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Why Gratitude Enhances Well-Being: What We Know, What We Need to Know

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... The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of research focusing on gratitude (Dickens, 2017;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Gulliford et al., 2013;Watkins, 2013;Wood et al., 2010). As an overarching theoretical construct gratitude incorporates numerous aspects, including both dispositional or trait-like (the ability to notice and appreciate positive in the world) and situational (experiencing positive emotion in relation to a specific situation) components (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Lambert et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2010). ...
... The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of research focusing on gratitude (Dickens, 2017;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Gulliford et al., 2013;Watkins, 2013;Wood et al., 2010). As an overarching theoretical construct gratitude incorporates numerous aspects, including both dispositional or trait-like (the ability to notice and appreciate positive in the world) and situational (experiencing positive emotion in relation to a specific situation) components (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Lambert et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2010). Conceptualizations of gratitude also vary in relation to aspects such as the specification of an object of gratitude, the 3 necessity of intentionality and benefit and the moral value associated with gratitude (Gulliford et al., 2013;Lambert et al., 2009). ...
... Despite these varying conceptualizations regarding the precise definition of gratitude, there is consensus in the literature that gratitude is associated with well-being (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Harbaugh & Vasey, 2014;Lambert et al., 2009;Watkins, 2013). Gratitude is positively related to various aspects of well-being, including social, psychological and physical well-being, and appears to contribute to well-being across the lifespan (Chopik et al., 2019;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). ...
Article
During the transition from school to university students are faced with many challenges to their well-being. This is especially true in resource constrained societies like South Africa. While there is extensive research linking well-being with gratitude, less is known qualitatively about what individuals are grateful for. A sample of 933 undergraduate students submitted gratitude lists, resulting in over 9000 unique ‘gratitude items’. Thematic analysis revealed several prominent themes, such as gratitude for relationships, material resources, being at university, life and health, and, finally, religious gratitude. These themes are discussed in the context of the importance of family relationships in the lives of emerging adults, the core role played by the educational context, the importance of socioeconomic resources and the association between religion, gratitude, and well-being. Strengthening these resources and cultivating gratitude for these prominent targets of appreciation may support students in their developmental trajectory.
... Ample research has documented the role of gratitude as a significant contributor to LS (e.g., Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Gratitude is an indicator of a worldview oriented toward discerning and appreciating the good in life (Wood et al., 2008). ...
... Moreover, interventions aimed at enhancing gratitude have been found to contribute to a significant enhancement of well-being. Studies have shown that intentional daily gratitude rituals and habits may serve as a central mechanism for ensuring a satisfying life (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Killen & Macaskill, 2015). ...
... The present study contributes to current conceptualizations and findings in important ways. First, the findings support previous evidence emphasizing the contribution of gratitude to LS (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2008). Adopting a broader ecological perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) further underscores the reach beyond the individual to consider the role of the contexts in which people live and act. ...
Article
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The present research adopted both an individual and a sociocultural approach to expand previous knowledge of the mechanisms underlying reported variance in life satisfaction. Given the gratitude-oriented lifestyle and daily rituals of the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community, gratitude may serve as a central vehicle to its members’ high reported levels of life satisfaction. Thus, Study 1 explored the mediating role of gratitude through a cross-cultural comparison between ultra-Orthodox and secular samples. Study 2 explored the moderating effect of optimism on the relationship between the sociocultural group and gratitude, which, in turn, affects life satisfaction. Based on two matched samples of ultra-Orthodox and secular individuals, the findings indicate that the relationship between cultural group and life satisfaction was fully mediated by gratitude. Moreover, optimism was found to moderate the relationship between cultural group and gratitude so that the difference in gratitude levels between the two cultural groups was higher for individuals with low levels of optimism. The findings hold significant conceptual and practical implications for a better understanding of life satisfaction and its contributors.
... According to the schematic hypothesis, individuals have different interpretative lenses regarding cost, value, and altruistic motives of receiving a benefit from a benefactor (Wood et al., 2010), and people who are more prone to appraise that a valuable and costly benefit was altruistically provided to them experience more gratitude and well-being. The schematic hypothesis ties in with Emmons and Mishra's (2011) proposal that gratitude facilitates positive memory bias in that greater gratitude prompts a positive cognitive lens which promotes well-being. Gratitude causes positive cognitive shifts that alter the way individuals frame past experiences and interpret future experiences in a positive trajectory, leading to increased well-being. ...
... Lastly, the stress coping hypothesis links gratitude and well-being with enhanced coping skills. Gratitude is thought to promote effective coping skills, which include active problem-solving and seeking social support as well as using cognitive approaches such as positive thought reframing to cope with stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2010), which consequently improves well-being. As a result, coping is a mechanism theorized to explain the relation between gratitude and well-being. ...
... In support of the broaden-and-build theory, You et al. (2018) found emotional difficulties to explain the relation between children's gratitude and life satisfaction. There has also been backing for children's positive perceptions of others' support and team cohesion as explanations for the relation between gratitude and life satisfaction (Chen, 2013;Chen, Kee, & Chen, 2015;You et al., 2018), which broadly align with the perspective that children with greater gratitude have positive cognitive biases regarding past and future experiences (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2010). ...
Article
Positive psychology has highlighted the importance of personal positive qualities such as gratitude for human thriving. Reviews of research on gratitude are predominantly based on work with adults. We address this gap by considering the familial roots and well-being implications of gratitude in children. We conducted two systematic reviews examining children’s gratitude as it relates to parent–child relationships (N = 10) and children’s gratitude and well-being (N = 38). Children’s gratitude was higher when parents modeled gratitude, there was a more secure parent–child attachment, and parents employed more supportive, autonomy granting, and warm parenting. These findings align with attachment theory, social learning and emotion socialization theories, and the find-remind-and-bind theory. Additionally, children’s gratitude was positively related to greater life satisfaction, positive affect, and mental well-being in cross-sectional and intervention studies. These findings provide some support for the broaden-and-build theory, the adaptive cycle model, and the schematic hypothesis. The reviewed theoretical frameworks and empirical findings formed the basis of our proposed model whereby children’s gratitude is posited to mediate the relation between parent–child relationship factors and children’s well-being. Further, we identified several testable mechanisms that might explain why gratitude is related to well-being. Our proposed model is an important contribution to the current literature because it provides a novel, overarching synthesis of existing work on children’s gratitude that is intended to be a framework for future research to test potential mechanisms relevant to children’s gratitude development and well-being outcomes.
... Bu ise salgın koşullarında ortaya çıkan veya ağırlaşan psikolojik problemlerle baş etmeyi kolaylaştıracak kendi kendine yardım yöntem ve becerilerine olan ihtiyacı artırmaktadır. Pozitif psikoloji yazınına göre, zaman ve maliyet açısından herkes için uygulanması kolay bir kendi kendine yardım yöntemi olan minnettarlıklarımızı yazarak minnettarlık farkındalığımızı artırma etkinlikleri insanların yaşama daha olumlu bakmasını sağlayarak psikolojik iyi oluşu ve zihinsel sağlığı desteklemektedir (Emmons ve McCullough, 2003;Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Lyubomirsky, Dickerhoof, Boehm ve Sheldon, 2011;Seligman ve ark., 2005). Ancak bu yöntemin sanıldığı kadar etkili olamayabileceğini gösteren kanıtlar da bulunmaktadır (Jans-Beken ve ark., 2020). ...
... Yaşamla olan bu pozitif bağı sayesinde minnettarlığın, zihinsel odağımızı genişletip daha olumlu düşünmemizi ve davranmamızı sağlayabildiğine dikkat çekilmektedir (Fredrickson, 2004;McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons ve Larson, 2001). Araştırmalar bununla uyumlu olarak, minnettarlığın psikolojik iyi oluşa işaret eden mutluluk, yaşam doyumu, umut ve pozitif düşünce ve duygulanımı geliştirebildiğini; psikolojik kötü oluşa işaret eden stres, korku, kaygı, depresyon ve negatif düşünce ve duygulanıma karşı ise koruma sağlayabildiğini göstermektedir (Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Lau ve Cheng, 2011;Petrocchi ve Couyoumdjian, 2016;Wood ve ark., 2010). ...
... Daha önce işaret edildiği gibi, minnettarlık deneyimlerini yazma yoluyla yaşama ilişkin pozitif farkındalığı artırmanın etkilerine ilişkin kanıtlar karışıktır. Bazı çalışmalar olumlu etkilerine ilişkin kanıtları öne çıkarırken (Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Seligman ve ark., 2005) Not. f = frekans, N = koşulların ilk sütunundaki temaları deneyimleyen/rapor eden katılımcı sayısı. ...
... If we can understand the mechanisms by which gratitude can lead to well-being, we may be able to understand what makes its effects similar or different to other positive experiences, and design interventions which more closely target the 'active ingredients' of gratitude. A multitude of hypotheses have been proposed regarding the mechanisms by which gratitude may enhance positive outcomes, including that it may boost positive affect, help individuals to build resources which facilitate coping, increase positive attentional, interpretation and memory biases, and/or foster greater prosocial behaviour and social support (Algoe, 2012;Alkozei et al., 2018;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Watkins, 2014;Wood et al., 2010). As noted by several authors, our understanding of children's gratitude is particularly limited (Froh et al., 2007;Hussong et al., 2019;Nguyen & Gordon, 2020). ...
... At present, there is a relatively limited evidence base to suggest how trait or interventionelicited gratitude may contribute to well-being (Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). As acknowledged by Wood et al. (2010), the mechanisms by which trait and intervention-elicited gratitude operate may be different, and it is not a given that gratitude interventions promote well-being through increased gratitude. ...
... It can also be unclear whether interventions are targeting interpersonal or intrapersonal gratitude, or a combination of both. This highlights the need to synthesise and evaluate the current research, to shed light on the most promising mechanisms that a successful children's gratitude intervention might target (Alkozei et al., 2018;Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Literature searching has suggested that there is not yet a review available which explores the mediators between children's gratitude and positive outcomes. ...
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
... In contrast, gratitude might help broaden one's use of emotions to motivate oneself on a task and/or in controlling one's emotions in various situations. Second, some researchers have raised the possibility of considering gratitude as an important amplifier of positive psychological adjustment in adults (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Gruszecka, 2015). Specifically, Gruszecka (2015) found that by engaging in gratitude (i.e., recalling and describing a time one felt grateful), participants were engaged in an upward spiral of improved interpersonal relationships, heightened trust in others, and, noteworthy, enhanced life satisfaction. ...
... However, no evidence was found to suggest that gratitude is related to life satisfaction by building a greater understanding of one's own or others' emotions. Additionally, in testing for an interaction model (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Gruszecka, 2015), gratitude was found to amplify life satisfaction for Spanish older adults with high (versus low) understanding of others' emotions. Thus, our findings provide some support for both the broadening and amplifying effects of gratitude in Spanish older adults, and suggest that these models may not be mutually exclusive. ...
Article
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The present study was concerned with how gratitude and facets of emotional intelligence (i.e., self-emotions appraisal, others-emotions appraisal, use of emotion, & regulation of emotion) are related to life satisfaction in older adults. Two models were examined in a sample of 191 Spanish older adults: (1) a broaden-and-build model, in which gratitude might be associated with greater life satisfaction by broadening and building facets of emotional intelligence; and (2) an amplification model, in which gratitude might interact with facets of emotional intelligence to amplify life satisfaction. In examining a broaden-and-build model, mediation analysis indicated that gratitude was associated with greater life satisfaction in older adults via broadening one’s use of emotions. In addition, in examining an amplification model, we found evidence of an Others-Emotions Appraisal × Gratitude interaction effect, such that the life satisfaction of older adults with an adept understanding of others’ emotions was enhanced by dispositional gratitude. The present study contributes to the extant literature by delineating specific pathways by which gratitude and emotional intelligence influence life satisfaction among older adults. Our findings provide evidence of potential strengths-based mechanisms to support older adult life satisfaction. In addition to existing therapies and psychoeducational interventions, it would seem valuable for practitioners to not only consider ways to promote older adults’ gratitude, but also the use of emotions, and adept appraisal of others’ emotions to facilitate their life satisfaction.
... Additionally, according to hope theory, positive emotions result from an individual's perceived progress towards desired goals (Snyder, 2002), and mindfulness practice has been found to increase awareness of, and to support progress towards, these goals (Rand & Cheavens, 2009). Furthermore, a grateful disposition and/or state has been theorized to be present when positive emotional valence and a tendency towards mindfully appreciating positive emotions and experiences, and those who have contributed to them, exist, thus increasing and sustaining subjective well-being over time (Emmons & Mishra, 2012;McCullough et al., 2002). Consistent with this, participating in mindfulnessbased cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to predict a greater appreciation of daily life events (Geschwind et al., 2011). ...
... Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the effects of a brief, single-session mindfulness practice on state hope and gratitude, as well as the possible mediating effects of state mindfulness. Following Snyder (2002), state hope was taken to be the in-the-moment sense someone has of their capability and motivation to move towards their goals, while state gratitude was considered to be individuals' in-themoment awareness of positive things in their life combined with gratefulness towards those who had contributed to these (Emmons & Mishra, 2012;McCullough et al., 2002). The primary hypotheses were that (1) engaging in a brief mindfulness practice would result in improved state hope compared to control; and (2) engaging in a brief practice would improve state gratitude relative to control. ...
Article
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Objectives: Brief, single-session mindfulness practices have been shown to reduce distress and increase mindfulness, emotion regulation, and optimism. However, their effects on state hope and gratitude have yet to be examined. Therefore, the effects of a mindfulness of the breath induction on state hope and state gratitude are explored in this online study. Methods: A sample of 474 adults (69% female) from the general population were randomized to either a 10-minute mindfulness practice or a 10-minute audiobook control. Participants were asked to complete pre and post state measures of hope and gratitude, as well as state and trait mindfulness. Results: Results showed significant positive effects of mindfulness practice for the outcomes state hope (d = 0.68; p < .001) and state gratitude (d = 1.12; p < .001) compared to controls. A significant statistical mediating effect of state mindfulness in the relationship between mindfulness practice and outcomes was also found. Conclusions: Overall, findings have implications for mindfulness inductions and how these can be helpful in improving individuals’ state hope, gratitude, and mindfulness. In particular, this study has demonstrated that a 10-minute, remotely delivered, mindfulness induction can have medium to large positive effects on state hope and gratitude for individuals from the general population. These effects are especially noteworthy given the brevity and online delivery of the practice. Further future research directions are discussed.
... Gratitude, an emotion often aimed at admiring another persons' supportive behavior (McCullough et al., 2002), strengthens and builds various personal and social resources, including spirituality. Emmons and Mishra (2011) investigated various mechanisms and proposed ten possible explanations for how gratitude improves well-being, with gratitude enhancing spirituality being one of the ten possible explanations. ...
... Gratitude might be a crucial asset for emerging adults (Duprey et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2018). Gratitude tends to promote well-being over the course of one's life and is favorably correlated with different facets of well-being, covering physical, social, and psychological well-being (Chopik et al., 2019;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). The literature suggests that more research is needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of gratitude in the lives of emerging adults (Duprey et al., 2018). ...
Article
Gratitude can play a significant role in enhancing the well-being of emerging adults since it armors them from the cold waves of psychological distress associated with emerging adulthood. Therefore, this study explored the association between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults. Further, the study examined the process underlying the association between these concepts through the lens of spirituality. The study investigated proposed relationships on a sample of 413 emerging adults ranging from 18 to 25 years with a mean age of 21.27 (SD = 1.60). First, the study applied structural equation modeling to establish the validity of the model (measurement model validity), and then the model's hypothesized relationships were tested (structural model). The findings illustrated both gratitude and dimensions of spirituality share a positive and significant association with psychological well-being. Spirituality’s dimensions emerged as possible mediators in the association between gratitude and psychological well-being. These results lead to a deeper understanding of the relationship between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults, concluding that gratitude influences psychological well-being both directly (b = 0.34, p < .001) and indirectly (b = 0.20, p < .001) through spirituality. The study also addresses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
... The field of positive psychology postulates that experiences such as compassion, empathy, forgiveness and gratitude, can enrich a person's life and enhance subjective wellbeing [37]. Gratitude involves appreciating and acknowledging the value that we receive from others [38]. Gratitude has been used in designed interactive systems to improve wellbeing and health metrics such as mood [39], body image [40], amongst others. ...
... Practicing and receiving gratitude is particularly known to mediate relatedness [38]. We found this to be true in our previous study in an online platform called OSPIA [3], where expressions of gratitude made online volunteers feel related to the volunteer work organisers, members of the volunteers' community, and the individuals who directly benefit from the volunteers' work (i.e. the beneficiaries) [19]. ...
Conference Paper
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Volunteerism in the digital age offers many new possibilities and avenues for public participation. In this paper, we discuss volunteering as a form of work and how certain experiential aspects of HCI systems supporting the volunteers’ unpaid labour are instrumental in volunteer wellbeing. The sense of feeling close to others and experiencing relatedness is an important factor that can predict engagement and wellbeing of volunteers. Relatedness can be achieved in many ways, for instance through receiving expressions of gratitude. Through four co-design workshops with n=9 participants, we identified seven perceptions of volunteers regarding their relatedness experiences. This was achieved via a case study of an online teleconferencing platform where volunteers help train and assess medical students for their medical communication skills. Findings are further discussed to inform future design to support adequate level of formalness and emotional labour in online volunteering communities.
... Gratitude has been conceptualized from several perspectives such as an emotion, a moral affect, a character strength, and a trait disposition (see [13,[37][38][39] for reviews). Dispositional gratitude is the conceptualization we used in the present research. ...
... Research has found that gratitude relates to several indicators of well-being such as higher life satisfaction, positive affect/emotions, autonomy, competence, relationships, optimism, prosocial behaviour, and personal growth. Gratitude also relates to a multiplicity of indicators of ill-being such as lower negative affect/emotions, depression, anxiety, anger, and hostility [13,[37][38][39][40]. ...
Article
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Materialism at work refers to a higher importance attached to extrinsic (e.g., money, fame, image) versus intrinsic (self-development, affiliation, community participation) employees’ ‘aspirations’. Research from self-determination theory has consistently found that materialism at work is strongly detrimental for both employees and organizations. For example, materialism is negatively associated with lower job satisfaction and engagement and positively associated with higher turnover intentions and job insecurity. Unfortunately, there are no viable strategies for reducing materialism in the workplace yet. In this sense, based on emergent research in psychology, we theorized that dispositional gratitude—a key construct within the Positive Organizational Psychology field—could be a protecting factor against materialism. Further, we conducted a three-wave longitudinal design among a large sample of Chilean workers (n = 1841) to test, for the first time, the longitudinal link between gratitude and materialism. We used two novel methodologies: A cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) to test between-person changes and a trait-state-occasion model (TSO) to test within-person changes. We found that both the CLPM as well as the TSO models showed that gratitude at work prospectively predicted further lower workplace materialism. Specifically, the CLPM shows that individuals with higher than average gratitude at Ti, are more likely to show lower than average materialism at Ti+1. The TSO shows that individuals with a higher than their usual level of gratitude at Ti are more likely to show a lower than their usual level of materialism at Ti+1. Important implications for materialism research as well as for the Positive Organizational Psychology field are discussed.
... Such a high response of gratitude leads us to explore the possible impact of expressing gratitude on respondents. Gratitude has been found to be strongly correlated to happiness and positive well-being (e.g., Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Researchers have also found strong correlations between long-term benefits of gratitude among adolescents and the nurturing of beneficial growth in motivation to self-reflect and improve one's self (Bono & Froh, 2009). ...
... Lastly, research connecting expressions of gratitude with improved self-efficacy may also shed light on the positive impact of providing audiences a forum for responding to advice. As mentioned in the results section, gratitude has been shown to be correlated to happiness, motivation to self-reflect, and positive well-being (Bono & Froh, 2009;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Perhaps providing a means and affective affordance for expressing gratitude combined with private spaces for continued self-reflection could enable people to reach personal decisions based on advice sought online. ...
Article
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Among many other video genres, YouTube is a hub for “how‐to” videos, including advice on how to work through difficult life circumstances. For this pilot study, we investigated a sample of comments in response to two Amy Poehler's Smart Girls' “Ask Me Anything” videos. Geared toward adolescents and emerging adults, “Ask Me Anything” videos respond to viewer questions on social, personal, and professional topics, such as coping with embarrassment, worries about school exams, relationship power dynamics, and general life stress. In our analysis, we identify emerging trends in the language of viewers' response comments and investigate (a) how viewers are responding to the videos, and (b) what such responses could mean for the design of social computing systems and their use for social and emotional support. We find indications of users' emotional support seeking, evidence of adult audience members' seeking to answer younger responders' questions posted in response to the videos, and the use of epistolary forms to express perceived emotional connections with the video host. In future work, we will seek to understand what elements of the videos are invoking such personal connections and explore designs of social computing systems to better support personal connection and intergenerational support online.
... Importantly, expressing feelings of gratitude is not just a result of having received aid from others but rather it is also the product of norms regarding reciprocity. Gratitude has been shown to promote reciprocal helping behavior (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Froh et al., 2010) even in situations in which direct reciprocity is not possible (e.g., intergenerational decision-making, i.e., making decisions for the sake of future others usually with the aim of addressing intergenerational inequities; Barnett et al., 2019;H.M. Watkins & Goodwin, 2019;Syropoulos et al., 2020). Thus, there is ample evidence that gratitude can promote beneficence both for close and (socially and temporally) distant others. ...
Article
Although individual differences in dispositional gratitude have been shown to relate with both personal well-being and intergenerational beneficence, no work has yet examined whether trait gratitude is correlated with consideration of future consequences for one's self. Across six studies (total N = 2758) we find robust evidence for a significant and positive correlation between dispositional gratitude and consideration of future consequences (CFC): r = 0.33, SE = 0.02, Z = 16.82, p < .001, 95% CI [0.30, 0.37]. Further, we show that related dispositional factors, including feelings of indebtedness and valuing fairness, do not show a similar relationship with CFC. The association between gratitude and CFC also remains significant when controlling for core personality traits. These initial findings highlight that gratitude may be a novel leverage point for increasing individuals' consideration of self-relevant long-term outcomes; in turn, this relationship may prove useful in promoting individual and community well-being in the future.
... Gratitude interventions typically range from a few days to a few weeks and typically involve repeated and regular engagement with a gratitude activity [13,31,72]. Even though the dose response relationship for different types of gratitude intervention still needs to be clearly established [24], there seems to be a tendency that interventions that continuously and repeatedly engage participants are more likely to result in significant effects [6]. ...
Article
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Background Past studies have associated gratitude interventions with a host of positive outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research regarding the impact such interventions have on the academic motivation of university students, thought to be a primary determinant of academic achievement and overall satisfaction with school activities. Here, we examined the effects of a 2-week online gratitude journal intervention on the academic motivation of university students. Methods Eighty-four students were randomly assigned to either an active manipulation group (gratitude group) or a neutral control group. In the first 6 days of each week, participants in the gratitude group were asked to log in to the online system once a day and list up to five things they had felt grateful for. They were also requested to evaluate various aspects of their daily lives. Participants in the control group were only requested to perform the daily self-evaluations. Academic motivation was assessed using the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which conceptualizes motivation in academic settings as being composed by three different components, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, the latter being associated with the perceived lack of contingency between actions and outcomes. Responses were collected 5 times: before group assignment (baseline), 1 week after the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and at two follow-ups, 1 and 3 months after the intervention. Results Analysis using a self-determination index derived from the AMS components showed that participants who regularly engaged with the gratitude journal task displayed significant enhancements in academic motivation. Additional analysis revealed that the enhancements were driven by decreases in the levels of amotivation. Furthermore, follow-up data showed that there were no signs that such enhancements had receded 3 months after the end of the intervention. Improvements in academic motivation were not observed among participants in the control group. Conclusions The current results provide evidence that gratitude interventions can positively impact the academic motivation of university students. More broadly, they show that the effects extend well beyond the realm of typically assessed measures of individual well-being, and can effectively regulate a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior such as motivation.
... Research has also found numerous benefits of gratitude for people's well-being across several life domains, cultures and through the life span. Gratitude has been associated, for example, with higher life satisfaction and positive affect, lower mental health problems, more altruism, stronger ties and better physical health (for reviews and meta-analyses see Alkozei et al., 2018;Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Self-Determination Theory (SDT) has consistently shown that the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are essential nutrients for optimal human functioning across a diverse range of domains such as family, sports, education and work. SDT has also found that materialism—the relative importance attached to extrinsic versus intrinsic life goals—not only reduces need satisfaction, but also increases need frustration. Yet, what psychological mechanisms explain this association remain unknown. We theorized that dispositional gratitude might play a role. Thus, we tested the longitudinal mediational effects of gratitude in the link between materialism and need satisfaction/frustration, using a three-wave longitudinal design over six months among a large sample of Chilean adults (N = 1841). Importantly, we used the two most established materialism scales: the Aspiration Index (AI) and the Material Values Scale (MVS). Results showed consistently (using either the AI or the MVS) that higher materialism at Time 1 prospectively predicts lower gratitude at Time 2, which in turn prospectively predicts lower need satisfaction and higher need frustration at Time 3. Our results extend SDT and gratitude research in important ways. First, we found a theoretically sound mechanism that accounts for the materialism—basic psychological needs link. Second, expanding on previous research, we found that (a) materialism increases need frustration over time directly, but also through the mediation of gratitude; (b) gratitude decreases need frustration. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... While trait gratitude can be considered a life orientation or disposition, state gratitude refers to "felt" gratitude in the moment. State gratitude tends to fluctuate, while trait gratitude tends to remain more stable over time (Emmons & Mishra, 2010). However, it should be noted that trait gratitude is considered malleable and can be increased with continued gratitude practice over time (Renshaw & Rock, 2018). ...
Article
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A holistic, multicultural approach to student-athlete mental health, well-being, and performance promotes the consideration of spiritual and religious identities in counseling and consultation. Preliminary research supports the interconnectedness of spirituality, religiosity, and gratitude in athletes; thus, this study sought to replicate Gabana, D’Addario, Luzzeri, and Soendergaard's study (2020) and extend the literature by examining a larger, independently sampled, more diverse data set and multiple types of gratitude. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I–III student-athletes ( N = 596) were surveyed to better understand how religious and spiritual identity related to trait, general-state, and sport-state gratitude. Results supported past research; athletes who self-identified as being both spiritual and religious reported greater dispositional (trait) gratitude than those who self-identified as spiritual/nonreligious or nonspiritual/nonreligious. Between group differences were not found when comparing general-state and sport-state gratitude. Findings strengthen and extend the understanding of spirituality, religion, and gratitude in sport. Limitations, practical implications, and future directions are discussed.
... Numerous empirical studies showed a significant correlation between gratitude and depressive symptoms. Some studies (i.e., Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Mishra, 2011) indicated that gratitude promotes psychological well-being and decreases depressive symptoms. Individuals' gratitude levels are significantly associated with not only their present depressive symptoms but also their long-term depression (Kendler et al., 2003;Krause, 2007). ...
Article
In this study, we investigated the relations between family interaction, gratitude, and depressive symptoms among Chinese emerging adults. It also investigated gratitude as a mediator in the relation between family interaction and depression. Data were obtained from 321 college students who completed the online questionnaire about the Family Assessment Instrument, Gratitude Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, and demographic information. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypotheses and bootstrapping with 5,000 resamplings (95% confidence interval) was used to confirm the mediation model. Results showed that gratitude partially mediated the relation between family interaction and depression. In other words, students with healthy family interaction, as indicated by perceived better family communication, mutuality, and harmony with family members, tended to report higher general gratitude, and subsequently diminished depressive symptoms. The practical implications were discussed.
... Gratitude is often defined as a disposition which reflects a general tendency for people to appreciate the good things in their lives (McCullough & Emmons, 2003). In addition to dispositional gratitude, gratitude is also defined as a brief, acute, and intense emotional state in response to specific situations in the environment (Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Numerous studies have shown that gratitude is closely related to a series of positive psychological outcomes, such as increased subjective well-being (Alkozei et al., 2018;Kong et al., 2021), enhanced prosocial motivation and behaviour (Ma et al., 2017), obtained satisfactory social relationships (Algoe et al., 2020), improved organizational and academic performance (Di Fabio et al., 2017;Valdez et al., 2017), and negative associations with depression (Rey et al., 2018), anxiety (Kerr et al., 2015), cardiovascular disease (Cousin et al., 2021), suicidal ideation and suicidal tendencies in adolescents (Li et al., 2012;Lo et al., 2017). ...
Article
The 5-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-5) is one of the most commonly used instruments to measure dispositional gratitude in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to verify the longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) and gender measurement invariance (GMI) of the GQ-5 that was administered to an adolescent sample twice over the course of 18 months ( N = 669). Single-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted to examine the LMI and multiple-group CFA was conducted to assess the GMI. The results showed that the GQ-5 had strong invariance (i.e., equality of factor patterns, loadings, and intercepts) across time and gender. Validation of latent factor mean differences showed that females had higher gratitude scores than males. In addition, the GQ-5 exhibited good internal consistency indices across time and a moderate stability coefficient was also found across an 18-month time interval in adolescents. In summary, our study showed that LMI and GMI of the GQ-5 are satisfactory and the GQ-5 is a reliable instrument for measuring gratitude in adolescents.
... (Tazaka, 2014). Rasa syukur merupakan bentuk ungkapan terima kasih atas nikmat yang diberikan oleh Allah SWT (Kusumastuti dkk., 2017) dan menerima ketetapan Allah baik yang menyenangkan maupun sebaliknya (Haryanto & Kertamuda, 2016) dan menikmati hidup dari melihat hal-hal positif dalam proses kehidupan yang dijalaninya (Emmons, & Mishra, 2012) dan menghargai diri sendiri demi mencapai tujuan yang positif sebagai upaya mengubah diri dari dalam serta memiliki pandangan hidup bahwa masih ada Tuhan yang mengatur kehidupan (Rahmalia, 2018). ...
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The sense of gratitude that women have is not always the same between single and married women. Subjects in this study were 46 participants aged 22-36 years. The instrument used in this study was the GQ-6 gratitude scale compiled by McCullough, Emmons & Tsang. The data analysis used was the 2-sample difference test technique, namely the Independent sample t-test. Based on the results of the research data analysis, it can be concluded that there are significant differences in single and married women related to the level of gratitude. This can be seen from the results of statistical data analysis with the t test technique which shows a probability value of 0.034> 0.05 which indicates a significant difference. Thus the difference in the average actually occurs in real terms. In conclusion, married women have a higher level of gratitude (M = 35.95) than single women (M = 34.04). Rasa kebersyukuran yang dimiliki oleh perempuan tidak selalu sama antara perempuan lajang dan menikah. Subjek dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 46 orang partisipan yang berumur 22-36 tahun. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah skala syukur GQ-6 yang di susun oleh McCullough, Emmons & Tsang. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik uji perbedaan 2 sampel yaitu Independent sampel t-test. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data penelitian dapat diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada perempuan lajang dan sudah menikah terkait dengan tingkat kebersyukuran. Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari hasil analisis data statistik dengan teknik uji t yang menunjukkan nilai probabilitas 0,034 > 0,05 yang mengindikasikan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan. Dengan demikian perbedaan rata-rata yang ada benar-benar terjadi secara nyata. Sebagai kesimpulannya adalah perempuan yang sudah menikah memiliki tingkat kebersyukuran yang lebih tinggi (M = 35,95) dibandingkan perempuan lajang (M = 34,04).
... Further investigation of this line of inquiry has implications for public health and would help identify potential risk factors for relapse as well as highlight the benefits of gratitude within this population.The results of this study provide empirical support for the benefit of helping other people get and stay sober, which is one of the founding principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. The findings also contribute to the mounting evidence for the powerful effects of gratitude documented extensively in the literature over the past several decades(Algoe & Haidt, 2009; Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Williams & Bartlett, 2015;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, & Joseph, 2007;Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010;Wood, Joseph, & Maltby, 2008), and adds to the growing body of literature on the positive effects of gratitude for people in recovery(Krentzman et al., 2015;LaBelle & Edelstein, 2017). I included numerous alternative explanatory variables in my analyses to understand the strength of the associations between key variables. ...
Thesis
The idea that helping others and practicing gratitude is associated with lower selfishness among members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is discussed at length in AA literature, in AA meetings, and among AA members. Specifically, helping others is described as “insurance” against relapse (Alcoholics Anonymous World Services Inc., 2001); gratitude is viewed as a character asset that should be continuously cultivated throughout life (Wilson, 1953); and selfishness is identified as the “root” of alcoholism (Alcoholics Anonymous World Services Inc., 2001). Despite the strong emphasis on these concepts in the literature, relationships between these concepts have not been scientifically investigated. In this study I employed longitudinal, daily diary research methodology to investigate whether helping others and feeling grateful were associated with lower selfishness among AA members over a period of 7 days (N = 113). Multi-level modeling analyses confirmed that on days when participants helped more people compared to their own weekly average, they reported lower selfishness than on days when they helped fewer people. Further, on days when participants were more grateful compared to their own weekly average, they reported lower selfishness than on days when they were less grateful. Lastly, on days when participants helped more people and were more grateful, they reported even lower selfishness. Uncovering evidence of an association between these key facets of AA provides valuable insight about the 12-step program.
... This is consistent with the statement of McCullough et al. [7] that individuals who experience more gratitude makes gratitude a daily affective state. So that gratitude can be used as an adaptive psychological strategy in interpreting daily events more positively, dealing with and overcoming negative experiences and negative emotions so that individuals will be more prosperous [29]. In this study, a constant life experience is in the form of experience while working on an undergraduate thesis. ...
... Moreover, higher scores on gratitude have been also found to be predictors of a lower impact to academic functioning at the end of the semester during the current COVID-19 outbreak (Bono et al., 2020). Thus, we highlight the interest in studying gratitude during the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been found to emerge as a protective factor with numerous benefits for both physical and psychological health (i.e., Emmons and Mishra, 2011) and specifically plays an important role in post-traumatic growth (Linley and Joseph, 2004). ...
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The aim of this research was to examine the moderation effects of comparative thinking (CT) across the relationship between gratitude and affect during the COVID-19 outbreak. To this purpose, multiple regression as well as moderation analyses were carried out. Age and sex were also addressed as variables of interest as described in previous literature. A sample of 306 north Americans was recruited by crowdsourcing platform ProA to obtain a representative sample based on age and gender. The participants filled in a questionnaire based on comparative thinking in relation to the emotional experience experienced before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, positive and negative affect schedule for positive and negative affect, as well as Gratitude Questionnaire - Six Items Form scores for gratitude. The main results of the current study related to the COVID-19 outbreak can be listed as follows: (i) no differences between CT groups in the gratitude trait, but differences in positive and negative affect did occur; (ii) regression models that included age, gratitude, and affect variables predicted negative and positive affects but gender did not reach the statistical level; (iii) two moderation models predicted affect from gratitude, with the CT variable moderating this effect; this moderation effect was also statistically significant in predicting negative affect but it was not statistically significant in predicting positive affect. These results might be of interest for training programs in applied levels and theoretical models of gratitude.
... Daha önce işaret edildiği gibi, minnettarlık deneyimlerini yazma yoluyla yaşama ilişkin pozitif farkındalığı artırmanın etkilerine ilişkin kanıtlar karışıktır. Bazı çalışmalar olumlu etkilerine ilişkin kanıtları öne çıkarırken (Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Seligman ve ark., 2005) bazıları bu olumlu etkinin sınırlılıklarına dikkat çekmektedir (Cregg ve Cheavens, 2020; Jans-Beken ve ark., 2020; Wood ve ark., 2010). Bu nedenle, kendi kendine yardım yöntemlerine ihtiyacın arttığı Covid-19 salgını koşullarında, bu yöntemin psikolojik sağlımızla olan ilişkisini bilmek kritik önemdedir. ...
Conference Paper
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The study is done with an aim of exploring the factors of rural- urban migration in Cumilla city. 106 randomly selected migrants were interviewed and for this task we have used both open and closed-ended questionnaires. With the help of SPSS 21 Statistical tool we have analysis this raw data and describe the statistics. The well decorate data results show that the flow of movement of people from different areas of Bangladesh to Cumilla city area are mainly for living a better life, to earn more money, for employment opportunities educational facilities etc. The result shows that 80 % people who migrate their ages is between 20 to 40 years. Most of the migrated people come to Cumilla city from nearer district and urban villages of Cumilla. Here also found that both pull and push factors are causes for migration.
... En este orden, el estudio de la relación de la gratitud con el sentido de la vida se ha llevado a cabo con la intención de profundizar en estos dos conceptos como actitudes que disponen al hombre a vivir mejor, y que ejercen así de factores protectores de la salud mental (Alarcón, y Rodríguez, 2015;Bernabé-Valero, 2012;Emmons y Mishra, 2011;Emmons y McCullough, 2004;Méndez, Serra, Barrabas y Bernabé-Valero, 2014;McCulloug et al., 2002;Watkins et al., 2003;Wood, et al., 2009Wood, et al., , 2010. Estas investigaciones han intentado aunar dos conceptos que se sitúan dentro de aquellas fortalezas del carácter que tienen que ver con el aspecto trascendental del ser humano. ...
... Additionally, gratitude enhances a person's likelihood of engaging in prosocial behavior (Watkins, 2009). Further, research suggests that gratitude promotes effectively dealing with stress, and enhances personal growth (Emmons and Mishra, 2011). Gratitude requires other capacities to be embodied, such as paying better attention to transcend your usual mindset of taking things for granted. ...
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... Gratitude is considered one of the main catalysts to optimal functioning, flourishing, life satisfaction, purpose, self-control, happiness, perception of opportunities, awareness of blessings, and the expansion of the mind (Emmons & McCullough, 2004;Fredrickson, 2001). Gratitude can be conceptualized in several different ways, and thus its formal definition is not straightforward; for example, the term "gratitude" can refer to an attitude, an affective state, an emotion, a general orientation, a personality trait, an application of social norms, an adaptive coping mechanism, and even a moral virtue (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Lin, 2015;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Wood et al., 2010). Likewise, the term can refer to a response to a specific event, such as the fulfillment of a need or receiving something of value (e.g., feeling grateful that my partner got up early to walk the dog and let me sleep), or, alternatively, to a more general, abstract experience of appreciation regarding positive aspects of one's life (e.g., feeling thankful for one's good health). ...
Article
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The psychological research into gratitude has overwhelmingly focused on the benefits of higher levels of gratitude. However, recent research suggests that positive psychology interventions to enhance gratitude are not always suitable and the effectiveness of an intervention depends on psycho-contextual factors, personal characteristics, and boundary conditions. The current study aimed to explore and compare the effect of two possible boundary conditions (prioritizing positivity and prioritizing meaning) on well-being levels, following a gratitude intervention. Replicating and extending the findings of the seminal 2005 study by Seligman et al., the current study explored the complex dynamics of gratitude and well-being in a sample of 448 participants. This study’s results replicated Seligman et al.’s finding suggesting a significant increase in satisfaction with life following a gratitude intervention. However, this trend was not significant when eudaimonic well-being was used as the dependent variable. Further analysis revealed that the intervention was most beneficial for people who prioritized both meaning and positivity in their lives, whereas those with different prioritizing patterns enjoyed only short-term gains. In addition, those who prioritize neither positivity nor meaning in their lives did not benefit from the intervention. This suggests implications for practitioners, mental health providers and organizations as consciously integrating the prioritization of meaning and positivity into one’s daily routines along with various gratitude activities which are aligned with one’s values and interests may contribute to gratitude interventions’ efficacy.
... Within the malleable perspectives of gratitude, at least four views can be found: (a) affective/emotional, (b) cognitive/evaluative, (c) social/other-focused, and (d) conative/intentional. First, gratitude has been supported as a quick, intense, and constantly fluctuating emotional state, with substantial within-person variability (Emmons and Mishra, 2011;Spence et al., 2014). Second, gratitude can be viewed as a situation-specific cognition that involves positive appraisals of various aspects of a particular situation. ...
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This study explores gratitude as a multidimensional and work-specific construct. Utilizing a sample of 625 employees from a variety of positions in a medium-sized school district in the United States, we developed and evaluated a new measure, namely the Work Gratitude Scale (WGS), which encompasses recognized conative (intentional), cognitive, affective, and social aspects of gratitude. A systematic, six-phased approach through structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore and confirm the factorial structure, internal consistency, measurement invariance, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity of the WGS. The results supported a 10-item measure with three dimensions: "grateful appraisals" (three items), "gratitude toward others" (four items), and "intentional attitude of gratitude" (three items). Thereafter, first-order, second-order, and bifactor confirmatory models were estimated and compared. Work gratitude was found to be best described by a second-order construct with three underlying first-order dimensions. Measurement invariance was supported in relation to gender. Concurrent validity was supported in relation to two existing dispositional gratitude scales, namely the Gratitude Questionnaire and the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Scale (GRAT). Convergent validity was supported in relation to the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES) and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was supported in relation to various demographic factors such as age, gender, occupation, and tenure. The findings support the WGS as a multidimensional measure that can be used in practice to measure overall work-related gratitude and to track the effectiveness of gratitude-related workplace interventions.
... The benefits of gratitude practice include increased happiness and positive mood, more satisfaction in life, less materialism, less likelihood to experience burnout, better physical health, better sleep, less fatigue, greater resiliency, strengthening of relationships, and encouraging the development of patience, humility, and wisdom. Emmons and Mishra [68] explored many of the above benefits and concluded that there is "considerable evidence that gratitude builds emotional resilience, social resources by strengthening relationships and promoting pro social actions". In addition, the journal bears the ability to rate the journal entry with a star rating from one to five and attach multimedia representations of those memories, further highlighting the design's intentional emotional support. ...
Article
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Mental health issues are at the forefront of healthcare challenges facing contemporary human society. These issues are most prevalent among working-age people, impacting negatively on the individual, his/her family, workplace, community, and the economy. Conventional mental healthcare services, although highly effective, cannot be scaled up to address the increasing demand from affected individuals, as evidenced in the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversational agents, or chatbots, are a recent technological innovation that has been successfully adapted for mental healthcare as a scalable platform of cross-platform smartphone applications that provides first-level support for such individuals. Despite this disposition, mental health chatbots in the extant literature and practice are limited in terms of the therapy provided and the level of personalisation. For instance, most chatbots extend Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) into predefined conversational pathways that are generic and ineffective in recurrent use. In this paper, we postulate that Behavioural Activation (BA) therapy and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are more effectively materialised in a chatbot setting to provide recurrent emotional support, personalised assistance, and remote mental health monitoring. We present the design and development of our BA-based AI chatbot, followed by its participatory evaluation in a pilot study setting that confirmed its effectiveness in providing support for individuals with mental health issues.
... We found that acceptance of illness mediated relationships between gratitude and mental health, a finding that we believe can help to understand how gratitude promotes mental health and wellbeing. Previous research has found that feeling grateful may promote the use of adaptive coping strategies, which allow people to deal with difficult situations more effectively and to return to better levels of functioning more quickly (Emmons and Mishra, 2011). The possibility that adaptive coping may mediate relationships between gratitude and wellbeing was demonstrated by Tomczyk et al. (2021). ...
Article
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Introduction Gratitude is commonly known as a positive emotion, but it can also be understood as a disposition—one’s inherent quality that includes being grateful for the positive aspects of one’s life and appreciating altruistic gifts. A growing body of research suggests that having a disposition of gratitude is positively related to wellbeing and psychological adjustment. The present study examined the extent to which acceptance of illness—a measure of adjustment to a distressing condition—mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing among women who had elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 131 women who, based on scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, were at-risk for experiencing clinical depression. Thirty-five of these participants had been diagnosed as depressed at some point in their lives and 96 had not. Participants completed measures of dispositional gratitude, wellbeing, anxiety, and acceptance of illness. Results Dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with wellbeing and was negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Dispositional gratitude was also positively correlated with acceptance of illness. Mediational analyses found that acceptance of illness mediated relationships between dispositional gratitude and wellbeing, between dispositional gratitude and anxiety, and between dispositional gratitude and depression. Moreover, such mediation varied as a function of whether women had ever been diagnosed as depressed. Acceptance of illness was related more strongly to wellbeing for women who had been diagnosed as depressed at some time in their lives than it was for women who had never been diagnosed as depressed. Conclusion Women with elevated depressive symptoms who were more grateful (compared to those who were less grateful) were more accepting of their condition, which was related to increased wellbeing and decreased feelings of depression and anxiety.
... Gratitude-focused interventions are derived from theory and research on gratitude, which is the emotional experience of noticing and appreciating the positive aspects of everyday life . Individuals with higher levels of gratitude experience better psychological well-being, including lower rates of depression, anxiety, and greater emotional functioning, including more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (Datu & Mateo, 2015;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Kong et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2010;Wood, Joseph, et al., 2008a, 2008b. Gratitude has also been associated with lower levels of stress (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008b, stronger social relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020), better self-reported physical health (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018), and better cardiovascular and immune health (Cousin et al., 2020;Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... Research has documented how gratitude can enhance the well-being of individuals who experience or express it (Fredrickson, 2004;Wood et al., 2010), as well as strengthen social bonds between individuals and their benefactors (e.g., Bartlett et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2017). While insightful, this stream of research has limitationsfirst, previous studies have largely focused on the benefits of experiencing or expressing gratitude (e.g., Algoe et al., 2013;Davis et al., 2016;Emmons & Mishra, 2011), with less research examining how receiving gratitude may too generate resources for recipients (for exceptions, see Grant & Gino, 2010;Lee et al., 2019). Second, research on the outcomes of gratitude at work is typically constrained to its effects for employees' workplace outcomes (e.g., Clark et al., 1988;Converso et al., 2015), and we do not know whether the effects of receiving others' gratitude may persist beyond the workplace and influence employees' family lives. ...
Article
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Conventional research on gratitude has focused on the benefits of expressing or experiencing gratitude for the individual. However, recent theory and research have highlighted that there may too be benefits associated with receiving others’ gratitude. Grounded in the Work-Home Resources model (W-HR), we develop a conceptual model to understand whether, how, and for whom service providers (i.e., healthcare professionals) benefit from receiving service beneficiaries’ (i.e., patients) gratitude in their daily work. We hypothesize that perceived gratitude from service beneficiaries enhances service providers’ relational energy at work, which spills over to benefit their family lives later in the day. In addition, we hypothesize that the effect of gratitude on relational energy and its subsequent spillover effect to the family, are contingent on employees’ occupational identity. Two experience sampling studies with data collected from healthcare professionals and their spouses for two consecutive weeks (each) provided support for our hypothesized model. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our work.
... According to Fredrickson (2013), gratitude is able to influence life satisfaction because when individuals are thankful, they have a tendency to expand their thoughts and recognize that the role of other people is important in life. Sheldon & Kashdan (2011) argued that since gratitude is an attitude of appreciating and acknowledging the pleasant events of life, it tends to be related to factors that are equally indicative of positive results such as well-being and life satisfaction. Froh & Bono (2008) view the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction as being based on gratitude helping in building resources such as purposefulness, intrinsic motivation and so on, for well-being. ...
Article
Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
... Daha önce işaret edildiği gibi, minnettarlık deneyimlerini yazma yoluyla yaşama ilişkin pozitif farkındalığı artırmanın etkilerine ilişkin kanıtlar karışıktır. Bazı çalışmalar olumlu etkilerine ilişkin kanıtları öne çıkarırken (Emmons ve Mishra 2011;Seligman ve ark., 2005) bazıları bu olumlu etkinin sınırlılıklarına dikkat çekmektedir (Cregg ve Cheavens, 2020; Jans-Beken ve ark., 2020; Wood ve ark., 2010). Bu nedenle, kendi kendine yardım yöntemlerine ihtiyacın arttığı Covid-19 salgını koşullarında, bu yöntemin psikolojik sağlımızla olan ilişkisini bilmek kritik önemdedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Due to their enormous impact on stakeholders and the entire community, both academics and practitioners have been giving closer attention to societal marketing initiatives recently. In the context of Afghanistan's banking industry, this study investigates the relationship between societal marketing and corporate reputation. The purpose of the current study is to see if Afghanistan's banking industry's societal marketing activities help improve the bank's reputation among stakeholders and the community or if they want just to increase profits. The data were collected through an online survey from the banking industry stakeholders based in Kabul. The findings of empirical research are presented, and the relevant findings are discussed.
... More specifically, gratitude and optimism are among the character strengths highly associated with subjective happiness (Peterson, Ruch, Beermann, Park, & Seligman, 2007). Gratitude (i.e., a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating positive things in life and those that another person has intentionally given or done; Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010), enhances well-being by increasing positive emotions (Sun & Kong, 2013), social resources and moral behaviors of young people (Emmons & Mishra, 2011). Similarly, optimism (i.e., the extent to which people have generalized favorable expectancies for their future; Carver, Scheier, & Segerstrom, 2010) has a positive impact on psychological well-being (Rand, Shanahan, Fischer, & Fortney, 2020). ...
Chapter
This chapter addresses relevant calls for more PYD based research among emerging adults in Southern Europe and related psychological adjustment mechanisms during this life stage. In so doing, the chapter applies the 5Cs model of PYD (connection, competence, confidence, character and caring) to examine meaningful relations with subjective happiness and the mediating role of gratitude and optimism among emerging adults in Spain. The chapter presents an empirical example of a cross-sectional study with 768 emerging adults from Andalusia, Southern Spain who completed measures on the 5Cs, subjective happiness, gratitude and optimism. The main findings indicate that gratitude and optimism were partial mediators of the relation between the 5Cs of PYD and subjective happiness. When young people experience high levels of the 5Cs, they show more happiness through a positive effect on gratitude and optimism. The chapter suggests that subjective happiness of emerging adults in Spain may be a function of the joint influence of both the 5Cs of PYD and character strengths, such as gratitude and optimism.
... The emotion of gratitude is intense, relatively brief and typically acute, triggering a cascade of changes in physiology, body temperature, facial expression and subjective experience (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Fredrickson, 2004) and producing stable sine wave-like patterns in variations of heart rate, respiration and blood pressure (McCraty & Childre, 2004;Rash, Matsuba & Prkachin, 2011). Latest research has also shown some outcomes including consistent reductions in depression, negative affect, physical pain and somatic symptoms, as well as an overall increase in happiness and life satisfaction (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Wood et al., 2008). ...
... More specifically, research has shown that gratitude enhances positive emotions and activates a sense of interpersonal belonging, while decreasing distress and depression (Emmons, 2007;Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Seligman et al., 2005). In fact, people are more likely to help others-perform AC4P behavior-when they feel grateful (Emmons & Mishra, 2011) and when they receive gratitude (Grant & Gino, 2010). ...
Article
This article reviews the Actively Caring for People (AC4P) Movement, initiated in 2007 to increase occurrences of interpersonal acts of kindness worldwide. Resources to support the AC4P Movement, including research-based training manuals and AC4P wristbands for adults and children, are available at www.ac4p.org. This prosocial movement incorporates principles from three diverse disciplines of psychological science: humanism, positive psychology, and applied behavioral science (ABS). With this article, I explicate seven evidence-based “life lessons” that operationalize select principles from humanism and ABS, and rejuvenate a seemingly forgotten applied psychology concept from the 1970s: humanistic behaviorism. Whenever and wherever practiced, these life lessons benefit human well-being and quality of life. Certain life lessons reflect the essence of empowerment and self-motivation and thereby illustrate critical distinctions between management and leadership. Next, I exemplify synergistic connections between positive psychology and ABS, highlighting practical techniques for promoting and supporting human welfare and personal happiness. Previous and ongoing research by my students and colleagues demonstrates how ABS can apply findings from positive psychology to promote subjective well-being on a large scale. The need for worldwide application and dissemination of practical procedures to increase occurrences of AC4P behavior is strikingly obvious, perhaps more so now than ever before in our contentious, fractured, and polarized society. This article explores evidence-based strategies for increasing occurrences of AC4P behavior in various settings, with the mission to cultivate an AC4P culture in families, educational settings, corporations, and communities throughout the world.
... The emotion of gratitude is intense, relatively brief and typically acute, triggering a cascade of changes in physiology, body temperature, facial expression and subjective experience (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Fredrickson, 2004) and producing stable sine wave-like patterns in variations of heart rate, respiration and blood pressure (McCraty & Childre, 2004;Rash, Matsuba & Prkachin, 2011). Latest research has also shown some outcomes including consistent reductions in depression, negative affect, physical pain and somatic symptoms, as well as an overall increase in happiness and life satisfaction (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Park, Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Wood et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
Se revisan en base a los estudios de psicología social recientes las ocho creencias compartidas, mitos modernos o representaciones sociales sobre la creatividad más relevantes, como que la creatividad se basa en la generación de ideas, la libertad, autonomía y espontaneidad, es típica de niños y menos frecuente en los viejos, se basa en la inspiración, intuición, pensamiento divergente, emociones positivas y actividades de ocio. Se examina su prevalencia, su isomorfismo con teorías científicas, así como la evidencia y teorías que las contradicen. Se discute sus implicaciones para la aceptación de programas de formación en creatividad.
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All college students report high levels of stress, but engineering departments pose additional challenges that the field seeks to address. However, a focus solely on remedying stress may not be enough to resolve the issue, as research suggests that coping with stress requires skills different from those needed to thrive and function optimally. This study examines the complex relationships between wellbeing, stress, and belonging by examining survey responses from 2,285 U.S. engineering undergraduate students from 17 universities. Latent profile analysis was used to identify wellness and stress profiles across ten constructs (including meaning and purpose, mindfulness, test anxiety, and stress reactivity). Hierarchical regressions were used to examine the explanatory potential of the identified profiles and their role as moderators of students’ experiences and belonging in engineering. Results suggest that there are clearly distinguishable patterns of wellness and stress across students’ reported experiences, and that these profiles are more than merely descriptive. These findings are discussed in relation to engineering education’s unique stress culture and the pursuit of student wellbeing and belonging.
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Many of the most pressing environmental challenges we face—from climate change to habitat and species loss—require present generations of decision-makers to act pro-socially in the best interests of future generations. One factor known to inhibit intergenerational altruism is the absence of direct reciprocal exchange between generations. Research has suggested, however, that present decision-makers can be induced to engage in intergenerational reciprocity (Wade-Benzoni, 2002). In accordance with recent studies (e.g., Watkins & Goodwin, 2019), our current investigation provides additional evidence for the role of gratitude as a powerful mechanism underlying such intergenerational decision-making. Across seven studies, we consistently show that individual differences in gratitude uniquely predict increased perceptions of responsibility for future generations. A sense of responsibility toward future generations in turn predicts: increased climate change beliefs and concern (Studies 2 A and 2 B), increased pro-environmental beliefs (Study 3 A) and environmental intentions (Study 3 B), and increased support for environmental policies (Study 4). Indirect effect tests and structural equation models support these findings. Future interventions can harness the prosocial moral emotion of gratitude to combat the temporal discount and promote intergenerational environmental decision making.
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Este estudio examina el papel de dos recursos personales positivos, optimismo y gratitud, como predictores del bienestar. Más allá de la capacidad predictiva del optimismo y la gratitud, se analiza el posible papel incremental de la inteligencia emocional en la predicción del bienestar. Los participantes fueron 350 estudiantes universitarios españoles (208 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 30 años. Todos ellos respondieron de forma voluntaria y anónima a las escalas de gratitud, optimismo, inteligencia emocional, afectividad positiva y negativa, plenitud vital, y depresión. Los resultados de los análisis de correlación mostraron asociaciones positivas y significativas entre optimismo, gratitud e inteligencia emocional con afectividad positiva y plenitud, por el contrario, mostraron asociaciones negativas y significativas con la afectividad negativa y depresión. Asimismo, los resultados de los análisis de regresión jerárquica indicaron efectos explicativos significativos de la gratitud y el optimismo sobre la afectividad positiva y negativa, la plenitud, y la depresión. Más aún, la inteligencia emocional aportó varianza incremental a estos indicadores de bienestar positivo y negativo más allá de las variables socio-demográficos y estos recursos personales clásicos. Se discuten algunas implicaciones para comprender el papel de la inteligencia emocional como factor clave en el desarrollo del bienestar.
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Demut wäre nicht erstrebenswert, wenn sie nicht messbare Effekte zeigen würde. In den letzten zehn Jahren hat die Forschung in hunderten von Projekten messbare, zum überwiegenden Teil positive Ergebnisse von Demut festgestellt. Sie lassen sich in drei Gruppen einteilen: Auswirkungen einer demutsvollen Führungskraft auf die Mitarbeiter (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Kreativität), Resultate für das gesamte Unternehmen (z. B. in Bezug auf Strategie oder Kultur), sowie Konsequenzen für die Führungskraft selber (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Stress).
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents
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This naturalistic observation study investigated the influence of broad societal events such as the COVID-19 pandemic on public expressions of gratitude. Spontaneously produced gratitude expressions posted by individuals (N = 159) in an online discussion forum were extracted at three time periods (during the pandemic, one year pre-pandemic, and 2 years pre-pandemic). The gratitude expressions were coded for the categories of deficiency and growth needs based on Maslow’s Theory of Motivation. The results demonstrate a higher frequency of gratitude expressions for growth opportunities during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2 years prior. The results also demonstrate a higher frequency of gratitude for the fulfillment of deficiency needs compared to growth needs within each of the years, highlighting the overall salience of this category. These findings reveal the capacity of broad societal events to impact public gratitude expressions for needs fulfilment, which has implications for policies and programs intended to meet needs during a global crisis.
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Burnout affects health care providers and leads to adverse consequences. A 21-day gratitude journaling activity implemented in a Midwest long-term care setting was a personal, low-cost, and low-tech intervention requiring minimal time commitment to address burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was utilized to assess burnout pre- and post-intervention of a gratitude journal.
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Gratitude is an emotion and state of being that recognizes a positive outcome as the result of external factors, thereby prompting internal and external responses of appreciation. As a positive psychology intervention (PPI), gratitude not only encourages positive affect and savoring of positive life experiences, it is associated with a reduction in psychological distress, improved sleep, better relationships, more engagement at work, and fewer physical ailments. In Islam, shukr (gratitude) is a fundamental virtue which, along with sabr (patience), provides a formula for Muslim wellbeing. In this chapter, we review the positive psychology literature on gratitude and define the concept of shukr from an Islamic perspective. We also provide suggestions for increasing gratitude through Islamically-integrated PPIs and discuss how such interventions can provide useful tools for Muslim wellness.
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents.
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Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees. Specifically, it details the mediating effect of workplace friendship in explaining the linkages between gratitude and AWB at work.
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui gambaran rasa syukur pekerja harian sektor pariwisata pada masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif deskriptif dengan teknik pengambilan subjek penelitian menggunakan snowball. Jumlah subjek penelitian sebanyak empat orang yang berprofesi sebagai tour guide dan supir travel. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa rasa syukur yang dimiliki oleh pekerja harian sektor pariwisata, baik secara transpersonal maupun personal, bersumber dari spritual dan dukungan teman seprofesi sehingga mampu bertahan menjalankan hidup pada masa pandemi Covid-19. Ungkapan rasa syukur pekerja harian sektor pariwisata pada masa pandemi Covid-19 tampak melalui penghargaan atas penghasilan yang mereka peroleh setiap hari, serta perasaan positif seperti bahagia dan menikmati hidup, dan beberapa tindakan positif lainnya seperti berjualan, berkumpul, beribadah, dan tetap menolong sesama yang lebih membutuhkan pertolongan.
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This chapter focuses on promoting an understanding of what mindfulness is, how it can be experienced and what value it brings.
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We examined whether gratitude was correlated with distinct coping styles, and whether coping styles mediated the relationship between gratitude and well-be- ing. Participants (n = 236) completed measures of coping styles, dispositional grati- tude, and measures of well-being. Gratitude correlated positively with seeking both emotional and instrumental social support, positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, and planning. Gratitude correlated negatively with behav- ioural disengagement, self-blame, substance use, and denial. Coping styles medi- ated up to 51% of the relationship between gratitude and stress, but did not substantially mediate the relationship between gratitude and either happiness, de- pression, or satisfaction with life. We suggest that different mechanisms relate grati- tude to separate aspects of well-being. Further research is indicated into the role of gratitude in social support processes, and in growth following adversity.
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We investigated the relationship between the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness in two studies. Although many have suggested that these affects are essentially equivalent, we submit that they are distinct emotional states. Following Heider (1958), we propose that with increasing expectations of return communicated with a gift by a benefactor, indebtedness should increase but gratitude should decrease. The results of two vignette studies supported this hypothesis, and patterns of thought/action tendencies showed these states to be distinct. In addition, we found that with increasing expectations communicated by a benefactor, beneficiaries reported that they would be less likely to help the benefactor in the future. Taken together, we argue that the debt of gratitude is internally generated, and is not analogous to an economic form of indebtedness.
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This article develops a theory that explains how and when emotions, produced by social exchange, generate stronger or weaker ties to relations, groups, or networks. It is argued that social exchange produces positive or negative global feelings, which are internally rewarding or punishing. The theory indicates that social units (relations, groups, networks) are perceived as a source of these feelings, contingent on the degree of jointness in the exchange task. The jointness of the task is greatest if (1) actors find it difficult to distinguish their individual effects on or contributions to solving the exchange task (nonseparability) and (2) actors perceive a shared responsibility for success or failure at the exchange task. The theory explicates the effects of different exchange structures on these conditions and, in turn, on cohesion and solidarity. Implications are developed for network-to-group transformations.
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The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
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In this study we investigated the impact of grateful processing on bringing closure to unpleasant emotional memories. After recalling an open memory, participants were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions. For three sessions, participants wrote about neutral topics, the unpleasant event itself, or positive consequences from the event from their open memory that they felt they could now be grateful for. Results showed a significant effect of writing condition, and the pattern of means were as predicted: those in the grateful condition showed more memory closure, less unpleasant emotional impact, and less intrusiveness of the open memory than the other writing conditions. Grateful reappraisal of unpleasant memories may help individuals emotionally process these events, thus bringing emotional closure to these incidents. This might be one reason that grateful people tend to be happy people.
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This article presents a framework for the organization of affective processes, including the affective traits, moods, and emotions. Section 1 introduces the levels-of-analysis approach, defines the three levels of affect, presents criteria for ordering these levels hierarchically in terms of simple and complex temporally driven processes, and examines the interrelations among the various levels of affect, including an in-depth analysis of affective trait-emotion relationships. Section 2 offers an application of the hierarchical view to research on affect-cognition interactions, including a brief review of affect congruency effects and a discussion of the conceptual and empirical challenges to such research necessitated by consideration of the differences among the levels of affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...
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Personality and differential psychology have paid little attention to values research. Consequently, the constructs used in these subdisciplines have developed independently, and evidence regarding the relations of personality to values is minimal. This study seeks to advance our understanding of these relations and to arrive at a theoretical integration of constructs. Starting from recent developments in values theory (Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz and Bilsky, 1987, 1990) and drawing on Maslow's (1955) distinction between ‘deficiency’ and ‘growth’ needs, we elaborate theoretical links between personality and values with special emphasis on structural relations. A set of hypotheses regarding these relations is generated and tested next, using data from a study with 331 German students. These students completed both the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI), measuring ten primary and two secondary personality variables, namely extraversion and emotionality. Joint Similarity Structure Analyses (SSAs) of values and personality variables were conducted. The findings reveal both meaningful and systematic associations of value priorities with personality variables, confirming the hypothesized structural relationships. The compatibility of our hypotheses with the complex findings of George (1954) using totally different indexes of both values (Allport–Vernon Study of Values) and personality (drawn from Eysenck and Guilford) further supports the theoretical connections proposed in this study.
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Materialistic youth seem to be languishing while grateful youth seem to be flourishing. High school students (N=1,035) completed measures of materialism, gratitude, academic functioning, envy, depression, life satisfaction, social integration, and absorption. Using structural equation modeling, we found that gratitude, controlling for materialism, uniquely predicts all outcomes considered: higher grade point average, life satisfaction, social integration, and absorption, as well as lower envy and depression. In contrast, materialism, controlling for gratitude, uniquely predicts three of the six outcomes: lower grade point average, as well as higher envy and life satisfaction. Furthermore, when examining the relative strengths of gratitude and materialism as predictors, we found that gratitude is generally a stronger predictor of these six outcomes than is materialism. KeywordsGratitude–Materialism–Well-being–Adolescents–Self-determination theory
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We conducted two studies investigating the relationship of gratitude to autobiographical memory of positive and negative life events. Gratitude was assessed with an attitudinal measure and college students were asked to recall both positive and negative events from their past. In both studies, a significant positive relationship was found between trait gratitude and a positive memory bias. In Study 2 it was found that gratitude still reliably predicted positive memory bias after controlling for depression. Further, it was found that a positive intrusive memory bias was associated with gratitude in both studies. Thus, an important component of gratitude may be an enhanced tendency to recall positive events from one's life.
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The authors tested whether gratitude could explain variance in satisfaction with life (SWL) after controlling for both the domains and the facets of the Big Five. The GQ6 measure of gratitude, the NEO-PI-R measure of the Big Five, and the SWL scale were completed by 389 adults. Gratitude was correlated with each of the Big Five domains, and at the facet level showed a distinctive profile whereby gratitude was most strongly correlated with the facets representing well-being and social functioning. Gratitude explained an additional 9% of the variance in SWL after controlling for the Big Five domains (r = .30), and an additional 8% after controlling for the facets (r = .28). The results support perspectives suggesting that gratitude has a unique relationship with SWL, and clarifies how gratitude relates to personality at the facet level.
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To test the hypothesis that Schadenfreude, pleasure at the suffering of others, will result when an envied person experiences a misfortune, envy was created in subjects by asking them to watch a videotaped interview of a student who was made to appear either superior or average. An epilogue informed subjects that the student had suffered a recent setback. The envy created in subjects was found to enhance the likelihood that they would feel Schadenfreude on learning of this setback. In addition, dispositional envy predicted subjects' envy of the student, and this envy also mediated subsequent Schadenfreude. These results strongly support linking envy with Schadenfreude. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/69046/2/10.1177_0146167296222005.pdf
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Four hundred and fiftynine students from 20 different high school classrooms in Michigan participated in focus group discussions about the character strengths included in the Values in Action Classification. Students were interested in the subject of good character and able to discuss with candor and sophistication instances of each strength. They were especially drawn to the positive traits of leadership, practical intelligence, wisdom, social intelligence, love of learning, spirituality, and the capacity to love and be loved. Students believed that strengths were largely acquired rather than innate and that these strengths developed through ongoing life experience as opposed to formal instruction. They cited an almost complete lack of contemporary role models exemplifying different strengths of character. Implications of these findings for the quantitative assessment of positive traits were discussed, as were implications for designing character education programs for adolescents. We suggest that peers can be an especially important force in encouraging the development and display of good character among youth. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45293/1/10964_2004_Article_379439.pdf
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This article reviews the construct and measurement of materialism and concludes that materialism is appropriately conceptualized as a consumer value. The development of a values-oriented materialism scale with three components--acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness, and possession-defined success--is described. In validation tests high scorers (compared with low scores) desired a higher level of income, place greater emphasis on financial security and less on interpersonal relationships, preferred to spend more on themselves and less on others, engaged in fewer voluntary simplicity behaviors, and were less satisfied with their lives. Copyright 1992 by the University of Chicago.
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The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the relationship between values (understood as principles guiding behaviour), choices and their final outcomes in terms of life satisfaction, and use data from the BHPS to assess whether our ideas on what is important in life (individual values) are broadly connected to what we experience as important in our lives (life satisfaction).
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The authors hypothesized that thinking about the absence of a positive event from one's life would improve affective states more than thinking about the presence of a positive event but that people would not predict this when making affective forecasts. In Studies 1 and 2, college students wrote about the ways in which a positive event might never have happened and was surprising or how it became part of their life and was unsurprising. As predicted, people in the former condition reported more positive affective states. In Study 3, college student forecasters failed to anticipate this effect. In Study 4, Internet respondents and university staff members who wrote about how they might never have met their romantic partner were more satisfied with their relationship than were those who wrote about how they did meet their partner. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the literatures on gratitude induction and counterfactual reasoning.
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This article describes the nature and significance of the distinction between the emotions of envy and jealousy and reports 2 experiments that empirically investigated it. In Experiment 1, Ss recalled a personal experience of either envy or jealousy. In Experiment 2, Ss read 1 of a set of stories in which circumstances producing envy and jealousy were manipulated independently in a factorial design. Both experiments introduced new methodologies to enhance their sensitivity, and both revealed qualitative differences between the 2 emotions. Envy was characterized by feelings of inferiority, longing, resentment, and disapproval of the emotion. Jealousy was characterized by fear of loss, distrust, anxiety, and anger. The practical importance of this distinction, the reasons for its confusion, and general issues regarding the empirical differentiation of emotions are discussed.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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Two studies were conducted to explore gratitude in daily mood and the relationships among various affective manifestations of gratitude. In Study 1, spiritual transcendence and a variety of positive affective traits were related to higher mean levels of gratitude across 21 days. Study 2 replicated these findings and revealed that on days when people had more grateful moods than was typical for them, they also reported more frequent daily episodes of grateful emotions, more intense gratitude per episode, and more people to whom they were grateful than was typical for them. In addition, gratitude as an affective trait appeared to render participants' grateful moods somewhat resistant to the effects of discrete emotional episodes of gratitude.
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Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
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In two studies, the authors investigated the associations between interpersonal forgiveness and psychological well-being. Cross-sectional and prospective multilevel analyses demonstrated that increases in forgiveness (measured as fluctuations in individuals' avoidance, revenge, and benevolence motivations toward their transgressors) were related to within-persons increases in psychological well-being (measured as more satisfaction with life, more positive mood, less negative mood, and fewer physical symptoms). Moreover, forgiveness was more strongly linked to well-being for people who reported being closer and more committed to their partners before the transgression and for people who reported that their partners apologized and made amends for the transgression. Evidence for the reverse causal model, that increases in well-being were related to increases in forgiveness, was also found. However, changes in feelings of closeness toward the partner appeared to account for the associations of forgiveness with well-being, but not vice versa.
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The emotion of gratitude is thought to have social effects, but empirical studies of such effects have focused largely on the repaying of kind gestures. The current research focused on the relational antecedents of gratitude and its implications for relationship formation. The authors examined the role of naturally occurring gratitude in college sororities during a week of gift-giving from older members to new members. New members recorded reactions to benefits received during the week. At the end of the week and 1 month later, the new and old members rated their interactions and their relationships. Perceptions of benefactor responsiveness predicted gratitude for benefits, and gratitude during the week predicted future relationship outcomes. Gratitude may function to promote relationship formation and maintenance.
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Materialism was explored in twelve countries using qualitative data, measures of consumer desires, measures of perceived necessities, and adapted versions of the Belk (1985) materialism scales with student samples. The use of student samples and provisionary evidence for cross-cultural reliability and validity for the scales, make the quantitative results tentative, but they produced some interesting patterns that were also supported by the qualitative data. Romanians were found to be the most materialistic, followed by the U.S.A., New Zealand, Ukraine, Germany, and Turkey. These results suggest that materialism is neither unique to the West nor directly related to affluence, contrary to what has been assumed in prior treatments of the development of consumer culture.
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The purpose of this studywas to see if feeling grateful to God reduces the deleterious effects of stress on health in late life. In addition, an effort was made to test for gender differences in this process. Three main findings emerged from the analysis of data provided by a nationwide sample of older adults. First, the data suggest that olderwomen are more likely to feel grateful to God than older men. Second, the results revealed that the effects of stress (e.g., living in a deteriorated neighborhood) on health are reduced for older people who feel more grateful to God. Finally, the analyses indicated that the potentially important stress-buffering properties of gratitude toward God emerge primarily among older women but not older men.
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Being preoccupied with the pursuit of money, wealth, and material possessions arguably fails as a strategy to increase pleasure and meaning in life. However, little is known about the mechanisms that explain the inverse relation between materialism and well-being. The current study tested the hypothesis that experiential avoidance mediates associations between materialistic values and diminished emotional well-being, meaning in life, self-determination, and gratitude. Results indicated that people with stronger materialistic values reported more negative emotions and less relatedness, autonomy, competence, gratitude, and meaning in life. As expected, experiential avoidance fully mediated associations between materialistic values and each dimension of well-being. Emotional disturbances such as social anxiety and depressive symptoms failed to account for these findings after accounting for shared variance with experiential avoidance. The results are discussed in the context of alternative, more fulfilling routes to well-being.
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This study investigated whether positive emotion is differentially prescribed for men and women in self-and other-oriented contexts. Subjects read a scene in which the main character either did or did not express positive emotion toward either the self or another person. After imagining themselves as the main character, subjects rated on a rewards/costs scale how others would respond to them if they had behaved as depicted. Females expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed toward another person than when it was not, whereas expected rewards/costs did not differ when females expressed and did not express self-directed positive emotion. Males expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed than when it was not expressed in both self-and other-oriented contexts. Findings indicate that norms for expression of positive emotion are gender differentiated in that women are particularly required to express positive emotion toward others.
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This handbook is a primer for practitioners and researchers striving to incorporate the assessment of human strengths, resources, and fulfillment into their work. Contributors aptly examine the scientific underpinnings and practical applications of measures of hope, optimism, self-efficacy, problem solving, locus of control, creativity, wisdom, courage, positive emotion, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, attachment, forgiveness, humor, gratitude, faith, morality, and quality of life. Vocational and multicultural applications of positive psychological assessment are also discussed, as is the measurement of contextual variables that may facilitate the development or enhancement of human strength. The variety of perspectives offered will be immensely helpful to readers who wish to incorporate balance into their assessments and research through the integration of theoretically grounded positive measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This book provides an in-depth psychological analysis of consumerism that draws from a wide range of theoretical, clinical, and methodological approaches. The contributors to this edited book demonstrate that consumerism and the culture that surround it exert profound and often undesirable effects both on people's individual lives and on society as a whole. Far from being different influences, advertising, consumption, materialism, and the capitalistic economic system affect personal, social, and ecological well-being as well as childhood development. The book makes a strong case that despite psychology's past reticence to investigate issues related to consumerism, such topics are crucial to understanding human life in the contemporary age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is hypothesized that people possess implicit theories regarding the inherent consistency of their attributes, as well as a set of principles concerning the conditions that are likely to promote personal change or stability. The nature of these theories is discussed in the context of a study of beliefs about life-span development. It is then suggested that people use their implicit theories of self to construct their personal histories. This formulation is used to interpret the results of a wide-ranging set of studies of memory of personal attributes. It is concluded that implicit theories of stability and change can lead to biases in recall. The extent and practical implications of these biases are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hopeful thought reflects the belief that one can find pathways to desired goals and become motivate to use those pathways. The authors proposed that hope, so defined, serves to drive the emotions and well-being of people. The aim of positive psychology is to catalyze change in psychology from a preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building the best qualities in life. The field of positive psychology at the subjective level is about positive subjective experience: well-being and satisfaction (past); flow, joy, the sensual pleasures, and happiness (present); and constructive cognitions about the future--optimism, hope, and faith. At the individual level it is about positive personal traits--the capacity for love and vocation, courage, interpersonal skill, aesthetic sensibility, perseverance, forgiveness, originality, futuremindedness, high talent, and wisdom. At the group level it is about the civic virtues and the institutions that move individuals toward better citizenship: responsibility, nurturance, altruism, civility, moderation, tolerance, and work ethic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Are emotions essentially an individual-subjective phenomenon, or are they broader in scope? Do emotions mainly represent what the individual feels ‘inside’ or do they also carry implications for the social context? Questions such as these were in the background of the present research that has examined the way emotions are viewed, understood, and experienced by young and older adult men and women (ranging in age from 18 to 50) in two cultural environments, Germany and the US. Overall, the results revealed distinctly different patterns of age and sex differences in the evaluation and experience of emotions for Americans and Germans. In addition, the study identified specific emotions (e.g. gratitude, despair, rage) that seem to have different connotations and associations for individuals in the two cultural groups. Interpretation of the findings emphasizes connections between the emotional life and emotional understanding of the individual and broad sociocultural themes. It is argued that social context is an important feature of emotion requiring more extensive consideration is psychological theory and research on emotion.
Article
This article presents an overview of this special issue of the Journal of Personality on religion in the psychology of personality. I begin with a brief historical overview in which I highlight the discrepancy between the vision of early personologists and how religion is handled today within the field of personality. I then consider how contemporary research and theory can profit by incorporating religious and spiritual constructs and processes. As personality psychologists purport to study the whole person, the relative neglect of religiousness in the current literature is a serious omission that precludes a comprehensive understanding of the person.
Article
Stereotypes about gender and emotional expression tend to be imprecise and misleading. They fail to acknowledge situational, individual, and cultural variations in males' and females' emotional expressiveness. They also tend to generalize across emotional intensity and frequency, as well as across different modalities of emotional expression, e.g. verbal vs. behavioral modalities. Moreover, they tend to exaggerate the extent of gender differences in emotional expression. I argue that when gender differences in emotional expression do occur, they can be traced to social processes such as dissimilar gender roles, status and power imbalances, and differing socialization histories of males and females. These processes may predispose some males and females to express emotions differently in some cultures and in some contexts. To support this argument, I present data from two studies, one showing that the amount of time fathers spend with their children relates to the gender stereotypic nature of their children's emotional expressiveness; and the other showing that gender differences in emotional expressiveness are culturally specific in a sample of Asian international, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Finally, I note the potentially destructive limitations imposed by stereotypes on males' and females' interpersonal functioning as well as on their mental and physical health.
Article
Previous investigators have proposed that various kinds of person-descriptive content—such as differences in attitudes or values, in sheer evaluation, in attractiveness, or in height and girth—are not adequately captured by the Big Five Model. We report on a rather exhaustive search for reliable sources of Big Five–independent variation in data from person-descriptive adjectives. Fifty-three candidate clusters were developed in a college sample using diverse approaches and sources. In a nonstudent adult sample, clusters were evaluated with respect to a minimax criterion: minimum multiple correlation with factors from Big Five markers and maximum reliability. The most clearly Big Five–independent clusters referred to Height, Girth, Religiousness, Employment Status, Youthfulness, and Negative Valence (or low-base-rate attributes). Clusters referring to Fashionableness, Sensuality/Seductiveness, Beauty, Masculinity, Frugality, Humor, Wealth, Prejudice, Folksiness, Cunning, and Luck appeared to be potentially beyond the Big Five, although each of these clusters demonstrated Big Five multiple correlations of .30 to .45, and at least one correlation of .20 and over with a Big Five factor. Of all these content areas, Religiousness, Negative Valence, and the various aspects of Attractiveness were found to be represented by a substantial number of distinct, common adjectives. Results suggest directions for supplementing the Big Five when one wishes to extend variable selection outside the domain of personality traits as conventionally defined.
Article
The present study investigated theoretically and empirically derived similarities and differences between the constructs of enduring happiness and self-esteem. Participants (N=621), retired employees ages 51–95, completed standardized measures of affect, personality, psychosocial characteristics, physical health, and demographics. The relations between each of the two target variables (happiness and self-esteem) and the full set of remaining variables were assessed through a series of successive statistical analyses: (1) simple Pearson’s correlations, (2) partial correlations, and (3) hierarchical regression analyses. The results revealed that happiness and self-esteem, while highly correlated (r=0.58), presented unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables. The best predictors of happiness were the following: mood and temperamental traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism), social relationships (lack of loneliness and satisfaction with friendships), purpose in life, and global life satisfaction. By contrast, self-esteem was best predicted by dispositions related to agency and motivation (i.e., optimism and lack of hopelessness). Implications for the understanding of happiness and self-esteem are discussed.
Article
The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N=479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18-76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n=130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n=118) or a waitlist control (n=231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n=40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n=22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n=120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables.