Article

Sexual Infidelity as Trigger for Intimate Partner Violence

Authors:
  • Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center
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Abstract

We conducted a qualitative study to examine acute, situational factors and chronic stressors that triggered severe intimate partner violence (IPV) in women. Our sample consisted of 17 heterosexual couples, where the male was in detention for IPV and made telephone calls to his female victim. We used up to 4 hours of telephone conversational data for each couple to examine the couple's understanding of (1) acute triggers for the violent event and (2) chronic stressors that created the underlying context for violence. Grounded theory guided our robust, iterative data analysis involving audiotape review, narrative summation, and thematic organization. Consistently across couples, violence was acutely triggered by accusations of infidelity, typically within the context of alcohol or drug use. Victims sustained significant injury, including severe head trauma (some resulting in hospitalization/surgery), bite wounds, strangulation complications, and lost pregnancy. Chronic relationship stressors evident across couples included ongoing anxiety about infidelity, preoccupation with heterosexual gender roles and religious expectations, drug and alcohol use, and mental health concerns (depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation/attempts). Disseminated models feature jealousy as a strategy used by perpetrators to control IPV victims and as a red flag for homicidal behavior. Our findings significantly extend this notion by indicating that infidelity concerns, a specific form of jealousy, were the immediate trigger for both the acute violent episode and resulting injuries to victims and were persistently raised by both perpetrators and victims as an ongoing relationship stressor.

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... Searches from January 1995 to December 2017 resulted in 7654 unique records; 478 were eligible for full-text assessment. Twenty-six studies were included after assessment, including one book (Hearn, 1998), four dissertations (Brazier, 2009;Hayashi, 2016;Menon, 2009;Watt, 2012) and 21 manuscripts (Abdul-Khabir, Hall, Swanson, & Shoptaw, 2014;Ezard, 2014;Gilbert, El-Bassel, Rajah, Foleno, & Frye, 2001;Gilchrist et al., 2015;Go et al., 2003;Hamilton & Goeders, 2010;Ludwig-Barron, Syvertsen, Lagare, Palinkas, & Stockman, 2015;Macy, Renz, & Pelino, 2013;Matamonasa-Bennett, 2015;Mathews, Jewkes, & Abrahams, 2015;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012;O'Brien et al., 2016;Radcliffe, Flavia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Lea, Dos Santos Figueiredo, & Gilchrist, 2017;Satyanarayana, Hebbani, Hegde, Krishnan, & Srinivasan, 2015;Watt, Guidera, Hobkirk, Skinner, & Meade, 2017;Wood, 2004;Wright, Tompkins, & Sheard, 2007) (Fig. 1). ...
... The accounts of 363 female survivors and 219 male perpetrators are included from the studies that described the numbers of IPV perpetrators or survivors from their total sample. Twelve studies were conducted in North America Brazier, 2009;Gilbert et al., 2001;Hamilton & Goeders, 2010;Hayashi, 2016;Ludwig-Barron et al., 2015;Macy et al., 2013;Matamonasa-Bennett, 2015;Nemeth et al., 2012;O'Brien et al., 2016;Watt, 2012;Wood, 2004); five in Asia Ezard, 2014;Go et al., 2003;Menon, 2009;Satyanarayana et al., 2015); five in Europe Gilchrist et al., 2015;Hearn, 1998;Radcliffe et al., 2017;Wright et al., 2007); three in South Africa Mathews et al., 2015;Watt et al., 2017); one in Brazil and one in Australia . ...
... Nine studies included male IPV perpetrators ( Watt, 2012;Wood, 2004;Watt et al., 2017), males who had committed femicide or who had perpetrated violence against known women, including partners (Hearn, 1998). In three of these studies, methods included recorded telephone conversation transcripts between men in prison and their female partners (Nemeth et al., 2012), interviews with family members and friends of the perpetrator and deceased victim and interviews with females whose partners were receiving alcohol treatment but not from the same marital dyad as the perpetrators interviewed . In three studies, men also identified as survivors (Hayashi, 2016;Matamonasa-Bennett, 2015;Watt et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Background The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and substance use is not well understood. We conducted a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies to explore how substance use features in survivors’ and perpetrators’ accounts of IPV perpetration. Methods Qualitative studies from 1995 to 2016 were identified from PsycINFO, ASSIA and Web of Science, with an update in PsycINFO and ASSIA to December 2017. 7654 abstracts were screened for accounts of heterosexual IPV perpetration, then full-texts were screened for mentions of substance use. Key concepts from 26 qualitative studies (363 female survivors’ and 219 male perpetrators’ views) were synthesised to develop a grounded theory that put similarities and differences between studies into an interpretive order. Results Six themes emerged: five related to the complex interplay between substance use and IPV perpetration in the context of intoxication, withdrawal and addiction, impact on relationship and wider dynamics of power and control and psychological vulnerabilities; a final theme related to survivors’ agency and resistance to IPV perpetration. Survivors and perpetrators noted how both intoxication and withdrawal could pre-empt IPV perpetration. Survivors, however, were more likely to see intoxication and withdrawal as part of a pattern of abusive behaviour, whereas perpetrators tended to describe a causal relationship between intoxication and discrete incidents of IPV perpetration. Irritability and frustration during withdrawal from or craving alcohol, heroin and stimulants, and/or a failure or partner refusal to procure money for drugs increased the likelihood of violence. Survivors were more likely than perpetrators to identify abuse in relation to the impact of substance use on their relationship and dynamics of power and control. Conclusion The interplay between substance use and IPV perpetration occurs at numerous contextual levels and is perceived differently by perpetrators and survivors. Behaviour change interventions must address the meanings behind divergent narratives about IPV perpetration and substance use.
... Research purports that relational triggers for IPV include infidelity within the context of AOD use (Nemeth et al., 2012). Indeed, the relational factors of jealousy, insecurity, infidelity along with AOD abuse for either partner have been identified as risks for Indigenous women who experienced IPV (Burnette & Renner, 2017). ...
... IPV victimization was reported at significantly higher levels for women than men in the quantitative sample. Parallel to existing research, qualitative results revealed participants perceived IPV victimization as more severe for women (NCADV, 2020;Tjaden & Thoenness, 2000) and occurring within the context of ACEs (Burnette & Renner, 2017;Nemeth et al., 2012). Consistent with extant research, alcohol abuse was a trigger for this violence (Burnette & Renner, 2017;Nemeth et al., 2012). ...
... Parallel to existing research, qualitative results revealed participants perceived IPV victimization as more severe for women (NCADV, 2020;Tjaden & Thoenness, 2000) and occurring within the context of ACEs (Burnette & Renner, 2017;Nemeth et al., 2012). Consistent with extant research, alcohol abuse was a trigger for this violence (Burnette & Renner, 2017;Nemeth et al., 2012). Participants emphasized challenges with frustration management, such as anxiety, a lack of coping, and men abdicating household and child rearing responsibilities. ...
Article
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Objective: Indigenous peoples of the United States experience disproportionate rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The framework of historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence (FHORT) was used to understand risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration. Method: In this exploratory sequential mixed-methods study, data were collected with 436 participants in the qualitative portion and 127 participants in the quantitative portion. After listwise deletion of missing variables, 117 participants were included in the main analyses. Thematic reconstructive analysis was used to qualitatively investigate how Indigenous peoples describe IPV victimization. T-test and regression analyses examined the following risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration: (a) perceived oppression, (b) adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), (c) alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, (d) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (e) anxiety, (f) younger age, and (g) female gender. Results: Qualitative results revealed ACE, infidelity, and AOD abuse were frequently mentioned among IPV victimization for participants, with women experiencing more severe violence. Quantitative results indicated PTSD and IPV victimization were higher among women. Oppression, ACE, AOD abuse, PTSD, and female gender were risk factors for victimization, whereas younger age, anxiety, and alcohol use were risk factors for perpetration. Conclusions: Indigenous peoples in these samples experienced rampant IPV, which was exacerbated and triggered by alcohol, drug use, and infidelity. To prevent IPV for adults, it is germane to prevent exposure to violence and substance abuse across the life course. Family-focused and culturally grounded interventions that focus both on AOD abuse, emotional regulation, and violence prevention are recommended. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Nemeth et al., 2012;Reckdenwald et al., 2019;Strack et al., 2001;Thomas et al., 2014;Wilbur et al., 2001), stalking (Bendlin & Sheridan, 2019;Thomas et al., 2014), and/or sexual assault (Messing et al., 2014). Accounting for nearly 8% of femicides in the United States (Jack et al., 2018), NFS/S is a gendered form of violence perpetrated primarily by men against women (Nemeth et al., 2012;Pritchard et al., 2018;Thomas et al., 2014). ...
... , stalking (Bendlin & Sheridan, 2019;Thomas et al., 2014), and/or sexual assault (Messing et al., 2014). Accounting for nearly 8% of femicides in the United States (Jack et al., 2018), NFS/S is a gendered form of violence perpetrated primarily by men against women (Nemeth et al., 2012;Pritchard et al., 2018;Thomas et al., 2014). National estimates suggest that 1 in 11 women (~11.1 million women) and 0.7% of men (~814,000 men) have survived strangulation and/or suffocation by an intimate partner at some point in their life (Breiding et al., 2014). ...
... Emerging evidence suggests that perpetrators use NFS/S as a mechanism of coercive control to instill compliance and dependency over time through a pattern of malevolent conduct (Nemeth et al., 2012;Pritchard et al., 2017;Stansfield & Williams, 2018;Stark, 2007;Thomas et al., 2014;Vella et al., 2017). Much of what is known about survivors' perception of NFS/S, however, has come from studies using retrospective designs of small samples of women from domestic violence (DV) shelters (Joshi et al., 2012;Thomas et al., 2014;Vella et al., 2017;Wilbur et al., 2001) or jail phone call recordings between suspects and victims (Bonomi et al., 2011;Nemeth et al., 2012). ...
Article
Holding perpetrators accountable for family violence is challenged when survivors are reluctant to testify. In light of recent Supreme Court precedents limiting the admissibility of statements to law enforcement in victimless prosecutions, the current study examined 130 cases of nonfatal strangulation (NFS) to determine whether case characteristics and themes across survivors' on-scene statements can help prosecutors combat common legal defenses raised when victims are unavailable for trial. The history of prior violence and how only 6% of perpetrators stopped strangling victims on their own suggests that NFS complaints should be investigated as an attempted homicide until evidence suggests otherwise.
... We describe these pathways narratively, highlighting how participants may move fluidly between them, and reporting the related triggers, mechanisms and cultural norms that emerged from the literature. In studies from across the world participants reported that women who were suspected of infidelity experienced physical IPV ranging from hitting, slapping and biting [85,92,95,100], to violence that made them fear for their lives, such as being punched, suffocated, locked up and having a gun put to their head [93,95,99,100]. ...
... We describe these pathways narratively, highlighting how participants may move fluidly between them, and reporting the related triggers, mechanisms and cultural norms that emerged from the literature. In studies from across the world participants reported that women who were suspected of infidelity experienced physical IPV ranging from hitting, slapping and biting [85,92,95,100], to violence that made them fear for their lives, such as being punched, suffocated, locked up and having a gun put to their head [93,95,99,100]. ...
... These acts of violence were described by participants as usually occurring as a reaction to triggering events, such as a woman coming home later than expected [93,95], or her partner seeing her speaking with another man [97,99]; triggers that constituted a direct threat to aspired masculinities, which were centred on a man's ability to control his partner. Men that did not have control over their partner were seen as lacking "dignity and respect" [91]. ...
Article
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Infidelity and romantic jealousy (RJ) are commonly cited relational level drivers of intimate partner violence (IPV) but remain undertheorized and underutilized in IPV research and prevention. This global systematic review aims to characterize the existing research on real or suspected infidelity and RJ in relation to IPV and inform future research and programming. We systematically searched 11 databases for peer-reviewed research, published between April 2009 and 2019, that provided data on the prevalence or a measure of association (quantitative), or pathway (qualitative), between real or suspected infidelity or RJ, and IPV. Fifty-one papers from 28 countries were included and the evidence showed a consistent association between real or suspected infidelity, RJ and IPV. Our findings identify three overarching mechanisms and six pathways between infidelity, RJ and IPV. These provide support for prominent theories in the field related to patriarchal culture, threatened masculinities and femininities and a lack of emotional regulation and conflict resolution skills, but not evolutionary theories. Our findings suggest that researchers should use standardized measurement tools that make the distinction between RJ and suspected, confirmed and accusations of infidelity. Policy and programming should aim to transform traditional gender roles, accounting for infidelity and RJ and improving couple's communication and trust.
... These beliefs are labeled "romantic jealousy." At the individual level, stronger endorsement of romantic jealousy is associated with greater experience and perpetration of IPV in response to anticipated or actual infidelity (Nemeth et al., 2012). ...
... From a theoretical perspective, this research may provide some insight into the process through which traditional gender and romantic beliefs are associated with the experience of IPV as the research suggests that identification of IPV may be a possible mediator of the relationship between gender and romantic beliefs and women's experience of IPV (Hartwell et al., 2015;Nemeth et al., 2012;Papp et al., 2017). Prior research shows that IPV typically begins with nonphysical IPV behaviors and that lack of early identification of abuse is a major barrier to separating from the abusive partner or the aggressor committing to stop the violence (which in turn may be encouraged by a DVO that legally prohibits further IPV; Eckstein, 2011;Steiner, 2013;Wilcox & McFerran, 2009;Winstok, 2013). ...
Article
While substantial research has been conducted on intimate partner violence (IPV), comparatively little research has examined peoples’ perceptions of which behaviors comprise this form of abuse. Early identification of IPV is critical to ending abuse, however, forms of IPV that typically occur earlier in a relationship (e.g., nonphysical abuse) may not be core components of peoples’ mental frameworks (schemas) of IPV and may therefore be less commonly identified as abusive. To explore this, in Study 1 participants from an Australian University ( N = 86) separately described the relationships with IPV and nonphysical IPV. Analyses identified control, power imbalance, stereotypical gender dynamics (male perpetrator, female victim), physical abuse, and having a low socioeconomic status abuser as common components of participants’ IPV schema when not prompted with type of abuse. However, participants largely failed to describe nonphysical IPV behaviors, suggesting limited awareness of the specific behaviors that constitute abuse. To explore this in Study 2, participants from an Australian University ( N = 305) were asked to categorize a range of specific behaviors (including physically abusive, nonphysically abusive, and nonabusive behaviors) as definitely, maybe, or never abusive. Drawing on the known positive association between gender and romantic beliefs with the experience of abuse, we also assessed the relationship of identification of IPV behaviors to these beliefs. Moderated multilevel modeling showed that nonphysical IPV behaviors were generally perceived as less abusive than physical IPV behaviors. In addition, stronger endorsement of romantic jealousy was associated with evaluating nonphysical IPV as less abusive. However, romantic jealousy beliefs were not significantly associated with the perceived abusiveness of physical IPV behaviors. Findings support the conclusion that individuals’ IPV schemas contribute to a failure to identify nonphysical IPV behaviors as abusive, and this is particularly true for people who more strongly endorse romantic jealousy.
... Strangulation is a common tactic of violence used in domestic abuse situations (Glass et al., 2008;Joshi et al., 2012;McClane et al., 2001;Nemeth et al., 2012;Smith et al., 2001;Strack et al., 2001;Thomas et al., 2014;Wilbur et al., 2001) and is considered a gendered crime with victims overwhelmingly female and offenders male (Nath, 2007;Pritchard et al., 2018;Strack et al., 2001;Joshi et al., 2012). Recent research has highlighted how common the use of strangulation is in abusive relationships, often emerging late in the progression of a violent relationship and occurring multiple times over the course of the relationship (Wilbur et al., 2001). ...
... Recent research has highlighted how common the use of strangulation is in abusive relationships, often emerging late in the progression of a violent relationship and occurring multiple times over the course of the relationship (Wilbur et al., 2001). The offender uses strangulation as an ultimate form of control, to demonstrate that they have the power to decide if the victim lives or dies (Nemeth et al., 2012;Pritchard et al., 2017;Thomas et al., 2014). Likewise, the victim's resulting pain and fear allows the offender to maintain control in the relationship even after just one attack (Thomas et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a coordinated effort to improve the law enforcement response to non-fatal strangulation in the context of domestic violence. Design/methodology/approach The authors compare law enforcement identification and documentation of strangulation in domestic violence cases before and after the implementation of a strangulation-specific training program in one Central Florida County. Findings The results indicate preliminary support for the effectiveness of training law enforcement, suggesting that the response to strangulation can be improved with comprehensive law enforcement training. Practical implications An improved response by law enforcement may have the potential to increase offender accountability of non-fatal strangulation – a potentially deadly assault. Originality/value The study is the first to evaluate strangulation-specific training efforts of law enforcement. Results point to opportunities that can be taken to improve law enforcement’s response to non-fatal strangulation in domestic violence.
... Male perpetrators of IPV have a strong adherence to sexual cultural scripts (Willie, Khondkaryan, Callands, & Kershaw, 2018c) and traditional masculine norms (Reidy, Berke, Gentile, & Zeichner, 2015;Santana, Raj, Decker, La Marche, & Silverman, 2006), which could make them believe that their sexual infidelity is legitimate. For women experiencing IPV, accusations of sexual infidelity could be a trigger for a violent event (Buss & Duntley, 2014;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012). Therefore, women may feel more comfortable using a user-controlled HIV prevention method such as PrEP instead of communicating with their partner about sexual infidelity. ...
... For some women experiencing IPV, PrEP discussions and disclosure of PrEP use could signal to a male perpetrator that either partner was engaged in concurrent sexual partnerships. This situation could lead to a violent event (Buss & Duntley, 2014;Hearn et al., 2005;Nemeth et al., 2012) and, to prevent violent retaliation, it may be easier for some women to avoid PrEP altogether. Contrary to these findings, some women experiencing IPV did share that their male partner reacted indifferently toward their potential use of PrEP. ...
Article
Background: Vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a significant public health issue for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite the increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection, women only represent 4.6% of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users in the United States. IPV may present additional difficulties to PrEP access. In this qualitative study, we examined how IPV and the relational context shaped women's decisions, attitudes, and engagement in the PrEP care continuum. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with 19 women residing in Connecticut who participated in a prospective cohort study. We purposively recruited our sample to include women who reported physical and/or sexual IPV in the past 6 months, and used a grounded theory approach to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Our findings suggest multiple ways that the relational context can affect women's decisions, attitudes, and engagement in the PrEP care continuum. We identified five aspects of women's relationships that can shape women's interest, intentions, and access to PrEP: 1) relationship power struggles, 2) infidelity, 3) trust and monogamy, 4) male partner's reactions, and 5) "season of risk" (i.e., PrEP use only during times of perceived human immunodeficiency virus risk). Collectively, these findings suggest that women experiencing IPV might face additional relational challenges that need to be adequately addressed in settings administering PrEP. Conclusions: Communication on sexual risk reduction strategies should address relational factors and promote women's autonomy. Future research on long-acting and invisible forms of PrEP may help to circumvent some of the relational barriers women experiencing IPV may face when considering PrEP care.
... IPV and technology abuse. Prior work has examined the behaviors, justifications, and tactics of intimate partner abusers [23,27,43], including work identifying suspicions of infidelity as a leading trigger for IPV in heterosexual couples [3,36]. Of this literature, a growing body of work explores the role of technology in IPV, including how abusers exploit technology to monitor, harass, control or otherwise harm their targets [6,11,18,19,32,41,46]. ...
... In this, we see that the context of infidelity both attracted people to the forums as a site for emotional support and masked them from the social exclusion they might have faced if admitting to IPS in a non-infidelity context [23]. This is particularly concerning for anti-IPS efforts, as it can set a precedent of using infidelity as an excuse for abusive actions-a practice mirrored in offline discussions with abusers in IPV [36]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abusers increasingly use spyware apps, account compromise, and social engineering to surveil their intimate partners, causing substantial harms that can culminate in violence. This form of privacy violation, termed intimate partner surveillance (IPS), is a profoundly challenging problem to address due to the physical access and trust present in the relationship between the target and attacker. While previous research has examined IPS from the perspectives of survivors, we present the first measurement study of online forums in which (potential) attackers discuss IPS strategies and techniques. In domains such as cybercrime, child abuse, and human trafficking, studying the online behaviors of perpetrators has led to better threat intelligence and techniques to combat attacks. We aim to provide similar insights in the context of IPS. We identified five online forums containing discussion of monitoring cellphones and other means of surveilling an intimate partner, including three within the context of investigating relationship infidelity. We perform a mixed-methods analysis of these forums, surfacing the tools and tactics that attackers use to perform surveillance. Via qualitative analysis of forum content, we present a taxonomy of IPS strategies used and recommended by attackers, and synthesize lessons for technologists seeking to curb the spread of IPS.
... While there are many causes of IPV among couples, the fear and suspicion of infidelity has been reported to be significant among them. Studies have shown that anxiety, accusations and suspicion of infidelity is one the most significant triggers of IPV among heterosexual couples, to the extent that jealousy and the fear of infidelity is used as a justification for perpetration of violence (Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee & Ludwin, 2012). Gender mistrust, though more prevalent among women, is found to have stronger association with violence, across the lifespan, for male partners (Copp, Giordano, Manning & Longmore, 2015). ...
... Interestingly, a majority (38.3%) of the participants answered in the affirmative while 26% of the sample said no. This findings supports other research findings on infidelity, where awareness of infidelity and related feelings of jealousy, anxiety and insecurity have be found to be significantly associated with IPV (Arnocky, Sunderani, Gomes & Vaillancourt, 2015;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee & Ludwin, 2012;Waltermaurer, 2012). Many of the participants anticipated that their partners would be verbally abusive if they were to find out about their infidelity. ...
Chapter
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In exploring the scope and implications of internet infidelity in the current context in India, this chapter looks at a particular aspect of intimate relationships, that of partner violence. The findings are based on an online survey conducted across platforms, seeking responses on close-ended questions about intimate partner violence and internet infidelity, supported by subsequent qualitative responses. The sample consisted of 200 male and female young adults between the ages of 18 and 35. The findings reveal that while very few of the respondents themselves would consider engaging in an online romantic relationship simultaneously with a committed relationship, a small section of the sample agreed that seeking out romantic or sexual encounters online could be an escape from IPV. More significantly, almost one-third of the sample agreed to the likelihood of IPV if their partner were to find out about such infidelity. The findings point to a possibly important relationship between IPV and online infidelity, and how young adults perceive the two phenomena in relation to each other and separately, in the current Indian context. Research and policy implications are discussed.
... Many victims of intimate partner violence report excessive feelings of fear, anxiety, despair, selfcriticism, and anger (11,27,28). Anger is a common result of intimate partner violence victimization that can lead to aggression or, when self-directed, to suicidal behavior (29)(30)(31). In other words, intimate partner violence can lead to suicide (14,15,32). ...
... Both state and trait anger were related to suicidal ideation. Excessive anger and aggressive behaviors are known to be characteristics of intimate partner violence victims (23), and anger is often the result of anxiety or stress in interpersonal relationships (31). Furthermore, individuals who experience thwarted belongingness due to hostile relationships show an increased risk of aggressive behaviors (e.g., suicidal ideation) (42,51). ...
Article
Background: Intimate partner violence is a serious global social problem. While intimate partner violence is highly prevalent, few studies have examined its negative outcomes among victims in South Korea. The aim was to clarify the mediating roles of interpersonal dependency and anger on the relationship between intimate partner violence victimization and suicidal ideation. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 301 participants (203 women and 98 men) aged 18–65 yr completed an online questionnaire on a social networking site. Data were collected between Feb and Mar 2017 in South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fitness of the conceptual model of this study. Results: We found significant correlations between intimate partner violence victimization, interpersonal dependency, state-trait anger, and suicidal ideation. Intimate partner violence victimization influenced anger and suicidal ideation only when the victims had high interpersonal dependency. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop programs for reducing interpersonal dependency and improving anger management that are specifically targeted at intimate partner violence victims to prevent suicidal ideation.
... From the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, news coverage and policymaking have prominently featured concerns that government-mandated restrictions on economic activity and personal mobility might increase domestic violence (DV). 1 This attention to DV is well-motivated because of its high social and economic costs (Garcia-Moreno & Watts, 2011) and because stress, economic disruption and social isolation are established predictors of DV (Berg & Tertilt, 2012;Bright et al., 2020). Nevertheless, shutdowns were unprecedented, and they could reduce DV in some households by lowering exposure to DV triggers such as infidelity and alcohol consumption outside the home (Nemeth et al., 2012), limiting contact between non-cohabiting and former couples (Ivandic et al., 2020), and even strengthening some relationships (Sachser et al., 2021). ...
Article
We empirically investigate the impact of COVID-19 shutdowns on domestic violence using incident-level data on both domestic-related calls for service and crime reports of domestic violence assaults from the 18 major US police departments for which both types of records are available. Although we confirm prior reports of an increase in domestic calls for service at the start of the pandemic, we find that the increase preceded mandatory shutdowns, and there was an incremental decline following the government imposition of restrictions. We also find no evidence that domestic violence crimes increased. Rather, police reports of domestic violence assaults declined significantly during the initial shutdown period. There was no significant change in intimate partner homicides during shutdown months and victimization survey reports of intimate partner violence were lower. Our results fail to support claims that shutdowns increased domestic violence and suggest caution before drawing inference or basing policy solely on data from calls to police.
... Yet as Butler (2002:299) notes, "norms may prescribe other behaviors that in turn influence the behavior of interest." Thus, normative beliefs about dating and the opposite sex may indirectly affect IPV through an increase in unhealthy relationship behaviors (e.g., infidelity) or conflict related to perceived problems in the relationshipfactors that have been linked to IPV perpetration across multiple studies (e.g., Nemeth et al. 2012; see also Capaldi et al. 2012). ...
Article
Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual‐level processes. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the role of macrolevel factors. Results of that research indicate that social ties facilitate the diffusion of cultural norms—including tolerance of deviance/violence—across neighborhoods. Yet the influence of the neighborhood normative climate extends beyond norms regarding the use of violence, shaping cultural understanding about dating and the opposite sex. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the current investigation examines the multilevel association between dating norms and IPV perpetration among a large, diverse sample of adolescents and young adults. Results indicate that individuals’ liberal dating attitudes are associated with IPV perpetration. Furthermore, this effect varies across levels of neighborhood disadvantage.
... Trait romantic jealousy (i.e., a relatively stable propensity to interpret irrelevant or ambiguous events as conclusive of betrayal, infidelity, or other relationship threats; Costa, Sophia, Sanches, Tavares, & Zilberman, 2015;Kingham & Gordon, 2004;Rich, 1991) is one such distal trait that gained increased attention as a risk factor for (Foran & O'Leary, 2008;Rodriguez et al., 2015), and contextual correlate of (Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012), face-to-face dating abuse. CDA research also implicated romantic jealousy as a motivator for CDA perpetration among college students (Brem et al., 2015;Deans & Bhogal, 2017;Elphinston & Noller, 2011). ...
Article
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Investigations of alcohol use in relation to cyber dating abuse (CDA) remain underdeveloped relative to alcohol-related face-to-face dating abuse research. A critical step towards advancing this area of research would include examining the applicability of alcohol-related partner abuse models to CDA perpetration. Existing models of alcohol-related partner abuse suggested that alcohol and partner abuse are more likely to co-occur in the presence of aggressogenic distal traits. We propose that this model may extend to CDA perpetration. Towards this end, the present study collected cross-sectional data from college students (N = 258; 56.2% male) to investigate whether trait romantic jealousy moderated the association between alcohol problems and CDA perpetration, controlling for face-to-face dating abuse perpetration. We hypothesized that alcohol problems would positively relate to CDA perpetration among college students with high, but not low, romantic jealousy. We explored whether the interactive effect varied by sex. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction; the moderating role of romantic jealousy in the relation between alcohol problems and CDA perpetration varied by sex. Alcohol problems positively related to CDA perpetration for women with high, but not low, romantic jealousy. Alcohol problems did not relate to CDA perpetration regardless of men’s level of romantic jealousy. These preliminary results suggested that alcohol-related partner abuse models may be useful for conceptualizing CDA perpetration and identifying CDA intervention components.
... Strangulation generally occurs during chaotic and violent interactions [27,35]. Women have reported that the batterer strangled them with their hands, a rope or scarf, or they have been placed in choke hold [36]. ...
... Because sexual fidelity is valued more for females in heterosexual relationships than for males (Nye 1998) and the material consequences of being left by a partner when pregnant or parenting are particularly great, the promise of sexual commitment creates vulnerability for girls and women. This type of verbal manipulation regarding sexual fidelity and gendered expectations of sexual interactions, if left unchallenged, creates the context in which utterance of sexual fidelity can lead to severe acts of physical and sexual violence in adulthood, including felonious domestic violence and abuse to cause spontaneous abortion (Chester and DeWall 2018;Nemeth et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Purpose: Though researchers have documented that adolescents are vulnerable to coercion focused on reproductive and sexual autonomy, measures to assess this type of coercion for both adolescent females and males have not been validated in a population-based sample. Method: The present study used secondary data collected from high school students across Kentucky (n=16,137 from two independent samples in 2010 and 2014) to 1) determine if five items measuring adolescent reproductive and sexual coercion (ARSC) are appropriate for use among both females and males; and 2) estimate prevalence of identified ARSC factors by sex. Results: For both male and females, given measurement items, the results supported a two-factor model of ARSC comprised of 1) verbal relationship manipulation and 2) contraceptive interference. Measurement invariance by sex was also supported. Additional findings indicated the high prevalence of ARSC and its associated subscales. Approximately 4 in 10 females and 3 in 10 males reported experiencing ARSC in the previous year, with almost all of those reporting contraceptive interference also reporting verbal relationship manipulation. Conclusions: Findings suggest verbal relationship manipulation and contraceptive interference (together forming ARSC) may restrict the autonomous sexual and reproductive decision-making of both female and male adolescents.
... Research findings support some of the women's explanations; increased risk of IPV among female immigrants has previously been found to be related to males' heavy alcohol consumption, poverty and lack of education [42][43][44][45], male psychopathology [27,46], and family dysfunction and intercultural differences [46][47][48]. At the individual level, research indicates that a combination of alcohol use, mental health problems and gender role expectations affects the relationship and, in turn, seems to reinforce and increase violence against women [49]. Broken dreams resulted when these international marriages did not meet imagined ideals; the interviewed women sometimes felt disrespected by Swedish family members, and they also reported psychosomatic symptoms and mental health problems based on their experiences of IPV. ...
Article
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Background: Intimate partner violence by men against women has detrimental effects on equality, health and integration. Migrated and ‘imported’ wives experience an increased risk of intimate partner violence. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Thai immigrant women’s lived experiences of intimate partner violence in Sweden. Method: Semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique with specific questions about experiences of male-to-female intimate partner violence were used to collect data. The participants were Thai immigrant women who had lived in Sweden for more than five years. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns and variations in the transcribed data material. Results: Eighteen interviewees reported psychological, physical, economic and/or sexual violence in their international marriages. These Thai women described being faithful and silent and reliable housewives. However, this did not keep them from being replaced and losing dignity as a result of intimate partner violence, including experiencing broken dreams and deception. Although their dreams were broken, they did not give up their efforts to achieve better lives in Sweden. Conclusions: The vulnerability of imported wives in international marriages needs to be further recognised by health and welfare agencies in Sweden, as elsewhere, to ensure that these women have equal access to human rights, welfare and health as other citizens. From a health promotion perspective, home-based health check-ups are needed to stop the exploitation of imported wives. In Thailand, information and education about the unrecognised negative conditions of the Mia farang role (Imported wife role) need to be disseminated.
... Second, nonfatal strangulation co-occurs with other forms of serious physical violence, including sexual assault (Messing, Thaller, & Bagwell, 2014). Finally, nonfatal strangulation is, in and of itself, a risk factor for intimate partner homicide (Glass et al., 2008) and it is often accompanied by other lethal risk factors such as jealousy and abuse during pregnancy (Messing et al., 2018;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012). ...
Article
Strangulation is a common and dangerous form of intimate partner violence (IPV). Nonfatal strangulation is a risk factor for homicide; can lead to severe, long-term physical and mental health sequelae; and can be an effective strategy of coercion and control. To date, research has not examined strangulation within same-sex couples. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational research is to identify whether and to what extent the detection of strangulation and coercive control differs between same-sex and different-sex couples in police reports of IPV. Data (n = 2,207) were obtained from a single police department in the southwest United States (2011-2013). Bivariate analyses examined differences in victim and offender demographics, victim injury, violence, and coercive controlling behaviors between same-sex (male-male and female-female) and different-sex couples (female victim-male offender). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between strangulation, victim and offender demographics, coercive controlling behaviors, and couple configuration. Strangulation was reported significantly more often in different-sex (9.8%) than in female and male same-sex couple cases (5.2% and 5.3%, respectively; p < .05). Injury, however, was reported more frequently in same-sex than in different-sex couples (p < .05). Couple configuration (p < .05), coercive control (p < .05), and injury (p < .05) significantly predict strangulation. Findings suggest that nonfatal strangulation occurs within at least a minority of same-sex couples; it is possible that underdetection by law enforcement makes it appear less common than it actually is. Regardless of couple configuration, timely identification of strangulation and subsequent referral to medical and social service providers is essential for preventing repeated strangulation, life-threatening injury, and the long-term health effects of strangulation.
... Furthermore, circumstances like unemployment, lack of social support, and increased stress that are commonly experienced during a pandemic have been identified as risk factors for interpersonal violence (Serrata & Hurtado Alvarado, 2019; Zahran et al., 2009) and data from other countries impacted by COVID-19 such as China, France, Brazil, and Italy, have reported up to a 50% increase in reports of domestic violence during the pandemic (Campbell, 2020). These trends are alarming for couples in the aftermath of an affair, as they are already at higher risk for increases in conflict, aggressive behaviors, and intimate partner violence, as consequences of the affair (Nemeth et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Infidelity occurs in approximately 25% of marriages and is associated with various negative consequences for individuals (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress), the couple relationship (e.g., financial loss, increased conflict and aggression), and the couple’s children (e.g., internalizing and externalizing behaviors). Infidelity is also one of the most frequently cited reasons for divorce. The increased stress brought on by the pandemic may be putting couples at an increased risk for experiencing infidelity and data collected during the pandemic have shown that people across the United States are engaging in behaviors that are associated with a high likelihood of experiencing infidelity. The negative consequences of infidelity are also likely to be exacerbated for couples during the pandemic due to the intersection with the social, emotional, and financial consequences of COVID‐19. Furthermore, couples are likely to experience disruptions and delays to the affair recovery process during the pandemic, which can negatively impact their ability to heal. Therefore, recommendations for navigating affair recovery during the pandemic, including adaptations for therapy, are also discussed.
... Other studies suggested that while women were pressured to remain sexually "pure" (e.g., chastity, marry as a virgin, or remain sexually faithful in marriage), live up to the standard of the Virgin Mary (i.e., "marianismo"), and uphold a higher level of chastity; infidelity among men, in some cases, was permitted or even encouraged ( Fuchsel et al., 2012). While socially prescribed sexual dominance "justifies" adulterous relations, infidelity has been identified as a precursor/co-occurrence of IPV (Conroy, 2014;Utley, 2017;Lewis et al., 2017;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012;Witte & Mulla, 2012). ...
Article
Hispanics are frequently categorized under one homogeneous group in existing intimate partner violence research, presenting a challenge for practitioners and researchers interested in assessing potentially unique public health concerns of each subgroup. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the family- and community-related determinants of intimate partner violence experienced by mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent. The respondents' self-reported physical violence and power control are two key measures of IPV. Our study found statistical differences between the Mexican and Puerto Rican origin respondents' experiences with IPV. Specifically, father infidelity and parenting concordance functioned as risk and protective factors, respectively, for the Mexican origin mothers' experiences of relational violence. In the case of the Puerto Rican origin respondents, higher level of spousal support, collective efficacy, and social disorganization were linked to less violence, while increased emotional distance and higher level of baseline education were associated with more violence.
... Online Infidelity Forums. The perception of and/or accusations of infidelity-the action or state of being unfaithful to a spouse or other sexual partner-has been identified as a trigger for IPV in both online [29] and offline settings [71,85]. Importantly, while self-reported marital infidelity has not been significantly associated with IPV, the perception of a partner's infidelity has been significantly associated with risks for sexual coercion, physical abuse and coercive control [7,23]. ...
Article
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A growing body of research suggests that intimate partner abusers use digital technologies to surveil their partners, including by installing spyware apps, compromising devices and online accounts, and employing social engineering tactics. However, to date, this form of privacy violation, called intimate partner surveillance (IPS), has primarily been studied from the perspective of victim-survivors. We present a qualitative study of how potential perpetrators of IPS harness the emotive power of sharing personal narratives to validate and legitimise their abusive behaviours. We analysed 556 stories of IPS posted on publicly accessible online forums dedicated to the discussion of sexual infidelity. We found that many users share narrative posts describing IPS as they boast about their actions, advise others on how to perform IPS without detection, and seek suggestions for next steps to take. We identify a set of common thematic story structures, justifications for abuse, and outcomes within the stories that provide a window into how these individuals believe their behaviour to be justified. Using these stories, we develop a four-stage framework that captures the change in a potential perpetrator's approach to IPS. We use our findings and framework to guide a discussion of efforts to combat abuse, including how we can identify crucial moments where interventions might be safely applied to prevent or deescalate IPS.
... There is evidence that sexual infidelity in SMR is associated with occurrences of risky behaviors or sexually transmitted infections 19 and partner violence. 52 For these relationships, online interactions in dating Web sites open the possibility of cyberbullying or blackmail that threaten to disclose the infidelity, or even cyberstalking. 53 All of these situations have negative impacts on psychological wellbeing 54 and, consequently, on the relationship well-being. ...
... One of the most often cited rationalisations of IPV (particularly in research completed among persons who identify as heterosexual) is suspected or actual sexual infidelity (DeShong and Haynes 2016; Fehringer and Hinden 2014;Nemeth et al. 2012). A number of sensationalist headlines signaled both women's and men's sexual infidelity as the sources of men's violence in intimate relationships. ...
Article
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Feminist scholarship on gender-based violence in the Caribbean has examined how relations of power account for women’s increased vulnerability. While such frameworks are useful, they run the risk of reproducing heteronormative theorising on gender-based violence and fail to account for the multiple ways in which gender and sexuality are implicated in the violence experienced by diverse groups. This paper examines the gendered and heterosexist production of violence in online Caribbean newspapers. Mobilizing insights from Caribbean gender and sexuality studies scholars, it takes as its archive a sample of images and articles on sexual violence, child sexual abuse, intimate partner violence and violence against transgender, intersex and gender non-conforming persons, exposing the heteronormative and gender normative framing of these accounts. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to expose the heterosexist and gender normative assumptions in media reporting and to make a case for the relevance of Caribbean feminist and queer theorising to understanding the gendered and heterosexist production of violence in the region.
... Online Infidelity Forums. The perception of and/or accusations of infidelity-the action or state of being unfaithful to a spouse or other sexual partner-has been identified as a trigger for IPV in both online [29] and offline settings [71,85]. Importantly, while self-reported marital infidelity has not been significantly associated with IPV, the perception of a partner's infidelity has been significantly associated with risks for sexual coercion, physical abuse and coercive control [7,23]. ...
Conference Paper
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A growing body of research suggests that intimate partner abusers use digital technologies to surveil their partners, including by installing spyware apps, compromising devices and online accounts, and employing social engineering tactics. However, to date, this form of privacy violation, called intimate partner surveillance (IPS), has primarily been studied from the perspective of victim-survivors. We present a qualitative study of how potential perpetrators of IPS harness the emotive power of sharing personal narratives to validate and legitimise their abusive behaviours. We analysed 556 stories of IPS posted on publicly accessible online forums dedicated to the discussion of sexual infidelity. We found that many users share narrative posts describing IPS as they boast about their actions, advise others on how to perform IPS without detection, and seek suggestions for next steps to take. We identify a set of common thematic story structures, justifications for abuse, and outcomes within the stories that provide a window into how these individuals believe their behaviour to be justified. Using these stories, we develop a four-stage framework that captures the change in a potential perpetrator's approach to IPS. We use our findings and framework to guide a discussion of efforts to combat abuse, including how we can identify crucial moments where interventions might be safely applied to prevent or deescalate IPS.
... In the initial phases of life, it often occurs when the abuser is under the influence of alcohol, and gradually it forms an conditioned response. Nemeth et al in his study examined the causes of high levels of violence among married women to alcoholic husband through telephone interview sessions 10 . They found that "accusations of infidelity in the form of alcohol or drug use were the most common causes". ...
... Extradyadic infidelity is widely understood as an intimate relationship transgression (Guitar et al., 2017;Jankowiak, Nell, & Buckmaster, 2002;Thompson & O'Sullivan, 2016), with considerable consequences for those involved, including dissolution of relationship bonds (Hall & Fincham, 2006;Shackelford, Buss, & Bennett, 2002) and in some cases interpersonal violence and even death (Kaighobadi, Starratt, Shackelford, & Popp, 2008;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012). The putative costs and benefits of infidelity may vary, however, depending on individual motives that underlie an infidelity occurrence in the first place. ...
Article
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In this study, we surveyed a sample of U.S. undergraduates and internet-based participants (N = 495) about their experiences during/after romantic infidelity (affairs), and their initial motivations to engage in infidelity. Meaningful associations emerged between motivation and experience variables. Dyadic motivations (e.g., anger at one’s partner, lack of love) were linked with longer affairs, more public dates with affair partners, and primary relationship dissolution. Conversely, non-dyadic situational motivations (e.g., feeling stressed or intoxicated) were linked with shorter affairs, less satisfying sex during affairs, and lower rates of disclosure and dissolution. These findings suggest meaningful infidelity typologies and may aid researchers and practitioners in helping others resolve relational conflicts.
... Extradyadic infidelity is widely understood as an intimate relationship transgression (Guitar et al., 2017;Jankowiak, Nell, & Buckmaster, 2002;Thompson & O'Sullivan, 2016), with considerable consequences for those involved, including dissolution of relationship bonds (Hall & Fincham, 2006;Shackelford, Buss, & Bennett, 2002) and in some cases interpersonal violence and even death (Kaighobadi, Starratt, Shackelford, & Popp, 2008;Nemeth, Bonomi, Lee, & Ludwin, 2012). The putative costs and benefits of infidelity may vary, however, depending on individual motives that underlie an infidelity occurrence in the first place. ...
Preprint
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In this study, we surveyed a sample of U.S. undergraduates and internet-based participants (N = 495) about theirexperiences during/after romantic infidelity (affairs), and their initial motivations to engage in infidelity. Meaningfulassociations emerged between motivation and experience variables. Dyadic motivations (e.g., anger at one’s partner,lack of love) were linked with longer affairs, more public dates with affair partners, and primary relationshipdissolution. Conversely, non-dyadic situational motivations (e.g., feeling stressed or intoxicated) were linked withshorter affairs, less satisfying sex during affairs, and lower rates of disclosure and dissolution. These findings suggestmeaningful infidelity typologies and may aid researchers and practitioners in helping others resolve relational conflicts.
... "And the peace of God, which surpasses every man's understanding, will guard your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus" (Philippians 4:7). It is well established that jealousy may precipitate IPV (Foran & O'Leary, 2008b;Nemeth et al., 2012;Rodriguez et al., 2015;see Utley, 2017). The findings of Arnocky et al. (2015) support that anticipated infidelity in partner abuse may elicit an anxiety response. ...
Article
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Intimate partner violence is a global social and public health concern with multifaceted biopsychosocial, economic and legal repercussions. Depression, anxiety, and stress are high risk factors in the perpetration of partner abuse. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that an inverse relationship exists between religious commitment and crime or delinquency. Thus, a gender inclusive Christian-based intervention was designed, piloted and evaluated. The pre-posttest and follow-up measurements included administering the shortened Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale because these states often play a role in abusive behavior. Holistically, all the scores went down. The score for depression proved to be substantially statistically significant pre-posttest. The decrease in stress scores proved to be statistically significant post-follow-up and pre-post-follow-up. The study demonstrated that the Christian-based program succeeded in reducing depression, anxiety and stress and therefore holds promise to intervene in intimate partner violence.
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Women have always been part of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. As with other populations affected by HIV, for many years the only prevention strategy available was behavior change. Behavioral interventions for women were developed and evaluated, with some success. Because women did not control the use of male condoms, efficacious interventions needed to build skills for partner negotiation. Woman-controlled technologies such as the female condom and vaginal spermicide were unable to solve the problem of male control of the condom and enable the development of safe methods for women to protect themselves. The modern era of HIV prevention has produced biomedical solutions based on highly active retroviral chemoprophylaxis, which can be hidden from the male partner and thus eliminate his possible negative reactions. Pre-exposure prophylaxis holds promise for HIV prevention among women. This article reviews the literature on HIV prevention for women, including both successes and challenges.
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Nonfatal strangulation between intimate partners represents an extreme controlling form of violent behavior, increasing the risk that intimate partner violence (IPV) becomes lethal. Guided by Dutton and Goodman’s conceptualization of coercive control, the present research explored the relation between death threats and subsequent nonfatal strangulation to amplify the credibility of those threats, using a large sample of IPV perpetrators (n = 6,488). Logistic regression analyses determined the relation between overt threats to a partner’s life during an initial incident arrest and subsequent nonfatal strangulation postincident arrest, accounting for perpetrator characteristics and assessed risk. Results showed the highly gendered nature of this violent behavior, noting that men were significantly more likely than women to persist in nonfatal strangulation. Given the potential lethality of this violent behavior, the analysis also explored whether treatment service recommendations (family violence education, counseling, and mental health evaluation) mitigate these patterns. These preliminary findings support the further exploration of treatment and intervention efforts for reducing nonfatal strangulation.
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Recent research has demonstrated that gender mistrust influences the formation and stability of intimate relationships. However, several scholars have noted that individuals form unions despite high levels of mistrust. Yet limited work has examined the implications of gender mistrust for relationship quality, including the experience of intimate partner violence. Furthermore, few quantitative studies have examined correlates of gender mistrust, particularly with regard to identifying factors associated with changes in feelings of mistrust over time. Using the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we examined longitudinal predictors of gender mistrust among a sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 4,466 observations) and found that although parents’ gender mistrust and sociodemographic characteristics were associated with initial levels of mistrust, individuals’ own relationship experiences further shaped trajectories of gender mistrust over time. Additionally, feelings of mistrust corresponded to heightened odds of intimate partner violence perpetration, and this association appeared especially salient for women.
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Situational crime precipitators (Wortley, 2008) have received little attention from criminological literature in the Spanish language and, very often, they have been subsumed into the rational choice perspective (Cornish & Clarke, 2003). However, the autonomous study of these concepts offers us a good opportunity to delve into the process through which offenders move to commit the actual criminal act itself. The objective of this study is to synthetize the evidence with relation to the situational crime precipitators offering a new way to examine the human interaction with the environment in the field of crime. The methodology used envisages a systematic review of empirical literature works carried out since 2007. The results suggest that it is necessary to go further in-depth into the offender’s decision-making process from an integrated theoretical outlook instead of resorting to an atomized point of view. The article is concluded with a discussion on results after considering the major features and limitations of the studies examined.
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Previous studies have shown that female infidelity, attachment insecurity, and male sexual coercion in intimate relationships are empirically related to each other. However, the mechanisms that are involved remain poorly understood. The study aimed to examine two mediating models of male sexual coercion concerning first sex in Chinese college students' dating relationships (perceived female infidelity or attachment insecurity as the mediator), with both male and female participants (not using dyadic data). A total of 927 validly completed questionnaires provided the data; the respondents were recruited by purposive snowball sampling of students attending colleges in five of China's largest cities who were currently in a romantic relationship. First, with both the male and female samples, perceived female infidelity was positively correlated with violence threat coercive tactics; and, with the male sample only, it was positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics. Second, with the male sample only, male partners' attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance) were positively correlated with perceived female infidelity. Third, male partners' attachment anxiety fully mediated the relationship between perceived female infidelity and emotional manipulation coercive tactics. These findings suggest how the proximate and ultimate causes of sexual coercion in intimate relationships interact. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
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Companion animals are increasingly becoming part of our families, and the majority of homes in North America now include at least one companion animal (American Pet Products Association, 2018; Oliveira, 2014). One body of research has shown that both men and women have close relationships with companion animals (Irvine, 2013; Prato-Previde et al., 2006; Ramirez, 2006; Sanders, 1993), while another body of research shows that companion animals are the targets of threats and harm in connection to IPV perpetrated by men (Ascione et al., 2007; Barrett et al., 2017; Flynn, 2000a; Simmons & Lehmann, 2007). Most of the research at the intersection of IPV and animal abuse has used the perspective of the women survivors in the abusive relationships. This perspective is essential to establish effective programs and services for survivors of IPV, to understand the impacts of the abuse of a companion animal on their human companions, and to begin to understand the complexity of relationships with IPV. However, it is one perspective – the perspective of the abuser in the relationship is generally missing in this literature. The current study addresses this gap in the literature through focusing on the men’s perspective. Active interviews were conducted with 21 men, eight of whom had no reported perpetration of IPV recruited from the community, and thirteen who had been abusive towards an intimate partner and who were incarcerated or court-mandated participants in a domestic violence intervention program. Relationships with companion animals fell along a continuum with disinterest in the pet at one end and a cherished family member at the other. There was no discernible difference in how the companion animals were conceptualized between men who had been abusive towards an intimate partner and those with no reported abuse. Relationships with animals were characterized by unconditional love, loyalty, and trust, contrary to how most participants described their intimate relationships. Companion animals featured in the performance and construction of masculinity, from a ‘tough guy with a tough dog’ to a nurturing father. Companion animals enabled men to do a ‘softer’ masculinity in which sensitivity and emotional vulnerability were more acceptable, as well as do their masculinity in accordance with hegemonic norms of authority, power, and control. Men in this study evidenced varying acceptance of aggression towards people, including towards intimate partners, however, there was a clear consensus that aggression against animals was not acceptable. No participant reported abusing an animal in the context of IPV, which challenges the essentialization of abusive men in the literature by showing that men who abuse their partners do not necessarily engage in animal mistreatment, and in fact may have positive relationships with animals. The value of this research lies in its contribution to a better understanding of the perspectives of men who commit IPV, thus providing a more comprehensive understanding of IPV. The findings show companion animals, who are increasingly being considered members of the family and with whom relationships are highly valued, hold important roles in intimate relationships with both with and without IPV. These findings have important policy implications, namely in the modification and improvement of domestic violence intervention programs to reflect these positive relationships with companion animals through a strengths-based approach.
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Prior work suggests that partner violence may occur in the context of relationship dissolution among couples in which the male partner is reentering from prison. Using longitudinal data from 666 reentering men and their female partners, we found that couples who were no longer romantically involved were more likely to report violence in the relationship at reentry than those who were. Among those who broke up, 28% of women and 10% of men reported violence as a reason. Men who reported IPV in their relationships were less likely to report being in a romantic relationship with their study partner at the next survey wave than those who did not.
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In this review, we consider theory and research focused on girls’ and women’s violence, with an emphasis on studies that inform long-running debates about whether uniquely gendered explanations are required to understand such behaviors. The review emphasizes potentially malleable social processes and influences as well as studies that have explored neighborhood, family, and peer-based sources of risk. We also examine contemporary research on precursors of a specific type of aggression—intimate partner violence—where self-reports of perpetration have been found to be similar across gender, but research has consistently shown that the consequences are generally more serious for female victims. Our review draws on findings from analyses of large-scale survey data as well as qualitative approaches that explore meanings and motivations. The results point to significant areas of overlap, as well as some distinctive patterns in gender, support learning, and intersectionality theories, and identify potentially fruitful areas for additional research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Criminology Volume 2 is January 13, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Romantic relationships are often fraught with challenges for individuals post-release. Yet, few relationships-focused services are offered during this important and complex transitional period. Using pre- and post-test survey data, this pilot study of 63 men living in a residential substance treatment facility post release evaluated the impact of a 20-h individual-oriented relationship education (RE) program (Within My Reach) on attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV), sexist beliefs, attitudes toward infidelity, relational efficacy, and relationship decision making. Results showed a significant decrease in support of IPV at pre- and post-test even after controlling for education, number of children, and relationship status.
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Studies of violence against women in intimate heterosexual relationships have consistently pointed to a tendency by men to minimise the frequency and severity of their abuse. While men often engage a number of strategies in the process of accounting for intimate partner violence (IPV), this article explores their tendency to minimise, attenuate and engage in (strategic) silences in these narratives. A combination of narrative and discourse analysis techniques is applied to data emerging from qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 Barbadian and Vincentian men on their use of violence against a female partner. Whether men are responding to a public loathing of violence, managing the public selves produced in interviews or performing masculinity, a focus on how men story violence provides a critical space from which to create IPV interventions. Key Words: silence, minimisation, attenuation, intimate partner violence, narrative and discourse analysis, gender, masculinity, power
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Strangulation is different to other types of physical violence as it often leaves no visible injuries and is frequently motivated by coercive control. Few studies have explored nonfatal strangulation and coercive control, and no studies have explored these factors within a sample of stalkers. Given that stalking perpetrators exhibit many of the coercively controlling behaviors related to nonfatal strangulation, the current study explored nonfatal strangulation and other coercively controlling behaviors in a stalking sample. A police dataset of 9,884 cases of domestic violence that involved stalking was analyzed. Results revealed that coercive control and related behaviors of excessive jealousy, victim isolation, victim fear, and victim’s belief that the perpetrator will kill them were associated with higher likelihood of having experienced nonfatal strangulation. These results may help first responders to identify victims at risk of nonfatal strangulation and suggest a need for nonfatal strangulation to be a criminal offense.
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Existing investigations of infidelity focus on facilitating relational repair and recovery. However, little work examines recovery in betrayed partners after a breakup resulting from infidelity. The purpose of this paper is to examine recovery and positive psychological changes following infidelity through the lens of posttraumatic growth theory. Findings suggest a process by which disruption of core beliefs leads to greater intrusive, then deliberate rumination, which in turn leads betrayed partners to refine what they desire in a romantic partner, detach from their former relationships, and become open to new romantic connections.
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Previous studies suggest marital sexual infidelity (MSI) is growing among men and women. Also, social sciences literature has indicated that religious involvement and values reduce MSI occurrence. Religious persuasions and values remain critical in social life in Ghana and Nigeria, but little is known about religious influence on MSI and protection in both countries. In this study, the 2014 standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ghana (GDHS2014: 3,808 women and 1,967 men) and that of 2013 in Nigeria (NDHS2013: 22,220 women 8,292 men) were analysed within the framework of Durkheim’s theory of religion. Results suggest that MSI occurred more among women than men in Ghana (women = 12.9%, men = 9.9%) and Nigeria (women = 6.0%, men = 5.0%). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that religion significantly predicted MSI in Ghana (p < 0.05) and Nigeria (p < 0.001). In Ghana, Other Christian women (OR = 0.5(CI0.4-0.7), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.9), p < 0.05) and in Nigeria, Other Christian women (OR = 0.7(CI0.6-0.9), p < 0.001, and Muslims (women, OR = 0.3(CI0.3-0.4), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.8), p < 0.01) had lower odds of reporting MSI experience relative to Catholic Christians. Women are likely more vulnerable to STIs in both countries due to higher MSI prevalence and relatively poor protective behaviour. Therefore, marriage counsellors should focus more on women and men across all religious persuasions. However, women and Catholic Christians require more attention to address the MSI and condom use challenges in Ghana and Nigeria. Social campaigns aiming to prevent MSI and STIs should be intensive in both countries across all religious persuasions.
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Recent increases in the average age at first marriage have created an extended period during which young adults frequently continue to socialize with friends, even as romantic ties typically become increasingly serious. Nevertheless, little research has focused on some of the challenges associated with navigating these two social worlds simultaneously. The current study expanded the traditional lens of social learning theory to investigate associations between a range of attitudes and behaviors of friends and a serious form of conflict-intimate partner violence (IPV). Analyses relied on structured survey and in-depth interview data from a longitudinal study of a large, diverse sample of male and female respondents followed across the adolescent to adult transition (n = 928). Consistent with prior work, friends' IPV experience was significantly associated with respondents' own IPV perpetration. Yet the social learning perspective we developed highlighted the importance of considering a broader portfolio of friends' characteristics. Controlling for friends' IPV experience and family background: (a) involvement with friends perceived as more liberal in their attitudes toward dating and sexuality and (b) friends' delinquent behavior were both associated with the odds of reporting IPV. Further, longitudinal analyses showed an effect of variability in friends' delinquency on within-individual changes in IPV across the full study period, suggesting that the association is not due solely to an underlying antisocial propensity. In-depth interviews with a subset of respondents (n = 102) corroborate these results, further illuminate underlying mechanisms, and highlight the dynamic aspects of these forms of social involvement during young adulthood.
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Practicing monogamy to avoid infidelity is a common relationship dynamic and expectation. Even so, few people are taught monogamy strategies. Instead, they might just receive the message of “Just don’t do it.” This article is training and pedagogically based and is intended to help educators and supervisors integrate the theory of protective factors of monogamy with their marriage/couple and family curriculum. A brief review of the theory is presented in addition to a case and detailed reflective and application teaching strategies.
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Background: Men’s experiences of perpetration of intimate partner violence against their female heterosexual partners following disclosure of their HIV positive status is a global health problem. The forms of IPV and factors associated with IPV following the disclosure are under-researched. In this article, we aim to explore and describe the forms of and factors associated with men’s experiences of perpetration of IPV against their female partners following the disclosure of seropositive HIV status. Methods: An exploratory qualitative research design using an interpretive phenomenological analysis method was employed for the data collection from participants (men) who perpetrated violence against their HIV positive women. The study setting was done in two HIV clinics in two Hospitals. The study population consisted of all men whose intimate partners had been diagnosed HIV positive and made known to their partners and are seeking healthcare at the two HIV clinics. Purposive sampling technique was employed to recruit participants for the study. An interpretive phenomenological approach was employed for the collection and analysis from eighteen men whose partners had recently disclosed their seropositive HIV status. An interview guide was the tool employed for the data collection. Data collection and analysis were undertaken concurrently. Results: Most of the participants identified and described the forms of and factors associated with IPV influencing them to perpetrate IPV. Five themes and sub-themes emerged and these include; emotional factors, spousal related factors, Social related factors, Sex-related factors and some forms of IPV which were identified by participants. Each of these themes has subthemes. Conclusion: Men use different forms of IPV violence in abusing women who disclosure their HIV seropositive status. Several factors as identified in this study accounts for this partner violence. Forms and factors associated with intimate partner violence should be used as a guide in formulating policies and developing a guide that can be utilised in the early detection of IPV in this category of women.
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Infidelity is defined as unapproved romantic or sexual behaviors outside of one's relationship. Previous literature has identified characteristics of the partner involved in infidelity; this study investigates the Big Five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) of uninvolved partners. Relationship quality and physical intimacy are also examined within a married subsample. Data was drawn from the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), collected through telephone interviews and self‐administered questionnaires between 2004 and 2006. Results for the overall sample (N = 1,577) indicate that conscientiousness is negatively associated with lifetime partner infidelity. Within the married subsample (n = 898), conscientiousness is negatively associated with spousal infidelity, and agreeableness is positively associated with spousal infidelity.
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The authors explored the attachment dynamics of heterosexual couples identified for male partner violence. Based on semistructured interviews, participants were assessed for attachment orientations. Based on a thematic analysis of the interviews, two strategies for regulating distance within these relationships were identified: pursuit and distancing. Partners' abusive acts often appeared to serve one of these attachment strategies. As a pursuit strategy, violence forced one partner to focus on the other, and as a distancing strategy, violence served to push a partner back when the perpetrator had been approached too closely and perceived no other means of escape or self-protection. To understand the context in which individuals acted abusively, the authors considered the interaction between the attachment orientations of both partners as they sought to regulate their emotional and physical proximity. Findings highlight the relational basis of intimate violence.
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Background: Implementation of screening guidelines for domestic violence has been challenging. The multifaceted “systems model” may provide an effective means to improve domestic violence screening, identification, and intervention in the healthcare setting.Methods: We developed: (1) a systems model approach using tools for effective referral, evaluation, and reporting of domestic violence; (2) materials for distribution to female patients; (3) training for social service and mental health clinicians to provide domestic violence evaluation; and (4) strong links to the community.Setting: A nonprofit, managed care facility in Richmond, California.Participants: Staff and members of the managed care plan.Main Outcome Measures: (1) Increased screening for domestic violence by clinicians; (2) increased awareness of the healthcare facility as a resource for domestic violence assistance; and (3) increased member satisfaction with the health plan’s efforts to address domestic violence.Results: The number of clinician referrals and patient self-referrals to an on-site domestic violence evaluator increased more than twofold. A pre-intervention and post-intervention phone survey of members seen for routine checkup showed an increase in member recall of being asked about domestic violence. After intervention, statistically significant increases were seen in members’ perception that the health plan was concerned about the health effects of domestic violence (p
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Intimate relationship abuse can be understood by considering two critical tenets of attachment. First, attachment fulfills a basic need for survival. Thus, the tenacity of the attachment bond is independent of relationship quality. Second, individuals whose attachment needs have been frustrated may strike out violently to regain proximity to the perceived loss of an intimate partner. We examined how individual differences in attachment were associated with women's and men's relationship abuse. A telephone survey assessed levels of psychological and physical abuse in 1249 Vancouver residents. Of these, 128 completed an attachment interview exploring their interpersonal relationships. Hierarchical regressions revealed that attachment variables contributed significant variance to prediction of both receipt and perpetration of psychological and physical abuse, with preoccupied attachment acting as an independent predictor. There was no evidence that gender moderated these associations. The findings suggest that attachment preoccupation in either partner may increase likelihood of abuse in couples.
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In intimate partner violence (IPV) risk assessment, there is consensus that a large gap exists between research and practice. This exploratory study interviewed 13 practitioners working with IPV victims to generate ideas about the nature of this gap, and found that only two conducted standardized risk assessment. Others felt imposing structure might detract from the quality of their work. Results support the need for different techniques in different contexts; some adjust only speed of services according to their risk perception, whereas others use in-depth information to customize services. Perspectives appear particularly disparate regarding victim minimization of risk. Implications for future work are discussed.
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Our study used live telephone conversations between domestic violence perpetrators and victims to answer novel questions about how and why victims arrive at their decision to recant and/or refuse prosecution efforts. From October 2008 to June 2011, we conducted a qualitative study involving 25 heterosexual couples, where the male perpetrator was being held in a Detention Facility (in the U.S.) for felony-level domestic violence and made telephone calls to his female victim during the pre-prosecution period. We used 30-192 min of conversational data for each couple to examine: 1) interpersonal processes associated with the victim's intention to recant; and 2) the couple's construction of the recantation plan once the victim intended to recant. We used constructivist grounded theory to guide data analysis, which allowed for the construction of a novel recantation framework, while acknowledging the underlying coercive interpersonal dynamic. Our results showed that consistently across couples, a victim's recantation intention was foremost influenced by the perpetrator's appeals to the victim's sympathy through descriptions of his suffering from mental and physical problems, intolerable jail conditions, and life without her. The intention was solidified by the perpetrator's minimization of the abuse, and the couple invoking images of life without each other. Once the victim arrived at her decision to recant, the couple constructed the recantation plan by redefining the abuse event to protect the perpetrator, blaming the State for the couple's separation, and exchanging specific instructions on what should be said or done. Our findings advance scientific knowledge through identifying, in the context of ongoing interactions, strategies perpetrators used--sympathy appeals and minimization--to successfully persuade their victim and strategies the couple used to preserve their relationship.Practitioners must double their efforts to hold perpetrators accountable for their actions, and efforts made to link victims to trusted advocates who can help them defend against perpetrators' sophisticated techniques.
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We examined individual, household, and neighborhood correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy. We used multilevel modeling to investigate IPV among 2887 pregnant women in 112 census tracts who sought prenatal care in 8 public clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 1997 through 2001. Data were collected from the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project, the 2000 Census, and the local Sheriff and Police Departments Uniform Crime Reports for 1997 through 2001. Participants were predominantly young, African American, on Medicaid, and residents of low-income neighborhoods. The prevalence of past-year male partner-perpetrated physical or sexual violence was 7.4%. Neighborhood residential stability, women performing most of the housework (lack of involvement among partners), being unmarried (being in an uncommitted relationship), and alcohol use were positively associated with elevated IPV risk. Significant protective factors for IPV included older age at first vaginal intercourse and a greater sense of mastery (e.g., the perception of oneself as an effective person). Both neighborhood contextual and individual and household compositional effects are associated with IPV among low-income pregnant women. The results imply that combined interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and strengthen families may effectively reduce IPV.
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Many contextual analyses that bridge the micro-level-macro-level gap in identifying risk factors for adverse outcomes have not used methods appropriate for multilevel data. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of appropriate multi-level analytic methods and discuss their implications for public health. A previously published individual-level model of physical violence perpetrated by male partners during the childbearing year was reanalyzed to include variables describing the neighborhoods where the women resided. Logistic regression with estimation methods of the generalized estimating equation was used for the contextual analysis. To assess the advantages of the generalized estimating equation over conventional logistic regression, both were used for the two-level model. The regression coefficients from the contextual model differed from the betas obtained in the individual-level model. Not only were neighborhood-level variables related to the risk of partner-perpetrated violence, but the presence of these macro-level variables in the models modified the relationships of the individual-level variables to the risk of violence. Two-level models that include individual- and community-level factors may be beneficial for purposes of explanation in public health research.
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Approximately 20% of adolescents have experienced violence from a dating partner. The Safe Dates Project tests the effects of a program on the primary and secondary prevention of dating violence among adolescents living in a rural North Carolina county. The program being evaluated aims to prevent dating violence by changing dating violence norms, gender stereotyping, conflict-management skills, help-seeking, and cognitive factors associated with help-seeking. School activities include a theater production, a 10-session curriculum, and a poster contest. Community activities include special services for adolescents in violent relationships and community service provider training. A pretest-posttest experimental design with random allocation of 14 schools to treatment condition was used to test study hypotheses. Data were collected in schools using self-administered questionnaires. Eighty-one percent (n = 1,967) of the eighth- and ninth-graders in the county completed baseline questionnaires, and 91% of those adolescents completed follow-up questionnaires. The sample is 75.9% Caucasian and 50.4% female. Baseline data indicate that 25.4% and 8.0% of this sample have been victims of nonsexual and sexual dating violence, respectively, and 14.0% and 2.0% have been perpetrators of nonsexual and sexual dating violence, respectively. Consistent with other adolescent dating violence studies, both boys and girls report being victims and perpetrators of dating violence. Control and treatment groups are similar at baseline on all demographic, mediating, and outcome variables. Findings suggest that dating violence is prevalent among adolescents and that prevention programs are warranted.
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This study assessed the effects of the Safe Dates program on the primary and secondary prevention of adolescent dating violence. Fourteen schools were randomly allocated to treatment conditions. Eighty percent (n=1886) of the eighth and ninth graders in a rural county completed baseline questionnaires, and 1700 (90%) completed follow-up questionnaires. Treatment and control groups were comparable at baseline. In the full sample at follow-up, less psychological abuse, sexual violence, and violence perpetrated against the current dating partner were reported in treatment than in control schools. In a subsample of adolescents reporting no dating violence at baseline (a primary prevention subsample), there was less initiation of psychological abuse in treatment than in control schools. In a subsample of adolescents reporting dating violence at baseline (a secondary prevention subsample), there was less psychological abuse and sexual violence perpetration reported at follow-up in treatment than in control schools. Most program effects were explained by changes in dating violence norms, gender stereotyping, and awareness of services. The Safe Dates program shows promise for preventing dating violence among adolescents.
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Two studies were conducted to compare the attachment patterns, dependency, and jealousy of violent and maritally distressed husbands with that of nonviolent distressed and nonviolent-nondistressed husbands. In Study 1, participants completed the Adult Attachment Scale, Spouse Specific Dependency Scale, and Interpersonal Jealousy Scale. In Study 2, participants completed the Relationship Styles Questionnaire, Rempel Trust Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses that, relative to nonviolent husbands, violent men would evidence more insecure, preoccupied, and disorganized attachment (e.g., anxiety about abandonment, discomfort with closeness, and difficulty in classifying attachment); more dependency on and preoccupation with their wives; and more jealousy and less trust in their marriage. In addition, the findings suggest that researchers need to more carefully compare various measures of attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this chapter is to review and discuss the contributions cross-cultural studies have made or might make to our understanding of family violence. To cover as much territory as possible I have defined cross-cultural studies broadly to include any information collection and analysis approach that involves either the implicit or explicit comparison of two or more cultural groups. Cultural group is defined broadly as well, to include nations, political subdivisions within nations, ethnic groups, small-scale (primitive, nonliterate) societies, peasant societies, and so on. Following the work of Gelles and Straus (1979) family violence is defined as the action of a family member that will very likely cause physical pain to another family member. The term beating, such as wife beating or husband beating, is used throughout the chapter to refer to any violent act ranging from a slap to a beating with a stick to murder with a handgun.
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This study investigated whether maritally violent males are more jealous than maritally nonviolent males. The subjects were 180 cohabiting men divided into four groups selected on dimensions of marital violence, marital satisfaction, and amount of counseling. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) revealed significantly elevated jealousy levels in the two abusive groups and also in the unsatisfactorily married, nonviolent group. Indeed, jealousy correlated negatively with marital satisfaction level. Although jealousy seems not to be the primary precipitant of battering, it may interact with other variables, such as emotional dependence, to increase the likelihood of marital abuse.
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This paper examines relationship dynamics of couples in which the man has been violent toward the woman. The thesis offered here, from a systemic perspective, is that violence in intimate couple relationships is, in part, a distance-regulating mechanism that maintains a balance between separateness and connectedness in the relationship. The individual developmental process that allows a balance to be maintained without violence or other “distance regulators” is individuation. Some of the theoretical positions taken by previous authors that clarify the connection between individuation and relationship dynamics are presented. Next, the link between lack of individuation and relationship violence is explored using the work of other scholars to support our thesis and the “voices” of women who have experienced date violence. The “voices” come from a multiple case study using qualitative methods and analyses conducted by the second author. Finally, therapeutic intervention when relationship violence is viewed from the perspective suggested here is discussed.
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Objectives: This study analyzes gender and ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of alcohol-related problems among white, black and Hispanic couples in the United States, and assesses their contribution to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV).Methods: Our study population consisted of 1440 white, black, and Hispanic couples obtained through a multistage area household probability sample from the 1995 National Alcohol Survey. Alcohol-related problems (i.e., drinking consequences and alcohol dependence symptoms in the last 12 months) were assessed among respondents and their partners. Male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence (MFPV, FMPV) were measured separately using the Conflict Tactics Scale.Results and Conclusions: Alcohol-related problems were more prevalent among men than women. Our bivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between male alcohol-related problems and IPV across racial/ethnic groups, and a similar association between female alcohol-related problems and IPV for white and black couples. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, however, many of these associations were attenuated. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial covariates, male alcohol-related problems were no longer significantly associated with an increased risk of MFPV among white or Hispanic couples. Female alcohol-related problems predicted FMPV, but not MFPV, among white couples. Among black couples, however, male and female alcohol-related problems remained strong predictors of intimate partner violence.Significance: Alcohol-related problems are important predictors of intimate partner violence, and the exact association between problems and violence seems to be ethnic-specific. Alcohol-related problems, rather than level of alcohol consumption, may be the more relevant factor to consider in the alcohol-partner violence association. Future research is needed to explore the temporal relationships between the development of alcohol-related problems and the occurrence of partner violence.
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This study investigates whether couples' income and occupational status covary with wife and child abuse. The author interviewed 365 battered and nonbattered women about different facets of family violence and finances and obtained reports from one of their children about abuse in the home. The author compares the relative influence of overall family resources to resource disparity between women and their partners. Asymmetry in income favoring women, rather than total family income, predicted the men's frequency and severity of abuse toward their wives. Overall combined occupational status of the couple also predicted wife abuse, but disparity in occupations did not. These findings suggest that income disparity rather than overall poverty contributes to wife abuse. Class standing as indexed by membership in lower-status occupations also is a risk factor for wife battering. Fathers or stepfathers who harm women are also more likely to abuse the children, with few effects of income and occupation after partialing out wife abuse. The author suggests that a proportion of these men use the children in a policy of coercion against the mothers. Further gender-based interpretations of economic roles and family dynamics are needed to illuminate the complex reasons for men's abuse of women and children.
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Quantitative research is designed to test well-specified hypotheses, determine whether an intervention did more harm than good, and find out how much a risk factor predisposes persons to disease. Equally important, qualitative research offers insight into emotional and experiential phenomena in health care to determine what, how, and why. There are 4 essential aspects of qualitative analysis. First, the participant selection must be well reasoned and their inclusion must be relevant to the research question. Second, the data collection methods must be appropriate for the research objectives and setting. Third, the data collection process, which includes field observation, interviews, and document analysis, must be comprehensive enough to support rich and robust descriptions of the observed events. Fourth, the data must be appropriately analyzed and the findings adequately corroborated by using multiple sources of information, more than 1 investigator to collect and analyze the raw data, member checking to establish whether the participants' viewpoints were adequately interpreted, or by comparison with existing social science theories. Qualitative studies offer an alternative when insight into the research is not well established or when conventional theories seem inadequate.
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In this review, the authors focus on prevalence rates of partner violence, dynamics of abusive relationships including typologies of batterers, documented risk markers, and the importance of assessing violence in different life stages. A comprehensive understanding of these risk factors and their different impact at various life stages is essential because they are the heart of successful prevention and intervention models. The chapter concludes with a discussion of implications for practice and policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research is not clear on how violence in the family of origin translates into violence and aggression later in life. The author develops and estimates an empirical model in which M. Gottfredson and T. Hirschi's (1990) concept of self-control is specified to mediate the relationship between violence in the family of origin and conjugal psychological aggression. Data generated from the 1975 National Family Violence Survey of 2,143 respondents were used for the study. Psychological aggression was measured with the Conflict Tactics Scale, and self-control was operationalized as a continuous variable. There were 2 dimensions of physical punishment: fathers' and mothers'. Results suggest that fathers' violence is more likely to exert the aggression amplification effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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"Assessing Dangerousness" is a . . . volume that brings together experts in the fields of health, mental health, and criminal justice with both clinical and research experience in predicting dangerousness. The introductory chapter presents the theoretical and clinical issues involved in predicting violence in general. [The book] discusses the prediction of child abuse using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, as well as the prediction of homicide in spouse abuse, of further violence by sexual offenders, and of further assault by batterers. The contributors . . . discuss accurate measurement using tested instruments as well as the role of clinical observations. [The book is a] resource for any physical and mental health practitioner, legal or law enforcement professional, and advanced student interested in methods for more accurately predicting the potential for future abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies were conducted to compare the attachment patterns, dependency, and jealousy of violent and maritally distressed husbands with that of nonviolent distressed and nonviolent-nondistressed husbands. In Study 1, participants completed the Adult Attachment Scale, Spouse Specific Dependency Scale, and Interpersonal Jealousy Scale. In Study 2, participants completed the Relationship Styles Questionnaire, Rempel Trust Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses that, relative to nonviolent husbands, violent men would evidence more insecure, preoccupied, and disorganized attachment (e.g., anxiety about abandonment, discomfort with closeness, and difficulty in classifying attachment); more dependency on and preoccupation with their wives; and more jealousy and less trust in their marriage. In addition, the findings suggest that researchers need to more carefully compare various measures of attachment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To assess the association between physical violence during the 12 months before delivery and maternal complications and birth outcomes. We used population-based data from 6143 women who delivered live-born infants between 1993 and 1995 in South Carolina. Data on women's physical violence during pregnancy were based on self-reports of "partner-inflicted physical hurt and being involved in a physical fight." Outcome data included maternal antenatal hospitalizations, labor and delivery complications, low birth weights, and preterm births. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the associations between physical violence, maternal morbidity, and birth outcomes. The prevalence of physical violence was 11.1%. Among women who experienced physical violence, 54% reported having been involved in physical fights only and 46% had been hurt by husbands or partners. In the latter group, 70% also reported having been involved in fighting. Compared with those not reporting physical violence, women who did were more likely to deliver by cesarean and be hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as kidney infection, premature labor, and trauma due to falls or blows to the abdomen. Physical violence during the 12 months before delivery is common and is associated with adverse maternal conditions. The findings support the need for research on how to screen for physical violence early in pregnancy and to prevent its consequences.
Article
This research applies the social disorganization perspective on the neighborhood-level determinants of crime to partner violence. The analysis brings data from the 1990 Decennial Census together with data from the 1994–1995 Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Community Survey, the 1994–1995 Chicago homicide data, and data from the 1995–1997 Chicago Health and Social Life Survey. The findings of this study indicate that collective efficacy—neighborhood cohesion and informal social control capacity—is negatively associated with both intimate homicide rates and nonlethal partner violence. Collective efficacy exerts a more powerful regulatory effect on nonlethal violence in neighborhoods where tolerance of intimate violence is low. Collective efficacy also increases the likelihood that women will disclose conflict in their relationships to various potential sources of support.
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This is the third, and final, article in a series reviewing the currently available empirical literature on the problem of husband violence. In the first two papers, we reviewed research on male batterers (Holtzworth-Munroe, Bates, Smutzler, & Sandin, 1995) and research on the effects of marital violence on battered women and their children (Holtzworth-Munroe, Smutzler, & Sandin, 1995). Those papers primarily reviewed psychological correlates of violence at the level of the individual. Specifically, considering a variety of psychological variables, we examined how maritally violent and nonviolent men differ, how battered and nonbattered women differ, and how children growing up in maritally violent home differ from children in nonviolent homes.This final paper is designed to review variables that often are not considered to be individual difference or psychological variables. First, we will examine some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital violence. Second, we will review dyadic or relationship level variables—variables that emerge as important in studies comparing couples experiencing husband violence to nonviolent couples. Finally, since we are introducing the concept of dyadic level variables, introducing the possible role of wives in husband violence, we felt it necessary to add a section reviewing the evidence that husband and wife violence have differing consequences.
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A situational or event perspective examines the connections between unfolding events and their surrounding contexts. This perspective offers great promise for increasing our understanding of violence among intimate partners, yet, has been rarely applied to this problem. Using such an approach, this review summarizes what is known in this area and highlights gaps in our knowledge about the connections between specific event characteristics. Surprisingly, domestic violence researchers rarely examine domestic violence events per se. We suggest ways of doing this: By collecting rich data on the heterogeneity of violent events among intimate partners, we can close outstanding gaps in our knowledge of this problem.
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem but goes largely undiagnosed, undisclosed, and clinically undocumented. To use historical data on diagnoses and telephone advice calls to develop a predictive model that identifies clinical profiles of women at high risk for undisclosed IPV. A case-control study was conducted in women aged 18-44 years enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) in 2005-2006 using symptoms reported by telephone and clinical diagnosis from electronic medical records. Analysis was conducted in 2007-2010. Overall, 1276 cases were identified using ICD-9 codes for IPV and were matched with 5 controls each. A full multivariate model was developed to identify those with IPV, as well as a reduced model and a summed-score model whose performance characteristics were assessed. Predictors most highly associated with IPV were history of remote IPV (OR=7.8); calls or diagnoses for psychiatric problems (OR=2.4); calls for HIV concerns (OR=2.4); and clinical diagnoses of prenatal complications (OR=2.1). Using the summed-score model for a population with IPV prevalence of 7%, and using a threshold score of 3 for predicting IPV with a sensitivity of 75%, 9.7 women would need to be assessed to diagnose one case of IPV. Diagnosed IPV was associated with a clinical profile based on both telephone call data and clinical diagnoses. The simple predictive model can prompt focused clinical inquiry and improve diagnosis of IPV in any clinical setting.
Article
Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Methods: Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Results: Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Conclusions: Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment histories. Practice implications: A relative inexpensive school-based violence prevention program that has been shown to reduce dating violence among the whole student body also creates a protective effect for maltreated youth with respect to lowering their likelihood of engaging in violent delinquency.
Article
This study examined the efficacy of a family-planning-clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard of care. English-speaking and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N = 906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12-24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services and reproductive coercion. Among women reporting past-3-months IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants in the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or because they felt unsafe regardless of IPV status (adjusted odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.63). Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce the risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships.
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Despite growing male participation in ending violence against women, little is known about the factors that precipitate men's engagement as antiviolence "allies." This study presents findings from a qualitative analysis of interviews with 27 men who recently initiated involvement in an organization or event dedicated to ending sexual or domestic violence. Findings suggest that men's engagement is a process that occurs over time, that happens largely through existing social networks, and that is influenced by exposure to sensitizing experiences, tangible involvement opportunities and specific types of meaning making related to violence. Implications for models of ally development and for efforts to engage men in antiviolence work are discussed.
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Reproductive control including pregnancy coercion (coercion by male partners to become pregnant) and birth control sabotage (partner interference with contraception) may be associated with partner violence and risk for unintended pregnancy among young adult females utilizing family planning clinic services. A cross-sectional survey was administered to females ages 16-29 years seeking care in five family planning clinics in Northern California (N=1278). Fifty-three percent of respondents reported physical or sexual partner violence, 19% reported experiencing pregnancy coercion and 15% reported birth control sabotage. One third of respondents reporting partner violence (35%) also reported reproductive control. Both pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage were associated with unintended pregnancy (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.36-2.46, and AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14-2.20, respectively). In analyses stratified by partner violence exposure, associations of reproductive control with unintended pregnancy persisted only among women with a history of partner violence. Pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage are common among young women utilizing family planning clinics, and in the context of partner violence, are associated with increased risk for unintended pregnancy.