The objective of this study was to analyze a population-based database for recent trends in surgical management of pediatric adhesive bowel obstruction and compare open versus laparoscopic lysis of adhesions (LOA).
Subjects and methods:
Pediatric adhesive bowel obstruction cases were identified in the Kids' Inpatients Database from 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Data analysis included patients' demographics, hospital variables, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges (THC). Complications analysis included postoperative shock, hemorrhage, hematoma, seroma, wound complications, infection, fistula, and pulmonary complications.
In total, 20,679 pediatric adhesive bowel obstruction cases were identified during the study period. These were characterized by a median age of 11 years old, with 59.0% of the population female. Overall treatment included 88.6% open and 11.4% laparoscopic LOA. A more than twofold increase in utilization of laparoscopy was observed from 7.2% in 1997 to 17.2% in 2009 (P<.001). Complication rates were lower for laparoscopic LOA versus open (5.6% versus 10.4%; odds ratio 0.512; 95% confidence interval 0.394-0.667; P<.001), especially accidental puncture or laceration rate (2.2% versus 3.9%; odds ratio 0.566; 95% confidence interval 0.375-0.854; P=.006). Conversion to open LOA occurred in 1.9%. Laparoscopy was associated with a shorter median LOS (6 versus 8 days; P<.001) and a lower mean THC ($38,241.11 versus $48,552.51; P<.001) compared with open LOA. Multivariate regression analysis did not find hospital bed size, location, teaching status, and regions to be statistically significant predictors for utilization of laparoscopy.
Laparoscopic LOA is a safe option for pediatric adhesive bowel obstruction with lower complication rates and a reduced economic burden. Despite the increase in utilization of laparoscopy in recent years, only a minority of patients underwent laparoscopic LOA. Further studies are needed to identify and characterize the subgroup of patients who benefit from laparoscopic LOA.