng HC, Rahman K, Qin LP (2007)
Bioactivity guided fractionalization for anti-inflammatory and analgesic pro-
perties and constituents of Xanthium strumarium L. Phytomedicine 14, 825-
Haslam E (1996) Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible
modes of action. Journal of Natural Products 59, 205-215
Hedberg I, Hedberg O, Madati P, Mshigeni KE, Mshiu EN, Samuelsson G
(1983) Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Tanzania. II. Plants
of the family Dilleniaceae to Opiliaceae. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 9,
Hegnauer R (1989) Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen 8. Birkhäuser, Basel, Swit-
Heinrich M (2001) Ethnobotanik und Ethnopharmakologie. Eine EinfuX hrung.
Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, Germany, 258 pp
Heinrich M, Gibbons S (2001) Ethnopharmacology in drug discovery: an ana-
lysis of its role and potential contribution. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharma-
cology 53, 425-432
Houghton PJ (1995) The role of plants in traditional medicine and current the-
rapy. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1, 131-143
Hu K, Yao X (2002) The cytotoxicity of protoneodioscin, a furostanol saponin
from the rhizomes of Dioscorea collettii var hypoglauca against human can-
cer cell in vitro. Phytomedicine 9, 560-565
Huang BM, Chuang YM, Chen CF, Leu SF (2000) Effects of extracted Cor-
dyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Bio-
logical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 23, 1532-1535
Husain A, Virmani OP, Popali SP, Mishra LN, Gupta MM, Srivastava GN,
Abraham Z, Singh AK (1992) Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants, Cen-
tral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Lucknow, India, 546 pp
Ito C, Itoigawa M, Kojima N, Tokuda H, Hirata T, Nishino H, Furukawa H
(2004) Chemical constituents of Millettia taiwaniana: structure elucidation of
five new isoflavonoides and their cancer chemopreventive activity. Journal of
Natural Products 67, 1125-1130
Iwasa K, Nanba H, Lee DU, Kang SI (1998) Structure–activity relationships
of protoberberines having antimicrobial activity. Planta Medica 64, 748-751
Jabbar A, Zaman MA, Iqbal Z, Yaseen M, Shamin A (2007) Anthelmintic
activity of Chenopodium album L. and Caesalpinia cristata L. against tricho-
strongylid nematodes of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114, 86-91
Jain SK (1994) Ethnobotany and research on medicinal plants in India. Ciba
Foundation Symposium 185, 153-168
Jain SK, Sinha BK, Gupta RC (1991) Notable Plants in Ethnomedicine of
India, NBRI, Lucknow, Deep publication, India, 219 pp
Jain SR, Sharma SN (1967) Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin.
Planta Medica 15 (4), 439
Joshi AR, Joshi K (2000) Indigenous knowledge and uses of medicinal plants
by local communities of the Kali Gandaki Watershed area, west Nepal. Jour-
nal of Ethnopharmacology 73, 175-183
Joshi S (2004) Medicinal Plants, Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, India,
Joshi S, Bhatta N (1999) Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Cori-
aria nepalensis Wall. In: Proceedings of IIIrd National Conference on Science
and Technology, National Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu,
Nepal, pp 1477-1479
Julkunen-Tuto R, Tahvanainen J (1989) The effect of sample preparation
method extractable phenolics of Salicaceae species. Planta Medica 5, 55
Kaegi E (1998) Unconventional therapies for cancer: 2. Green tea. The task
force on alternative therapies of the Canadian breast cancer research initiative.
Canadian Medical Association Journal 158, 1033-1035
Kala CP (2005) Current status of medicinal plants used by traditional Baidhyas
in Uttaranchal State of India. Journal of Ethnobotany Research and Applica-
tions 3, 267-278
Kamboj A, Sauja AK (2008) Ageratum conyzoides L. A review on its phyto-
chemical and pharmacological profile. International Journal of Green Phar-
macy 2, 59-68
Kanchanapee P (1966) Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Impe-
rata cylindrica beauv. rhizomes. Bulletin of the Department of Medical Sci-
ence 8, 182-184
Kapoor M, Howard R, Hall I, Appleton I (2004) Effects of epicathechin gal-
late on wound healing and scar formation in a full thickness incisional wound
healing model in rats. American Journal of Pathology 165, 299-307
Kaul MK (1997) Medicinal plants of Kashmir and Ladakh, Indus Publishing
Co., New Delhi, India, 173 pp
Kaur S, Grover IS, Kumar S (1997) Antimutagenic potential of ellagic acid
isolated from Terminalia arjuna. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35,
Kerharo J, Adam JG (1974) La Pharmacopée Sénégalaise Traditionnelle,
Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques, Editions Vigot Frères, Paris, 254 pp
Khan MR, Kihara M, Omoloso AD (2001) Antimicrobial activity of Horsfiel-
dia helwigii and Melia azedarach. Fitoterapia 72, 423-427
Kimura M, Diwan PV, Yanagi S, Kon-no Y, Nojima H, Kimura I (1995)
Potentiating effects of ?-eudesmol-related cyclohexylidene derivatives on
succinylcholine-induced neuromuscular block in isolated phrenic nerve-dia-
phragm muscles of normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. Biological and Phar-
maceutical Bulletin 18, 407-410
Kizu H, Kaneko E, Tomimori T (1999) Studies on Nepalese crude drugs
XXVI. Chemical constituents of Panchaunle: Dactylorhiza hatagirea D. Don.
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 47 (11), 1618-1625
Kodama EN, McCaffrey RP, Yusa K, Mitsuya H (2000) Antileukemic acti-
vity and mechanism of action of cordycepin against terminal deoxynucleo-
tidyl transferase-positive (TdT1) leukemic cells. Biochemistry and Pharma-
cology 59, 273-281
Kohli K, Ali J (2005) Curcumin: a natural anti-inflammatory agent. Indian
Journal of Pharmacology 37 (3), 141-147
Kretschmar JA, Baumann TW (1999) Caffeine in citrus flowers. Phytoche-
mistry 52, 19-23
Kubo I, Muroi H, Himejima M (1992) Antibacterial activity of totarol and its
potentiation. Journal of Natural Products 55, 1436-1440
Kumar D (2007) Pharmacognosy can help minimize accidental misuse of her-
bal medicines. Current Science 93, 1356-1358
Kumar S, Muller K (1999) Medicinal plants from Nepal; II. Evaluation as in-
hibitors of lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Journal of Ethnophar-
macology 64, 135-139
Kumar S, Ziereis K, Wiegrebe W, Muller K (2000) Medicinal plants from
Nepal: evaluation as inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis. Journal of Ethno-
pharmacology 70, 191-195
Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M (2006) Search for antibacterial
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al.
and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 107, 182-188
Kunwar RM (2002) Some threatened medicinal and aromatic plants: Status,
trade and management practice in Dolpa, Midwestern, Nepal. Journal of
Natural History Museum 21, 173-186
Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW (2008) Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4, 24
Kunwar RM, Nepal BK, Kshetri HB, Rai SK, Bussmann RW (2006) Ethno-
medicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang
districts of Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2, 27
Kunwar RM, Uprety Y, Burlakoti C, Chowdhary CL, Bussmann RW
(2009) Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in Far-
west Nepal. Journal of Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7, 5-28
Kunwar RM, Acharya RP, Bussmann RW (2010) Medicinal plants in Nepal
Himalaya: status, trade, use and community management. Journal of Ethno-
botany Research and Applications 9 (in press)
Kupiecki FP, Ogzewalla CD, Schell FM (1974) Isolation and Characterization
of a hypoglycaemic agent from Xanthium strumarium. Journal of Pharma-
cological Science 63 (7), 11
Laird SA, Pierce AR (2002) Promoting sustainable and ethical botanicals: stra-
tegies to improve commercial raw material sourcing: results from the sus-
tainable botanicals pilot project industry surveys, case studies and standards
collection. Rainforest Alliance, New York. Available online:
Lama YC, Ghimire SK, Thomas YA (2001) Medicinal Plants of Dolpo: Am-
chis’ Knowledge and Conservation, People and Plants program and WWF
Nepal, Kathmandu, 150 pp
Lebedev AA, Batakov EA, Kurkin VA, Lebedeva EA, Zapesochnaya GG,
Avdeeva EV, Simonova GV, Volotsueva AV (2001) The antioxidative acti-
vity of a complex hepatoprotective preparation, silybokhol. Rastitel’nye
Resursy 37, 69-75
Lee BG, Kim SH, Zee OP, Lee KR, Lee HY, Han JW, Lee HW (2000) Sup-
pression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macro-
phages by two beta carboline alkaloids extracted from Melia azedarach.
European Journal of Pharmacology 406, 301-309
Lee WB, Kwon HC, Cho OR, Lee KC, Choi SU, Baek NI, Lee KR (2002)
Phytochemical constituents of Cirsium setidens Nakai and their cytotoxicity
against human cancer cell lines. Archives of Pharmacology 25, 628-635
Lewington A (1990) Plant for People, Oxford University Press, New York,
USA, 232 pp
Li SP, Li P, Dong TTX, Tsim KWK (2001) Antioxidant activity of different
types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phyto-
medicine 8, 207-212
Lietava J (1992) Medicinal plants in middle Palaeolithic grave Shanidar IV.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 35, 263-266
Limyati DA, Juniar BLL (1998) Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine
in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and end prod-
uct. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 63, 201-208
Lin CN, Chen HL, Yen MH (2008) Flavonoides with DNA strands scission
activity from Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana. Fitoterapia 79, 32-36
Lin J, Opoku AR, Geheeb-Keller M, Hutchings AD, Terblanche SE, Jager
AK, van Staden J (1999) Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu
medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Journal
of Ethnopharmacology 68, 267-274
Liu C, Lu S, Ji MR (1992) Effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on in vitro natu-
ral killer cells. Chung Kuo Chung His I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12, 267-269
Lozoya X, Meckes M, Abou-Zaid M, Tortoriello J, Nozolillo C, Amason JT
(1994) Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava Linn. leaves and determi-
nation of spasmolytic principle. Archives of Medical Research 25, 11-15
Luderer JR, Dermers IM, Hayes AT (1980) Advances in Prostaglandin And
Thromboxane Research, Raven Press, New York, 1638 pp
MacDonald D, VanCrey K, Harrison P, Rangachari PK, Rosenfeld J, War-
ren C, Sorger G (2004) Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambro-
sioides contain a nematocide(s) that is (are) not toxic to mammalian smooth
muscle. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92, 215-221
Mahato RB, Chaudhary RP (2005) Ethnomedicinal study and antibacterial
activities of selected plants of Palpa district, Nepal. Scientific World 3 (3), 26-
Mahato RB (2006) Diversity, use and conservation of plants in Palpa district,
Nepal. PhD thesis, Central Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University,
Nepal, 423 pp
Malla SB, Shakya PR (1984) Medicinal plants of Nepal. In: Majupuria TC
(Ed) Nepal - Natures’ Paradise, White Lotus Ltd, Bangkok, pp 261-297
Manandhar NP (1990) Traditional phytotherapy of Danuwar tribe of Kamlak-
hong in Sindhuli district, Nepal. Fitoterapia 61, 325-332
Manandhar NP (1999) Native phytotherapy among the Raute tribes of Dadeld-
hura district, west Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 60, 199-206
Manandhar NP (2002) Plants and people of Nepal, Timber Press, Oregon,
USA, 599 pp
Manganelli REU, Zacaro L, Tomei PE (2005) Antiviral activity in vitro of Ur-
tica dioica, Parietaria diffusa and Sambucus nigra. Journal of Ethnopharma-
cology 98, 323-327
Marles RJ, Farnsworth NR (1995) Antidiabetic plants and their active cons-
tituents. Phytomedicine 2, 137-189
Matsuda H, Dai Y, ldo Y, Ko S, Yoshikawa M, Kubo M (1997) Studies on
Kochiae Fructus III. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of 70%
ethanol extract and its component, momordin from dried fruits of Kochia
scoparia L. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 20, 1086-1091
Matsunaga K, Shibuya M, Ohizumi Y (1995) Imperanone, a novel phenolic
compound with platelet aggregation activity from Imperata cylindrica. Jour-
nal of Natural Products 58, 138-139
McCutcheon AR, Ellis SM, Hancock REW, Towers GHN (1992) Antibiotic
screening of medicinal plants of the British Columbian native peoples. Jour-
nal of Ethnopharmacology 37, 213-223
Mdee LK, Yeboah SO, Abegaz BM (2003) Rhuschalcones II-VI, five new
bichalcones from the root bark Rhus pyroides. Journal of Natural Products
66 (5), 599-604
Meinerz CC, Formighieri AP, Schwan-Estrada KRF, Dieterich C, Fran-
zener G, Stangerlin JR (2008) Atividade elicitora de fitoalexinas em sorgo e
soja por derivados de avenca (Adiantum capillus-veneris L.). Revista Brasi-
leira de Plantas Medicinais Botucatu 10 (2), 26-31
Mekhfi H, Haouari ME, Legssyer A, Bnouham M, Aziz M, Atmani F, Rem-
mal A, Ziyyat A (2004) Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan
medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 94, 317-322
Middleton E, Kandaswami C (1992) Effects of flavonoides on immune and
inflammatory function. Biochemical Pharmacology 43, 1167-1179
Midiwo JO, Owino NO, Dagne E (1994) Flavonoides of Polygonum senega-
lense Part III: Isolation of dihydrochalcone glucoside and quercetin glyco-
sides. Bulletin of Chemical Society of Ethiopia 8 (2), 9-84
Mishima S, Inoh Y, Narita Y, Ohta S, Sakamoto T, Araki Y, Suzuki KM,
Akao Y, Nozawa Y (2005) Identification of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives
from Brazilian propolis as constituents involved in induction of granulocytic
differentiation of HL-60 cells. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry 13, 5814-5818
Moon TC, Chang XL, Lee JS, Kim DS, Bae K, Son KH, Kim HP, Kang SS,
Son JK, Chang HW (2005) Anti-inflammatory activity of astilbic acid from
Astilbe chinensis. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28, 24-26
Moulari B, Michel L, Genova E, Nikolova M, Chaumont JP (2004) In-vitro
specific antimicrobial properties of Balcanic Artemisia extracts. In: 3rd Con-
ference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of South European Countries, 5-8
September, 2004, Nitra, Slovac Republic, 84 (Abstract)
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K (1998) Studies on the anti-inflammatory effects
of Drymaria cordata Willd. Natural Product Science 4 (2), 91
Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Bhattacharya S, Giri SN, Pal M, Saha BP (1997)
Studies on antitussive activity of Drymaria cordata Willd. (Caryophyllaceae).
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56, 77-80
Mukherjee PK, Venkatesan S, Saha K, Bhattacharya S, Pal M, Saha BP
(1995) Preparation and characterization of tincture of Drymaria cordata
Willd. (Caryophyllaceae). Research and Industry 40, 97-98
Murthy KNC, Vinitha A, Swamy M, Ravishankar GA (2003) Antioxidant
and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis. Journal of Medical
Food 6 (2), 99-105
Murugesan T, Ghosh L, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP (1999) CNS activity of Jus-
siaea suffruticosa Linn. extract in rats and mice. Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmacology Communications 5, 663-666
Namba T, Morita O, Huang SL, Goshima K, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N (1988)
Study on cardioactive crude drugs. I. Effect of coumarins on cultured myo-
cardial cells. Planta Medica 54, 277-282
Nambier VPK (2002) Improved harvesting, processing and storage of medi-
cinal plants: their role in conservation and quality of plant based drugs. In:
Bhattarai N, Karki M (Eds) Proceedings of Sharing Local and National
Experience in Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in South Asia,
January 21-23, 2001. Government of Nepal, IDRC and MAPPA, pp 42-45
Nicholas HJ, Wadkins CL, Hiltibran RC (1955) The distribution of triter-
penes in plants. Chenopodium album. Journal of the American Chemical
Society 77, 495-496
Ofem OE, Eno AE, Imoru J, Nkanu E, Unoh F, Ibu JO (2007) Effect of
crude aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album (mistletoe) in hypertensive rats.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 39, 15-19
Omulokoli E, Khan B, Chhabra SC (1997) Antiplasmodial activity of four
Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 56, 133-137
Osujih M (1993) Exploration of the frontiers of trado-medicinal practices: basis
for the development of alternative medical healthcare services in developing
countries. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 113 (4), 190-194
Pant SR, Panta IR (2004) Indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants in Bha-
gawati VDC, Darchula, Nepal. Botanica Orientalis 4, 79-81
Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Reutrakul V
(2007) Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quad-
rangularis L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110, 264-270
Parekh J, Chanda S (2006) In vitro antimicrobial activities of extract of Lau-
naea procumbens Roxb. (Labiateae), Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) and Cyperus
rotundus (Cyperaceae). African Journal of Biomedical Research 9, 89-93
Park ET, Kahng JH, Lee SH, Shin KH (2001) Anti-inflammatory principle
from cactus. Fitoterapia 72, 288-290
Patil MB, Jalalpure SS, Prakash NS, Kokate CK (2005) Antiulcer properties
of alcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon in rats. Acta Horticulture 680, 115-
Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 4 (Special Issue 1), 28-42 ©2010 Global Science Books
Patwardhan B (2000) Ayurveda: the designer medicine – a review of ethno-
pharmacology and bio-prospecting research. Indian Drugs 37, 213-227
Patwardhan B, Warude D, Pushpangadan P, Bhatt N (2005) Ayurveda and
Traditional Chinese Medicine: A comparative overview. eCAM 2 (4), 465-
Pelleg A, Porter RS (1990) The pharmacology of adenosine. Pharmacotherapy
PeterHM (1969) Antibiotic effect of extracts from Agrimonia-variety. Phar-
mazie October 24, 632-635 (in German)
Petrera E, Coto CE (2003) Effect of meliacine, a plant derived antiviral, on
tumor necrosis factor alpha. Fitoterapia 74, 77-83
Pierce NF, Carpenter CCJ, Elliott HZ, Greenough WB (1971) Effect of
prostaglandins, theophylline and cholera exotoxin upon transmucosal water
and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum. Gastroenterology 60, 22-32
Pieroni A, Janiak V, Durr CM, Ludeke S, Trachsel E, Heinrich M (2002) In
vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in
southern Italy. Phytotherapy Research 16, 467-473
Piller NB (1975) A comparison of the effectiveness of some anti-inflammatory
drugs on thermal oedema. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 56,
Pradhan MR (2007) Telemedicine in Nepal. Document No. 19, International
Development Research Center, Canada. Available online: www.idrc.ca
Pu HL, Huang X, Zhao JH, Hong A (2002) Bergenin is the antiarrrhythmic
principle of Fluggea virsa. Planta Medica 68, 372-374
Rai MK (1996) In-vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestaloti-
opsis mangiferae. Hindustan Antibiotic Bulletin 38, 53-56
Rana, BK, Singh UP, Taneja V (1997) Antifungal activity and kinetics of
inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 57, 29-34
Rao M, Rao PNP, Rao MNA, Kamath R (1999) Reduction of cisplatin in-
duced nephrotoxicity by cystone, a polyherbal ayurvedic preparation, in
C57BL/6J mice bearing B16F1 melanoma without reducing its antitumor
activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 68, 77-81
Rao VV, Dwivedi SK, Swarup D (1994) Hypoglycemic effect of Caesalpinia
bonducella in rabbits. Fitoterapia 65, 245-247
Reddy BP, Murthy VN, Venkateshwarlu V, Kokate CK, Rambhau D (1993)
Antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus niruri, Tinospora cordifolia and Rici-
nus communis. Indian Drugs 30, 338-341
Rhemann AU, Zaman K (1989) Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 26, 1-55
Ribeiro JA (1995) Purinergic inhibition of neurotransmitter release in the cen-
tral nervous system. Pharmacology and Toxicology 77, 299-305
Rijal A (2008) Living knowledge of healing plants: Ethno-phytotherapy in the
Chepang communities from the midhills of Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology
and Ethnomedicine 4, 23
Risal K (1994) Preliminary study on dome medicinal plants and essential oils
for their antimicrobial activities. In: Proceeding of II National Conference on
Science and Technology, June 8-11, 1994, National Academy of Science and
Technology, Kathmandu, pp 390-393
Rizk AFM (1987) The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Eu-
phorbiaceae. In: Jury SL, Reynolds T, Cutler TDF, Evans FJ (Eds) Euphor-
biales: Chemistry, Taxonomy and Economic Botany, Academic Press Inc.
London, pp 293-326
Saha K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, Hamzah AS, Khozirah S, Khamis S, Syahida
A (2004) Evaluation of antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities of
selected Malaysian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92, 263-
Sakanaka S, Shimura N, Aizawa M, Kim M, Yamamoto T (1992) Preventive
effect of green tea polyphenol against dental caries in conventional rats. Bio-
science, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 56, 592-594
Saraswat B, Visen PKS, Dayal R, Agarwal DP, Patnaik GK (1996) Pro-
tective action of ursolic acid against chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 28, 232-239
Sato Y, Odetani H, Singyouchi K, Ohtsubo T, Kihara M, Shibata H, Higuti
T (1997) Extraction and purification of effective antimicrobial constituents of
Terminalia chebula Retz. against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Biology and Pharmacology Bulletin 20, 401-404
Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Rios JL, Buschiazzoo H, Zaiden-
berg A (2002) Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant ex-
tracts. Fitoterapia 73, 569-575
Schmeller T, Latz-Bruning B, Wink M (1997) Biochemical activities of ber-
berine, palmatine and sanguinarine mediating chemical defence against
microorganisms and herbivores. Phytochemistry 44, 257-266
Schmid B, Heide L (1995) The use of Salix cortex in rheumatic disease: phyto-
therapy with known mode of action? Planta Medica 61, 94 (Abstract)
Scortichini M, Rossi MP (1991) Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-
microbial activity of terpenes and terpenoids towards Erwinia amylovora
(Burrill) Winslow. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 71, 109-112
Segaw A, Miyaichi Y, Tomimori T, Kiuchi F, Ohta T (1999) Studies on Nepa-
lese crude drugs XXV. Phenolic constituents of the leaves of Didymocarpus
leucocalyx C. B. Clarke (Gesneriaceae). Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Bul-
letin 47, 1404-1411
Shale TL, Stirk WA, van Staden J (1999) Screening of medicinal plants used
in Lesotho for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Journal of Ethno-
pharmacology 67, 347-354
Sharma GP, Jain NK, Garg BD (1978) Antifungal activity of some essential
oils - I. Indian Drugs 16, 21
Sharma M, Tripathi P, Singh VP, Tripathi YS (1995) Hepatoprotective and
toxicological evaluation of Hepatomed, an Ayurvedic drug. Indian Journal of
Experiemental Biology 33, 34-37
Sharma R (2004) Agro Techniques of Medicinal Plants, Daya Publishing, New
Delhi, 264 pp
Sherpa S (2001) The high altitude ethnobotany of the Walangchungola, Kan-
chanjungha Conservation Area, East Nepal, Central Department of Botany,
Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, 100 pp (unpublished report)
Shirwaikar A, Malini S, Kumari SC (2003) Protective effect of Pongamia
pinnata flowers against cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in
rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41, 58-62
Simon OR, Singh N, Smith K, Smith J (1987) Effect of an aqueous extract of
nichol (Caesalpinia bonduc) in blood glucose concentration: evidence of an
antidiabetic action presented. Journal of Science Research Council 6, 25-32
Singh A, Malhotra S, Subban R (2008) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic
agents from Indian medicinal plants. International Journal of Integrative
Biology 3 (1), 57-72
Singh M, Singh N, Khare PB, Rawat AKS (2008) Antimicrobial activity of
some important Adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of
medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 115, 327-329
Singh N (1986) A pharmaco-clinical evaluation of some Ayurvedic crude drugs
as anti-stress agents and their usefulness in some stress diseases of man.
Annals of the National Academy of Indian Medicine 1, 14
Singh RK, Nath G, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK (1998) Pharmacological
actions of Abies pindrow Royle leaf. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Singh SK, Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Jaiswal D, Watal G (2007) Assessment of
antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic
rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114, 174-179
Singh SP, Mishra N (1984) An experimental study of analgesic activity of Cis-
sus quadrangularis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 16 (3), 162-163
Srinivasan GV, Ranjith C, Vijayan KK (2008) Identification of chemical
compounds from the leaves of Leea indica. Acta Pharmacologica 58, 207-
Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lal J, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Ravipra-
kash V, Kumar D (2003) Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Pon-
gamia pinnata leaves. Phytotherapy Research 17, 259-264
Sripanidkulchai B, Wongpanich V, Laupattarakesam P, Suwansaksri J,
Jirakulsomchok D (2001) Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medi-
cinal plants in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 75, 185-190
Srivastava R (2000) Studying the information needs of medicinal plant stake-
holders in Europe. TRAFFIC Dispatches 15, 5
Stevic T, Tomasi O, Kostic M, Stankovic S, Sokovic M, Nikcevic M, Ristic
M (2004) Biological activity of linalool. In: 3rd Conference on Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants of South European Countries, 5-8 September, 2004, Nitra,
Slovak Republic, p 72 (Abstract)
Stockwell C (1989) Nature’s Pharmacy: A History of Plants and Healing,
Arrow Books Ltd., London, 166 pp
Su YL, Leung LK, Bi YR, Huang Y, Chen ZY (2000) Antioxidant activity of
flavonoides isolated from Scutellaria rehderiana. Journal of American Che-
mical Society 77, 807-812
Subrat N (2002) Ayurvedic and herbal products industry: an overview. In: Pro-
ceeding on Wise Practices and Experiential Learning in Conservation and
Management of Himalayan Medicinal Plants, Kathmandu, Nepal, 15–20
December 2002. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Nepal, WWF-
Nepal Program, MAPPA and PPI, pp 79-108
Suksamrarn AS, Kumpun K (2002) Iridoides with anti-inflammatory activity
from Vitex peduncularis. Planta Medica 68 (1), 72-73
Sundarrao K (1993) Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumor
activities of Papua Guinean native medicinal plants. International Journal of
Pharmacology 311, 3-6
Suresh B, Dhanasekaran S, Kumar RV, Balasubramanian S (1994) Ethno-
pharmacological studies on the medicinal plants of Nilgiris. Indian Drugs 32,
Tahri A, Yamani S, Legssyer A, Aziz M, Mekhfi H, Bnouham M, Ziyyat A
(2000) Acute diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of a continuous per-
fusion of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in the rat. Journal of Ethnophar-
macology 73, 95-100
Tan HR, Zhang BH (1985) Experimental study of the anti-inflammatory effect
of matrine. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 5, 108-109
Tandon SK, Chandra S, Tripathi HC (1994) Pharmacological effects of Age-
ratum conyzoides roots. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 56, 182
Taylor RSL, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN (1995) Screening of selected
medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities. Journal of Ethnophar-
macology 46, 153-159
Taylor RSL, Edel F, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN (1996) Antimicrobial
activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharma-
cology 50, 97-102
Testai L, Chericoni S, Calderone V, Nencioni G, Neiri P, Morelliand I, Mar-
Medicinal plants in farwest Nepal. Kunwar et al. Download full-text
tinitti E (2002) Cardivascular effects of Urtica dioica root extracts: in vitro
and in vivo pharmacological studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 81, 105-
Thakur M, Dixit VK (2007) Aphrodisiac activity of Dactylorhiza hatagirea
(D.Don) Soo. in male albino rats. eCAM 4, 29-31
Thangpu V, Yadav AK (2004) Antidiarrhoeal activity of Rhus javanica ripen
fruit extract in albino mice. Fitoperapia 75, 39-44
Thastrup O, Knudsen JB, Lemmich J, Winther K (1985) Inhibitions of
human platelet aggregation by dihydropyrano- and dihydrofurano-coumarins,
a new class of cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Biochemistry and Phar-
macology 34, 2137-2140
Thomson WAR (Ed) (1978) Medicines from the Earth, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
Maidenhead, United Kingdom, 208 pp
Thresiamma KC, George J, Kuttan R (1996) Protective effect of curcumin,
ellagic acid and bixin on radiation induced toxicity. Indian Journal of Experi-
mental Biology 34, 845-847
Tian Q, Miller EG, Ahmad H, Tang L, Patil BS (2001) Differential inhibition
of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutrition and Cancer
Tiwari NN, Joshi MP (1990) Medicinal plants of Nepal: I, II & III. Journal of
Nepal Medical Association 28, 181-190, 221-232, 266-279
Toda S, Kumura M, Ohnishi M (1991) Effects of phenolcarboxylic acids on
superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation induced by superoxide anion. Planta
Medica 57, 8-10
Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Pieters L,
Totte J, Vlietinck AJ (1999) Biological screening of traditional preparations
from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa. Congo Phyto-
medicine 6, 59-66
Tripathi YB, Chaturvedi P (1995) Assessment of endocrine response to Inula
racemosa in relation to glucose homeostasis in rats. Indian Journal of Expe-
rimental Biology 33, 686-689
Ucar EO, Karagoz A, Arda N (2006) Antioxidant activity of Viscum album L.
Fitoterapia 77, 556-560
Uprety Y, Asselin H, Boon EK, Yadav S, Shrestha KK (2010) Indigenous use
and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa district, Nepal. Journal of
Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6, 3
Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R (1995) Antibacterial effect of theaflavin,
polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp. – a
cell culture study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 49, 115-118
Villasenor IM, Lamadrid MRA (2006) Comparative anti-hyperglycemic pot-
entials of medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104, 129-131
Virgili F, Kobuchi H, Packer L (1998) Procyanidins extracted from Pinus
maritima: scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen mon-
oxide metabolism in activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Free Radi-
cal Biological Medicine 24, 1120-1129
Vishwakarma RA (1990) Stereoselective synthesis of ?-arteether from arte-
misinin. Journal of Natural Products 53, 216-217
Wang SY, Shiao MS (2000) Pharmacological functions of Chinese medicinal
fungus Cordyceps sinensis and related species. Journal of Food and Drug
Analysis 8, 248-257
Watanabe T, Rajbhandari KR, Malla KJ, Yahara S (2005) A Handbook of
Medicinal Plants of Nepal, AYUR SEED Japan, 262 pp
Whelan LC, Ryan MF (2003) Ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia and other ethno-
botanical species as inhibitors of human tumor cell growth. Phytomedicine 10,
WRI (2005) The wealth of poor: managing ecosystems to fight poverty. World
Resources Institute, Washington DC. Available online:
Wu JY, Zhang QX, Leung PO (2007) Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract
of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on various cancer cells in culture and B16
melanoma in C57BL/6 mice. Phytomedicine 14, 43-49
Xu RH, Peng XE, Chen GZ, Chen GL (1992) Effects of Cordyceps sinensis
on natural killer activity and colony formation of B16 melanoma. Chinese
Medical Journal 105, 97-101
Yamamoto K, Takase H, Abe K, Saito Y, Suzuki A (1993) Pharmacological
studies on antidiarrheal effects of a preparation containing berberine and
geranii herba. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 101, 169-175
Yang F, Li XC, Wang HQ, Yang CF (1996) Flavonoid glycosides from Cole-
brookea oppositifolia. Phytochemistry 42, 867-869
Yankep E, Njamen D, Fotsing MT, Fomum ZT, Mbanya JC, Giner RM,
Recio MC, Manez S, Rios JL (2003) Griffonianone D, an isoflavone with
anti-inflammatory activity from the root bark of Millettia griffoniana. Jour-
nal of Natural Products 66, 1288-1290
Yao J, Moellering R (1995) Antibacterial agents. In: Murray P, Baron E, Pfaller
M, Tenover F, Yolken R (Eds) Manual of Clinical Microbiology, ASM,
Washington DC, pp 1281-1290
Yesilada E, Deliorman D, Ergun F, Takaishi Y, Ono Y (1998) Effects of the
Turkish subspecies of Viscum album on macrophage derived cytokines. Jour-
nal of Ethnopharmacology 61, 195-200
Yoon JS, Lee MK, Sung SH, Kim YC (2006) Neuroprotective phenylethyl
chromones of Imperata cylindrica. Journal of Natural Products 59, 290-291
Yoon TJ, Yoo YC, Kang TB, Shimazaki K, Song SK, Lee KH, Kim SH,
Park CH, Azuma I, Kim JB (1999) Lectins isolated from Korean mistletoe
(Viscum album coloratum) induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Cancer Letters
Yusuf M, Chowdhury JU, Wahab A, Begum J (1994) Medicinal Plants of
Bangladesh, BCSIR, Dhaka, 340 pp
Zhang JP, Zhang M, Jin C, Zhou B, Xie WF, Guo C (2001) Matrine inhibits
production and actions of fibrogenic cytokines released by mouse peritoneal
macrophages. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 22, 765-768
Zhao Z, Yuen JPS, Wu J, Yu T, Huang W (2006) A systematic study on con-
fused species Chinese materia medica in the Hongkong market. Annales of
Academy of Medicine of Singapore 35, 764-769
Zheng S, Gaoboming KS, Shen X (1998) Studies on the two new steroidal
saponins from Morchella conica. Journal of Chemistry 37B (8), 825-827