Factors associated with HIV testing in men who have sex with men, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Sexually transmitted infections (Impact Factor: 3.4). 06/2012; 88(7). DOI: 10.1136/sextrans-2012-050661
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) remains low among men in sub-Saharan Africa. The factors associated with previous HIV testing and knowledge of partner's HIV status are described for 9,107 men who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences' VCT site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 1997 and 2008. Data are from intake forms administered to clients seeking VCT services. Most of the men (64.5%) had not previously been tested and 75% were unaware of their partner's HIV status. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age, education, condom use, and knowledge of partner's HIV status were significant predictors of previous HIV testing. Education, number of sexual partners, and condom use were also associated with knowledge of partner's HIV status. The low rate of VCT use among men underscores the need for more intensive initiatives to target men and remove the barriers that prevent HIV disclosure.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · American journal of men's health
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    ABSTRACT: To describe sexual risk behaviour, correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and never testing for HIV and its implications for HIV prevention interventions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria and other similar contexts. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 712 MSM in Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Levels of sexual risk behaviour and never having tested for HIV prior to the survey were calculated using weighted data for each city and unweighted data for the pooled sample. Correlates of UAI and never testing for HIV were determined using multiple logistic regression. The risk for HIV and STI among MSM in Nigeria is high, with 43.4% reporting UAI at last sex, 45.1% never having been tested for HIV and 53.9% reporting exchange of sex for resources in the past 6 months. Correlates of UAI in multivariate analysis included living in Ibadan, marriage or cohabitation with a woman, identification as bisexual, not having tested for HIV and being HIV-positive. Correlates of not having tested for HIV in multivariate analysis included living in Ibadan, young age, less education, unemployment and report of UAI. HIV testing is low and associated with UAI. Findings merit targeted and innovative approaches for HIV prevention for MSM, especially access to HIV self-testing. Attention to social and structural determinants of health-seeking and sexual risk behaviour is also needed, including the criminalisation of homosexuality and social marginalisation of MSM.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Sexually transmitted infections
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    ABSTRACT: A relatively neglected topic to date has been the occurrence of concentrated epidemics within generalized epidemic settings and the potential role of targeted interventions in such settings. We review recent studies in high-risk groups as well as findings relating to geographical heterogeneity and the potential for targeting 'high-transmission zones' in the 10 countries with highest HIV prevalence. Our review of recent studies confirmed earlier findings that, even in the context of generalized epidemics, MSM have a substantially higher prevalence than the general population. Estimates of prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in sub-Saharan African countries are rarely available and, when they are, often outdated. We identified recent studies of sex workers in Kenya and Uganda. In all three cases - MSM, PWID, and sex workers - HIV prevalence estimates are mostly based on convenience. Moreover, good estimates of the total size of these populations are not available. Our review of recent studies of high-risk populations defined on the basis of geography showed high levels of both new and existing infections in Kenya (slums), South Africa (peri-urban communities), and Uganda (fishing villages). Recent empirical findings combined with evidence from phylogenetic studies and supported by mathematical models provide a clear rationale for testing the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of targeted HIV prevention approaches in hyperendemic populations to supplement measures aimed at the general population.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
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