Article

Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of kombucha tea in high-cholesterol fed mice

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Traditional kombucha tea (TKT) is produced by mixed tea fungus. We previously proposed Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 as the key functional strain in kombucha culture, because it had strong ability to produce D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL, a crucial functional component in KT). This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of TKT and modified KT (MKT, tea broth fermented by single Gluconacetobacter sp. A4). RESULTS:In vitro, TKT and MKT, but not DSL equally increased the radical scavenging effects and inhibited low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In vivo, the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects were not different between MKT and TKT. Compared with TKT, MKT showed a significantly elevated effect on the increase of antioxidantive enzymes activities (total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase) and the decrease of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile DSL demonstrated an enhanced activity in lipid profile and antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: KT had the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects. These effects were largely attributed to DSL. MKT was similar to or even more powerful than TKT in antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects. Thus, Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 was further established as the main functional microorganism in kombucha culture. Moreover, KT may be useful in treating obesity. Copyright

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... KT's health benefits are attributed to its antioxidant ac- tivity. 9,[15][16][17][18][19] Antioxidants are known to prevent many dis- orders and metabolic diseases caused by free radicals, such as disorders of eyes (retinal degeneration, cataract), skin (dermatitis, psoriasis, ageing), lungs (allergies and asthma), kidneys (nephritis and other chronic renal diseases), joints (gout), brain (migraine, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, epilepsy or pre-epileptic syndrome in children), immune system (chronic inflammation and autoimmune disorders-rheumatoid arthritis etc.) and can- cers. 13,20 Free radicals create oxidative stress-the state when the production of free radicals overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. ...
... 17,18 Because of the high content of phenolic compounds in traditional black tea (BT), KT significantly increases the free hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. 19 The study confirms more po- tent antioxidant properties of KT when compared with un- fermented BT. 19 KT contains more polyphenols, having an antioxidant activity 100 times higher than vitamin C and 25 times higher than vitamin E. 9 It has been reported that KT treatment potentiates the hepatic glutathione (GSH) anti- oxidant/detoxication system. 16 Thus, it has been shown that consumption of traditional KT, due to its antioxidant prop- erties, may help to cure many chronic illnesses caused by oxidative stress. ...
... 17,18 Because of the high content of phenolic compounds in traditional black tea (BT), KT significantly increases the free hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. 19 The study confirms more po- tent antioxidant properties of KT when compared with un- fermented BT. 19 KT contains more polyphenols, having an antioxidant activity 100 times higher than vitamin C and 25 times higher than vitamin E. 9 It has been reported that KT treatment potentiates the hepatic glutathione (GSH) anti- oxidant/detoxication system. 16 Thus, it has been shown that consumption of traditional KT, due to its antioxidant prop- erties, may help to cure many chronic illnesses caused by oxidative stress. ...
Article
Abstract Consumption of kombucha fermented tea (KT) has always been associated with different health benefits. Many personal experiences and testimonials of KT drinkers are available throughout the world on the ability of KT to protect against a vast number of metabolic and infectious diseases, but very little scientific evidence is available that validates the beneficial effects of KT. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent studies in search of experimental confirmation of the numerous KT health-promoting aspects cited previously. Analysis of the literature data is carried out in correspondence to the recent concepts of health protection's requirements. Attention is given to the active compounds in KT, responsible for the particular effect, and to the mechanisms of their actions. It is shown that KT can efficiently act in health prophylaxis and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, antioxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of depressed immunity. The recent experimental studies on the consumption of KT suggest that it is suitable for prevention against broad-spectrum metabolic and infective disorders. This makes KT attractive as a fermented functional beverage for health prophylaxis.
... Fermentation of sugared black tea by Kombucha culture results in the production of certain metabolites which were not present in black tea. One such molecule is d-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone which is reported in KT by many researchers but with varying concentration Wang et al., 2010;Yang et al., 2009Yang et al., , 2010. Chakravorty et al. (2016) also showed that DSL (d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone) concentration increased gradually with fermentation time. ...
... The effect of KT on physical stress-like restraint, etc., was additionally studied by recording the fecal output of the animal. KT was also found to have hypocholesterolaemic effect, as an evident from its capability in lowering the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in high-cholesterol fed mice (Yang et al., 2009;Bellassoued et al., 2015). These effects were largely attributed to DSL (Yang et al., 2009). ...
... KT was also found to have hypocholesterolaemic effect, as an evident from its capability in lowering the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in high-cholesterol fed mice (Yang et al., 2009;Bellassoued et al., 2015). These effects were largely attributed to DSL (Yang et al., 2009). Another study showed that oral supplementation of KT at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetes rats, inhibited α-amylase, and lipase enzyme activity in the plasma and pancreas of the experimental animals, thereby suggesting its antilipidemic activity (Aloulou et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage, obtained by fermenting sugared black tea, made from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves, with a consortium of yeast and predominantly acetic acid bacteria. In recent times, Kombucha tea has seen considerable increase in interest worldwide and can easily be said to be an emerging popular beverage. The fact that today Kombucha tea is available in multiple forms and flavors is a living testament of the massive amounts of transformation this beverage has undergone through the ages. One of the most important reasons behind the rise of the beverage is its claimed health benefits many of which have been established by scientific research. Of the various health benefits of Kombucha tea, its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer benefits are most attractive and appealing to ever increasing cohort of scientific investigators and entrepreneurs. The last decade saw noteworthy progress toward understanding the beneficial properties of this fermented tea. Scientific reports claim that drinking Kombucha tea can prevent several types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, invigorate liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Moreover, studies show that Kombucha tea is usually more effective than the original unfermented tea with respect to their biological activities. Therefore, Kombucha tea can now be regarded as a health drink and a functional beverage with potential beneficial properties.
... The beverage has gained substantial popularity especially in the West because of a large number of claims regarding its therapeutic potential against a host of maladies. Some of its beneficial effects have already been demonstrated such as: anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic (Jayabalan et al., 2011), anti-diabetic (Aloulou et al., 2012;Bhattacharya et al., 2013), treatment for gastric ulcers (Banerjee et al., 2010) and high cholesterol (Yang et al., 2009), etc. It has also shown to have impact on immune response (Ram et al., 2000) and liver detoxification (Loncar et al., 2000). ...
... The enhanced beneficial activities of Kombucha tea compared to that of the unfermented tea (Banerjee et al., 2010;Bhattacharya et al., 2013;Yang et al., 2009) indicated that some changes have been brought by the microbial community during the fermentation process. Most of the scientific literature available so far either deals with the general microbial community of the system or the beneficial effects of the drink. ...
... Fermentation also resulted in the formation of some molecules like DSL in Kombucha tea which was not found in the unfermented control. The presence of DSL in Kombucha tea has been reported by other researchers also (Wang et al., 2010;Yang et al., 2009). The compound is believed to be key ingredient behind the hypocholesterolemic effects (Yang et al., 2009) and also the hepatoprotective property of Kombucha tea against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity (Wang et al., 2014). ...
... Kombucha, a tea-based beverage fermented by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts known as SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture Of Bacteria and Yeast) (Gaggìa et al. 2018;Leal et al. 2018) has been highlighted as a potential anti-obesity alternative due to its nutritional and microbiological composition (Yang et al. 2009). Historical references suggest that kombucha emerged in China, where it has been consumed since 220 BC due to its supposed medicinal properties (Jayabalan et al. 2014). ...
... A decrease in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue: body weight ratio was also observed. The results suggest an anti-obesity effect exerted by kombucha, which was attributed to a lower food intake by animals treated with the beverage compared to those receiving only the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) (Yang et al. 2009). GKT did not interfere with body weight (Bellassoued et al. 2015). ...
... In experimental models of diet-induced dyslipidemia (HCD), GKT has reduced levels of total cholesterol (TC) (26%), triglycerides (TG) (27%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (36%), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) (28%) as well as reestablished high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentrations (Bellassoued et al. 2015). In animals that ingested BKT, a reduction of 18% in TC and 31% in LDL-c concentrations were observed (Yang et al. 2009). ...
Article
Kombucha is a fermented nonalcoholic tea-based beverage produced through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. In vitro studies have demonstrated antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-carcinogenic properties of kombucha. However, no systematic reviews have evaluated the effects of kombucha in vivo. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the evidence that exists so far about kombucha consumption on comorbidities associated with obesity as well as on the gut microbiota. The search was conducted in accordance with PRISMA and the protocol was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020158917). The MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were used in the search considering the following terms: "kombucha" OR "kombucha tea" OR "kombucha teas" OR "tea, kombucha" OR "teas, kombucha" NOT "review." Fifteen studies were included in this review. The results suggest that kombucha consumption attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, improves the liver detoxification process, and reduces intestinal dysbiosis. There is evidence that kombucha consumption is beneficial for the control and treatment of obesity and associated comorbidities, as well as for the modulation of the gut microbiota in vivo.
... Such health benefits are mainly attributed to the presence of antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, in the kombuchas. 13,17,35 Food intake in HFHF group was lower than in AIN-93M group; however, food efficiency ratio and energy food efficiency ratio were similar, which did not affect the weight gain among experimental groups. This outcome could be explained due to the higher energy density of HFHF diet, decreasing food intake due the high satiety caused by fat. ...
... A study observed 22.02% reduction in retroperitoneal adipose tissue in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and consuming kombucha (66 mL pre kg of body weight) for 12 weeks. 35 Other study showed that consumption of black tea kombucha (5 mL per kg body weight per day) for 30 days had antilipidemic properties in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with reduction of lipase activity in the plasma and pancreas and, consequently, a decrease in plasma triglyceride levels. 14 Besides, the kombucha consumption reduced the percentage of lipid vesicles into liver of the animals without promoting changes in liver weight, hepatosomatic index, and most of its histomorphometric parameters. ...
... 13 Our results corroborate with the findings of other animal studies, where kombucha intake reduced oxidative stress caused by an unbalanced diet, such as high cholesterol diets. 35,47 Yang et al. 35 reported that black tea kombucha consumption increased plasma antioxidant capacity and SOD activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Thus, kombuchas from green and black ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green and black tea kombuchas consumption on adiposity, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in Wistar rats fed a high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats, after 8 weeks to induce metabolic alterations, were divided into an AIN-93M control group, HFHF control group, green tea kombucha + HFHF diet (GTK group), and black tea kombucha + HFHF diet (BTK group), for 10 weeks. The kombuchas improved glucose metabolism, plasma total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased nitric oxide concentration. Moreover, both kombuchas reduced systemic inflammation by decreasing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), reduced the total adipose tissue and blood triglyceride, and reverted liver steatosis (from grade 2 to 1), besides the modulation of genes related to adipogenesis and β-oxidation. Therefore, kombuchas from green and black teas have bioactive properties that can help control metabolic alterations induced by the HFHF diet.
... Also, kombucha has hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties and radical scavenging activities (Chen and Liu, 2000;Yang et al., 2009;Malbasa et al., 2011;Aloulou et al., 2012;Ilicic et al., 2012;Srihari et al., 2013a;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Watawana et al., 2015a). Moreover, kombucha is accepted as a natural antibiotic and help maintain acidalkaline equilibrium of the body (Sievers et al., 1995;Cetojevic-Simin et al., 2012;Jayabalan et al., 2014). ...
... Because of the high contents of phenolic compounds in traditional black tea, kombucha tea significantly increases the free hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities (Yang et al., 2009). Kombucha tea contains more polyphenols, having an antioxidant activity 100fold higher than ascorbic acid and 25-fold higher than vitamin E (Adriani et al., 2011). ...
... enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, and Candida albicans (Sreeramulu et al., 2000(Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Battikh et al., 2012). Acetic acid has been proposed to be the principal antimicrobial agent (Yang et al., 2009), bacteriocins and tea-derived phenolics may also be involved (Sreeramulu et al., 2001). Tietze (1995) reported the presence of usnic acid (an antibacterial compound) in kombucha cultures. ...
... KT also contains various antioxidant constituents. Compounds such as polyphenols and volatile flavor compounds such as theaflavins and thearubigins are found to be higher compared to black tea (Yang et al. 2009). A higher amount of the polyphenol leads to the stronger antioxidant activity (Maksimovic and Malencic 2005). ...
... KT also contains various antioxidant constituents. Compounds such as polyphenols and volatile flavor compounds such as theaflavins and thearubigins are found to be higher when compared to black tea (Yang et al. 2009). Large amount of polyphenol leads to stronger antioxidant activity (Maksimovic and Malencic 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Acetaminophen overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of kombucha tea (KT) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty male Balb/c mice were divided into four equal groups: (1) the control group, (2) KT-treated group, (3) acetaminophen-treated group, and (4) KT/acetaminophen-treated group. All mice in group 4 were given KT orally for 7 days before a single hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (1,000 mg/kg orally). Activities of liver marker enzymes in serum; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); and total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and direct and total bilirubin levels were determined. Acetaminophen challenge caused significant increases in the levels of bilirubin and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH), while TP and ALB levels were reduced significantly. Histopathologic assessments showed that severe glycogen storage in hepatocytes, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration in portal area, dilation of central veins, and capillarization also reduced in KT/acetaminophen group compared to acetaminophen-treated mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that KT has protective effect on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.
... Higher polyphenol contents have been linked to increased antioxidant activity [76]. Antioxidants are believed to help decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol [77]. However, it is important to note that kombucha is only believed to have antioxidant activity, and any claims have not yet been approved by food safety authorities. ...
... It was found that black tea, traditional kombucha, and modified kombucha all functioned as antioxidants to free radicals and effectively inhibited LDL oxidation, while modified and traditional kombucha exhibited a stronger effect compared to DSL. The modified kombucha tea showed the highest antioxidant activity, and it was therefore concluded that brewing kombucha from a single strain may be more beneficial [77]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Beverage Guidance System has established dietary recommendations for daily intake of commonly consumed beverages including water, tea, coffee, milk, non-calorically sweetened beverages, and calorically sweetened beverages. As obesity in America continues to be a growing problem, this guidance becomes of increasing importance due to many beverages’ potential links to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and numerous other harmful health effects. However, the growing popularity of “better for you” beverages is causing a shift in the market, with consumers pushing for healthier beverage alternatives. Beverages simultaneously present advantages while posing concerns that need to be evaluated and considered. In this review, health effects of nonalcoholic beverages are discussed including various aspects of consumption and current trends of the beverage market such as the novel Soft Seltzer category as an alternative to Hard Seltzer and various mashups. A variety of advisory boards and agencies responsible for dietary guidelines in various countries suggest drinking water as the preferred practice for hydration.
... Accordingly, recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant (Dipti et al. 2003;Yang et al. 2009;Ram et al. 2010), hepatoprotective (Murugesan et al. 2009;Abshenas et al. 2012), and hypocholesterolaemic properties (Yang et al. 2009;Adriani et al. 2011;Aloulou et al. 2012). ...
... Accordingly, recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant (Dipti et al. 2003;Yang et al. 2009;Ram et al. 2010), hepatoprotective (Murugesan et al. 2009;Abshenas et al. 2012), and hypocholesterolaemic properties (Yang et al. 2009;Adriani et al. 2011;Aloulou et al. 2012). ...
... Moreover, kombucha fermentation is dependent upon the source of kombucha culture (tea fungus), which is affected by a variety of properties for each kombucha beverage. When compared to unfermented tea, the enhanced beneficial activities of kombucha tea indicate that some changes are related to the origin of the microbial community that is present during the fermentation process [4][5][6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage that is produced from the fermentation of tea leaves. In this study, kombucha tea was prepared using 1% green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, and 10% sucrose with acetic acid bacteria and yeast. The pH values of the kombucha tea were found to be in a range of 2.70–2.94 at 15 days of fermentation. The lowest pH value of 2.70 was recorded in the kombucha prepared from black tea. The total acidity of kombucha prepared from black tea was the highest by 16.75 g/L and it was still maintained after heat treatment by boiling and after autoclaved. Six organic acids: glucuronic, gluconic, D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, ascorbic, acetic, and succinic acid in kombucha tea were detected by HPLC with the optimization for organic acids detection using isocratic elution buffer with C18 conventional column. The highest level of organic acid was gluconic acid. Kombucha prepared from green tea revealed the highest phenolic content and antioxidation against DPPH radicals by 1.248 and 2.642 mg gallic acid/mL kombucha, respectively. Moreover, pathogenic enteric bacteria: Escherichia coli. E. coli O157:H7. Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholera were inhibited by kombucha and heat-denatured kombucha with diameter of the inhibition zones ranged from 15.0 ± 0.0–25.0 ± 0.0 mm. In addition, kombucha prepared from green tea and black tea demonstrated toxicity on Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, kombucha tea could be considered as a potential source of the antioxidation, inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria, and toxicity on colorectal cancer cells.
... Kombucha is a traditional fermented beverage originating from the northeast China (former Manchuria region) and later spread to Russia and the rest of the world. Nowadays, Kombucha has become very popular in the Western world (North America and Europe) and is often claimed to exhibit healthful properties, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic [Jayabalan et al., 2011], anti-diabetic [Hiremath et al., 2002;Aloulou et al., 2012] effects, as well as treatment for gastric ulcers [Banerjee et al., 2010] and high cholesterol [Yang et al., 2009]. It has also been shown to impact the immune response [Ram et al., 2000] and liver detoxication [Lon ar et al., 2000]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage, which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea with tea fungus, which is a consortium of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. In this paper, viability of selected wild strains of lactobacilli during Kombucha fermentation, their interaction with tea fungus and their contribution in obtaining a beverage of increased functional characteristics were tested. Five wild strains which were isolated from traditionally fermented foods were separately added on the second day of Kombucha fermentation. Count of yeasts, acetic acid bacteria and lactobacilli, as well as pH, titratable acidity, and content of L- and D-lactic acid during Kombucha fermentation were determined. Wild strains of lactobacilli demonstrated a differentiated survivability and the counts in fermentation broth (i.e. Kombucha beverages) depending on the strain applied. The addition of wild Lactobacillus spp. during Kombucha fermentation had no effect on the physiological activity of tea fungus, but they contributed to a significant increase in lactic acid content in the beverage. The highest lactic acid content during Kombucha fermentation was produced by the strain of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from 40-day-old cream, while the strain of Lactobacillus hilgardii (from sour dough) showed the highest viability.
... Free radicals can cause oxidative stress; it is the state when the body is overwhelmed with free radicals and the antioxidant defense is low. Besides than non-fermented tea, kombucha also has phenolic content which is responsible for the antioxidant efficacy (Yang et al., 2008;Vīna et al., 2014). Antioxidants can help in prevention of autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer's, rheumatism, metabolic disorders, asthma and kidney dysfunction (Dufrense and Fanworth, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a traditional fermented drink and has recently gained popularity due to its numerous claims on therapeutic effects. It is prepared by sweetening black tea and fermenting using a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts known as SCOBY. The drink can also be brewed using different types of tea and carbon sources. An investigation was conducted to characterize the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of kombucha by using variation of carbon sources: white sugar (S), jaggery (J) and Kelulut honey (H) in black tea (BT) and green tea (GT) media over a period of 7, 14, 28 and 60 days. The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacies were tested post fermentation. All samples shown the highest value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition for antioxidant activity at 7 days of fermentation but subsequent decrease was observed with longer fermentation time except for the combination of green tea with jaggery (GT+J). Fermentation of green tea with white sugar (GT+S) showed the highest value with 84%. On the other hand, black tea with jaggery (BT+J) showed least DPPH activity of 9%. Fermentation with green tea demonstrated a higher antioxidant activity compared to black tea, whereas fermentation of any tea with jaggery showed the least antioxidant activity in comparison to white sugar and honey. Thus, it could be said that extended periods of fermentation would reduce the DPPH inhibition of kombucha and jaggery itself as carbon source showed an interesting property. Antimicrobial activity was tested using disk diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and S. marcescens. The efficacy was increased with time of fermentation for all combinations. Combination of black tea with all carbon sources was found to exhibit good antimicrobial activity.
... Kombucha has been shown to exert effects in animal studies on blood glycaemia [72], oxidative stress [73], diabetes-induced weight loss [74], chemically-induced nephrotoxicity [75], hypercholesterolaemia [72,76] and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration [77]. Compounds hypothesised to play a role in these beneficial effects include d-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL). ...
Article
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Fermented foods are defined as foods or beverages produced through controlled microbial growth, and the conversion of food components through enzymatic action. In recent years, fermented foods have undergone a surge in popularity, mainly due to their proposed health benefits. The aim of this review is to define and characterise common fermented foods (kefir, kombucha, sauerkraut, tempeh, natto, miso, kimchi, sourdough bread), their mechanisms of action (including impact on the microbiota), and the evidence for effects on gastrointestinal health and disease in humans. Putative mechanisms for the impact of fermented foods on health include the potential probiotic effect of their constituent microorganisms, the fermentation-derived production of bioactive peptides, biogenic amines, and conversion of phenolic compounds to biologically active compounds, as well as the reduction of anti-nutrients. Fermented foods that have been tested in at least one randomised controlled trial (RCT) for their gastrointestinal effects were kefir, sauerkraut, natto, and sourdough bread. Despite extensive in vitro studies, there are no RCTs investigating the impact of kombucha, miso, kimchi or tempeh in gastrointestinal health. The most widely investigated fermented food is kefir, with evidence from at least one RCT suggesting beneficial effects in both lactose malabsorption and Helicobacter pylori eradication. In summary, there is very limited clinical evidence for the effectiveness of most fermented foods in gastrointestinal health and disease. Given the convincing in vitro findings, clinical high-quality trials investigating the health benefits of fermented foods are warranted.
... It is possibly from contamination during home preparation where cases of serious adverse effects related to kombucha drinking arise. Factors such as fermentation substrates, fermentation time and incorporation of other probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria change the chemical and microbial components and bioactivities during tea fungus fermentation [11][12][13]. These factors also influence the antioxidant property of kombucha [10,14]. ...
Article
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Kombucha is made from sweetened tea fermented by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast consumed worldwide because of its potentially beneficial effects on health. However, there are only few studies on the safety of kombucha consumption that will establish it as a functional beverage. The present study compared, pH, temperature and sugar content of different tea mixtures of black or green tea as nitrogen sources and white and brown sugar as carbon sources in a 30-day fermentation period. A marked decrease in pH was observed throughout fermentation with Green tea-White (GW) sugar mixture showing the lowest recorded pH value of 2.37 on the 14 th day of fermentation. Temperature is essential in the fermentation process and thus maintained at ambient 29±1°C. Black and green teas with white sugar (7°Brix) showed to have higher sugar level compared to tea mixtures with brown sugar (5°Brix). Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay was carried out to determine cytotoxicity of kombucha. The four substrate combinations have very low LC 50 values with Black tea-Brown sugar (BB) mixture showing to have the lowest in both acute and chronic effects (0.073 ppm and 0.101 ppm, respectively). This indicates safety of kombucha for consumption.
... With many different names across the world, like Mu-Go in Russian, Kombuchaschwamm in Germany and Finkochinese in Italian (Jayabalan et al., 2014), this fermented beverage is also called "the ultimate health drink" because a large number of positive claims regard it as a prophylactic agent (Blanc et al.,1996;Jayabalan et al., 2014). It has various biological functions and brings beneficial effects to human health like anti-oxidant and anti-cancer (Jayabalan et al., 2011), helping in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as gastric ulcers (Banerjee et al., 2010), and high cholesterol (Yang et al., 2009); This tea is also claimed to have beneficial effects on mitigation of the pains and stress from malignant diseases (Screeramulu et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Main physical and chemical properties, microbial population and flavour compounds of kombucha fermentation were dynamically analyzed. The results showed: the pH values decreased but total acidity increased in kombucha fermentation broth with fermentation time; the concentrations of tea polyphenols and free amino acids firstly increased in the initial stage and then decreased till the end of fermentation; total catechins and caffine in kombucha fermentation broth were degraded progressively with fermentation time. Only 21 volatile flavour compounds were identified in the initial kombucha fermentation broth but 56 volatile flavour compounds were identified in the 10 d fermentation. The largest group was acids among which there were 22 different types of acids compounds, accounting for up to 57.21% of all volatile flavour components. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than yeasts in kombucha fermentation broth during fermentation. We separated and identified 8 main microbial communities in kombucha fermentation broth during kombucha fermentation; 6 bacteria belonged to Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans, Acetobacter sp., Gluconacetobacter sp., Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Acetobacter aceti and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 2 yeasts belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arxula adeninivorans. According to the production of organic acids i.e., acetic acid, we envisaged that the predominant bacterial species identified were probably Acetobacter sp. and Acetobacter aceti after 5 days fermentation.
... Chemical profile of Kombucha is dominated by organic acids (mostly acetic, gluconic and glucuronic) and tea polyphenols ( Jayabalan et al., 2014), that can be responsible for the multiple health benefits associated with the regular consumption of this beverage. Such effects include anti-carcinogenic ( Jayabalan et al., 2011), anti-diabetic ( Aloulou et al., 2012) and detoxifying potential ( Lon car et al., 2000), improvement of the immune response ( Ram et al., 2000) and treatment of gastric ulcers ( Banerjee et al., 2011) and high blood cholesterol ( Yang et al., 2009). We aimed to characterize the microbiota involved in Kombucha fermentation and to explore the effects of two fermentation temperatures (20 vs 30 C) on the microbiota, in order to define which conditions can be applied to boost gluconic and glucuronic acid production. ...
Article
Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and –independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids.
... Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that kombucha prepared by mixed-culture fermentation with pure strains had a distinctive flavor and short fermentation period (Ma et al., 2008;Xie, 2011). Numerous health benefits have been attributed to the consumption of this beverage, including: it stimulates the immune system, aids digestion, protects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, prevents microbial infections; it is also known for its hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties, free-radical scavenging activities, among others (Chen & Liu, 2000;Greenwalt et al., 2000;Malbasa et al., 2008;Chu & Chen, 2006;Malbasa et al., 2011;Aloulou et al., 2012;Ilicic et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2009;Greenwalt et al., 1998). ...
Article
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Kombucha is a health-promoting fermented beverage worldwide. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and total reducing power (TRP) of kombucha prepared from low-cost green tea (LGTK), black tea (BTK), and tea powder (TPK). LGTK had the highest scavenging abilities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, while BTK showed the highest TRP. Changes in content of probiotics in LGTK were investigated during storage as well. The number of acetic acid bacteria decreased moderately up to 10 days of storage. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased significantly, and their survival rate was only 0.98% at the 8th day of storage.
... Antimicrobial effect Steinkraus et al. 1996, Greenwalt et al. 1997, 1998, Sai Ram et al. 2000, Pauline et al. 2001, Sreeramulu 2000, 2001, Cetojevic-Simin et al. 2008, Battikh et al. 2012 Antioxidant effect Sai Ram et al. 2000, Chu and Chen 2006, Chan et al. 2011, Jayabalan et al. 2008, Malbaša et al. 2011, Chakravorty et al. 2016 Anticarcinogenic effect Jayabalan et al. 2011 Antidiabetic effect Aloulou et al. 2012, Bhattacharya et al. 2013 Antiglycation effect Chakravorty et al. 2016 Immunopotentiating effect Sai Ram et al. 2000 Gastric ulcer healing effect Banerjee et al. 2010 Treatment for high cholesterol Yang et al. 2009b Detoxification effect Petrović et al. 2000, Vina et al. 2013a, b, Jayabalan et al. 2014, Nguyen et al. 2015 cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella sonnei and Staphylococcus aureus (Steinkraus et al. 1996, Greenwalt et al. 1998, Sai Ram et al. 2000, Pauline et al. 2001, Sreeramulu 2001. Although acetic acid is mainly responsible for the antimicrobial activity, neutralized or thermally processed Kombucha can also exert antimicrobial effect, which suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid or large proteins in Kombucha (Sreeramulu et al. 2000(Sreeramulu et al. , 2001. ...
Chapter
This book, written by leading international authorities in the field, covers all the basic and applied aspects of acetic acid bacteria. It describes the importance of acetic acid bacteria in food industry by giving information on the microbiological properties of fermented foods as well as production procedures. Special attention is given to vinegar and cocoa, which are the most familiar and extensively used industrial applications of acetic acid bacteria. This book is an essential reference to all scientists, technologists, engineers, students and all those working in the field of food science and technology.
... Antimicrobial effect Steinkraus et al. 1996, Greenwalt et al. 1997, 1998, Sai Ram et al. 2000, Pauline et al. 2001, Sreeramulu 2000, 2001, Cetojevic-Simin et al. 2008, Battikh et al. 2012 Antioxidant effect Sai Ram et al. 2000, Chu and Chen 2006, Chan et al. 2011, Jayabalan et al. 2008, Malbaša et al. 2011, Chakravorty et al. 2016 Anticarcinogenic effect Jayabalan et al. 2011 Antidiabetic effect Aloulou et al. 2012, Bhattacharya et al. 2013 Antiglycation effect Chakravorty et al. 2016 Immunopotentiating effect Sai Ram et al. 2000 Gastric ulcer healing effect Banerjee et al. 2010 Treatment for high cholesterol Yang et al. 2009b Detoxification effect Petrović et al. 2000, Vina et al. 2013a, b, Jayabalan et al. 2014, Nguyen et al. 2015 cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella sonnei and Staphylococcus aureus (Steinkraus et al. 1996, Greenwalt et al. 1998, Sai Ram et al. 2000, Pauline et al. 2001, Sreeramulu 2001. Although acetic acid is mainly responsible for the antimicrobial activity, neutralized or thermally processed Kombucha can also exert antimicrobial effect, which suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid or large proteins in Kombucha (Sreeramulu et al. 2000(Sreeramulu et al. , 2001. ...
... [19] Furthermore, D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone, a compound which is also thought to possess health-promoting properties, is produced during kombucha fermentation. [14,[90][91][92] This compound is a competitive inhibitor of b-glucuronidase, an enzyme that promotes cancer formation by hydrolysis of conjugated glucuronides into cancerogenic aglyconic compounds in the bowel. [91] Lactic acid is not always found in kombucha, as LAB are not always present in kombucha. ...
Article
Kombucha tea is made by aerobically fermenting a sweetened tea infusion with a kombucha culture, a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. The resulting beverage is usually non-alcoholic, sour and refreshing, but not naturally sparkling. Many consumers are drinking kombucha because of its alleged health effects and as kombucha tea is increasing in popularity, consumers are increasingly demanding kombucha beverages of better quality. To better adapt their products to these consumer demands, brewers are looking to the scientific knowledge about kombucha for answers. However, the scientific exploration of this complex naturally fermented beverage is still limited. This review paper presents the current state-of-the-art. To further deepen the understanding of the kombucha fermentation process and to help brewers in their search for higher-quality beverages, the microbial species diversity and its dynamics during the fermentation process should be investigated in detail, as well as the kinetics of the substrate consumption and metabolite production, and the relationship between the substrate and metabolite concentrations, and the consumer preferences for the resulting beverage.
... Other determined health effects of kombucha include reducing menstrual disorders and menopausal flashes, eye sight, cellular regeneration, stimulation of glandular systems in the body, alleviating bronchitis and asthma, improving the health of hair, skin, and nails, overall metabolism, reducing stress and nervous disturbances and the kidney calcification (Chu & Chen, 2006;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Watawana et al., 2015). It has been also reported that consumption of this beverage has several health benefits such as anti-hyperglycaemic, hepatoprotective and cholesterol lowering effect and protective effect against vascular disease and coronary heart disease etc. (Table 2) (Greenwalt, Ledford, & Steinkraus, 1998;Chen & Liu, 2000;Greenwalt et al., 2000;Chu & Chen, 2006;Malbaša et al., 2008;Yang et al., 2009;Malbaša et al., 2011;Aloulou et al., 2012;Iličić et al., 2012;Fu et al., 2014). The health effects of kombucha, whose benefits are referred to its probiotics content, are also attributed to the presence of the metabolic products released by these microorganisms into the broth during fermentation, mainly the acid composition, one of which is detoxification attributed to the presence of glucuronic acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a beverage of Manchurian origin, generally prepared from black or green tea by the activity of various strain of yeasts and bacteria, especially acetic and lactic acid bacteria. The products (beverages) is rich in acetic, gluconic and glucuronic acids, and lower concentration of citric acid, as well as limited amount of ethanol and CO2. Synthetized acids cause the decrease of pH value of kombucha tea and contribute to the formation of its characteristic sour taste. This beverage has been consumed by people due to its health benefits for years. Kombucha is considered as a probiotic drink due to the diversity of naturally occurring symbiotic microorganisms. The health-promoting properties of the beverages drives also from short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other metabolites which improve immunity and also show antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. In this paper, properties of kombucha were reviewed especially by focusing on its probiotic potential.
... e health benefits of kombucha beverage are also associated with its antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are known to prevent many disorders and metabolic diseases due to oxidative stress [115,116]. Ayed and Hamdi [117] showed that the antioxidant potential of the cactus pear juice fermented by SCOBY increased significantly as the fermentation result. ese results are comparable with those reported by Ayed et al. [104] and by Khosravi et al. [118] who used respectively grape juice and date syrup as substrates. ...
Article
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In recent years, the request for the functional beverages that promote health and wellness has increased. In fact, fermented juices are an excellent delivering means for bioactive components. Their production is of crucial importance to supply probiotics, in particular, for people with particulars needs like dairy-product allergic consumers and vegetarians. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the microbial composition and the health benefits of fermented fruit and vegetable beverages by lactic acid bacteria, kefir grains, and SCOBY as well as discussing the metabolites resulting from these fermentations process. Moreover, limits that could restrain their production at the industrial level and solutions that have been proposed to overcome these constraints are also reviewed.
... Kombu çayı serinletici özelliğininin yanı sıra profilaktik (hastalık önleyici) ve terapötik (tedavi edici) özelliklerinin olması nedeniyle de tercih edilmektedir [19,26,27]. Antibiyotik etkisinin olduğu, immun sistemi desteklediği, antikanserojenik, antidiyabetik, hipokolesterolemik, hipoglisemik, antioksidan, antimikrobiyel özellikler taşıdığı, laksatif özelliğinin olduğu, bağırsak florasının gelişmesine yardımcı olduğu, metabolizmayı hızlandırarak kilo kaybını desteklediği yapılan çalışmalarda belirlenmiştir [19,21,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
... It is useful for the prevention of several diseases, particularly digestive disorders, and has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer (Jayabalan et al., 2011), and antidiabetic (Aloulou et al., 2012) properties. It is used in the treatment of gastric ulcer and (Banerjee et al., 2010) hypercholesterolemia (Yang et al., 2009), with positive effects on the immune response (Ram et al., 2000), liver detoxification (Loncar, Petrovic, Malbasa, & Verac, 2000), and cancer. These useful properties are mainly based on the fact that it has a high concentration of compounds (such as glucuronic acid) with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties (Bhattacharya et al., 2013). ...
Article
Kombucha is a beverage obtained by fermenting tea containing sugar as a result of the symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria. In this study, milk and various herbal teas (sage, blackberry, and green tea) were mixed in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v) and fermented with kombucha culture. 2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total reducing sugar content, and the microbiological and sensory properties of the fermented dairy beverage were examined. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed on the 1st day of storage of the blackberry tea-blended fermented beverage (98.48%), and the highest total phenolic content was observed on the 30th day of the green tea-blended fermented beverage (81.51 mg/mL). The maximum amount of glucuronic acid (0.42 g/100 mL) was observed on the 20th day of storage in the sage-blended fermented dairy beverage. The most favorite product was the blackberry blend, whereas the least favorite was the dairy beverage (control sample) fermented with kombucha based on sensory scores. This study demonstrates that milk and herbal teas could be successfully fermented with kombucha culture , thereby improving its functional properties.
... Although probiotic effects have yet to be directly associated with kombucha-derived microorganisms (Kozyrovska et al., 2012), initial studies have shown promising health benefits in relation to the tea itself. Such health benefits include anti-carcinogenic (Jayabalan et al., 2011) and anti-diabetic (Hiremath et al., 2002, Aloulou et al., 2012 effects, treatment for gastric ulcers (Banerjee et al., 2010) and high cholesterol (Yang et al., 2009), and it also has been shown to impact immune response (Ram et al., 2000) and liver detoxification (Loncar et al., 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a sweetened tea beverage that, as a consequence of fermentation, contains ethanol, carbon dioxide, a high concentration of acid (gluconic, acetic and lactic) as well as a number of other metabolites and is thought to contain a number of health-promoting components. The sucrose-tea solution is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulosic pellicle, which forms a floating mat in the tea, and generates a new layer with each successful fermentation. The specific identity of the microbial populations present has been the focus of attention but, to date, the majority of studies have relied on culture-based analyses. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the kombucha microbiota we have carried out the first culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacterial and fungal populations of 5 distinct pellicles as well as the resultant fermented kombucha at two time points. Following the analysis it was established that the major bacterial genus present was Gluconacetobacter, present at >85% in most samples, with only trace populations of Acetobacter detected (<2%). A prominent Lactobacillus population was also identified (up to 30%), with a number of sub-dominant genera, not previously associated with kombucha, also being revealed. The yeast populations were found to be dominated by Zygosaccharomyces at >95% in the fermented beverage, with a greater fungal diversity present in the cellulosic pellicle, including numerous species not identified in kombucha previously. Ultimately, this study represents the most accurate description of the microbiology of kombucha to date.
... Kombucha tea is claimed to have several health benefits along with its probiotic effects due to the microorganisms present. Such benefits include anti-diabetic effects (Aloulou et al., 2012), anticarcinogenic (Jayabalan et al., 2011), treatment for gastric ulcer (Banerjee et al., 2010) and high cholesterol (Yang et al., 2009), antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity (Villarreal-Soto et al., 2018), improvement of the liver, immune system and gastrointestinal functions (Leal et al., 2018). ...
Article
SCOBY, a biofilm of cellulose containing the symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, is a by-product of Kombucha tea fermentation. Several studies on the kombucha SCOBY are being carried out to exploit all the possibilities of dealing with this cellulose as a suitable raw material in fields like food technology, biomaterial preparation, fashion and textile industries, environmental biotechnology, and so on. This review focusses on elaborating about the microbial ecology present in the kombucha tea fermentation, the production of the extracellular polysaccharide (cellulose) by the bacteria, the cultivation methods of SCOBY, composition, structure, and characteristics of the cellulose biofilms obtained. Genera of bacteria and yeast majorly found in the SCOBY are Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Schizosaccharomyces. Present in a symbiotic relationship in the kombucha tea, these microbes help in producing cellulose fibrils extracellularly forming a biofilm at the air-liquid interface. An overview of the favorable conditions for SCOBY production, prevention of contamination and purification of the cellulose sheets are also discussed and then its suitability for applications in different fields are assessed. The fermentation is mostly done at room temperature and the biofilm is harvested within 30 days according to the required shape and size. Advantages like flexible physical, chemical and biological properties, the requirement of minimum media components, eco-friendly and cost efficiency of this biofilm leading to its utilization in many upcoming fields are elucidated. Optimization of process variables is essential for scale-up to facilitate cost-effective production of SCOBY cellulose for exploring its wide potential in sustainable applications.
... Sua ingestão se tornou popular, especialmente no Ocidente, haja vista as alegações sobre sua ação terapêutica contra uma série de doenças (DUFRESNE;FARNWORTH, 2000;MOHAMMADSHIRAZI;KALHOR, 2016). Desta forma, ele demostrou ser um potencial agente antimicrobiano, antioxidante, anticarcinogênico (JAYABALAN et al., 2011), antidiabético (ALOULOU et al., 2012BHATTACHARYA et al., 2013), e benéfico auxiliar no tratamento de úlceras gástricas (BANERJEE et al., 2010) e controle de colesterol alto (YANG et al., 2009), além de interferir na resposta imune (RAM et al., 2000) e desintoxicação do fígado (LONČAR et al., 2000). ...
Article
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O kombucha é uma associação simbiótica entre bactérias do ácido acético e leveduras, na forma de biofilme de celulose, produzido pela fermentação de chás preto ou verde adoçados, tendo a sacarose como substrato. No entanto, investigações sugerem a inoculação do kombucha em leite, sendo a lactose a molécula fornecedora de carbono que alimenta a cultura e promove a fermentação. Essa é uma promissora substituição na indústria de laticínios para a obtenção de ácido lático, uma vez que os produtos lácteos fermentados são populares, em decorrência de suas propriedades nutricionais e sensoriais. O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar uma revisão integrativa acerca da utilização do leite como meio para a fermentação da cultura de kombucha, analisando as principais condições empregadas, realizando um comparativo de suas implicações nos atributos físico-químicos, reológicos e sensoriais dos produtos elaborados e verificando os melhores parâmetros associados. Para isso, foi realizada uma busca avançada de artigos científicos em plataformas de dados online. Os resultados foram apresentados em forma de tabela, sendo analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. Foi confirmada a possibilidade da utilização do leite como substrato para a cultura de kombucha, observando-se que as condições empregadas no preparo interferem diretamente na qualidade do produto final. Em síntese, a análise dos estudos encontrados permitiu considerar que a maioria dos autores preferiram aplicar em seus sistemas: temperatura de 42 °C; leite magro (0,8-0,9% de gordura); inóculo de kombucha fermentado em chá preto e na concentração de 10% para adição na fermentação do leite.
... It has a high antioxidant potential that has been related with prevention of cancer, immune system support, and improvement of joint rheumatism (Deghrigue et al., 2013;Srihari et al., 2013a;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Shenoy et al., 2019). Antihypertensive (Elkhtab et al., 2017), antidiabetic (Srihari et al., 2013b), hepatoprotective (Yarbrough, 2017;Bhattacharya et al., 2011), antiinflammatory (Vázquez-Cabral et al., 2017), antimicrobial (Sreeramulu et al., 2000;Battikh et al., 2012aBattikh et al., , 2012bBhattacharya et al., 2016), antihyperlipidemic (Yang et al., 2009;Dias and Shenoy, 2016) cytoprotective, genoprotective (Cavusoglu and Guler, 2010;Yapar et al., 2010), and renoprotective (Bellassouedet al., 2015) effects of kombucha have also been reported. Various substrates other than black and green tea could be used in kombucha fermentation, such as fruits (i.e. ...
Article
In this study, sweetened black and green tea were utilized as substrate for kombucha fermentation. Linden, lemon balm, sage, echinacea, mint, and cinnamon infusions were added to kombucha to design a novel beverage with improved functional and organoleptic characteristics. After fermentation, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the kombucha increased by 13.96% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), 48.90% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 55.54% cupric reducing AC (CUPRAC). On days 0 and 9 of storage, the bioaccessibility of the total phenolics and AC (FRAP and CUPRAC) in all of the samples showed a significant increase after gastric and intestinal digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05). The AC (DPPH) after in vitro digestion at the beginning and end of storage in all of the beverages also increased after gastric digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05); however, it decreased after intestinal digestion (P < 0.05). By conducting in vitro and in vivo studies, the effects of kombucha on health and nutrition need to be further investigated.
... from (1) the presence of tea phenolic compounds; (2) phenolic compounds resulting from the metabolic activity of microorganisms (activity of enzymes hydrolyzing tea polyphenols); (3) the presence of organic acids produced by microorganisms; (4) the presence of vitamins from tea leaves or the product of microorganisms; (5) the presence of microbial enzymes and proteins, as well as (6) probiotic activities of microorganisms. On the one hand, teas properties have mainly been documented in in vitro analyses [10][11][12], while in vivo tests are limited among literature [13][14][15]. Most importantly, there are very limited number of clinical studies that would confirm the positive effect of Kombucha [6]. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a low alcoholic beverage with high content of bioactive compounds derived from plant material (tea, juices, herb extracts) and metabolic activity of microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts). Currently, it attracts an increasing number of consumers due to its health-promoting properties. This review focuses on aspects significantly affecting the bioactive compound content and biological activities of Kombucha tea. The literature review shows that the drink is characterized by a high content of bioactive compounds, strong antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Factors that substantially affect these activities are the tea type and its brewing parameters, the composition of the SCOBY, as well as the fermentation parameters. On the other hand, Kombucha fermentation is characterized by many unknowns, which result, inter alia, from different methods of tea extraction, diverse, often undefined compositions of microorganisms used in the fermentation, as well as the lack of clearly defined effects of microorganisms on bioactive compounds contained in tea, and therefore the health-promoting properties of the final product. The article indicates the shortcomings in the current research in the field of Kombucha, as well as future perspectives on improving the health-promoting activities of this fermented drink.
... The increase in the relative abundance of Gluconacetobacter with EGCG is putatively related to EGCG metabolism. Gluconacetobacter has been reported to be isolated from kombucha [36,37]. The glucuronosyltransferase family from Gluconacetobacter, participates in polyphenol glucuronidation (hydrolysing its glycosidic bond). ...
Article
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(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and tuna oil (TO) are beneficial bioactive compounds. EGCG, TO or a combination of, delivered by broccoli by-products (BBP), were added to an in vitro anaerobic fermentation system containing human fecal inocula to examine their ability to generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), metabolize EGCG and change the gut microbiota population (assessed by 16 S gene sequencing). Following 24 h fermentation, EGCG was hydrolyzed to (-)-epigallocatechin and gallic acid. EGCG significantly inhibited the production of SCFA (p < 0.05). Total SCFA in facal slurries with BBP or TO-BBP (48–49 µmol/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the negative control with cellulose (21 µmol/mL). EGCG-BBP and TO-EGCG-BBP treatment increased the relative abundance of Gluconacetobacter, Klebsiella and Trabulsiella. BBP and TO-BBP showed the greatest potential for improving gut health with the growth promotion of high butyrate producers, including Collinsella aerofaciens, Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus reuteri.
... The mechanism of action related to kombucha's benefi ts for human health has not yet been completely revealed. It is known that kombucha tea is a detoxyfi ng and energizing drink, exhibiting hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidative activity (Bhattacharya et al. 2013;Shenoy, 2000;Yang et al. 2009). Kombucha is a source of antimicrobials, and can prevent hepatotoxicity and cancer (Afsharmanesh and Sadaghi, 2014;Battikh et al., 2012;Jayabalan et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.
Article
Kombucha is widely consumed as black tea fermented for 7–14 days. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial activities of two kombucha beverages originating from green and black teas fermented for 21 days and to characterize the antimicrobial compounds (heat resistance and pH stability). Green and black tea infusions were fermented with a traditional kombucha culture. The resulting kombucha antibacterial/antifungal activities against some pathogenic microorganisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and clinical Candida species, were investigated using the agar diffusion method. The results showed interesting antimicrobial potentials of both experimented kombucha teas against the tested microorganisms, except Candida krusei. The green fermented tea exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential. Indeed, it showed large inhibition zones against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (22 mm) and Micrococcus luteus (21.5 mm). Furthermore, interesting anti-Candida potential was revealed by the reaction of green tea kombucha against Candida parapsilosis.
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Fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast (tea fungus) yields kombucha tea which is consumed worldwide for its refreshing and beneficial properties on human health. Important progress has been made in the past decade concerning research findings on kombucha tea and reports claiming that drinking kombucha can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, promote liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Considering the widespread reports on kombucha, we recognized the need to review and update the research conducted in relation to kombucha tea, its products and tea fungus. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of kombucha tea are as good as those of black tea, however, more studies on kombucha tea and its composition are needed before final conclusions can be made.
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Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8, 47.27, 53.69, 74.03% respectively) , antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period.
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Kombucha is a traditional beverage consumed in various parts of the world. It is made by fermentation of sugared black tea by a consortium of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and hypocholesterolaemic properties. Microbial composition of Kombucha association is highly variable therefore the chemical composition of obtained beverage can vary a lot and affect products quality. Thus, industrial production of Kombucha beverage is difficult and defined starter culture is strongly needed for obtaining the product with standard characteristics. In the present study individual starter cultures were used to obtain Kombucha like fermented beverage to evaluate its physiological effects in rat model for further development of functional beverage. Low density cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine levels elevated by fat diet decreased during intake of fermented beverage (2.5 mL kg-1 b.wt). To evaluate liver cell status alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate Transaminase (ASAT) were assayed. It was shown that ASAT and ALAT decreased due to fermented beverage consumption in both-normal and high fat diet group. Zero rat mortality was observed during fermented beverage intake for 60 days (2.5-7.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). This study on the consumption of fermented beverage obtained by use of defined starter suggests that it could be suitable for prevention of some metabolic disorders, like cardiovascular diseases or liver disorders, attributed to unhealthy lifestyle like high-fat diet. However, further research on physiological effects and possible mechanisms of action is needed and human studies would be welcomed.
Article
Background Kombucha tea (KT), a traditional health beverage containing potential hepatoprotective agents, is fermented from sugared tea by a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria for 8 d. However, the functional strains that produce components for the hepatoprotective property of KT remain unclear. Multiple strains are involved in traditional KT production. Therefore, KT has not been standardized or produced commercially. This study aimed to identify the functional strains and quantify the functional components with hepatoprotective effects in kombucha tea. ResultsGluconacetobacter sp. A4 was one of the microorganisms in KT and that the DSL produced by G. sp. A4 was significantly higher than that produced by original tea fungus at 8 d of fermentation. Traditional KT (TKT, tea broth fermented by mixed tea fungus), modified KT (MKT, fermented by single G. sp. A4), and d-saccharic acid-1, 4-lactone (DSL) significantly inhibited the AAP-induced increase of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, and malondialdehyde, as well as facilitated the reduction of total antioxidant capacity in mice. Furthermore, MKT and TKT are both similar to DSL in terms of protection against AAP-induced liver injury in mice. These results suggested a good relationship between DSL content and the hepatoprotective effect of TKT, MKT and DSL groups. ConclusionG. sp. A4 was concluded to be one of the potential functional strains and DSL might be the key functional component for the hepatoprotective property in KT. The stronger capability of G. sp. A4 in producing DSL makes it a better choice for the commercial production of KT.
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Probiotics are essential for establishing and maintaining optimal immune health. The probiotic therapy is known from alternative medicine for ages; however, the recent demonstration of the normal microflora to induce innate immunity has introduced the science-based concept of therapeutic application of potentially beneficial probiotic microorganisms for a treatment of functional disorders. Traditionally, probiotics are associated with dairy products, however, novel formulations are needed, first of all, originated from naturally occurring symbiotic microbial communities as the most robust assemblages. Especially, safe and robust probiotics are needed for longterm expeditions, outposts, extraterrestrial permanently-manned bases, where humans are exposed to adverse environmental factors. Kombucha beverage is Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) and associated with health-promoting effects. Kombucha tea/mat is being in use in human livings within millennia as a probiotic drink for healing and health prophylaxis effects, however, new research opportunities promise its «renaissance », going to be used pharmacologically.
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Traditional fermented foods and beverages play an important role in a range of human diets, and several experimental studies have shown their potential positive effects on human health. Studies from different continents have revealed strong associations between the microorganisms present in certain fermented foods (e.g., agave fructans, kefir, yeats, kombucha, chungkookjang, cheeses and vegetables, among others) and weight maintenance, reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic and constipation benefits, improvement of glucose and lipids levels, stimulation of the immunological system, anticarcinogenic effects and, most importantly, reduced mortality. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to corroborate information reported in experimental studies that comprised interventions involving the consumption of traditional fermented foods or beverages and their association with human health. This work focuses on studies that used fermented food from 2014 to the present. In conclusion, traditional fermented foods or beverages could be important in the promotion of human health. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in inflammatory, immune, chronic and gastrointestinal diseases and the roles of fermented traditional foods and beverages in terms of preventing or managing those diseases.
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D-Glucaric acid (GA) derivatives exhibit anti-cancerogenic properties in vivo in apples, but quantitative information about these derivatives is limited. Hydrophilic interaction-based HPLC with ultraviolet detection or mass spectrometry was developed to quantify GA and/or d-glucaro-1,4-lacton (1,4-GL) in apples. Although the formation of 1,4-GL from GA could be the prerequisite to exert biological effects in vivo, only a small portion of GA (< 5%) was identified and converted to 1,4-GL in the rat stomach. The 1,4-GL content in apples ranged from 0.3 mg/g to 0.9 mg/g, and this amount can substantiate health claims associated with apples. The amount of 1,4-GL was 1.5 times higher in Gala and the ratio of 1,4-GL to GA was lower in Green Delicious apples than those in the other varieties. Our findings suggested that the variety and maturity of apples at harvest are factors that determine 1,4-GL content.
Article
Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
Article
[Background] The growing consumption of kombucha beverages in the last decade has motivated an increase in the number of scientific studies investigating their biological activities. Their specific microbiological and chemical composition led to the generation of interesting bioactive fractions. [Scope and approach] Although many in vitro analyses have been described regarding bioactivities of kombucha and kombucha ingredients, a significantly lower amount of in vivo tests have been published and, moreover, clinical trials are particularly missing. In this revision, several biological activities were reviewed through the scientific literature (antioxidant, immune-modulatory, antiproliferative, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial), describing the utilized experimental model, the reported results and their potential implications on human health. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the current evidences around kombucha bioactivities were pointed out. [Key findings and conclusions] It can be concluded that, despite of the interesting results obtained in vitro, further research is required including more in vivo tests, bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessment and clinical trials, as well as the isolation of bioactive compounds allowing the study of single molecules and their functionality.
Article
Kombucha is a functional tea brewed through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). It is applicable to various industrial sectors due to its several noteworthy features. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the following technological aspects of kombucha/SCOBY: (a) the effect of its production parameters on different scales, (b) microbiota features and factors that affect biofilm formation and fermentation so as to demonstrate its potential applications in different industrial sectors, and (d) how its consumption affects human health according to evidence collected in literature. Its production seldom occurs on an industrial scale and studies assessing its large-scale fermentation process are scarce. Various industrial sectors have benefited from SCOBY, such as the food industry, biotechnological processes and biomedicine. However, industrial applications require optimization of some parameters, such as specific equipment for product standardization aimed at cost reduction and process profitability.
Chapter
Fermented foods have a profound probiotic value and share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient civilizations across the globe. Over decades of human history the pioneering practice of food fermentation has added taste to cultural ethos and has expanded significantly from household level to gradually improve the available food resources combat the hidden hunger. Consumer demand for these healthier foods with balanced nutrient profile along with metabolic, health, functional, nutritional, and nutraceutical benefits has gained pace that been derived from anecdotal evidence of their effect against chronic diseases. Fermented foods act as a sink of beneficial microorganisms with various health-promoting functions like preventing intestinal tract infections, decreasing cholesterol level, enhancing lactose metabolism, immunity, calcium absorption, protein digestibility, synthesis of vitamins (vitamin B, nicotinic acid, and folic acid), and counteracting effect of foodborne pathogens. Most of the fermented foods are derived from fruits, vegetables, dairy and some are cereal based as well. In this chapter, some explorative information on traditional fermented fruit, vegetable, dairy, and rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate their functional aspects. The chapter deals with production, traditional processing, probiotic and therapeutic values of various probiotic dairy-based foods like cheese, yoghurt, and kefir; some plant-based foods that are widely consumed (kimchi, sauerkraut, pickles, kombucha, kefir, tempeh, yoghurt, miso, etc.); and various South Indian traditional cuisines like idli and dosa to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production and meet the growing market demand of functional foods.
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Kombucha is a fermented beverage composed of a range of natural compounds such as sugars, ethanol, organic acids, and complex microbial communities of bacteria and yeasts. Based on this several biological properties are attributed to this drink. However, the production of kombucha is not standardized and the final composition of the beverage is highly dependent on the raw materials used and the physicochemical parameters adopted in the process. As a consequence, kombuchas not only vary from one producer to another but also from different batches of the same producer, making the assumptions of quality and properties questionable. In this review, we explore the largely unchecked relations between kombucha and its claimed health benefits. A systematic review was also performed to specifically discuss the potential probiotic and prebiotic effects of kombucha. Although several studies report that kombucha present antimicrobial, antioxidant, detoxifying, and hepatoprotective activities, among others, whereas others classify kombucha as a probiotic drink, there is a lack of scientific evidence about the content of probiotics in this drink and its possible role in the intestinal microbiota. These facts highlight the opportunities in researching and modifying the microbiome composition of kombucha, possibly improving the general qualities of this so-called functional drink.
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As a consequence of expanded science and technical research, the market perception of consumers has shifted from standard traditional to valuable foods, which are furthermore nutritional as well as healthier in today’s world. This food concept, precisely referred to as functional, focuses on including probiotics, which enhance immune system activity, cognitive response, and overall health. This review primarily focuses on functional foods as functional additives in beverages and other food items that can regulate the human immune system and avert any possibility of contracting the infection. Many safety concerns must be resolved during their administration. Functional foods must have an adequate amount of specific probiotic strain(s) during their use and storage, as good viability is needed for optimum functionality of the probiotic. Thus, when developing novel functional food-based formulations, choosing a strain with strong technological properties is crucial. The present review focused on probiotics as an active ingredient in different beverage formulations and the exerting mechanism of action and fate of probiotics in the human body. Moreover, a comprehensive overview of the regulative and safety issues of probiotics-based foods and beverages formulations.
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Kombucha is a SCOBY-fermented tea beverage known for its taste, sensorial qualities, and high endogenous microbial load. In recent years, kombucha has become a popular functional food with a compound annual growth rate of 25% from 2015 to 2020 in American kombucha sales alone, and sales are predicted to keep increasing significantly over the next decade. However, kombucha is lacking in scientific research, and there is still much to be explored regarding its safety and native probiotic content. This research looked into the various routes of contamination of several kombucha systems as well as the feasibility of the producing a kombucha beverage with health-promoting characteristics derived from the inclusion of lactic probiotics. Although bacterial spore contamination and survival in the kombucha SCOBY have been documented, it is unknown whether spores can survive in the liquid, or whether they can be transmitted to daughter SCOBYs. The foodborne pathogen and spore-former Bacillus cereus was inoculated into the SCOBY, unfermented liquid, and fermented liquid of three different kombucha systems. Data suggest that neither the route of contamination nor the kombucha system influenced the transmission or survival of B. cereus spores. The spread of the spores between culture and liquid across generation was shown to be sporadic but possible, so hygienic handling of kombucha cultures and raw materials throughout the entire production process is crucial to prevent uptake of pathogenic organisms. There was no survival of B. cereus spores after short-term storage or secondary fermentation, indicating that implementation of a holding step may mitigate potential food safety threats. Kombucha is perceived to contain probiotics, but not all live cultures comprise probiotics. Some commercial kombucha products have validated probiotic strains added to them post-fermentation, but this can be costly. If probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, are inoculated into sweet tea prior to fermentation, they may be able to acidify the tea, replacing the need for utilizing previous kombucha or acetic acid, or survive and/or produce beneficial metabolites during fermentation in great enough amounts to convey a health benefit upon consumption. The survivability of six probiotic Lactobacillus sp. in acidified, sweetened tea at 25ºC during kombucha fermentation was established, and the medium (tea) and temperature (25ºC) were both revealed to affect the growth rates of the bacteria. Differences in pH indicated that the probiotics were unable to acidify the tea pre-fermentation. Although survival during fermentation was possible for four out of the six probiotics, it was concluded that probiotic Lactobacillus sp. are not well suited for a probiotic kombucha beverages, but out of the tested probiotics, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum were the most promising candidates.
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Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
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Probiotics are essential for establishing and maintaining optimal immune health. The probiotic therapy is known from alternative medicine for ages; however, the recent demonstration of the normal microflora to induce innate immunity has introduced the science-based concept of therapeutic application of potentially beneficial probiotic microorganisms for a treatment of functional disorders. Traditionally, probiotics are associated with dairy pro-ducts, however, novel formulations are needed, first of all, originated from naturally occurring symbiotic micro-bial communities as the most robust assemblages. Especially, safe and robust probiotics are needed for long-term expeditions, outposts, extraterrestrial permanently-manned bases, where humans are exposed to adverse environmental factors. Kombucha beverage is Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) and associated with health-promoting effects. Kombucha tea/mat is being in use in human livings within millennia as a probiotic drink for healing and health prophylaxis effects, however, new research opportunities promise its «renaissan-ce», going to be used pharmacologically.
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The antioxidant activity and contents of various polyphenol classes in the silks of fifteen maize hybrids with economic importance in Serbia were evaluated. Total polyphenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically, after extraction of plant material with 70% aqueous acetone under sonication at room temperature. In addition, flavonoid content was determined. Antioxidant activity of aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by FRAP assay. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of all investigated polyphenol classes was established. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extract of NS 640 hybrid, which had high levels of all polyphenol classes examined. Results suggested strongly that polyphenol content should be considered as an important feature of the herbal drug Maydis stigma. For that reason, the biological source of this herbal drug needs to be more precisely defined, as observed activities and polyphenol contents were greatly dependent on plant material source.
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Adipose tissue in man is a major site for cholesterol storage. In obesity over half of total body cholesterol may reside within this tissue; however, relatively little attention has been directed toward understanding the cholesterol metabolism and its relationship to whole body cholesterol homeostasis in this tissue. In this review the factors which influence cholesterol storage are discussed, with particular emphasis on the effects of diet and drug treatment in both animals and man. The uptake, synthesis, and mobilization of adipose tissue cholesterol appears to be mediated and/or regulated, as in other tissues, by the plasma lipoproteins, and these processes are examined with regard to both normal and pathologic states.
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The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.
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Tea catechins, an important class of polyphenols, have been shown to have wide spectrum of antitumor activity believed to be due mainly to their antioxidative effect. In this study, the radical scavenging behavior of catechins on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied. Two reaction products of (+)-catechin, and two reaction products of (-)-epicatechin were purified and identified. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed high-field 1-D and 2-D NMR spectral analysis. Structure elucidation of these products can provide insights into specific mechanisms of antioxidant reactions. A possible mechanism of the formation of reaction products is suggested.
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The common risk factors for atherosclerosis increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, and adventitial cells. These ROS initiate processes involved in atherogenesis through several important enzyme systems, including xanthine oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, and nitric oxide synthase. Physical forces also regulate vascular production of ROS. Oscillatory shear, which is present at sites where atherosclerosis develops, seems a particularly potent stimulus of superoxide production. The signaling cascade for activation of the NAD(P)H oxidase by angiotensin II has recently been elucidated and seems to involve a feed-forward mechanism that permits ongoing production of ROS for prolonged periods. Oxidative stress in humans with coronary artery disease is also exacerbated by a reduction of vascular extracellular superoxide dismutase, normally an important protective enzyme against the superoxide anion.
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Fermented tea or "Kombucha" was prepared by a tea broth (1.7% w/v) and sucrose (10% w/v) with supplement of commercially available starter culture. Teas used in this study were mulberry tea, Japanese green tea, Jasmine tea, Ulong tea and black tea. The teas were fermented for two weeks as an inoculum, following by inoculation to another tea broth and required further two-week static fermentation. In this study the antibacterial activity of several teas were tested against pathogenic bacteria in human and shrimp (e.g. Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus) by disc agar diffusion assay. The pH of fermented teas decreased from around 5 to 2 and the OD600 of tea broth rose significantly from around 0 to 1.5 during fermentation period. Broth from black tea poses the greatest inhibitory activity by measuring diameters of inhibition zones. V. parahaemolyticus showed the largest susceptibility to the fermented tea while pathogenic bacteria in human appeared to be less sensitive. Changes in major components of tea broth were also observed by HPLC analysis. The key organic acids such as succinic acid and gluconic acid produced during the period increased with time, proving the major role of these acids in the microorganism's growth inhibition.
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1. Oxygen is a toxic gas - an introductionto oxygen toxicity and reactive species 2. The chemistry of free radicals and related 'reactive species' 3. Antioxidant defences Endogenous and Diet Derived 4. Cellular responses to oxidative stress: adaptation, damage, repair, senescence and death 5. Measurement of reactive species 6. Reactive species can pose special problems needing special solutions. Some examples. 7. Reactive species can be useful some more examples 8. Reactive species can be poisonous: their role in toxicology 9. Reactive species and disease: fact, fiction or filibuster? 10. Ageing, nutrition, disease, and therapy: A role for antioxidants?
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Effects of kombucha origins and fermentation time on their antioxidant properties were investigated using in vitro free radical scavenging assays. Kombucha from various sources demonstrated different antioxidant activities, and most showed the time-dependent characteristics. The average antioxidant potentials of kombucha after fermenting for 15 days were raised to about 70%, 40%, 49% determined, respectively, by the assays of DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, while the ferrous ion binding ability was inversely diminished by 81%. The total phenol content increased up to 98% which implied that thearubigin might be subjected to biodegradation during fermentation, resulting in the release of smaller molecules with higher antioxidant activities.
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SEVERAL important developments have recently given new impetus to prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) through control of the plasma cholesterol level. Three advances have been particularly dramatic. First, the Nobel prize in medicine was awarded in 1985 to Drs Joseph Goldstein and Michael Brown for their discovery of cell-surface receptors for low-density lipoproteins (LDLs); their finding was fundamental to our understanding of how plasma cholesterol levels are controlled. Second, the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (CPPT)1 reported that lowering of the plasma cholesterol level by bile acid sequestrants reduces the frequency of several manifestations of CHD, including myocardial infarction. And third, a new class of cholesterollowering drugs, namely, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, has been shown to markedly lower cholesterol levels.2-4 Although these inhibitors are not yet approved for clinical use, they reveal the potential for
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Samples of Haipao from three cities of Taiwan were analyzed for their microbial population. Two species of acetic acid bacteria and three species of yeast were isolated from tea fungus Haipao using appropriate isolation media. The isolated bacteria were identified asAcetobacter acetiandAcetobacter pasteurianus, based on their biochemical properties, and compared with those of the type strains of the genusAcetobacter. The yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, andBrettanomyces bruxellensisaccording to conventional phenotypic characterization combined with the Yeast Identification Program. The brew broth analyzed by high−performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was shown to contain glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol. The symbiosis phenomenon between the yeast andAcetobacterwas studied. It was found that the autoclaved yeast cells and ethanol produced by yeasts were helpful forAcetobacterto grow or produce acetic acid. The acetic acid produced byAcetobactercould stimulate the yeast to produce ethanol. The ethanol and acetic acid produced by yeasts andAcetobactermight prevent the competition from other micro-organisms.
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Summary Biologically active substances (water soluble vitamins and minerals) were analyzed in ‘Kombucha’—a curative liquor, produced by the so-called ‘Kombucha cultivation’ (Macedonian collection of microorganisms, No 734) in sweet black tea decoct. The water soluble vitamins in the Kombucha drink were separated and identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified by the comparison of their chromatographic UV spectra with the reference compounds. Four soluble vitamins have been determinated to have the following concentrations: vitamin B1 0.74 mg ml−1, vitamin B6 0.52 mg ml−1, vitamin B12 0.84 mg ml−1 and vitamin C 1.51 mg ml−1. Mineral elements of nutritional and toxicological importance were determined in dissolved ash using atomic absorption chromatography (AAS). Mineral composition content involved determination of the essential elements: zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt. Investigations of some toxic elements showed that lead and chromium were present in very small amounts, whereas cadmium was not found.
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Effects of purpurogallin (PPG), an antioxidant on high cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis, and changes in blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), aortic tissue MDA, chemiluminescence (M-CL), a marker for antioxidant reserve and antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] were investigated in rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups: Group I, regular rabbit chow; Group II, same as Group I+cholesterol (1%); and Group III, same as Group II+PPG (14 mg/kg, orally, daily). Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and blood MDA were measured before and after 4 and 10 weeks on the respective diets. The aorta was removed at the end of 10 weeks for assessment of atherosclerotic changes, MDA concentration, M-CL, and antioxidant enzymes. Coronary arteries were also examined for atherosclerotic changes. Serum TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio increased whereas HDL-C decreased in Group II and their values were similar in Groups II and III. Aortic tissue MDA, M-CL, CAT, and GSH-Px activity increased in Group II but these values in Group III were lower than in Group II except for MDA which was greater in Group III than in Group II. Atherosclerotic changes were greater in Group II than in Group III. Histological changes were similar in Groups II and III. Atherosclerotic changes were also observed in the coronary arteries of Groups II and III, however, they were less in Group III than in Group II. Increased levels of aortic MDA and decreased levels of antioxidant reserve, which were associated with the development of atherosclerosis, suggest a role for oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The protection afforded by PPG, which was associated with reversal of the antioxidant reserve to control level, in spite of hypercholesterolemia, supports the hypothesis that oxygen radicals are involved in the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. These results suggest that PPG retard the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis because of its antioxidant activity without lowering blood cholesterol level.
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The study of the effect of the enzymes tannase, α-galactosidase, phytase and viscozyme on the phenolic composition of lentil flours, in a semi pilot scale stirred fermentor, shows that important modifications occur. Among them, hydroxycinnamic compounds and proanthocyanidins are significantly decreased after the enzymatic treatments. However, quercetin 3-O rutinoside and luteolin increase and reach the highest concentration with tannase. The formation of trans-resveratrol was observed by the action of tannase and phytase, and gallic acid by the action of phytase, α-galactosidase and tannase. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts was determined by their free radical scavenging activity, using the DPPH test, to study the differences in the behaviour of polyphenolics compounds as antioxidants after the different enzymatic treatments. The treatments with viscozyme, α-galactosidase or tannase produce an increase in the antioxidant activity when compared to raw lentils. The results of the analysis of principal components to examine the relationship among antioxidant activity (EC50) (DPPH test) and the concentrations of polyphenolics in all lentils samples, show that the quercetin 3-O rutinoside appears to be the compound with the greatest influence on the EC50 values.
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Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Tea polyphenols which includes (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) have been reported to possess various biological activities. The present study focused on changes in content of organic acid and tea polyphenols in kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea manufacture waste (TWK) during fermentation. Concentration of acetic acid has reached maximum up to 9.5 g/l in GTK on 15th day and glucuronic acid concentration was reached maximum upto 2.3 g/l in BTK on 12th day of fermentation. Very less concentration of lactic acid was observed during the fermentation period and citric acid was detected only on 3rd day of fermentation in GTK and BTK but not in TWK. When compared to BTK and TWK very less degradation of EGCG (18%) and ECG (23%) was observed in GTK. TF and thearubigen (TR) were relatively stable when compared to epicatechin isomers. The biodegradation of tea catechins, TF and TR during kombucha fermentation might be due to some unknown enzymes excreted by yeasts and bacteria in kombucha culture.
Article
Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The antioxidant properties of apple polyphenols were evaluated using the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, DPPH radical and superoxide scavenging activities. The polyphenols examined were epicatechin, its dimer (procyanidin B2), trimer, tetramer and oligomer, quercetin glycosides, chlorogenic acid, phloridzin and 3-hydroxy-phloridzin. All the compounds showed strong antioxidant activities, and their DPPH-scavenging activities were 2–3 times and superoxide anion radical-scavenging activities were 10–30 times better than those of the antioxidant vitamins C and E.
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It is widely believed that the iron chelator 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) is able to fully block the Fenton reaction by forming a complex (Fe(phen)3(2+), also known as ferroin) that cannot react with H2O2. We observed that phen cannot fully prevent 2-deoxyribose (5 mM) degradation induced by Fenton reagents (30 microM Fe(II) plus 100-500 microM H2O2); protection varied from 55% to 66% when the phen/Fe(II) ratio was 3:1 to 20:1. Inhibition of 2-deoxyribose damage was nearly unchanged if phen was pre-incubated with Fe(II). Moreover, preformed Fe(phen)3(2+) complex added to the solution containing H2O2 was able to induce 2-deoxyribose degradation and methane sulfinic acid formation from the oxidation of 5% DMSO. The partially protective effect of phen was unchanged with the use of either phosphate or HEPES as buffers (5 mM, pH 7.2), or in unbuffered media (pH 5.1). Both DMSO oxidation and 2-deoxyribose degradation correlated with the increase in Fe(phen)3(2+) concentration. Strand breaks in plasmid pTARGETtrade mark DNA induced by Fenton reagents (1 microM Fe(II) plus 25 microM H2O2) in HEPES buffer could only be partially prevented by phen, even when the chelator was 16 times more concentrated than Fe(II). In these experiments, Fe(phen)3(2+) and DNA were pre-incubated from 1 to 10 min before addition of H2O2. Moreover, a high level of DNA strand breakage was observed when iron and phen are added to the reaction immediately before H2O2. On the other hand, phen fully prevented 2-deoxyribose degradation induced by the autoxidation of 30 microM Fe(II) in phosphate-buffered (3 to 30 mM) media. Our data provide evidence that the Fe(phen)3(2+) complex induces in vitro oxidative damage in the presence of H2O2 (possibly by means of Fe(phen)3(2+) dissociation into Fe(phen)2(2+)), but they show that the complex cannot undergo autoxidation.
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There is now growing evidence from animal models for the possible control of different stages of the carcinogenic process by the beta-glucuronidase inhibitor D-glucaro-1,4-lactone and its precursors such as D-glucaric acid salts, D-glucarates. D-Glucaric acid is a natural, non-toxic compound produced in small amounts by mammals, including humans. It was recently found in some vegetables and fruits. D-Glucaro-1,4-lactone and D-glucarate exhibit potent antiproliferative properties in vivo. Some human subpopulations could have reduced risk of cancer development by ingesting food rich in D-glucaric acid or self-medication with D-glucarates alone or in combination with other chemopreventive agents.
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CARDIOVASCULAR disease remains the chief cause of death in the United States and Western Europe, and atherosclerosis, the principal cause of myocardial and cerebral infarction, accounts for the majority of these deaths.1 This review, like its predecessor,2 will not attempt to cover all literature on atherosclerosis. In a previous review of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,2 Glomset and I discussed various hypotheses of atherogenesis2 3 4 5 6 7 and emphasized the importance of intimal smooth-muscle proliferation as the key event in the development of the advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. The response-to-injury hypothesis of atherogenesis2 3 4 5 6 proposes that "injury" to the endothelium is the initiating event in . . .
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In recent years, increasing clinical and experimental data have provided compelling evidence that neutrophil-derived oxygen radicals and their metabolites are important mediators of vascular endothelial injury. In this review, attention is directed toward in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental studies contributing to current understanding of mechanisms of oxyradical mediated endothelial damage. Although these studies may have broad significance, they appear to have particular relevance to the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome and other types of acute pulmonary dysfunction.
Article
Patients with coronary artery disease and abnormalities of serum lipids often have endothelial vasodilator dysfunction, which may contribute to ischemic cardiac events. Whether cholesterol-lowering or antioxidant therapy can restore endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation is unknown. We randomly assigned 49 patients (mean serum cholesterol level, 209 +/- 33 mg per deciliter [5.40 +/- 0.85 mmol per liter]) to receive one of three treatments: an American Heart Association Step 1 diet (the diet group, 11 patients); lovastatin and cholestyramine (the low-density lipoprotein [LDL]-lowering group, 21 patients); or lovastatin and probucol (the LDL-lowering-antioxidant group, 17 patients). Endothelium-dependent coronary-artery vasomotion in response to an intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) was assessed at base line and after one year of therapy. Vasoconstrictor responses to these doses of acetylcholine are considered to be abnormal. Treatment resulted in significant reductions in LDL cholesterol levels of 41 +/- 22 percent in the LDL-lowering-antioxidant group and 38 +/- 20 percent in the LDL-lowering group (P < 0.001 vs. the diet group). The maximal changes in coronary-artery diameter with acetylcholine at base line and at follow-up were -19 and -2 percent, respectively, in the LDL-lowering-antioxidant group, -15 and -6 percent in the LDL-lowering group, and -14 and -19 percent in the diet group (P < 0.01 for the LDL-lowering-antioxidant group vs. the diet group; P = 0.08 for the LDL-lowering group vs. the diet group). (The negative numbers indicate vasoconstriction). Thus, the greatest improvement in the vasoconstrictor response was seen in the LDL-lowering-antioxidant group. The improvement in endothelium-dependent vasomotion with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant therapy may have important implications for the activity of myocardial ischemia and may explain in part the reduced incidence of adverse coronary events that is known to result from cholesterol-lowering therapy.
Article
Flavonoids are phenolic compounds of vegetable origin with antioxidant effects. The present study aimed to determine their properties as LDL antioxidants. LDL were incubated with increasing concentrations of flavonoids (0-16 micrograms/ml) and LDL oxidation was started by adding CuCl2 (2 microM) to the media. When flavonoids were present in the media, vitamin E consumption, the lag phase of conjugated diene formation, LDL electrophoretic mobility in agarose gels and the appearance of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were delayed in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine whether flavonoids could terminate LDL oxidation once initiated, two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, LDL oxidation was initiated as described above. At 2 or 4 h of incubation, flavonoids were added (4 micrograms/ml) and their effect compared to samples where butylated hydroxytoluene or EDTA were added. At 5 h, in the LDL samples where flavonoids were added, the electrophoretic mobility and TBARS production were the same as those present in LDL samples incubated for the whole period in the absence of flavonoids. However, when either butylate hydroxytoluene or EDTA was added, as would be expected, the LDL oxidation process was completely arrested as shown by a reduction in the appearance of TBARS and a lower LDL electrophoretic mobility. In the second experiment, LDL oxidation was initiated as described above and at 0, 10 and 20 min, flavonoids were added (4 micrograms/ml). When vitamin E was still present in the LDL solution, the flavonoids were able to both increase the lag phase in the formation of conjugated dienes and to delay the consumption of vitamin E. The present results show that in vitro, flavonoids prevent LDL oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner, delaying the consumption of vitamin E, but they cannot terminate or delay LDL oxidation once vitamin E in LDL is consumed.
Article
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that reductions of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels substantially decrease the risk for coronary heart disease. These trials confirm other lines of evidence that high levels of LDL are a critical atherogenic factor. Aggressive lowering of LDL levels in high-risk patients promises to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease in the first third of the 21st century. However, several additional measures will be required to marginalize coronary heart disease in the 21st century. Other lipoprotein abnormalities and other risk factors, eg, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, must be controlled to obtain the full benefit of LDL-lowering therapy. Moreover, the health care delivery system must be reorganized to put more emphasis on prevention. Although much can be achieved through application of current knowledge in prevention efforts, further advances through new research will be required to remove coronary heart disease as a major cause of death in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1177-1184
Article
Epidemiologic studies have provided evidence of an inverse relation between coronary artery disease and antioxidant intake, and vitamin E supplementation in particular. The oxidative-modification hypothesis implies that reduced atherosclerosis is a result of the production of LDL that is resistant to oxidation, but linking the reduced oxidation of LDL to a reduction in atherosclerosis has been problematic. Several important additional mechanisms may underlie the role of antioxidants in preventing the clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease (Fig. 2). Specifically, there is evidence that plaque stability, vasomotor function, and the tendency to thrombosis are subject to modification by specific antioxidants. For example, cellular antioxidants inhibit monocyte adhesion, protect against the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL, and inhibit platelet activation. Furthermore, cellular antioxidants protect against the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis by preserving endothelium-derived nitric oxide activity. We speculate that these mechanisms have an important role in the benefits of antioxidants.
Article
Excessive alcohol ingestion disturbs the metabolism of most nutrients. Although alcohol can lead to severe hypoglycemia, alcoholics are usually glucose intolerant, probably due to a inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Ethanol intake also leads to negative nitrogen balance and an increased protein turnover. Alcohol also alters lipid metabolism, causing a profound inhibition of lipolysis. Looking for an association between alcohol intake, nutrition, and alcoholic liver disease, we have observed a higher prevalence of subclinical histologic liver damage among obese alcoholics. Multivariate analysis in a large group of alcoholics has shown that obesity is an independent predictor of alcoholic liver disease. Other authors have reported that alcoholics with a history of obesity have a two to three times higher risk of having alcoholic liver disease than non-obese alcoholics. The possible explanation for this association is that the microsomal system, which plays an important pathogenic role in alcoholic liver disease, is induced in non-alcoholic obese subjects and alcoholics. Also, peripheral blood monocyte cells of obese alcoholics produce higher levels of interleukin-1, a cytokine that can contribute to liver damage. The ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids can also increase the damaging effects of alcohol on the liver, as has been demonstrated in rats subjected to continuous intragastric infusion of alcohol. Observations in human alcoholics have shown that liver damage is associated with a higher ratio of C:18:1/C:18:0 and a lower ratio of C:22:4/C:18:2 in liver lipids, consistent with an induction of delta 9 desaturase and an increased peroxidation of C:22:4.
Article
In this investigation, we study the synthesis and the evaluation of antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activity of a number of 2-biphenylyl morpholine derivatives, which are structurally similar to some substituted morpholines possessing antioxidant activity, as well as to hypocholesterolemic 3-biaryl-quinuclidines. The novel derivatives are found to inhibit the ferrous/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids, the most potent derivative, 2-(4-biphenyl)-4-methyl-octahydro-1,4-benzoxazin-2-ol (compound 7), having an IC(50) value of 250 microM. In addition, these compounds demonstrate hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic action. The most active compound (7) decreases total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and triglycerides in plasma of Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats by 54%, 51%, and 49%, respectively, at 28 micromol/kg (ip). The above results indicate that the new molecules may be proven useful as leads for the design of novel compounds as potentially antiatherogenic factors.
Article
Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and hepatotoxicity in rats. The results demonstrated that HAs, at the concentrations of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml, significantly decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and the formation of malondialdehyde induced by a 30-min treatment of t-BHP (1.5 mM). The in vivo investigation showed that the oral pretreatment of HAs (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days before a single dose of t-BHP (0.2 mmol/kg, ip) significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase) and reduced oxidative liver damage. The histopathological evaluation of the liver revealed that Hibiscus pigments reduced the incidence of liver lesions including inflammatory, leucocyte infiltration, and necrosis induced by t-BHP in rats. Based on the results described above, we speculate that Hibiscus pigments may play a role in the prevention of oxidative damage in living systems.
Article
Specific antioxidant activity (SAA) (i.e., activity related to the molar or gallic acid equivalent amount of antioxidant) of natural polyphenolic mixtures or pure phenolic compounds was studied using their capacity to delay the conjugated diene production brought about by in vitro LDL copper-mediated or AAPH-mediated oxidation. The cinnamic acid series (caffeic, sinapic, ferulic acids) displayed a constant SAA over a large range of concentrations, whereas the benzoic acid series (gallic and protocatechuic acids) showed much higher SAA at low concentrations. The natural phenolic mixtures had a constant SAA. The highest SAA was obtained with caffeoyl esters (caffeoylquinic, rosmarinic, and caffeoyltartaric acids) and catechin for the copper-oxidation and the AAPH-oxidation system, respectively. Phenolic mixtures and acids delayed vitamin E depletion and decreased proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholine production. As with polyphenols, probucol delayed lysophosphatidylcholine and conjugated dienes production, at higher concentrations, but was not effective at preventing vitamin E depletion. Polyphenols prevent the oxidation of LDL and its constituents (vitamin E, phosphatidylcholine), which is compatible with an antiinflammatory and antiatherosclerotic role in pathophysiological conditions.
Article
Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG > or = TF2B > or = TF2A > TF1 > or = EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5-40 micromol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.
Article
Three hard winter wheat varieties (Akron, Trego, and Platte) were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties and total phenolic contents (TPC). Free radical scavenging properties of wheat grain extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometric and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry methods against stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and radical cation ABTS*+ (2,2'-azino-di[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate]). The results showed that the three wheat extracts differed in their capacities to quench or inhibit DPPH* and ABTS*+. Akron showed the greatest activity to quench DPPH radicals, while Platte had the highest capacity against ABTS*+. The ED50 values of wheat extracts against DPPH radicals were 0.60 mg/mL for Akron, 7.1 mg/mL for Trego, and 0.95 mg/mL for Platte under the experimental conditions. The trolox equivalents against ABTS*+ were 1.31 +/- 0.44, 1.08 +/- 0.05, and 1.91 +/- 0.06 micromol/g of grain for Akron, Trego, and Platte wheat, respectively. ESR results confirmed that wheat extracts directly reacted with and quenched free radicals. The TPC were 487.9 +/- 927.8 microg gallic acid equivalents/g of grain. No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH* and ABTS*+ (p = 0.15 and p > 0.5, respectively).
Article
Background: Hypercholesterolemia increases the formation of arachidonic acid and thereby synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. During synthesis of these eicosanoids, oxyradicals are produced. Oxyradicals have been implicated in the development of hypercholes-terolemic atherosclerosis. Aspirin, an inhibitor of synthesis of prostaglandins, would prevent the generation of oxyradicals and hence would prevent the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if aspirin attenuates the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, and if this attenuation is associated with a decrease in the oxidative stress. Methods and results: Three groups of rabbits were used for this study: Group I, control; Group II, 0.5% cholesterol; Group III, 0.5% cholesterol plus 0.068% aspirin. Blood samples were collected before and after 1 and 2 months of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum malondialdehyde, and white blood cell chemiluminescence, a measure of oxyradicals produced by white blood cells. Aortas were removed at the end of the protocol for the measurement of atherosclerotic plaques, malondialdehyde and aortic chemiluminescence, a measure of antioxidant reserve. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased to a similar extent in Groups II and III compared to Group I. Serum triglycerides increased in both Groups II and III; however, the increase was greater in Group III than in Group II. Levels of serum and aortic malondialdehyde, and white blood cell-chemiluminescence were higher in Group II compared to Group I. Aspirin decreased the levels of these parameters. Antioxidant reserve increased in both Groups II and III, the increase being greater in the latter than the former. White blood cell-chemiluminescence increased in Group II compared to Group I, but remained unaltered in Group III compared to Group I. Aspirin treatment reduced the development of atherosclerosis by approximately 47%. Conclusion: These results suggest that aspirin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, reduced the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, and this effect was associated with a decrease in the oxidative stress.