Human catalase forms a 240-kDa tetrameric complex and degrades H(2) O(2) in peroxisomes. Human catalase is targeted to peroxisomes by the interaction of its peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like KANL sequence with the cytosolic PTS1 receptor Pex5p. We show herein that human catalase tetramers are formed in the cytoplasm and that the expression of a PTS signal on each of the four subunits is not necessary for peroxisomal transport. We previously demonstrated that a Pex5p mutant defective in binding to Pex13p, designated Pex5p(Mut234), imports typical PTS1-type proteins but not catalase. This impaired catalase import is not rescued by replacing its C-terminal KANL sequence with a typical PTS1 sequence, SKL, indicating that the failure of catalase import in Mut234-expressing cells is not due to its weak PTS1. In contrast, several enzymatically inactive and monomeric mutants of catalase are efficiently imported in Mut234-expressing cells. Moreover, trimeric chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) harboring SKL is not imported in Pex5p(Mut234)-expressing cells, but CAT-SKL trimers are transported to peroxisomes in the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that the Pex5p-Pex13p interaction likely plays a pivotal role in the peroxisomal import of folded and oligomeric proteins.
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"The peroxisomal proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes in the cytosol before being targeted to the peroxisomal lumen posttranslationally   . The peroxisomal translocon can accommodate the import of folded and sometimes oligomeric proteins   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes are organelles that play an important role in many cellular tasks. The functionality of peroxisomes depends on the proper import of their matrix proteins. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are imported posttranslationaly in a folded, sometimes even oligomeric state. They harbour a peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS), which is recognized by dynamic PTS-receptors in the cytosol. The PTS-receptors ferry the cargo to the peroxisomal membrane, where they become part of a transient import pore and then release the cargo into the peroxisomal lumen. Subsequentially, the PTS-receptors are ubiquitinated in order to mark them for the export-machinery, which releases them back to the cytosol. Upon deubiquitination, the PTS-receptors can facilitate further rounds of cargo import. Because the ubiquitination of the receptors is an essential step in the import cycle, it also represents a central regulatory element that governs peroxisomal dynamics. In this review we want to give an introduction to the functional role played by ubiquitination during peroxisomal protein import and highlight the mechanistic concepts that have emerged based on data derived from different species since the discovery of the first ubiquitinated peroxin 15 years ago. Moreover, we discuss future tasks and the potential of using advanced technologies for investigating further details of peroxisomal protein transport. This article is a part of the BBA - Molecular Cell Research Special Issue on: "Assembly, Maintenance and Dynamics of Peroxisomes". This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes.
"While this concept had been established quite early, the question whether folded cargo proteins are preferably imported in an oligomeric or monomeric state has been picked up by two recent studies. While one study finds that mammalian Pex5p strictly imports tetrameric catalase (Otera and Fujiki, 2011), another study suggests that the catalase oligomer may be disassembled during the import process (Freitas et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment in all nucleated cells. They fulfill diverse metabolic tasks in response to environmental changes and cellular demands. This adaptation is implemented by modulation of the enzyme content of the organelles, which is accomplished by dynamically operating peroxisomal protein transport machineries. Soluble import receptors recognize their newly synthesized cargo proteins in the cytosol and ferry them to the peroxisomal membrane. Subsequently, the cargo is translocated into the matrix, where the receptor is ubiquitinated and exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. This review discusses the recent progress in our understanding of the peroxisomal matrix protein import and its regulation by ubiquitination events as well as the current view on the translocation mechanism of folded proteins into peroxisomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the peroxisomal endomembrane system.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biogenesis of peroxisomes is an ubiquitin-dependent process. In particular, the import of matrix proteins into the peroxisomal lumen requires the modification of import receptors with ubiquitin. The matrix proteins are synthesized on free polyribosomes in the cytosol and are recognized by import receptors via a peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Subsequent to the transport of the receptor/cargo-complex to the peroxisomal membrane and the release of the cargo into the peroxisomal lumen, the PTS-receptors are exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. The exportomer represents the molecular machinery required for the retrotranslocation of the PTS-receptors. It comprises enzymes for the ubiquitination as well as for the ATP-dependent extraction of the PTS-receptors from the peroxisomal membrane. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates a mechanistic interconnection of the ATP-dependent removal of the PTS-receptors with the translocation of the matrix protein into the organellar lumen. Interestingly, the components of the peroxisomal exportomer seem also to be involved in cellular tasks that are distinct from the ubiquitination and dislocation of the peroxisomal PTS-receptors. This includes work that indicates a central function of this machinery in the export of peroxisomal matrix proteins in plants, while a subset of exportomer components is involved in the meiocyte formation in some fungi, the peroxisome-chloroplast contact during photorespiration in plants and possibly even the selective degradation of peroxisomes via pexophagy. In this review, we want to discuss the central role of the exportomer during matrix protein import, but also highlight distinct roles of exportomer constituents in additional cellular processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes: biogenesis, functions and diseases.