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Abstract

Withania somnifera (Ashawagandha) is very revered herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana (tonic). It is used for various kinds of disease processes and specially as a nervine tonic. Considering these facts many scientific studies were carried out and its adaptogenic / anti-stress activities were studied in detail. In experimental models it increases the stamina of rats during swimming endurance test and prevented adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produce by swimming stress. Pretreatment with Withania somnifera (WS) showed significance protection against stress induced gastric ulcers. WS have anti-tumor effect on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell carcinoma. It was also found effective against urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice. In some cases of uterine fibroids, dermatosarcoma, long term treatment with WS controlled the condition. It has a Cognition Promoting Effect and was useful in children with memory deficit and in old age people loss of memory. It was also found useful in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzeimer's diseases. It has GABA mimetic effect and was shown to promote formation of dendrites. It has anxiolytic effect and improves energy levels and mitochondrial health. It is an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent and was found useful in clinical cases of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis. Large scale studies are needed to prove its clinical efficacy in stress related disorders, neuronal disorders and cancers.

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... Ashwagandha, commonly known as Indian ginseng or poison gooseberry, belongs to the Solanaceae family (NCBI:txid126910). In addition to its adaptogenic properties, several authors have attributed multiple medicinal benefits including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects [4,5]. These characteristics have generated a great scientific interest in the study of the chemical composition of this plant. ...
... Although it has been used therapeutically for a number of reasons, Ashwagandha supplementation lacks sufficient information to be considered effective for all proposed conditions [4]. However, several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown its potential and safety for controlling anxiety [12], fighting male infertility [13], improving the function of the reproductive system [14], serving as an adjuvant to the treatment of diabetes [15] and avoiding the deterioration of cognitive function [16]. ...
... However, several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown its potential and safety for controlling anxiety [12], fighting male infertility [13], improving the function of the reproductive system [14], serving as an adjuvant to the treatment of diabetes [15] and avoiding the deterioration of cognitive function [16]. However, it seems that some of the secondary metabolites of Ashwagandha could have some potential at the level of physical performance improvement, being responsible for various effects at the metabolic and physiological level through the regulation of certain anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways [4,17]. Considering that nutrition is one of the fundamental pillars to optimize sports performance, some have suggested that Ashwagandha may provide ergogenic benefits for active individuals and athletes. ...
Article
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Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is considered a potent adaptogen and anti-stress agent that could have some potential to improve physical performance. This preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)-based comprehensive systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis aimed to evaluate clinical trials up to 2020 from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases regarding the effect of Ashwagandha supplementation on physical performance in healthy individuals. Besides implementing estimation statistics analysis, we developed Bayesian hierarchical models for a pre-specified subgroup meta-analysis on strength/power, cardi-orespiratory fitness and fatigue/recovery variables. A total of 13 studies met the requirements of this systematic review, although only 12 were included in the quantitative analysis. A low-to-moderate overall risk of bias of the trials included in this study was detected. All Bayesian hierarchical models converged to a target distribution (Ȓ = 1) for both meta-analytic effect size (μ) and between-study standard deviation (τ). The meta-analytic approaches of the included studies revealed that Ashwagandha supplementation was more efficacious than placebo for improving variables related to physical performance in healthy men and female. In fact, the Bayesian models showed that future interventions might be at least in some way beneficial on the analyzed outcomes considering the 95% credible intervals for the meta-analytic effect size. Several practical applications and future directions are discussed, although more comparable studies are needed in exercise training, and athletic populations are needed to derive a more stable estimate of the true underlying effect.
... That contributes its possible usefulness in treatment variety of diseases including dyskinesia, infertility, memory disorders and Alzheimer disease. [2,3,4] Objective: Various studies have been conducted on Ashwagandha over the years. In this work, we presented the most important of them and their promising results, showing some of its usefulness properties. ...
... This experiment proves the anxiolytic effect of Withania Somnifera. [4] In addition, Ashwagandha has been shown to reduce the levels of tribulin, a stress marker in the rat brain that was elevated by the administration of pentylenetetrozole. [3,4] ...
... [4] In addition, Ashwagandha has been shown to reduce the levels of tribulin, a stress marker in the rat brain that was elevated by the administration of pentylenetetrozole. [3,4] ...
... One study re-vealed a significant increase of plasma corticosteron level, phagocytic index, and avidity index in the pretreated rats by aqueous suspension of Ashwagandha root at 10mg/Kg oral dose. The evaluation was held when they were subjected to cold swimming stress 18 . When WS root extract 25 or 50 mg/kg/ po has given daily for 21 days in chronic stress induced adult Wistar rats, they showed similar adaptogen effect like Panax ginseng 19 . ...
... Studies have shown a greater reduction of anxiety; morning cortisol level, c-reactive proteins, pulse rate and blood pressure in chronic stress when patients received Ashwagandha extract 125 mg twice daily for 8 weeks in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial 21 . Some preclinical studies also proved that Ashwagandha can influence the GABAergic activity and serotonin activity to improve anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity 18 . Professional athletes and endurance athletes are having long-term cortisol or stress hormone elevation in the blood due to continuous intense training. ...
... There was a study that used a swimming test to evaluate physical endurance in rats. In this study Ashwa-gandha treated animals showed significant results in swimming time compared to the control group 18 . Another study was revealed that Ashwagandha can influence the mitochondria granulation and MG 2+ dependent ATPase activity in the mitochondria granulation tissue 18 . ...
Article
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Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal is a commonly used herb in alternative medical systems in the world. It is been investigated under several aspects of sports science due to athlete-friendly benefits. The collective traits of performance-enhancing the consequence of an athlete can be described under the term 'ergogenic effect'. Though the herb is not been investigated as an ergogenic aid, the scattered scientific studies can preview its' skill, strength, endurance and recovery promoting ability after competitions. The study was aimed to analyze its' ergogenic effect using scientific evidence and classical Ayurveda references. Research data was collected from online sources and classical Ayurveda references. Withania Somnifera found to be enhanced aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity, muscle strength, the recovery process, anti-fatigue activity, endurance and immune-modulatory effect. Ayurveda literature also supports this evidence as it has been described as a Balya, Brimhana, Vatahara, Kaphahara and Shukrala herb. Correlation between these two concepts also suggests Withania Somnifera as an effective ergogenic aid.
... One study re-vealed a significant increase of plasma corticosteron level, phagocytic index, and avidity index in the pretreated rats by aqueous suspension of Ashwagandha root at 10mg/Kg oral dose. The evaluation was held when they were subjected to cold swimming stress 18 . When WS root extract 25 or 50 mg/kg/ po has given daily for 21 days in chronic stress induced adult Wistar rats, they showed similar adaptogen effect like Panax ginseng 19 . ...
... Studies have shown a greater reduction of anxiety; morning cortisol level, c-reactive proteins, pulse rate and blood pressure in chronic stress when patients received Ashwagandha extract 125 mg twice daily for 8 weeks in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial 21 . Some preclinical studies also proved that Ashwagandha can influence the GABAergic activity and serotonin activity to improve anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity 18 . Professional athletes and endurance athletes are having long-term cortisol or stress hormone elevation in the blood due to continuous intense training. ...
... There was a study that used a swimming test to evaluate physical endurance in rats. In this study Ashwa-gandha treated animals showed significant results in swimming time compared to the control group 18 . Another study was revealed that Ashwagandha can influence the mitochondria granulation and MG 2+ dependent ATPase activity in the mitochondria granulation tissue 18 . ...
Article
Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal is a commonly used herb in the alternative medical systems in the world. It is been investigated under several aspects of sports science due to athlete friendly benefits. The collective traits of performance enhancing consequence of an athlete can be described under the term ‘ergogenic ef-fect’. Though the herb is not been investigated as an ergogenic aid, the scattered scientific studies can pre-view its’ skill, strength, endurance and recovery promoting ability after competitions. The study was aimed to analyze its’ ergogenic effect using scientific evidences and classical Ayurveda references. Research data was collected from the online sources and classical Ayurveda references. Withania Somnifera found to be enhanced aerobic and anerobic exercise capacity, muscle strength, recovery process, anti-fatigue activity, endurance and immune-modulatory effect. Ayurveda literature also supports these evidences as it has been described as a Balya, Brimhana, Vatahara, Kaphahara and Shukrala herb. Correlation between these two concepts also suggests Withania Somnifera as an effective ergogenic aid.
... The Ashwagandha plant is the Solanaceae or nightshade family and contains flavonoids, withanolides, alkaloids, steroids, and antioxidants are found in all pieces of the plant, particularly the roots [21]. This plant, especially its root powder, has been utilized in traditional Indian medicine for a long time and dietary supplements containing ashwagandha [22]. This study is to show the inhibition features of the AE and investigate the corrosion protection ability by using ML, PP, EIS, and EFM measurements. ...
... Afterward, dichloromethane was evaporated, a solid extract was obtained then prepared to be applied as a corrosion inhibitor. Chemicals examine exhibited that the major chemical compositions of Ashwagandha are alkaloids, solasodine, withanolides, flavonoids, steroidal lactones, and saponins [22]. ...
Article
In this study, the employment of Ashwagandha extract (AE) as a green sustainable corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in one molar hydrochloric acid solutions was examined utilizing "mass loss (ML), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) measurements". The surface examination was analyzed utilizing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of temperature on corrosion demeanor with adding a different dose of AE was investigated within the temperature varieties of 25-45 ºC by ML strategy. The curves of polarization reveal that AE is considered as a mixed sort inhibitor. The performance of inhibition rises with raising the AE concentration and diminished with the temperature ascending. The adsorption of the inhibitor on aluminum surface complies with the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm and is considered as physisorption. The outcomes attained from chemical and electrochemical methods are in good accord.
... Withania somnifera, the revered herb of Indian Ayurvedic medicine known as "Rasayana", nervine tonic acts as a major adaptogen among the medicinal plants [9]. The chemical characterization of roots depicts 12 alkaloids, 40 withanolides, sitoindosides (VII, VIII, IX, X), Ashwagandhanolide which are reported as active markers [10e12]. ...
... The alkaloids are biosynthesized from phenylalanine and tyrosine leading to a common share of the biosynthetic pathway and define the relative abilities of the compound to scavenge free radicals. Terpenes and alkaloids originate from the same prenyl units that construct terpenes skeletons [9] thus explaining the double dendrogram clustering. These findings confirm improvement in efficacy based holistic chemical profiling for dual herbal combinatorial methanolic extracts in the hierarchical order of W:P/1:4, W:O/1:4 displaying high concentrations and W:B/1:1 and W:A/4:1 revealing a moderate degree of bioactivity rather than the methanolic extract W. somnifera (W) indicating low presence for required bioactivity for W:T/1:4 and was clustered farther after W. somnifera (W) indicating less concentration of metabolite fingerprints followed by their respective standards. ...
Article
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Background Traditional medicine adequately emphasis plant resources for addressing a wide variety of human ailments by utilizing the naturally occurring phytoconstituents; in particular medicinal plants or parts of plants in combination have prodigious antioxidant potentials. Objective The present study aims to analyze methanolic extract of W. somnifera (W) individually, and in dual combination with five Rasayana herbs P. emblica - (W:P), B. monnieri - (W:B), T. sinensis - (W:T), O. basilicum - (W:O), A. racemosus - (W:A) in three dual ratios [4:1, 1:1, and 1:4]. The efficacy of the combinations is assessed based on their chemometric profiling. Material and methods A total of 15 dual combinatorial methanolic extracts together with W. somnifera were evaluated for their preliminary phytochemical profiles, antioxidant potentials using DPPH and FRAP assays. Five dual samples were selected and analyzed for High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) image-based chemometric profiling followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA)-Heatmaps. Results Qualitative phytochemical analysis of combinatorial extracts exhibited a richness for a variety of phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity was significantly higher for DPPH IC50 (μg/mL): W = 11.56 ± 3.69; W:P/1:4 = 7.89 ± 1.52; W:O/1:4 = 8.995 ± 2.64 and FRAP (μM FeE/g): W = 4.56 ± 0.54; W:P/1:4 = 138.34 ± 9.25; W:O/1:4 = 15.32 ± 1.64. Chemometric data acquisition displayed improved secondary metabolite close cluster combination with W:O/1:4 and W:P/1:4 than W. somnifera (W) alone. Conclusion The dual herbal combinatorial study revealed that the methanolic combinatorial extracts phytoconstituents correlated with an increase in the antioxidant potential and would serve as a promising source for phytomedicine.
... Here, we investigated the potentials and mechanisms of action of Ashwagandha derived two steroidal lactone bioactive withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N) and Withaferin-A (Wi-A), for treatment of aberrant EGFR-derived lung cancers. The Ashwagandha plant is known for its therapeutic properties in Ayurveda for the past 3000 years and has been an indispensable part of the Indian traditional home-medicine system [24,25]. Scientifically known as Withania somnifera, it possesses aphrodisiac, adaptogenic, rejuvenative, antiinflammatory and anticancer properties [26] that have been assigned to its secondary metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, steroidal lactones and saponins. ...
... Here, we investigated the potentials and mechanisms of action of Ashwagandha derived two steroidal lactone bioactive withanolides, Withanone (Wi-N) and Withaferin-A (Wi-A), for treatment of aberrant EGFR-derived lung cancers. The Ashwagandha plant is known for its therapeutic properties in Ayurveda for the past 3000 years and has been an indispensable part of the Indian traditional home-medicine system [24,25]. Scientifically known as Withania somnifera, it possesses aphrodisiac, adaptogenic, rejuvenative, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties [26] that have been assigned to its secondary metabolites, e.g. ...
Article
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The anticancer activities of Withaferin-A (Wi-A) and Withanone (Wi-N) from Ashwagandha and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) from honeybee propolis have been well documented. Here, we examined the binding potential of these natural compounds to inhibit the constitutive phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Exon 20 insertion mutants of EGFR, which show resistance to various FDA approved drugs and are linked to poor prognosis of lung cancer patients, were the primary focus of this study. Apart from exon 20 insertion mutants, the potential of natural compounds to serve as ATP competitive inhibitors of wildtype protein and other common mutants of EGFR, namely L858R and exon19del, were also examined. The potential of natural compounds was compared to the positive controls such as erlotinib, TAS6417 and poziotinib. Similar to known inhibitors, Wi-A and Wi-N could displace and binds at the ATP orthosteric site of exon19del, L858R and exon20, while CAPE was limited to wildtype EGFR and exon 20 insertion mutants only. Moreover, the binding free energy of the natural drugs against EGFRs was also comparable to the positive controls. This computational study suggests that Wi-A and Wi-N have potential against multiple mutated EGFRs, warranting further in vitro and in vivo experiments.
... It remarkably reduces the level of cortisol (stress hormone) in the blood. Apart from this, it's antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and immune-boosting activities have also been well documented [112]. Ashwagandha extract contains a large number of steroids and alkaloids. ...
... Phytosterols present in WS are sitoindosides VII-X, and β-sitosterol. Alkaloids found in WS include ashwagandhine, cuscohygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, isopelletierine, and anaferine [112]. ...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-associated nervous system disorder and a leading cause of dementia worldwide. Clinically it is described by cognitive impairment, and pathophysiologically by deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain and neurodegeneration. This article reviews the pathophysiology, course of neuronal degeneration, and the various possible hypothesis of AD progression. These hypotheses include amyloid cascade, tau hyperphosphorylation, cholinergic disruption, metal dysregulation, vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. There is an exponential increase in the occurrence of the AD in recent few years that indicate an urgent need to develop some effective treatment. Currently, only 2 classes of drugs are available for AD treatment namely acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and NMDA receptor antagonist. Since AD is a complex neurological disorder and these drugs use a single target approach, alternatives are needed due to limited effectiveness and unpleasant side-effects of these drugs. Currently, plants have been used for drug development research especially because of their multiple sites of action and fewer side effects. Uses of some herbs and phytoconstituents for the management of neuronal disorders like AD have been documented in this article. Phytochemical screening of these plants shows the presence of many beneficial constituents like flavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, and tannins. These compounds show a wide array of pharmacological activities such as anti-amyloidogenic, anticholinesterase, and antioxidant. This article summarizes the present understanding of AD progression and gathers biochemical evidence from various works on natural products that can be useful in the management of this disease.
... Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) belongs to the family Solanaceae is commonly known as "Indian Winter cherry" or "Indian Ginseng". The biologically active chemical constituents of Withania somnifera (WS) include alkaloids (isopelletierine, anaferine, cuseohygrine, anahygrine, etc.), steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins) and saponins [22] . Anticomplement activity, Increases IgG, Stimulates PMN cells [49] . ...
... One of the recent studies conducted in International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, on prostate cancer, dermatofibrosarcoma, breast cancer, fibroids of uterus and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in last stages of the cancer without conventional drug treatment when modern treatment was refused by the subjects, some of those were fully cured with W. somnifera extract and radiologival intervention alone (151). While side effects drastically reduced with the use of this extract as an adjuvant to traditional treatment in most of the other subjects (152). ...
Article
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Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have been known for their toxicity and numerous side effects. A new approach to treat cancer involves phytochemical drugs. In the present review, anti-cancer activity of a class of steroidal lactones called withanolides obtained from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is discussed. The commonly studied bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A, withanoside IV, withanoside VI and withanolide-A among others obtained from methanolic and chloroform extract of the leaves and various alcoholic, aqueous and chloroform extract of roots have shown inhibition to various human cancer cell lines including skin, breast, colon, prostate, liver, ovary, cervical and lung. Prominent mechanisms of action include induction of apoptosis by NOS upregulation, ROS production and NBS2 or COX-2 inhibition; cytotoxicity by humoral and cell mediated immune response, activation of p53 and pRB and inhibition of various viral oncoproteins; cell cycle arrest by Cdc2 facilitated mitotic catastrophe, cyclin-D1 down-regulation and inhibition of transcription factors. Cancers are also controlled by inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis of the tumor cells. In addition to anti-tumorogenic properties, W. somnifera also holds properties that make it a potential adjuvant in integrated cancer therapeutics and in enhancing the effectiveness of ongoing radiation therapy.
... The adaptogenic and antisress properties of this herb has been proved in multiple animal studies. It has also promising anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune enhancing and antitumor properties [140]. Ziauddin et al in mice model observed effect of ashwagandha after inducing myelosuppression by cyclophosphamide, azathioprin and prednisolone separately. ...
Article
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious, spreading swiftly from man to man which has not been previously recognized in humans. World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 named the infection as COVID-19 as an acronym for ‘coronavirus disease-2019’ and on March 11, 2020 declared the outbreak as pandemic. It affects all the people without discrimination, however, older, immune compromised are more susceptible. The virus chiefly spread through droplet infection from infected person to healthy one by coughing, sneezing or with infected hands when touched to eyes, nose or mouth. Symptoms of the infection range from mild to severe ones. In severe cases (approx. 14% of cases) fever typically of high grade (104oF), breathlessness, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome may appear. So far no specific treatment or vaccine for novel coronavirus-2019 is there. From the past and recent past experiences we have learnt that herbal medicines have proven beneficial against various dreadful viral infections. Assessment of immune enhancing herbs in this paper may definitely be helpful for the body to fight COVID-19 infection. Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, COVID-19, Pneumonia, Immune, Herbs
... 7−10 WS also contains withanolide glycosides or glycowithanolides known as withanosides with mostly a 6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-Dglucopyranosyl type of glycosidic linkage. Withanosides I− XI 4,11 have been reported so far from WS and have anti-Alzheimer, antistress, and neuroprotective activity. 12 The isolated compounds of WS have a range of medicinal properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic effects. ...
Article
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Withania somnifera (WS), also known as ashwagandha or Indian ginseng, is known for its pharmacological significance in neurodegenerative diseases, stress, cancer, immunomodulatory, and antiviral activity. In this study, the WS extract (WSE) from the root was subjected to ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UHPLC–PDA) analysis to separate 11 withanoside and withanolide compounds. The quantification validation was carried out as per ICHQ2R1 guidelines in a single methodology. The calibration curves were linear (r2 > 0.99) for all 11 compounds within the tested concentration ranges. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.213–0.362 and 0.646–1.098 μg/mL, respectively. The results were precise (relative standard deviation, <5.0%) and accurate (relative error, 0.01–0.76). All compounds showed good recoveries of 84.77–100.11%. For the first time, withanoside VII, 27-hydroxywithanone, dihydrowithaferin A, and viscosalactone B were quantified and validated along with bioactive compounds withanoside IV, withanoside V, withaferin A, 12-deoxywithastramonolide, withanolide A, withanone, and withanolide B simultaneously in WS. This UHPLC–PDA method has practical adaptability for ashwagandha raw material, extract, and product manufacturers, along with basic and applied science researchers. The method has been developed on UHPLC for routine analysis. The 11 withanosides and withanolides were confirmed using the fragmentation pattern obtained by the combined use of electrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation in triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (TQ–MS/MS) in the WSE.
... WS has been described thoroughly in classical texts of Ayurveda such as Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita and Bhavprakash Nighantu for boosting homeostasis, tissue nourishment, improvement of stress tolerance, arresting degeneration, and as a vitality promoter (Gogte, 2000) (Vaidya, 2000). Similar effects of WS in several indications like sarcopenia, arthritis, asthma, neurodegeneration, cognitive dysfunction, stress and in immunocompromised patients are observed in clinical practice of Ayurveda (Singh et al., 2011). The classical texts of Ayurveda recommend predominantly roots and leaves of WS for their several properties including anti-inflammatory, prokinetic, aphrodisiac, muscle-strengthening, muscle-relaxant, anti-insomnia, anxiolytic, antistress, analgesic, anthelmintic and anti-anginal (AyuSoft drug database).WS is a well known botanical used as a folklore remedy for improving strength and vitality. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (WS) is one of the most-studied Rasayana botanicals used in Ayurveda practice for its immunomodulatory, anti-aging, adaptogenic, and rejuvenating effects. The botanical is being used for various clinical indications, including cancer. Several studies exploring molecular mechanisms of WS suggest its possible role in improving clinical outcomes in cancer management. Therefore, research on WS may offer new insights in rational development of therapeutic adjuvants for cancer. Aim of this review The review aims at providing a detailed analysis of in silico, in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies related to WS and cancer. It suggests possible role of WS in regulating molecular mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis. The review discusses potential of WS in cancer management in terms of cancer prevention, anti-cancer activity, and enhancing efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Material and methods The present narrative review offers a critical analysis of published literature on WS studies in cancer. The reported studies were analysed in the context of pathophysiology of cancer, commonly referred as ‘cancer hallmarks’. The review attempts to bridge Ayurveda knowledge with biological insights into molecular mechanisms of cancer. Results The critical analysis suggests an anti-cancer potential of WS with a key role in cancer prevention. The possible mechanisms for these effects are associated with the modulation of apoptotic, proliferative, and metastatic markers in cancer. WS can attenuate inflammatory responses and enzymes involved in invasion and metastatic progression of cancer. The properties of WS are likely to be mediated through withanolides, which may activate tumor suppressor proteins to restrict proliferation of cancer cells, regulate the genomic instability, and energy metabolism of cancer cells. The reported studies indicate the need for deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of WS in inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting immunosurveillance. Additionally, WS can augment efficacy and safety of cancer therapeutics. Conclusion The experimentally-supported evidence of immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, adaptogenic, and regenerative attributes of WS suggest its therapeutic adjuvant potential in cancer management. The adjuvant properties of withanolides can modulate multidrug resistance and reverse chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. These mechanisms need to be further explored in systematically designed translational and clinical studies that will pave the way for integration of WS as a therapeutic adjuvant in cancer management.
... Ashwagandha extract has anti-stress and anti-anxiety properties [122]. Being a powerful adaptogen, the extract has the ability to keep cortisol levels at a healthy homeostatic level while improving one's resistance to stress [123,124]. Chronic stress activates the HPA axis by increasing cortisol levels, which, in turn, inhibits the HPT axis and reduces serum T3 and T4 levels [125]. Endocrine disorders, such as hypothyroidism, can cause hair loss [126]. ...
Article
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Nutraceuticals, natural dietary and botanical supplements offering health benefits, provide a basis for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Use of CAM by healthy individuals and patients with medical conditions is rapidly increasing. For the majority of breast cancer patients, treatment plans involve 5–10 yrs of endocrine therapy, but hair loss/thinning is a common side effect. Many women consider this significant, severely impacting on quality of life, even leading to non-compliance of therapy. Therefore, nutraceuticals that stimulate/maintain hair growth can be proposed. Although nutraceuticals are often available without prescription and taken at the discretion of patients, physicians can be reluctant to recommend them, even as adjuvants, since potential interactions with endocrine therapy have not been fully elucidated. It is, therefore, important to understand the modus operandi of ingredients to be confident that their use will not interfere/interact with therapy. The aim is to improve clinical/healthcare outcomes by combining specific nutraceuticals with conventional care whilst avoiding detrimental interactions. This review presents the current understanding of nutraceuticals beneficial to hair wellness and outcomes concerning efficacy/safety in breast cancer patients. We will focus on describing endocrine therapy and the role of estrogens in cancer and hair growth before evaluating the effects of natural ingredients on breast cancer and hair growth.
... The chemopreventive action and the melanin regulatory activity of WS aqueous and organic extracts used as a topical treatment for skin cancer were demonstrated by several studies [17]. The formulation and testing of topical preparations with WFA in various skin conditions would also be necessary in order to determine the antiproliferative, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, or antiaging effects [71][72][73][74]. ...
Article
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Wthaferin A (WFA) was identified as the most active phytocompound of the plant Withania somnifera (WS) and as having multiple therapeutic / ameliorating properties (anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, etc.). in case of various diseases. In drug chemistry, WFA in silico approaches have identified favorite biological targets, stimulating and accelerating research to evaluate its pharmacological activity-numerous anticancer effects manifested in various organs (breast, pancreas, skin, colon, etc.), antivirals, anti-infective, etc., not yet sufficiently explored. This paper is a synthesis of the most relevant specialized papers in the field, which are focused on the use of WFA in dermatological diseases and describing its mechanism of action, providing in the same time details about the results of its testing in in vitro / in vivo studies.
... A root extract that warrants special attention is Withania somnifera (most known as ashwagandha) given some research have found ergogenic effects in athletic [121,122] and physically active individuals [123]. Moreover, the adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of ashwagandha [124][125][126] turns this herbal extract into a potential strategy to optimize recovery and promote exerciseinduced adaptations. Although more research is required, dosages are between 300 and 500 mg of aqueous root extract twice per day. ...
Article
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Post-exercise recovery is a broad term that refers to the restoration of training capacity. After training or competition, there is fatigue accumulation and a reduction in sports performance. In the hours and days following training, the body recovers and performance is expected to return to normal or improve. ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were reviewed to identify studies and position declarations examining the relationship between nutrition and sports recovery. As an evidence-based framework, a 4R’s approach to optimizing post-exercise recovery was identified: (i) Rehydration—a fundamental process that will depend on the athlete, environment and sports event; (ii) Refuel—the consumption of carbohydrates is not only important to replenish the glycogen reserves but also to contribute to the energy requirements for the immune system and tissue reparation. Several bioengineered carbohydrates were discussed but further research is needed; (iii) Repair—post-exercise ingestion of high-quality protein and creatine monohydrate benefit the tissue growth and repair; and (iv) Rest—pre-sleep nutrition has a restorative effect that facilitates the recovery of the musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Nutritional consultancy based on the 4R’s is important for the wise stewardship of the hydration, feeding, and supplementation strategies to achieve a timely recovery.
... W. somnifera also known as Indian ginseng is widely used as a rasayana (rejuvenator) to promote physical and mental health and healthy ageing 41,42 and also possess as an anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-epileptic, spermatogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic activities. 43,44 Recently, it has demonstrated as anti-depressant, anxiolytic, and adaptogenic properties in a range of rodent behavioural tests such as the open field test, forced swim test, tail suspension test and learned helplessness test etc. ...
Experiment Findings
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Depression is complex neuropsychiatric disorder, affects the life style and daily life with social relations of a person and that has been classified and treated in a variety of ways. Now a day, number of synthetic antidepressant drugs is available, these drugs have limited effect or restrictions in their clinical applications and associated with more side effect as well as the chronic toxicity that affect almost every organ system. These available drugs have potential for adverse effects on cognition and behavior. To obtain better therapeutic benefits and minor adverse reactions, search for alternative antidepressant from natural source i.e., herbal remedies, which were used traditionally, and are safe on human health, is gaining global attention. Recently, it has been reported that the use of polyherbal formulation exhibit synergistic activity to achievement of maximum beneficial potency as compared to single herb. Traditionally, these herbal medicines were used medicinally in India, China, Japan, Egypt and Greece. Therefore, the objective of this review is to enlist medicinal herbs and plant-based formulations which have antidepressant action using the various rodent models of depression. The multiple causing factor of depression decreased levels of neurotransmitter in brain including noradrenalin, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, these medicinal herbs restoring the reduced levels of neurotransmitter in the brain either by inhibiting reuptake of these neurotransmitters or by inhibiting monoamine oxidase and might be treat mild to moderate depression.
... The Rasayana drug along with a suitable dietary regimen provides health benefits including cognizance, immunity, longevity, intellect, youthfulness, and physical strength (Balasubramani et al., 2011). WS is well known for its diverse pharmacological activities (Singh et al., 2011). These activities of WS play a crucial role in safeguarding and promoting health through immunomodulation (Tiwari et al., 2014). ...
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As the COVID-19 pandemic is progressing, the therapeutic gaps in conventional management have highlighted the need for the integration of traditional knowledge systems with modern medicine. Ayurvedic medicines, especially Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, WS), may be beneficial in the management of COVID-19. WS is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic botanical known as an immunomodulatory, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and adaptogenic agent. The chemical profile and pharmacological activities of WS have been extensively reported. Several clinical studies have reported its safety for use in humans. This review presents a research synthesis of in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (WS) and discusses its potential for prophylaxis and management of COVID-19. We have collated the data from studies on WS that focused on viral infections (HIV, HSV, H1N1 influenza, etc.) and noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, etc.). The experimental literature indicates that WS has the potential for 1) maintaining immune homeostasis, 2) regulating inflammation, 3) suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, 4) organ protection (nervous system, heart, lung, liver, and kidney), and 5) anti-stress, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic activities. Using these trends, the review presents a triangulation of Ayurveda wisdom, pharmacological properties, and COVID-19 pathophysiology ranging from viral entry to end-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The review proposes WS as a potential therapeutic adjuvant for various stages of COVID-19 management. WS may also have beneficial effects on comorbidities associated with the COVID-19. However, systematic studies are needed to realize the potential of WS for improving clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.
... The root powders of this plant are used in treating rheumatism, goitre, joint inflammation, leucoderma, ulcers, and insomnia disorders whereas leaf extracts are used in treating fever and pain (Singh et al., 2011). The flowers are used as diuretic and seeds are used as anthelmintic. ...
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Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, is an important medicinal plant with tremendous use in the herbal drug industry. Withanolides are the major bioactive metabolites present in the leaves of W. somnifera. However, due to the low abundance of withanolides, it is difficult to fulfil the market demand. The rationale of this study was to develop a simple technology for enhanced withanolide biosynthesis in field-grown plants of W. somnifera. Exogenous elicitor-treatment to the field-grown plants is an effective strategy to increase the production of many plant secondary metabolites. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the rapid separation of withanolides from the leaves along with phenolic acid and flavonoids. Field-grown plants of W. somnifera were directly used for methyl jasmonate elicitor treatment using a novel closed polybag approach. In this approach, branches were covered with a polybag and then MeJa was injected using a specially designed vial. Methyl-jasmonate (20μM) treatment for 4 h resulted in 2.2-fold, 1.9-fold, 2.0-fold, and 2.2-fold increase in withaferin A, withanolide A, withanolide D, and withanone production, respectively, over the control treatment. Methyl-jasmonate -treatment increased the transcript levels of four key withanolide biosynthetic genes, namely 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, and cycloartenol synthase. Methyl-jasmonate -treated leaf extracts and isolated pure withanolides also showed a significant cytotoxic effect against selected human breast cancer cell line. These results suggest that MeJa-treatment using a closed polybag system is an effective and easy-to-perform elicitation strategy for the enhanced production of bioactive withanolides using field-grown plants of W. somnifera. Farmers and industry can easily adapt this technology to meet the growing demand for bioactive withanolides.
... Among all the natural compounds, withanolides from Ashwagandha has been shown to be very promising in preliminary studies against SARS-CoV-2 (Chikhale et al., 2020;Shree et al., 2020;Straughn & Kakar, 2020). Ashwagandha is being used in traditional home medicine in India and has been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities mainly against oxidative stress, brain disorders, cancers, microbial infections and immune response (Mishra et al., 2000;Singh et al., 2011 recently reported that Withanone could be an effective inhibitor of ACE2 (Balkrishna et al., 2020). Our group has also recently reported the potential inhibitory action of Withanone and Withaferin-A against Main protease of SARS-CoV-2 and host cell receptor TMPRSS2 through computational and experimental assays (Kumar, Dhanjal, Bhargava, et al., 2020;. ...
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SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in China in December 2019 and its spread as worldwide pandemic has been a major global health crisis. Extremely high infection and mortality rate has severely affected all sectors of life and derailed the global economy. While drug and vaccine development have been prioritized and have made significant progression, use of phytochemicals and herbal constituents is deemed as a low-cost, safer and readily available alternative. We investigated therapeutic efficacy of eight withanolides (derived from Ashwagandha) against the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins, a target cell surface receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and report results on the (i) computational analyses including binding affinity and stable interactions with ACE2, occupancy of ACE2 residues in making polar and nonpolar interactions with different withanolides/ligands and (2) in vitro mRNA and protein analyses using human cancer (A549, MCF7 and HSC3) cells. We found that among all withanolides, Withaferin-A, Withanone, Withanoside-IV and Withanoside-V significantly inhibited the ACE2 expression. Analysis of withanolides-rich aqueous extracts derived from Ashwagandha leaves and stem showed a higher ACE2 inhibitory potency of stem-derived extracts. Taken together, we demonstrated the inhibitory potency of Ashwagandha withanolides and its aqueous extracts against ACE2. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
... Varying doses of Xylopia aethiopica seeds extract showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in body weight. Studies by Singh et al. (2011) revealed that oxidative stress could be the cause of the weight reduction seen with cadmium chloride toxicity. Therefore, the weight reduction found in this study could be attributed to oxidative stress following cadmium chloride toxicity, affecting the brain function, nutritional uptake in the gastrointestinal system and metabolic activities. ...
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Objective: Xylopia aethiopica is a common plant in West Africa, with wide applications in trado-medical management of several diseases. Thus, our study aimed to analyze the histology and hormonal effects of ethanol extracts of Xylopia aethiopica seeds on cadmium chloride-induced reproductive dysfunction in female Wistar rats. Methods: We used twenty-five rats weighing 120-150g for this study. The rats were divided into five groups (n=5). Group 1: received only distilled water orally; Group 2: received 2 mg/kg cadmium chloride orally; Group 3: received 2 mg/kg cadmium chloride plus 50 mg/kg Xylopia aethiopica seeds orally; Group 4: received 2 mg/kg cadmium chloride plus 100 mg/kg Xylopia aethiopica seeds orally, and Group 5: received 100 mg/kg Xylopia aethiopica seeds only, orally. We administered the extracts for 14 days, after which we slaughtered the animals following chloroform anesthesia. We took the blood samples by cardiac puncture for hormonal assay. The ovaries and uterus were harvested for histology. We analyzed the data using ANOVA, and the differences in mean values were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The body weight of the rats showed a dose-dependent reduction (p<0.05), compared with the controls. Xylopia aethiopica seeds significantly (p<0.05) reversed the detrimental effects of Cadmium on LH and FSH. The histological analysis of the ovary showed significant improvement upon treatment with Xylopia aethiopica extract in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: The ameliorative effects of Xylopia aethiopica against cadmium chloride-induced reproductive toxicity in female Wistar rats may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.
... One of the recent studies conducted in International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, on prostate cancer, dermatofibrosarcoma, breast cancer, fibroids of uterus and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in last stages of the cancer without conventional drug treatment when modern treatment was refused by the subjects, some of those were fully cured with W. somnifera extract and radiologival intervention alone (151). While side effects drastically reduced with the use of this extract as an adjuvant to traditional treatment in most of the other subjects (152). ...
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Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have been known for their toxicity and numerous side effects. A new approach to treat cancer involves phytochemical drugs. In the present review, anti-cancer activity of a class of steroidal lactones called withanolides obtained from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is discussed. The commonly studied bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A, withanoside IV, withanoside VI and withanolide-A among others obtained from methanolic and chloroform extract of the leaves and various alcoholic, aqueous and chloroform extract of roots have shown inhibition to various human cancer cell lines including skin, breast, colon, prostate, liver, ovary, cervical and lung. Prominent mechanisms of action include induction of apoptosis by NOS upregulation, ROS production and NBS2 or COX-2 inhibition; cytotoxicity by humoral and cell mediated immune response, activation of p53 and pRB and inhibition of various viral oncoproteins; cell cycle arrest by Cdc2 facilitated mitotic catastrophe, cyclin-D1 down-regulation and inhibition of transcription factors. Cancers are also controlled by inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis of the tumor cells. In addition to anti-tumorogenic properties, W. somnifera also holds properties that make it a potential adjuvant in integrated cancer therapeutics and in enhancing the effectiveness of ongoing radiation therapy.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: In the Indian system of medicine, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Hemidesmus indicus (R.Br.), Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Ocimum sanctum (L.) has been mentioned as a remedy for the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Based on their folklore use, a polyherbal combination was derived for the management of anxiety. Aim of the study: The present study is aimed to find the best polyherbal combination (PHC), in terms of its pharmacological action, out of two PHC, namely PHC1 and PHC3, prepared based on the previous studies conducted and to carry out the pharmacokinetic (PK) study of the best combination (PHC3). Materials and methods: Pharmacological activities include elevated plus maze model and hole-board test for anti-anxiety screening, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABAA) measurement in brain tissues and superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione measurement for anti-oxidant screening. Results: PHC3 (100mg/kg) produced statistically significant (p<0.05) effect on all the pharmacological outcome measures when compared to alprazolam standard. Therefore, it was chosen for PK study. PK study was carried out using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy technique with respect to Withaferin-A. PK parameters such as maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), 16.78±5.32ng/ml; time of maximum concentration (Tmax), 18±0.12min; half-life (T1/2) 61.20±9.87min; mean residual time (MRT), 7.53hrs; area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC0-1), 1678±34.13ng/mL; area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), 1705±28.87ng/mL; total clearance (CL), 290.67±15.89 mL/min and volume of distribution (Vd) 0.054L were calculated. Conclusions: The results of the studies revealed that PHC3 possessed significant anxiolytic, anti-oxidant activities and enhanced expression of GABAA mediated inhibition when compared to PHC1. Withaferin-A in PHC3 exhibited a rapid oral absorption in rat plasma. The findings of this study greatly help to provide useful evidence for the development of suitable formulation using PHC3.
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This study involves a detailed investigation about the effect of three elicitors, such as chitosan, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA) on withaferin A and withanolide A contents of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Poshita variety). Moreover, the different environmental regimes were also studied to assess and optimise the accumulation of withaferin A and Withanolide A contents. In an open environment, the total withaferin A content was found to be increased 6.3 and 5.8 times when sprayed with chitosan, 10 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, the total withanolide A content was found to be increased 4.5 and 3.6 times when sprayed with jasmonic acid (400 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively) with respect to control. In a controlled condition, the total withaferin A content was found to be increased 6 and 4.5 times when sprayed with jasmonic acid (400 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively) as compared to control. On the other hand, the total withanolide A content was found to be enhanced by 7 and 4.3 times when sprayed with jasmonic acid (400 ppm) and SA (1 ppm), respectively, as compared to control. Therefore, this study was focussed on the optimisation of enhanced accumulation of withaferin A and withanolide A contents in the aerial parts of the plant in open and controlled environment by foliar application of elicitors in minimal concentrations.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Withania somnifera(L.)Dunal, also known as Ashwaghanda” in Sanskrit and as“Indian Winter Cherry in english”is an important medicinal herb. It is widely used in Indian systems of medicine as an adaptogen, nerve tonic, anti-stress, memory enhancer and against cognitive deficits, insomnia, anxiety, infectious diseases, infertility, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout over thousands of years. Its formulations are mainly used in Unani and Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is a remarkable centuries old herbal Rasayana used to treat neuronal ailments and is known as ‘‘SattvicKaphaRasayana. Aim of the study To review neuroprotective properties of Withania somnifera (L.)extract as well as its active constituents in neurodegenerative diseases and other neurological ailments. Materials and methods The sources of information used in present article include Indian system of Medicine reports on the use of natural products, Medicinal books, research articles and scientific databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science-Direct, SciFinder, ACS Publications and Wiley Online Library. Results Research reports based largely on preclinical studies as well as few clinicaltrials have highlighted the neuroprotective role of Ashwagandha against many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease in animals as well as in patients. The protective effects of Ashwagandha were accomplished by restoring mitochondrial and endothelial function, mitigation of apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress mechanisms. Conclusion In this review, we recapitulated neuroprotective properties of Ashwagandha extracts and/or its major constituents and discussed their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications. The pre-clinical as well as clinical studies suggest the use of Withania somnifera (L.) against neurodegenerative disease. However, extensive studies are warranted to validate the use of extract or its single constituents for its clinical use.
Article
Withania somnifera, commonly known as "Ashwagandha" or "Indian ginseng" is an essential therapeutic plant of Indian subcontinent regions. It is regularly used, alone or in combination with other plants for the treatment of various illnesses in Indian Systems of Medicine over the period of 3,000 years. Ashwagandha (W. somnifera) belongs to the genus Withania and family Solanaceae. It comprises a broad spectrum of phytochemicals having wide range of biological effects. W. somnifera has demonstrated various biological actions such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-arthritic, anti-stress/adaptogenic, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, W. somnifera has revealed the capability to decrease reactive oxygen species and inflammation, modulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis regulation and improve endothelial function. Withaferin-A is an important phytoconstituents of W. somnifera belonging to the category of withanolides been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In this review, we have summarized the active phytoconstituents, pharmacologic activities (preclinical and clinical), mechanisms of action, potential beneficial applications, marketed formulations and safety and toxicity profile of W. somnifera.
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This review presents an overview of published studies for a better understanding of the anti-mutagenic potential of medicinal plants and the precise indications for the utilization of natural compounds as chemo-preventive agents. Reports on the anti-mutagenic potential of medicinal plants published from 1997 to 2019 were searched through different scientific databases using the following keywords: medicinal plants and mutagens, carcinogens, the anti-mutagenic potential of medicinal plants. The data relevant to the anti-mutagenic potential of some common medicinal plants is summarized in this mini-review. These medicinal plants include Carum carvi, Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, Mentha spicata, Curcuma zedoaria, Cassia angustifolia, Cymbopogon citrates, Ipomoea batatas, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrullus colocynthis, Capsicum annuum and Asparagus racemosus. An overview of the identified molecules or enzymes being targeted is also presented, with a focus on anti-carcinogenic and/or anti-mutagenic activity. The recent advancements in the research on medicinal plants pave the way for the better understanding and future prospects of the use of natural components as chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic agents.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Withania somnifera (Family: Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng is distributed widely in India, Nepal, China and Yemen. The roots of plant consist of active phytoconstituents mainly withanolides, alkaloids and sitoindosides and are conventionally used for the treatment of multiple brain disorders. Aim of the review: This review aims to critically assess and summarize the current state and implication of Ashwagandha in brain disorders. We have mainly focussed on the reported neuroactive phytoconstituents, available marketed products, pharmacological studies, mechanism of action and recent patents published related to neuroprotective effects of Ashwagandha in brain disorders. Materials and methods All the information and data was collected on Ashwagandha using keywords “Ashwagandha” along with “Phytoconstituents”, “Ayurvedic, Unani and Homeopathy marketed formulation”, “Brain disorders”, “Mechanism” and “Patents”. Following sources were searched for data collection: electronic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, Elsevier, PubMed, Wiley On-line Library, Taylor and Francis, Springer; books such as AYUSH Pharmacopoeia; authentic textbooks and formularies. Results Identified neuroprotective phytoconstituents of Ashwagandha are sitoindosides VII–X, withaferin A, withanosides IV, withanols, withanolide A, withanolide B, anaferine, beta-sitosterol, withanolide D with key pharmacological effects in brain disorders mainly anxiety, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, dyslexia, depression, autism, addiction, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorders. The literature survey does not highlight any toxic effects of Ashwagandha. Further, multiple available marketed products and patents recognized its beneficial role in various brain disorders; however, very few data is available on mechanistic pathway and clinical studies of Ashwagandha for various brain disorders is scarce and not promising. Conclusion The review concludes the results of recent studies on Ashwagandha suggesting its extensive potential as neuroprotective in various brain disorders as supported by preclinical studies, clinical trials and published patents. However vague understanding of the mechanistic pathways involved in imparting the neuroprotective effect of Ashwagandha warrants further study to promote it as a promising drug candidate.
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Medicinal plants are highly important for producing structurally unique phytomolecules that possess diverse pharmaceutical and commercial significance. In this chapter, various modern molecular approaches are discussed to improve medicinal plants, using Ashwandha (Withania somnifera) as an example, wherein tremendous progress has happened during the last decade or so. W. somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, possesses wide therapeutic repute due to the presence of signature phytochemical withanolides (C-28 steroidal lactone-based compounds). In-depth study of biochemical pathways and regulation is an important area of research owing to the wide range of medicinal properties of withanolides. The enzymes involved in the early biosynthetic process of withanolides have been characterized to some extent. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing during the last decades, the identification of novel enzymes involved in the modification of the withanolide backbone has taken place. In this chapter, we summarize the biosynthetic pathway and characterize the genes/enzymes of the pathway along with the in vitro developments associated with withanolide production. The information is useful in defining the plants as well as in developing newer plants with promising pharmacological and agrotechnological traits.
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Purpose This study examined whether adding Dichrostachys glomerata (DG; 300 mg/d) to thermogenic supplements with (DG + C) and without (DG) caffeine and other nutrients affects weight loss, changes in body composition, and/or markers of health. Methods Sixty-eight participants (female, 54%) were grouped in a double-blind, parallel, stratified random, placebo-controlled manner to supplement their diet with a placebo, DG, or DG + C for 12 weeks while maintaining their normal diet and physical activity. Diet, physical activity, body weight, body composition, anthropometric measures, resting energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, and questionnaires were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Data are reported as mean (±SD) and change from baseline (mean, 95% confidence interval) for weeks 4, 8, and 12, respectively, with p values showing changes from baseline. Results DG treatment promoted significant but minor reductions in fat mass (−0.56 [−1.02, −0.14], p = 0.01; −0.63 [−1.23, −0.02], p = 0.04; −0.71 [−1.47, 0.09] kg, p = 0.08) and percent body fat (−0.46 [−0.96, −0.04], p = 0.07; −0.63 [−1.16, −0.10], p = 0.02; −0.78 [−1.45, 0.07] %, p = 0.03). There was some evidence that DG + C increased resting energy expenditure, decreased hunger, increased satiety, and improved sleep quality (diminished in DG + C). No other significant effects were observed. Conclusions Ingestion of thermogenic supplements containing DG (300 mg/d) with and without caffeine and other nutrients in overweight but otherwise healthy participants who did not alter diet or physical activity promoted clinically insignificant changes in body weight and composition.
Article
Despite Withania somnifera (WS), stimulating effects have been investigated on many animal species, its role on lipid profile and intestinal histomorphology in healthy animals, and its modulating role on pro-inflammatory cytokines following infection in fish are yet scarce. In this context, lipid profile, liver, and intestinal histomorphology were measured in Nile tilapia fed with a basal diet or diets containing 2.5 and 5% of supplementary WS for 60 days. Besides, cytokines response was measured at 1, 3,7, and 14 days following Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infection after the feeding trial. All lipid profile parameters were nominally lowered, excluding high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that exhibited a significant increase in WS 5% group compared to other groups. Improved gut health integrity was observed, especially in WS 5% group in terms of increased goblet cell numbers, villous height, the width of lamina propria in all parts of the intestine, and a decrease in the diameter of the intestinal lumen of the distal intestine only. A significant down-regulation in the mRNA transcript level of cytokine genes (interleukin 1β/IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α/TNFα, and interleukin 6/IL-6) was demonstrated in the kidney and spleen of WS-supplemented groups following S. iniae infection compared with the control infected (positive control/PC) group. Our findings give new insights for the potential roles of WS dietary inclusion not only on lipid profile and intestinal health integrity improvement in healthy fish under normal rearing but also as a prophylactic against the infection. Thus, WS can be incorporated as a promising nutraceutical in aquaculture.
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The advent of COVID-19 has infected millions of people causing healthcare emergencies worldwide. Biologists and environmentalists have always stressed on the impact of habitat fragmentation, deforestation, and animal poaching on human health. The outbreak of various zoonotic scourges has incremented the levels of risk in human population because of direct and indirect interaction with human chain. Human health is directly associated with animal health and is one of the important part of an ecosystem, the balance of which is disrupted due to anthropogenic activities which has disrupted an ecological balance due to which biodiversity is greatly affected and is reducing at a faster pace promoting a spread of diseases through animals to humans. COVID-19 is a serious concern that puts human life to risk, however, strategies like Global Lockdown which is referred as the period of “Great Pause” has helped to recover rare species of Flora and Fauna with reduced pollution levels, cleaner air and water. In order to quell the further on-spread of pandemic or any other avant-guarded health emergency, biodiversity shall be preserved. This chapter highlights the vitality of conserving biodiversity to renounce the healthcare challenges addressing the scenario of novel coronavirus.
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Bell’s palsy, also known as acute idiopathic lower motor neuron facial paralysis, is characterized by sud-den onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. In contemporary science, administration of steroids is the treatment of choice for complete facial palsy. Cer-tain Panchakarma procedures and internal Ayurvedic medicines have been proved to be beneficial in the management of Ardita vata. The present report deals with a case of 62-year-old male patient diagnosed as Ardita vata was treated with various Panchakarma procedures like Nasya, Shirobasti, Kukkutanda Swedana, Dashmoola Ksheer Dhoom, Gandoosh and oral Ayurveda medicines. Criteria of assessment was based on the scoring of House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading scale. After completion of Ayurveda treatment, the patient Shown almost complete recovery without any adverse effects. This case is an evi-dence to demonstrate the effectiveness of Ayurveda treatment in case of Ardita vata (Bell’s palsy).
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ayurveda remains as the classical and comprehensive part of ancient Indian system of medicine for wellbeing promotive, disease preventive, and revival approach for human body. Triphala Rasayana is mentioned in Ayurveda comprising fruits of three plant species viz. Phyllanthus emblica L. (P. emblica), Terminalia chebula Retz (T. chebula), and Terminalia bellirica Roxb (T.bellirica). Triphala Rasayana has been utilized in various traditional systems of medicine, viz., Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Traditionally Rasayana based drugs are utilized in different kinds of diseases without pathophysiological associations as indicated by current medication. Various medicinal attributes of Triphala Rasayana include antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and anticataract and is also considered as a pillar for gastrointestinal treatment specifically in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Due to Rasayan’s easy mode of administration, availability, and affordability, there is an increase of its global acceptance. Aim of review This review article summarizes the scientific validation, traditional uses, bioactive compounds, and ethnopharmacological properties of Triphala Rasayana. In addition, it also documents recent data on in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies and clinical effects of Triphala rasayana. Material and method A literature review was carried out using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, web of science, Ayush Research Portal, and Clinical Trials Registry-India. In addition to an electronic search, traditional ayurvedic texts, and books were used as source of information. Results Traditionally, “Triphala Rasayana” is classified as a tridoshic rasayana and one of the most well-studied ayurvedic Rasayana. It showed various pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective and antidiabetic. Besides this, Rasayana has reported ethnopharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anticataract, wound healing, and radioprotection. It has shown a good impact on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) system with the reported pharmacological activities in gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation, gastric ulcer, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Phytochemical studies of Triphala Rasayana revealed the presence of chemical constituents like gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, chebulinic acid, methyl gallate, emblicanin A, and emblicanin B. Additionally, clinical studies found Triphala Rasayana to be effective against antidiabetic, constipation and obesity. Conclusion The present review revealed that Triphala Rasayana has a potential for treating a diverse range of diseases, especially GIT disorders. Considering the beneficial properties of Triphala Rasayana, and proven non-toxic nature of Triphala Rasayana, it could be a source of rejuvenation in contemporary healthcare. Moreover, its clinical data was found effective in providing precious signals to correlate ayurvedic biology and modern medicine.
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Some of the areas of concern in andrology are erectile dysfunction, late onset hypogonadism, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and infertility. Often these are associated with depletion in androgens, particularly the testosterone hormone. Lack of physical, mental, and sexual vitality, particularly in elderly men, is recognized as a worldwide health problem, which is challenging medically as well as in healthcare. There are numerous traditional herbal products that claim to enhance male overall well-being and restore reproductive health. Proof of acceptance and relevance of herbal treatment in men’s health management are underlined by the tremendous number of publications as well as clinical data, which meet the highest quality, safety, and efficacy standards. This chapter reviews scientific evidence from clinical trials performed with well-known traditional herbs, claiming therapeutic benefits in men’s health: Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). Furthermore, information of acceptance in terms of regulatory issues is summarized.
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Ashwagandha (W. somnifera Dunal. Linn.), known as Indian ginseng, contains three major bioactive compounds, withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanoloide A (WD). In a field experiment, the impacts of foliar application of growth retardants/promoters was assessed with respect to biomass allocation pattern and major withanoloide content at different phenological stages in W. somnifera. Biomass accumulation pattern showed that foliar application of 500 mg l À1 ethrel at 50, 65, 85, 105, and 120 days after sowing (DAS) restricted phenological progression and reduced berry weight by 61% as comparted to the control at 160 DAS. 500 mg l À1 succinic acid foliar application resulted in maximum plant height (56.4 cm), maximum dry stem weight (DWS) and dry root weight (DRW) whereas 500 mg l À1 ethrel had resulted in minimum plant height and DRW at 180 DAS. During last 50 days of crop growth, the accumulation pattern drastically changed with more than 60% of the biomass allotment to the reproductive part, the berries. The WD in roots ranged between 0.325 mg g À1 and 0.342 mg g À1 during all growth stages. WA content decreased with increase in progression of crop growth and reached the lowest at 180-190 DAS. In a pot experiment, ethrel application up regulated DWF-5 by 2.44, SQE by 3.79 and CYP450s by 1.17 log2fold in roots 8 h after treatment and succinic acid had up regulated the expression of all these genes by nearly 3 log2fold change. This is in accordance with the withanoloide accumulation pattern in field condition under foliar application of these molecules.
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Inflammation is a biological function that is caused after a mechanical tissue disorder or from the reactions by the occurrence of a physical, chemical, or biological mediator in the body. It is also an essential act provided by the immune system during infection and tissue injury to preserve normal tissue homeostasis. Numerous health problems are associated with prolonged inflammation, which effects nearly all minor to major diseases. Current antiinflammatory drugs are expensive and have a high risk of side effects. Hence, the natural product-based formulations have received extensive recognition by medical experts and the public to treat inflammation, and this has provided extensive value for pharmaceutical discoveries over the last century. This chapter provides an update on inflammation and its associated diseases, molecular targets, inflammatory mediators, and the function of natural products. Accordingly, the current studies in identifying new molecules from natural products can lead to future antiinflammatory pharmaceutical and nutraceutical discoveries.
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Adaptogens comprise a category of herbal medicinal and nutritional products promoting adaptability, resilience, and survival of living organisms in stress. The aim of this review was to summarize the growing knowledge about common adaptogenic plants used in various traditional medical systems (TMS) and conventional medicine and to provide a modern rationale for their use in the treatment of stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Adapto-gens have pharmacologically pleiotropic effects on the neuroendocrine-immune system, which explain their traditional use for the treatment of a wide range of conditions. They exhibit a biphasic dose-effect response: at low doses they function as mild stress-mimetics, which activate the adaptive stress-response signaling pathways to cope with severe stress. That is in line with their traditional use for preventing premature aging and to maintain good health and vitality. However, the potential Med Res Rev. 2020;1-74. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/med | 1 This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Chapter
The unique anatomy, physiology, and metabolism of the liver make it especially susceptible to insult from a variety of metabolic, infectious, immune-mediated, toxic, and carcinogenic sources. A large number of nutraceutical compounds have been proposed to aid in the maintenance or recovery of liver health though antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antifibrotic, antiproliferative, or antineoplastic mechanisms. This chapter summarizes hepatic pathophysiology and discusses the effects of select nutraceuticals on the liver.
Article
The study evaluates the effect of two traditional horticulture treatments mentioned in Vrikshayurveda, a text from ancient India on the science of plant life, namely Kunapa jala (KJ) and Pancha gavya (PG) on the production of Withaferin A (WFA), withanolide A (WIA) and Withanolide B (WIB) in Withania somnifera (L) Dunal. Leaves and roots of W. somnifera were collected from different treated groups viz. control, KJ, PG, farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK). Reverse phase ultra-flow liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) method was developed, validated for simultaneous detection of WFA, WIA and WIB. Statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA and tested for significance by the Dunnett multiple comparison test and data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results revealed, leaves possessed highest WFA content and roots possessed highest content of WIA and WIB. PG treated leaves were observed highest WFA (18.29 mg/g) and roots were observed highest WIA (19.63 mg/g) and WIB (1.36 mg/g). Conclusively, RP-UFLC method for simultaneous detection of withanolides has been developed and validated to evaluate the effect of traditional horticulture treatments. It is concluded that the enhanced production of withanolides can be achieved by the application of PG when compared to NPK application.
Chapter
Adaptogens are agents which protect against stress and stress-related disorders. They act in a nonspecific manner and rejuvenate the body systems in a holistic manner by complex and interactive mechanisms. The ability to cope with the stressful experience maintains the physiological homeostasis and the lack of such adaptive mechanisms results in pathophysiological states, which can involve cardiovascular organs, the immunological system, neuroendocrinal axis, gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, etc. Conventional antistress agents used for such conditions, while being effective, have a plethora of undesirable effects which limit their long-term use, and thus there is a constant search for more effective and safer agents. Nutraceuticals are food additives and/or nutritional supplements used for the prevention and treatment of many diseases as well as for maintenance of normal wellbeing. Some such nutraceuticals with adaptogenic potential are primarily obtained from herbal sources (medicinal plants), and, in recent years, have gained considerable attention because of their safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Experimental and clinical studies have validated their uses in a plethora of human diseases and scientific research has clarified their efficacy and safety issues. In addition, several dietary supplements which provide potential adaptogenic molecules after chemical transformation in the body are also being increasingly recommended for stress and stress-related conditions. With the evolving scenario, and increasing general awareness about health and disease, the use of such nutraceuticals may revolutionize the management of some of these excruciating and debilitating disease states. Such adaptogens, in view of their holistic effectiveness and well known safety, could not only help to counteract stress effects on the biological system but also increase nonspecific resistance to a variety of threatening/aversive conditions. The outcome could be attenuation of stress-related disorders and improvement of the quality of life.
Chapter
Indian ginseng [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal; Solanaceae] is a significant aromatic medicinal as well as industrial plant in India and in other regions. The plant has numerous pharmaceutical uses owing to synthesis of steroidal lactones, “withanolides,Withania somniferawithanolidesWithanolides” mainly in leaves and roots. Hence, Govt. of India has graded this aromatic plant in top 36 cultivated precious medicinal plants in focus of immense requirement for market and medicine production. The traditional cultivation method of W. somnifera suffers from severe shortage in production to provide sufficient raw materials for phytochemical synthesis and medicinal formulations due to biotic and abiotic factors, poor seed germination, loss or low seed viability, etc. This necessitates consistent supply of raw materials to produce secondary metabolites by exploiting biotechnological tools like cell/organ cultures. Over the few decades, numerous approaches have been made to develop and optimize cell and organ culture protocols for W. somnifera such as direct and indirect organogenesis, suspension-based shoot and cell cultures, adventitious root culture, hairy root culture, and plant transformation for production of plants and withanolides. Several reports indicated the potential utilization of in vitro cell/organ cultures to be put into use in large-scale commercial multiplication of plants and secondary metabolite production as in Panax ginseng and other plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of works performed on hairy root culture of W. somnifera in the last two decades.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ashwagandha has been used as an ayurvedic medicine in the form of 'Rasayana' (as a tonic) even before 3000 BC in India. As per Ayurveda, it has long been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, weakness, impotence, pulmonary tuberculosis. This plant is also beneficial in lumbago and leucorrhea in the female. In the recent past, Withania has shown its anti-cancerous activity in various experimental models. In addition, Withania also possesses many other properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-stress, adaptogenic, and regenerative which will eventually be beneficial and safe in treating cancer patients. Aim of the study This review aims to provide experimental evidence along with a deeper insight into molecular mechanisms of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) through which it acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of breast cancer. Materials and methods Literature searches with the help of electronic online databases (Elsevier, Google Scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed) were carried out. The timeline for collection of data for the review article was from 2000 to 2019. The plant name was validated from The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on http://www.theplantlist.org/(accessed 21st March, 2020). Results Various forms of Withania somnifera were used and several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies were reported by researchers. They found ashwagandha to exhibit anti-apoptotic, anti-metastatic, anti-invasive and anti-inflammatory properties and gave the evidence that ashwagandha has a capability for averting and treating breast cancer. Conclusion Various in vitro and in vivo studies suggested Ashwagandha may possess a potential for treating breast cancer, especially ER/PR positive breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer. A clinical trial has also been conducted in the past that suggested its potential in refining quality of life in breast cancer patients. Studies directed towards molecular pathways have helped in unravelling the key mechanisms of ashwagandha. Future research should be directed towards translational studies involving breast cancer patients. These will reinforce the ancient power of our Ayurvedic medicine.
Article
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Withanolides are a class of compounds usually found in plant extracts which are an attractive geroprotective drug design starting point. We evaluated the geroprotective properties of Withaferin A (WA) in vivo using the Drosophila model. Flies were supplemented by nutrient medium with WA (at a concentration of 1, 10, or 100 μM dissolved in ethanol) for the experiment group and 30 μM of ethanol for the control group. WA treatment at 10 and 100 μM concentrations prolong the median life span of D. melanogaster's male by 7.7, 9.6% (respectively) and the maximum life span (the age of death 90% of individuals) by 11.1% both. Also WA treatment at 1, 10 and 100 μM improved the intestinal barrier permeability in older flies and affected an expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense (PrxV), recognition of DNA damage (Gadd45), heat shock proteins (Hsp68, Hsp83), and repair of double-strand breaks (Ku80). WA was also shown to have a multidirectional effect on the resistance of flies to the prooxidant paraquat (oxidative stress) and 33° C hyperthermia (heat shock). WA treatment increased the resistance to oxidative stress in males at 4 and 7 week old and decreased it at 6 weeks old. It increased the male's resistance to hyperthermia at 2, 4 and 7 weeks old and decreased it at 3, 5 and 8 weeks old. WA treatment decreased the resistance to hyperthermia in females at 1, 2 and 3 weeks old and not affected on their resistance to oxidative stress.
Article
The covid -19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on the global healthcare system and the economy. At present, no specific antiviral vaccine is available to combat this contagious virus. Traditional medicine has a long history of playing a significant role in managing several infectious diseases. In this context, scientists around the globe are also exploring various traditional medical interventions to prevent the covid -19 pandemic. In the present work, we summarize available scientific data advocating the use of traditional medicine for preventing covid -19. A robust literature review was conducted using scientific platforms such as Science Direct, National Center for Biotechnology Information ( ncbi ), Pubmed, Google Scholar, and online database like The Plant List (The Plant List 2013) version 1.1. Special emphasis was given to potential natural antiviral, immuno-modulator plants, and traditional medicines to highlight their possible roles in reducing the disease burden. Immuno-modulator such as Withania somnifera and other natural compounds especially glycyrrhizin, kaempferol, ginsenoside, and lycorine can be leading candidates against sars -CoV-2. Besides the need for rigorous scientific validation of potential herbs and related formulations, their use can be beneficial for the preventive as well as symptomatic treatment of covid -19 infected patients. This work provides a run-through of the experimental therapeutics, preventive and treatment options for covid -19.
Article
Withania somnifera is a Rasayana of the Ayurvedic system of medicine that is widely used to treat stress-related neurological disorders. Although its anti-stress activity is reported in experimentally-induced stress models, the probable mechanism for neuroprotection has not been elucidated yet. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Withania somnifera against two neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) using a network pharmacology followed by molecular docking. The bioactives were retrieved from ChEBI and PCIDB databases; targets were predicted using BindingDB and were enriched via STRING. The combination synergy analysis of the constructed network was performed using Cytoscape. Similarly, molecular docking was performed using autodock4.0. Out of 45 phytoconstituents, 23 were predicted to modulate the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The combination synergy identified 10 and 6 targets interacting with 22 and 18 compounds in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease respectively. Pathways involved in Parkinson’s disease was cholinergic synapse; further cholinergic synapse and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction were primarily involved in Alzheimer’s disease. Further, phytoconstituents-target-pathway interaction revealed that the highly modulated protein(s) involved in Parkinson’s disease was PRKCD whereas COX-1 and 2 in Alzheimer’s disease along with some common proteins in both. Network pharmacology analysis elucidated the probable molecular mechanisms of Withania somnifera in the management of stress-associated neurodegenerative diseases, identified the lead molecules, their targets, and possible pathways. However, the current findings are based on processor simulations and further experimental validation of the constructed network is still required to confirm the present findings.
Article
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Background Withania somnifera (L.) (family-Solanaceae), known as ‘Indian ginseng’ or ‘Ashwagandha’ is acclaimed as an effective adaptogen, immunomodulator, aphrodisiac and sedative. Ashwagandha ghrita is a recognized ghee based Ayurvedic formulation. Few ancient texts suggest murcchana process for preparation of Ashwagandha ghrita. Objective The study was undertaken to evaluate probable effects of murcchana process on ghrita preparation with reference to time and storage conditions. Materials and Methods Ashwagandha ghrita samples were prepared separately using plain ghee (Indian cow's ghee) and murcchana ghee. These formulations were stored separately in different glass bottles at room temperature and 400C/75%RH. Organoleptic characters (colour, odour, taste, texture and touch) and physicochemical parameters (acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, refractive index and specific gravity) were determined after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Plain ghee and prepared ghrita were subjected for antioxidant evaluation by various in vitro methods. Results Changes were observed in organoleptic characters and physicochemical parameters of plain ghee and Ashwagandha ghrita formulations. Alterations in these parameters were more pronounced at high temperature and on long storage. Ashwagandha ghrita prepared with murcchana process exhibited better antioxidant potential in all in vitro methods. Conclusion The murcchana process was found to be beneficial towards quality of ghrita. Hence, Ashwagandha ghrita may be prepared along with murcchana herbs and stored in a good quality glass bottle to ensure improved shelf life of ghrita.
Article
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The objective of this paper is to review the literature regarding Withania somnifera (ashwagandha, WS) a commonly used herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Specifically, the literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, and toxicity. This review is in a narrative format and consists of all publications relevant to ashwagandha that were identified by the authors through a systematic search of major computerized medical databases; no statistical pooling of results or evaluation of the quality of the studies was performed due to the widely different methods employed by each study. Studies indicate ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antistress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hemopoietic, and rejuvenating properties. It also appears to exert a positive influence on the endocrine, cardiopulmonary, and central nervous systems. The mechanisms of action for these properties are not fully understood. Toxicity studies reveal that ashwagandha appears to be a safe compound. Preliminary studies have found various constituents of ashwagandha exhibit a variety of therapeutic effects with little or no associated toxicity. These results are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using ashwagandha for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.
Article
A screening program of some Iraqi medicinal plants for analgesic activity has been started. This evaluation was based on the use of some plants in the traditional medicine. The extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Pimpinella anisum exhibited significant analgesic activity versus benzoquinone-induced writing and in thermal tests. The extracts of Achillea santolina, Jasminum officinale and Anthemis cotula did not elicit a significant effect in either test. © 1987 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Article
Two new wichanolides named coagulin [17beta,27-dihydroxy-14,20-epoxide-1-oxo-(22R)-witha-3,5,24-trienolide] [1] and withasomidienone [27-hydroxy-3-oxo-(22R)-witha-1,4,24-trienolide] [2] have been isolated from Withania coagulance and Withania somnifera, respectively. The structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies.
Article
Withania somnifera, herbal rejuvenative tonic widely used by Ayurvedic physicians in India, was tested for its adaptogenic properties. Pretreatment with this drug increased the swimming endurance in mice. It prevented gastric ulcers induced chemically or by stress in rats. Milk-induced leucocytosis was also prevented in mice. The drug prevented increase in adrenal weight and decrease in ascorbic acid and Cortisol content of adrenals during stress. It appears to induce a state of non-specifically increased resistance (SNIR) during stress. © 1982 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Article
Abstract Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal was evaluated for its tumor-preventing activity against urethane-induced lung adenomas in adult male albino mice. Administration of urethane in a dose of 125 mg/kg given subcutaneously biweekly for 7 months induced lung adenomas in 100% of animals. Urethane was also found to cause significant decrease in body weight, increase in mortality, leucopaenia and decrease in lymphocyte percentage as compared to untreated controls. Simultaneous oral administration of W. somnifera given in a dose of 200 mg/kg daily along with urethane protected the animals from the tumor-inducing effect of urethane. It also prevented the decrease in body weight and increase in mortality caused by urethane. The haematological changes were found to be completely reversed as evidenced by significant increases in total leucocyte count and lymphocyte percentage. These haematological changes were also observed in the animals treated with W. somnifera alone. It appears that W. somnifera may be preventing urethane-induced lung adenomas by inducing a state of nonspecific increase in resistance (adaptogen) and immunostimulant properties.
Article
Abstract It was found that the extracts of Myrtus communis, Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera exhibited significant activities in either the hot-plate test or in benzoquinone and/or acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The extracts of Artemisia herba-alba. Anchusa italica. Vicoo pentanema and Quercus infectoria failed to produce significant effects in either test at the doses used.
Article
Two new acylsterylglucosides, sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII, were isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera Dun., and were screened for putative anti-stress activity because the plant is widely regarded as the ‘Indian Ginseng’ by practitioners of the traditional Indian system of medicine. Since an acceptable paradigm of pharmacological tests for anti-stress screening has yet to be evolved, a battery of tests were employed to delineate the activity of the test compounds. The total MeOH-H2O (1:1) extractives of the roots of W. somnifera (SG-1) and equimolecular combination of sitoindosides VII, VIII and withaferin-A, a common withanolide, (SG-2), exhibited significant anti-stress activity in all the test parameters used. The two sitoindosides also produced per se anti-stress activity, which was potentiated by withaferin-A. A preliminary acute toxicity study indicated that the compounds have a low order of acute toxicity. The anti-stress activity of SG-1 and SG-2 is consonant with the therapeutic use of W. somnifera in the Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine.
Article
Two new glycowithanolides, sitoindoside IX (1) and sitoindoside X (2), isolated from Withania somnifera Dun., were evaluated for their immunomodulatory and CNS effects (anti-stress, memory and learning) in laboratory animals, because the plant extract is used by practitioners of the Indian systems of medicine for similar purposes. The two compounds, in doses of 100–400 μg/mouse, produced statistically significant mobilization and activation of peritoneal macrophages, phagocytosis and increased activity of the lysosomal enzymes secreted by the activated macrophages. Both these compounds (50–200 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant anti-stress activity in albino mice and rats and augmented learning acquisition and memory retention in both young and old rats. These findings are consistent with the use of W. somnifera, in Ayurveda, to attenuate cerebral function deficits in the geriatric population and to provide non-specific host defence.
Article
The active principles of Withania somnifera (WS, 20–50 mg/kg, p.o.), consisting of equimolar amounts of sitoindosides. VII–X and withaferin A, were investigated for putative nootropic activity in an experimentally validated Alzheimer's disease (AD) model. The syndrome was induced by ibotenic acid (IA) lesioning of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats. Cognitive deficits induced in NMB-lesioned rats were assessed by attenuation of a learned active avoidance task and a decrease in frontal cortical and hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MCR) binding. IA-induced NBM lesioning in rats caused a marked cognitive deficit, as evidenced by severe reduction of the learned task, and was accompanied by a significant decrease in frontal cortex and hippocampal ACh levels, ChAT activity and MCR binding. WS (50 mg/kg) significantly reversed both IA-induced cognitive deficit and the reduction in cholinergic markers after 2 weeks of treatment. The findings validate the medharasayan (promoter of learning and memory) effect of W. somnifera, as has been reported in Ayurveda.
Article
Ultrastructural studies of biopsied cortical tissue from the right frontal lobe of 8 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that the number of synapses in lamina III of Brodmann's area 9 was significantly decreased when compared with the number in age-matched control brains (n = 9; postmortem time, less than 13 hours). Further decline in synaptic number was seen in age-matched autopsied AD specimens. In the AD brains there was significant enlargement of the mean apposition length, which correlated with degree of synapse loss; as synapse density declined, synapse size increased. The enlargement of synapses, coupled with the decrease in synaptic number, allowed the total synaptic contact area per unit volume to remain stable in the patients who underwent biopsy. In autopsied subjects who had AD, there was no further enlargement of mean synaptic contact area. There was a significant correlation between synapse counts and scores on the Mini-Mental State examination in the patients who underwent biopsy. Lower mental status scores were associated with greater loss of synapses. Choline acetyltransferase activity was significantly decreased in the biopsied group and declined further in the autopsied specimens of AD. There was no relationship between choline acetyltransferase activity and scores on the Mini-Mental State examination or synapse number. There is evidence of neural plasticity in the AD neuropil; synaptic contact size increased in patients who had biopsy and possibly compensated for the numerical loss of synapses. But by end stage of the disease, the ability of the cortex to compensate was exceeded and both synapse number and synaptic contact area declined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of 35S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.
Article
There is now ample evidence for long-term malfunctioning within five different brain GABAergic pathways in a monkey model for tardive dyskinesia (TD). Three of these GABA connections (GPe-STN, CP-SNr, and CP-GPi) are chronically downregulated during neuroleptic treatment and after some years they do not seem to regain their normal activity, even when the neuroleptics are discontinued. The persistent downregulation of these three GABA connections, evidenced by depressions of terminal GAD activity and GABA levels, appears to be a conceivable mechanism behind tardive parkinsonism (TP), often reported to coexist with TD in the clinic. The TD patients' well-known lack of awareness of their symptoms may be due to their parkinsonian "sensory neglect." Another two GABA malfunctioning connections were found in our monkey model: SNr-VA/VL and GPi-VA/VL. These pathways are upregulated during chronic neuroleptic treatment, partly due to an elevated glutamate release within subthalamofugal pathways. This chronic glutamatergic hyperactivity may have acted via an excitotoxic mechanism and consequently both GPi and VA/VL had a low synaptic activity in our dyskinetic monkeys, as measured by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, even 4 months after the last neuroleptic dose. It is hypothesized that TD may be due to an excitotoxic lesion of the inhibitory GABAergic VA/VL afferents, while TP has to do with persistent malfunctioning of downregulated SNr and GPi afferents.
Article
Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal plant used widely in the treatment of many clinical conditions in India. Its antistressor properties have been investigated in this study using adult Wistar strain albino rats and cold water swimming stress test. The results indicate that the drug treated animals show better stress tolerance.
Article
Ayurveda, the Indian system of traditional medicine, uses a concoction of several spices, herbs and minerals for the treatment of diseases. In a clinical prospective study we have evaluated the efficacy of Ayurveda treatment (a concoction in cow's milk of powdered Mucuna pruriens and Hyoscyamus reticulatus seeds and Withania somnifera and Sida cordifolia roots) in 18 clinically diagnosed (with a mean Hoen and Yahr value of 2.22) parkinsonian patients. As per Ayurveda principles, 13 patients underwent both cleansing (for 28 days) and palliative therapy (56 days), 5 patients underwent palliative therapy alone (84 days). Only the former group showed significant improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) and on motor examination as per UPDRS rating. Symptomatically, they exhibited better response in tremor, bradykinesia, stiffness and cramps as compared to the latter group. Excessive salivation worsened in both the groups. Analyses of powdered samples in milk, as administered in patients, revealed about 200 mg of L-DOPA per dose. The study establishes the necessity of cleansing therapy in Ayurveda medication prior to palliative therapy. It also reveals contribution of L-DOPA in the recovery as observed in Parkinson' disease following Ayurveda medication.
Article
The effect of lyophilized aqueous extract of Cynomorium coccineum and Withania somnifera on testicular development and on serum levels of testosterone, ICSH and FSH was studied in immature male Wistar rats. There was a notable increase in testicular weight of animals treated with both extracts. Histological examination revealed an apparent increase in the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the number of seminiferous tubular cell layers in the testes of treated rats as compared with control ones. Extracts of both plants elicited notable spermatogenesis in immature rats but C. coccineum was more effective than W. somnifera in that respect. Serum testosterone and FSH levels were lower in animals treated with plants extracts than controls, whereas ICSH levels was higher in treated animals, specially in those treated with C. coccineum. It was concluded that extracts of both plants have a direct spermatogenic influence on the seminiferous tubules of immature rats presumably by exerting a testosterone-like effect.
Article
We have utilised laser confocal microscopy to categorise β-amyloid plaque types that are associated with preclinical and end-stage Alzheimer’s disease and to define the neurochemistry of dystrophic neurites associated with various forms of plaques. Plaques with a spherical profile were defined as either diffuse, fibrillar or dense-cored using Thioflavin S staining or immunolabelling for β-amyloid. Confocal analysis demonstrated that fibrillar plaques had a central mass of β-amyloid with compact spoke-like extensions leading to a confluent outer rim. Dense-cored plaques had a compacted central mass surrounded by an outer sphere of β-amyloid. Diffuse plaques lacked a morphologically identifiable substructure, resembling a ball of homogeneous labelling. The relative proportion of diffuse, fibrillar and dense-cored plaques was 53, 22 and 25% in preclinical and 31, 49 and 20% in end-stage Alzheimer’s disease cases, respectively. Plaque-associated dystrophic neurites in preclinical cases were immunolabelled for neurofilament proteins whereas, in end-stage cases, these abnormal neurites were variably labelled for tau and/or neurofilaments. Double labelling demonstrated that the proportion of diffuse, fibrillar and dense-cored plaques that were neuritic was 12, 47 and 82% and 24, 82 and 76% in preclinical and end-stage cases, respectively. Most dystrophic neurites in Alzheimer’s disease cases were labelled for either neurofilaments or tau, however, confocal analysis determined that 30% of neurofilament-labelled bulb-like or elongated neurites had a core of tau immunoreactivity.
Article
At the present, medication of dementia is limited to symptomatic treatments such as the use of cholinesterase inhibitors. To cure dementia completely, that is regaining neuronal function, reconstruction of neuronal networks is necessary. Therefore, we have been exploring antidementia drugs based on reconstructing neuronal networks in the damaged brain and found that withanoside IV (a constituent of Ashwagandha; the root of Withania somnifera) induced neurite outgrowth in cultured rat cortical neurons. Oral administration of withanoside IV (10 micromol/kg/day) significantly improved memory deficits in Abeta(25-35)-injected (25 nmol, i.c.v.) mice and prevented loss of axons, dendrites, and synapses. Sominone, an aglycone of withanoside IV, was identified as the main metabolite after oral administration of withanoside IV. Sominone (1 microM) induced axonal and dendritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction significantly in cultured rat cortical neurons damaged by 10 microM Abeta(25-35). These data suggest that orally administrated withanoside IV may ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and that the active principle after metabolism is sominone.
Article
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin. The principal polyphenols in honeybush include the xanthone mangiferin and the flavonones hesperitin and isokuranetin. Despite their divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions, rooibos and honeybush share potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in vitro. Animal model studies indicate both herbal teas possess potent antioxidant, immune-modulating and chemopreventive actions. However, human studies of rooibos are limited and of honeybush are absent. No adverse effects of rooibos or honeybush consumption as tisanes have been reported.
Ayurvedo-Herbal Medicines -The Need of the Time -Herbal Drugs, A twenty first century perspective. Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (2006). Ayurvedo-Herbal Medicines -The Need of the Time -Herbal Drugs, A twenty first century perspective. Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Govt. of India, Delhi, 535-547.
Clinical Study of Organic Ashwagandha in cases of Parkinsonism, Neuropathy, Paralysis and Uterine Tumours (Fibroids and other tumours) including Cutaneous Endodermal Carcinoma
  • S S Abbas
  • V Singh
  • M Bhalla
  • N Singh
Abbas, S.S, Singh, V., Bhalla, M., and Singh, N. (2004). Clinical Study of Organic Ashwagandha in cases of Parkinsonism, Neuropathy, Paralysis and Uterine Tumours (Fibroids and other tumours) including Cutaneous Endodermal Carcinoma. Proc., National Seminar on "Eco-friendly Herbs of Ayurveda in Healthcare of Mankind: A Strategy for Scientific Evaluation an Uniform Standardization" -Lucknow, 81.
National Seminar on "Eco-friendly Herbs of Ayurveda in Healthcare of Mankind: A Strategy for Scientific Evaluation an Uniform Standardization
  • Neuropathy Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism, Neuropathy, Paralysis and Uterine Tumours (Fibroids and other tumours) including Cutaneous Endodermal Carcinoma. Proc., National Seminar on "Eco-friendly Herbs of Ayurveda in Healthcare of Mankind: A Strategy for Scientific Evaluation an Uniform Standardization" -Lucknow, 81.
A clinical study of Organic Ashwagandha in some cases of uterine tumors (fibroids) and dermatofibrosarcoma
  • S S Abbas
  • M Bhalla
  • N Singh
Abbas, S.S., Bhalla, M. and Singh, N. (2005). A clinical study of Organic Ashwagandha in some cases of uterine tumors (fibroids) and dermatofibrosarcoma. Proc. workshop on essential medicines, adverse drug reactions and therapeutic drug monitoring. Scientific Convention Centre, Lucknow, 143-144.
Effect of Withania somnifera, Panex ginseng and Cannabis indica and radio ligand binding with neurohumoral in the CNS
  • K S Dixit
  • A K Agarwal
  • P K Seth
  • N Singh
Dixit, K.S., Agarwal, A.K., Seth, P.K. and Singh, N. (1995). Effect of Withania somnifera, Panex ginseng and Cannabis indica and radio ligand binding with neurohumoral in the CNS, World Congress on Biotech. Dev. Med. Subs. Plants & Marine Origin, King George Medical College, Lucknow (India), 141.
Effects of stress and anti-stress drugs on succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH) in rat brain (A possible role of SDH in stress adaptation phenomenon) Physiology of Human Performance, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)
  • R Kalsi
  • N Singh
  • G P Gupta
Kalsi, R., Singh, N. and Gupta, G.P. (1987). Effects of stress and anti-stress drugs on succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH) in rat brain (A possible role of SDH in stress adaptation phenomenon) Physiology of Human Performance, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Govt. of India, Delhi, 114-117.
Withania somnifera, Indian medicinal plants
  • K R Kritikar
  • B D Basu
Kritikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D. (1935). Withania somnifera, Indian medicinal plants, 2 nd Edition, IIIrd Vol., Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, 1774-1776.
Ashwagandharishta -Rastantra Sar Evam Sidhyaprayog Sangrah -Krishna-Gopal Ayurveda Bhawan (Dharmarth Trust)
  • G S Sharma
Sharma G.S. (1938). Ashwagandharishta -Rastantra Sar Evam Sidhyaprayog Sangrah -Krishna-Gopal Ayurveda Bhawan (Dharmarth Trust), Nagpur 743-744.
Ashwagandha, Dravyaguna Vijana, Chaukhambha Viashwabharti
  • P V Sharma
Sharma, P.V. (1999). Ashwagandha, Dravyaguna Vijana, Chaukhambha Viashwabharti, Varanasi, 763-765.
Evaluation of 'adaptogenic' properties of Withania somnifera
  • N Singh
  • A K Agarwal
  • A Lata
  • R P Kohli
Singh, N., Agarwal, A.K., Lata, A. and Kohli, R.P. (1976). Evaluation of 'adaptogenic' properties of Withania somnifera. Proc. Indian Pharmacological Society, 17.
Experimental evaluation of 'adaptogenic' properties of Withania somnifera
  • N Singh
  • A K Agarwal
  • A Lata
  • R P Kohli
Singh, N., Agarwal, A.K., Lata, A. and Kohli, R.P. (1977). Experimental evaluation of 'adaptogenic' properties of Withania somnifera. XIIth Scientific Seminar on Indian Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences. Varanasi. 4.
A new concept on the possible therapy of stress disease with 'Adaptogens' (Anti-stress drugs) of indigenous plant origin
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (1981). A new concept on the possible therapy of stress disease with 'Adaptogens' (Anti-stress drugs) of indigenous plant origin. Curr. Med. Prac., 25: 50-55.
Anti-stress plants as anti-rheumatic agents, 5 th Sepal Congress of Rheumatology
  • N Singh
  • S P Singh
  • C Nath
  • R P Kohli
  • K P Bhargava
Singh, N., Singh, S.P., Nath, C., Kohli, R.P. and Bhargava, K.P. (1984). Anti-stress plants as anti-rheumatic agents, 5 th Sepal Congress of Rheumatology, Bangkok, 37.
A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial of Cyprus rotundus, Withania somnifera and their Combination in cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • N Singh
  • S P Singh
  • K S Dixit
  • R C Saxena
  • R P Kohli
Singh, N., Singh, S.P., Dixit, K.S., Saxena, R.C. and Kohli, R.P. (1986a). A Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial of Cyprus rotundus, Withania somnifera and their Combination in cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Proc. International Seminar., 2: 18 -21.
Stress disease and herbal medicine
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (1995a). Stress disease and herbal medicine. World Congress on Biotech. Dev. Med. Subs. Plants & Marine Origin, King George Medical College, Lucknow (India), 48.
Effect of Anti-stress agents on receptor population in rat brain
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (1993b). Effect of Anti-stress agents on receptor population in rat brain, Inaugural issue of J. Biotech. Med. Plant Res., Lucknow, 14.
Experimental methods tools for assessment of anti-stress activity in medicinal plants
  • N Singh
  • N Misra
Singh, N. and Misra, N. (1993). Experimental methods tools for assessment of anti-stress activity in medicinal plants. Journal of Biomedical Research., 12(182): 124-127.
Anti-stress (Ayurvedic Plants) Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) and Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (1995b). Anti-stress (Ayurvedic Plants) Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) and Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Proc. Vth W.C.C.N., China, 10.
Role of Adaptogens / Antistress agents of plant origin in health care & stress diseases of man
  • N Singh
  • V Singh
  • S S Abbas
Singh, N., Singh, V. and Abbas, S.S. (2003). Role of Adaptogens / Antistress agents of plant origin in health care & stress diseases of man. Proc. 2 nd World Cong. Biotech. Dev. Herbal Med., Lucknow (India), 33.
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (2005). Dilemma of Ayurvedic Herbal Medicines / Food Supplements Proc. workshop on Essential Medicines, Adverse Drug Reactions and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Dept. of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, KGMU, Scientific Convention Centre, Lucknow, 35-41.
Herbs -The Life of Man, Need Pharmaco-clinical Studies for their Scientific Validation -Relevance of Modern Methods of Pharmacological Studies to Traditional Medicine
  • N Singh
Singh, N. (2008). Herbs -The Life of Man, Need Pharmaco-clinical Studies for their Scientific Validation -Relevance of Modern Methods of Pharmacological Studies to Traditional Medicine, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, C.S.M. Medical University, Scientific Convention Centre, Lucknow, 37-43.
Herbal Medicine -Science embraces tradition -a new insight into the ancient Ayurveda
  • N Singh
  • M Gilca
Singh, N. and Gilca, M. (2010). Herbal Medicine -Science embraces tradition -a new insight into the ancient Ayurveda, Lambert Academic Publishing (Germany), 51-67.
Tulsi 'The Mother Medicine of Nature' 2 nd Edition, International Institute of Herbal Medicine
  • N Singh
  • Y Hoette
  • R Miller
Singh, N., Hoette, Y. and Miller, R. (2010) -Tulsi 'The Mother Medicine of Nature' 2 nd Edition, International Institute of Herbal Medicine, Lucknow, 28-32.
Clinical and experimental studies on rasayana drugs and rasayana therapy. Special Research Monograph, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • R H Singh
  • K N Udupa
Singh R.H., Udupa K.N. (1993) Clinical and experimental studies on rasayana drugs and rasayana therapy. Special Research Monograph, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.
Ashwagandha, Vanaushadhi Nidharsika (Ayurvedic Pharmacopia), UP Sansthan
  • R S Singh
Singh, R.S. (1983). Ashwagandha, Vanaushadhi Nidharsika (Ayurvedic Pharmacopia), UP Sansthan, 30-31.
An experimental evaluation of anti-tumor activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and "Geriforte
  • S P Singh
  • D R Singh
  • M L Gupta
  • N Singh
  • R P Kohli
Singh, S.P., Singh, D.R., Gupta, M.L., Singh, N. and Kohli, R.P. (1979). An experimental evaluation of anti-tumor activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and "Geriforte." XI Annual Conf. IPS. Ind. Jour. Pharmacol 11(1): 65.