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Abstract

Personality psychology is a rapidly maturing science making important advances on both conceptual and methodological fronts. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology offers a one-stop source for the most up-to-date scientific personality psychology. It provides a summary of cutting-edge personality research in all its forms, from DNA to political influences on its development, expression, pathology and applications. The chapters are informative, lively, stimulating and, sometimes, controversial and the team of international authors, led by two esteemed editors, ensures a truly wide range of theoretical perspectives. Each research area is discussed in terms of scientific foundations, main theories and findings, and future directions for research. With useful descriptions of technological approaches (for example, molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging) the Handbook is an invaluable aid to understanding the central role played by personality in psychology and will appeal to students of occupational, health, clinical, cognitive and forensic psychology.
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology
Personality psychology is a rapidly maturing science maki ng important
advances on both conceptual and methodological fronts. The Cambridge
Handbook of Personality Psychology offers a one-stop source for the most
up-to-date scientific personality psychology. It provides a summary of
cutting-edge personality research in all its forms, from DNA to political
influences on its development , expression, pathology and applications. The
chapters are informative, lively, stimulating and, sometimes, controversial
and the team of international authors, led by two esteemed editors, ensures a
truly wide range of theoretical perspectives. Each research area is discussed
in terms of scientific foundations, main theories and findings, and future
directions for research. With useful descriptions of technological approaches
(for example, molecular genetics and functional neuroimaging) the
Handbook is an invaluable aid to understanding the central role played by
personality in psychology and will appeal to students of occupational, health,
clinical, cognitive and forensic psychology.
PHILIP J. CORR is Professor of Psychology at the University of East Anglia.
GERALD MATTHEWS is Professor of Psychology at the University of
Cincinnati.
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The Cambridge Handbook of
Personality Psychology
Edited by
Philip J. Corr
and
Gerald Matthews
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-68051-6 - The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology
Edited by Philip J. Corr and Gerald Matthews
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cambridge university press
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The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology / edited by Philip J. Corr and Gerald Matthews.
p. cm.
ISBN 978-0-521-86218-9 (hdbk : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-521-68051-6 (pbk : alk. paper)
1. Personality. I. Corr, Philip J. II. Matthews, Gerald. III. Title.
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Contents
List of Figures page ix
List of Tables xiii
List of Contributors xv
List of Abbreviations xviii
Preface xxi
Editors general introduction xxii
Editors introduction to Parts I to VIII xliii
Part I. Foundation Issues 1
1. Conceptual issues in personality theory
SUSAN CLONINGER 3
2. Personality psychology of situations
SETH A. WAGERMAN AND DAVID C. FUNDER 27
3. Personality: traits and situations
JENS B. ASENDORPF 43
4. Personality and emotion
RAINER REISENZEIN AND HANNELORE WEBER 54
5. The characterization of persons: some fundamental
conceptual issues
JAMES T. LAMIELL 72
Part II. Personality Description and Measurement 87
6. The trait approach to personality
IAN J. DEARY 89
7. Methods of personality assessment
GREGORY J. BOYLE AND EDWARD HELMES 110
8. Structural models of personality
BOELE DE RAAD 127
v
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9. The Five-Factor Model of personality traits: consensus and
controversy
ROBERT R. M C CRAE 148
10. Personality and intelligence
PHILLIP L. ACKERMAN 162
Part III. Development, Health and Personality Change 175
11. Childhood tempe rament
MARY K. ROTHBART, BRAD E. SHEESE AND
ELISABETH D
. CONRADT 177
12. The development of personality across the lifespan
M . BRENT DONNELLAN AND RICHARD W. ROBINS 191
13 Models of personality and health
MARKO ELOVAINIO AND MIKA KIVIMÄKI 205
14. Attachment theor y: I. Motivational, individual-differen ces
and structural aspects
PHILLIP R. SHAVER AND MARIO MIKULINCER 228
15. Attachment theor y: II. Developmental, psychodynamic
and optimal-functioning aspects
MARIO MIKULINCER AND PHILLIP R. SHAVER 247
Part IV. Biological Perspectives 263
16. Evolutionary theories of personality
AURELIO JOSÉ FIGUEREDO, PAUL GLADDEN,
GENEVA VÁSQUEZ, PEDRO SOFIO ABRIL WOLF
AND DANIEL NELSON JONES 265
17. Animal models of personality and cross-species
comparisons
SAMUEL D. GOSLING AND B. AUSTIN HARLEY 275
18. Behavioural genetics: from variance to DNA
MARCUS R. MUNAFÒ 287
19. Neuroimaging of personality
TURHAN CANLI 305
20. Personality neuroscience: explaining individual
differences in affect, behaviour and cognition
COLIN G. DEYOUNG AND JEREMY R. GRAY 323
vi Contents
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21. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality
PHILIP J. CORR 347
Part V. Cognitive Perspectives 377
22. Semantic and linguistic aspects of personality
GERARD SAUCIER 379
23. Personality and performance: cog nitive processes
and models
GERALD MATTHEWS 400
24. Self-regulation and control in personality functioning
CHARLES S. CARVER AND MICHAEL F. SCHEIER 427
25. Self-determination theory: a consideration of human
motivational universals
EDWARD L. DECI AND RICHARD M. RYA N 441
26. Traits and the self: toward an integration
MICHAEL D. ROBINSON AND CONSTANTINE SEDIKIDES 457
27. Personality as a cognitive-affective processing system
RONALD E. SMITH AND YUICHI SHODA 473
Part VI. Social and Cultural Processes 489
28. The storied construction of personality
AVRIL THORNE AND VICKIE NAM 491
29. Personality and social relations
LAURI A. JENSEN-CAMPBELL, JENNIFER M. KNACK
AND MADELINE REX
-LEAR 506
30. Personality and social support processes
RHONDA SWICKERT 524
31. Social pain and hurt feelings
GEOFF MACDONALD 541
32. Personality in cross-cultural perspective
JURIS G. DRAGUNS 556
33. Culture and personality
ROBERT HOGAN AND MICHAEL HARRIS BOND 577
34. Personality and politics
GIANVITTORIO CAPRARA AND MICHELE VECCHIONE 589
Contents vii
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Part VII. Psychopathology 609
35. Mood and anx iety disorders: the hierarchical structure
of personality and psychopathology
DAVID D. VA CHON A N D R. MICHAEL BAGBY 611
36. Personality and psychosis
GORDON CLARIDGE 631
37. Diagnosis and assessment of disorders of personality
STEPHANIE N. MULLINS-SWEATT AND THOMAS A. WIDIGER 649
38. Psychopathy and its measuremen t
ROBERT D. HARE AND CRAIG S. NEUMANN 660
39. Personality and eating disorders
NATALIE J. LOXTON AND SHARON DAWE 687
40. Personality and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
RAPSON GOMEZ 704
Part VIII. Applied Personality Psychology 717
41. Personality in school psychology
MOSHE ZEIDNER 719
42. Personality in educational psychology
MOSHE ZEIDNER 733
43. Personality at work
GILES ST J. BURCH AND NEIL ANDERSON 748
44. Workplace safety and personality
ALICE F. STUHLMACHER, ANDREA L. BRIGGS AND
DOUGLAS F
. CELLAR 764
45. Personality and crime
DAVID CANTER AND DONNA YOUNGS 780
46. Treatment of personality disorders
FIONA WARREN 799
Index 820
viii Contents
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Figures
1.1 Theoretical constructs and correspondence rules 15
3.1 Perfect cross-situational consistency of inter-individual differences
despite strong situational effects on behaviour 47
3.2 Situational profile of two children in verbal aggressiveness across
five situations 48
5.1 Schematic representation of the traditional framework for scientific
personality research. Reprinted from J. T. Lamiell 2000. A periodic
table of personality elements? The Big Five and trait
psychology in critical perspective, Journal of Theoretical and
Philosophical Psychology 20: 124 with permission 73
5.2 Illustrative Big Five personality profile based on interactive
measurements, juxtaposed with previously-derived normative
profile. Reprinted from 2003. Beyond Individual and Group
Differences: Human Individuality, Scientific Psychology, and
William Sterns Critical Personalism with permission from Sage
Publications 79
6.1 A simplified representation of components of the personality
system and their interrelations, according to Five-Factor Theory.
From R. R. McCrae 2004. Human nature and culture: a trait
perspective, Journal of Research in Personality 38: 314 103
8.1 Eysencks (1970) hierarchical model of Extraversion 136
8.2 Partial models of Extraversion and Agreeableness of De Raad,
Hendriks and Hofstee (1992) 137
8.3 Hierarchical emergence of factors (De Raad and Barelds 2007) 138
8.4 Circumplex representation of two factor solution (De Raad and
Barelds 2007) 140
9.1 Gender differences, in T-scores, for adults in the United States
(self-reports) vs. 50 cultures (observer ratings) on the 30 facets of
the NEO-PI-R 152
10.1 An example of a hierarchical structure of intellectual abilities,
derived from information in Carroll (1993) 164
10.2 Personality constructs and their relations. From P. L. Ackerman
and E. D. Heggestad 1997. Intelligence, personality, and
ix
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interests: evidence for overlapping traits, Psychological Bulletin
121: 21945. Copyright American Psychological Association.
Reprinted by permission 166
13.1 Personality factors as modifiers of environmental demands 210
13.2 Personality factors affecting the perception of the environment 210
13.3 Personality as an independent factor 211
13.4 The transactional model of the core relationship between
personality and health 220
18.1 Incidence of major depression as a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype
and number of life events. From A. Caspi et al. 2003. Influence
of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the
5-HTT gene, Science 301: 3869. Reprinted with permission
from AAAS 297
18.2 Amygdala activation to fearful faces compared to neutral stimuli as
a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype. Reprinted from A. R. Hariri
et al. 2002. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response
of the human amygdala, Science 297: 4003 300
19.1 Amygdala response to emotional faces. Reprinted from T. H. Canli,
et al. 2002. Amygdala response to happy faces as a function of
Extraversion, Science 296: 2191 307
19.2 Relationship between neuroticism (N) and change of slopes of
MedPFC activity within blocks of sad facial expressions 314
19.3 Lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation to fearful, relative to
neutral, faces correlated with Agreeableness. Reprinted from
B. W. Haas et al. 2007. Is automatic emotion regulation associated
with agreeableness? A perspective using a social neuroscience
approach, Psychological Science 18(2): 1302 315
21.1 The relationship between (a) the real nervous system (Real NS),
(b) the conceptual nervous system (Conceptual NS), (c) syndromes/
behaviours related to (d) immediate stimuli/cognitions, and (e) past
events/genes, providing descriptions in terms of structure, function
and behaviour 352
21.2 Position in factor space of the fundamental punishment sensitivity
and reward sensitivity (unbroken lines) and the emergent surface
expressions of these sensitivities, i.e., Extraversion (E) and
Neuroticism (N) (broken lines) 356
21.3 A schematic representation of the hypothesized relationship
between (a) FFFS/BIS (punishment sensitivity; PUN) and BAS
(reward sensitivity; REW); (b) their joint effects on reactions to
punishment and reward; and (c) their relations to extraversion (E)
and neuroticism (N) 357
21.4 The two dimensional defence system 363
x List of Figures
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21.5 Categories of emotion and defensive responses derived from
defensive direction (i.e., motivation to avoid or approach the
source of danger) and avoidability of the threat (given constraints of
the environment) 369
23.1 Humphreys and Revelle theory: causal chain 406
23.2 Tri-level explanatory framework for cognitive science 416
23.3 Cognitive-adaptive processes supporting personality traits 421
24.1 Schematic depiction of a feedback loop, the basic unit of cybernetic
control 428
24.2 Hypothesized approach-related affects as a function of doing well
versus doing poorly compared to a criterion velocity. Adapted from
C. S. Carver 2004. Negative affects deriving from the behavioural
approach system, Emotion 4: 322 437
25.1 Representation of the SDT continuum of relative autonomy,
showing types of motivation, types of regulation, the nature of
perceived causation, and the degree of autonomy or self-
determination for each type of motivation 445
27.1 Illustrative intra-individual, situation-behaviour profiles for verbal
aggression in relation to five situations in two time samples. From
Y. Shoda, W. Mischel and J. C. Wright 1994. Intra-individual
stability in the organization and patterning of behaviour:
incorporating psychological situations into the idiographic analysis
of personality, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:
678. Copyright 1994 by the American Psychological Association.
Reprinted with permission 475
27.2 The cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS). From
W. Mischel and Y. Shoda 1995. A cognitive-affective system
theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions,
dynamics, and invariance in personality structure, Psychological
Review 102: 254. Copyright 1995 by the American Psychological
Association. Adapted with permission 481
34.1 The motivational continuum of basic values 597
35.1 Correlations between subordinate and superordinate factors from
an integrated hierarchical account of the structure of normal and
abnormal personality. Reproduced from K. E. Markon, R. F.
Krueger and D. Watson 2005. Delineating the structure of normal
and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach,
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88: 13957 with
permission 616
35.2 A schematic structural model of the DSM-IV mood and anxiety
disorders. Reproduced from D. Watson 2005. Rethinking the
mood and anxiety disorders: a quantitative hierarchical model for
List of Figures xi
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DSM-V, Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Special Issue: Toward a
Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology 114: 52236
with permission 622
35.3 Best-fitting model for the entire National Co-morbidity Survey, a
three-factor variant of the two-factor internalizing/externalizing
model. Reproduced from R. F. Krueger 1999. The structure of
common mental disorders, Archives of General Psychiatry 56: 9216 623
35.4 An integrated representation of major personality markers of
psychopathology, Watsons (2005) quantitative hierarchical model
for DSM-V and Kruegers (1999) structure of common mental
disorders 624
38.1 Four factor PCL-R item-based model of psychopathy (N = 6929).
Reprinted with permission of Guildford Press from C. S. Neumann,
R. D. Hare, and J. P. Newman, The super-ordinate nature of the
psychopathy checklist-revised, Journal of Personality Disorders
21: 1027 670
38.2 Two-factor PCL-R higher-order representation of the four
correlated factors model (N = 6929). From Hare and Neumann
(2008). Reprinted with permission from Annual Reviews. 672
42.1 Different component weights contributing to academic success in
two hypothetical students 743
44.1 Model of the safety process 774
46.1 The cognitive model of psychopathology. From J. Pretzer and
A. Beck 1996. A cognitive theory of personality disorders, in
J. F. Lenzenweger (ed.), Major theories of personality disorder.
New York: Guilford Press 807
46.2 Linehans biosocial model of borderline personality disorder 811
xii List of Figures
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Tables
1.1 Major perspectives in personality 4
1.2 Milestones in the history of personality 6
3.1 Stability, agreement and coherence of observed and judged
dominance in pre-school children 45
5.1 Illustrative assessments, population norms and standard
scores 76
9.1 Correspondence of facet-level scales for three inventories 156
12.1 Summary of stability and change in the Big Five personality
domains across the lifespan 196
12.2 Summary of core themes in personality development 200
18.1 Heritability coefficients for personality traits 290
21.1 Relationship between personality trait of defensiveness (FFFS/
BIS), difference between actual and perceived defensive distance,
and the real defensive difference required to elicit defensive
behaviour 365
23.1 Outline cognitive patterning for Extraversion-Introversion 414
23.2 Outline cognitive patterning for anxiety/Neuroticism 415
34.1 Definitions of ten value constructs and sample PVQ items 596
38.1 Items and factors in the Hare PCL-R. Copyright 1991. R. D. Hare
and Multi-Health Systems, 3770 Victoria Park Avenue, Toronto,
Ontario, M2H 3M6. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. 662
38.2 Items and factors in the Hare PCL: SV. Copyright 1995. R. D. Hare
and Multi-Health Systems, 3770 Victoria Park Avenue, Toronto,
Ontario, M2H 3M6. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. 663
38.3 Items and factors in the Hare PCL: YV. Copyright 2003. R. D. Hare
and Multi-Health Systems, 3770 Victoria Park Avenue, Toronto,
Ontario, M2H 3M6. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. 664
39.1 Summary of studies investigating sub-groups of eating disorders
using personality-related measures 693
44.1 Personality variables correlated with workplace safety 765
44.2 Five-Factor Model personality variables correlations with
workplace safety 766
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46.1 Sub-categories of personality disorders in the DSM-IV and ICD-10
classification systems 800
46.2 Examples of cognitive distortions 806
46.3 Examples of core beliefs, views of self and others typical of each
personality disorder 809
xiv List of Tables
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Contributors
PHILLIP L. ACKERMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology
NEIL ANDERSON, University of Amsterdam
JENS B. ASENDORPF, Humboldt-Universität Berlin
R. MICHAEL BAGBY, University of Toronto
MICHAEL HARRIS BOND, Chinese University of Hong Kong
GREGORY J. BOYLE, Bond University
ANDREA L. BRIGGS, DePaul University
GILES ST J. BURCH, University of Auckland
TURHAN CANLI, Stony Brook University
DAVID CANTER, University of Liverpool
GIANVITTORIO CAPRARA, University of Rome
CHARLES S. CARVER, University of Miami
DOUGLAS F. CELLAR, DePaul University
GORDON CLARIDGE, University of Oxford
SUSAN CLONINGER, The Sage Colleges
ELISABETH D. CONRADT, University of Oregon
PHILIP J. CORR, University of East Anglia
SHARON DAWE, Griffith University
IAN J. DEARY, University of Edinburgh
BOELE DE RAAD, University of Groningen
EDWARD L. DECI, University of Rochester
COLIN G. DEYOUNG, Yale University
M . BRENT DONNELLAN, Michigan State University
JURIS G. DRAGUNS, Pennsylvania State University
xv
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MARKO ELOVAINIO, University of Helsinki
AURELIO JOSÉ FIGUEREDO, University of Arizona
DAVID C. FUNDER, University of California, Riverside
PAUL GLADDEN, University of Arizona
RAPSON GOMEZ, University of Tasmania
SAMUEL D. GOSLING, University of Texas at Austin
JEREMY R. GRAY, Yale University
ROBERT D. HARE, University of British Columbia and Darkstone Research Group
B . AUSTIN HARLEY, University of Texas at Austin
EDWARD HELMES, James Cook University
ROBERT HOGAN, Hogan Assessment System
LAURI A. JENSEN-CAMPBELL, University of Texas at Arlington
DANIEL NELSON JONES, University of Arizona
MIKA KIVIMÄKI, University of Helsinki
JENNIFER M. KNACK, University of Texas at Arlington
JAMES T. LAMIELL, Georgetown University
NATALIE J. LOXTON, University of Queensland
GEOFF MACDONALD, University of Toronto
GERALD MATTHEWS, University of Cincinnati
ROBERT R. MCCRAE, National Institute on Aging
MARIO MIKULINCER, Bar-Ilan University
STEPHANIE N. MULLINS-SWEATT, University of Kentucky
MARCUS R. MUNAFÒ, University of Bristol
VICKIE NAM, University of California, Santa Cruz
CRAIG S. NEWMANN, University of North Texas
RAINER REISENZEIN, University of Greifswald
MADELINE REX-LEAR, University of Texas at Arlington
RICHARD W. ROBINS, University of California, Davis
MICHAEL D. ROBINSON, North Dakota State University
MARY K. ROTHBART, University of Oregon
xvi List of Contributors
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RICHARD M. RYA N, University of Rochester
GERARD SAUCIER, University of Oregon
MICHAEL F. SCHEIER, Carnegie Mellon University
CONSTANTINE SEDIKIDES, University of Southampton
PHILLIP R. SHAVER, University of California, Davis
BRAD E. SHEESE, University of Oregon
YUICHI SHODA, University of Washington
RONALD E. SMITH, University of Washington
ALICE F. STUHLMACHER, DePaul University
RHONDA SWICKERT, College of Charleston
AVRIL THORNE, University of California, Santa Cruz
DAVID D. VA CH O N, University of Toronto
GENEVA VÁSQUEZ, University of Arizona
MICHELE VECCHIONE, University of Rome
SETH A. WAGERMAN, University of California, Riverside
FIONA WARREN, University of Surrey
HANNELORE WEBER, University of Greifswald
THOMAS A. WIDIGER, University of Kentucky
PEDRO SOFIO ABRIL WOLF, University of Arizona
DONNA YOUNGS, University of Liverpool
MOSHE ZEIDNER, University of Haifa
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Abbreviations
A Agreeableness
ACC anterior cingulate cortex
ADHD attention deficit hyperactive disorder
APA American Psychiatric Association
APD antisocial personality disorder
APIM actor-partner independence model
APSD Antisocial Process Screening Device
ARAS ascending reticular activating system
BAS behavioural approach system
BED binge eating disorder
BFI Big Five Inventory
BIS behavioural inhibition system
BPI Basic Personality Inventory
C Conscientiousness
CAPS cognitive-affective processing system
CAQ-sort California Adult Q-sort
CAQ Clinical Analysis Questionnaire
CBT cognitive-behavioural therapy
CD conduct disorder
CFA confirmatory factor analysis
cns conceptual nervous system
CNS central nervous system
CPAI Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory
CPS Child Psychopathy Scale
CR conditioned response
CS conditioned stimulus
DAPP Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology
DBT dialectical behaviour therapy
DIF differential item functioning
DTC democratic therapeutic community
E Extraversion
ECR Experiences in Close Relationships
EFA exploratory factor analysis
EI emotional intelligence
FFM Five-Factor Model
FFFS fight-flight-freeze system
FFS fight-flight system
FHID factored homogeneous item dimension
xviii
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fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging
FUPC first unrotated principal component
GAS general adaptation syndrome
HPI Hogan Personality Inventory
HRM human resource management
IAPS International Affective Picture Series
IAS Interpersonal Adjective Scale
ICD International Classification of Diseases
IO industrial/organizational
IRT item response theory
LGM latent growth model
LPFC lateral prefrontal cortex
MBT mentalization-based treatment
MDS multidimensional scaling
MedPFC medial prefrontal cortex
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MPQ Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire
N Neuroticism
NA negative affectivity
NEO-FFI NEO Five-Factor Inventory
NEO-PI-R Revised NEO Personality Inventory
O Openness to Experience
OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder
ODD oppositional defiant disorder
O-LIFE Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences
P Psychoticism
PA positive affectivity
PAI Personality Assessment Inventory
PANAS Positive and Negative Affect Scale
PCL Psychopathy Checklist
PCLR Psychopathy ChecklistRevised
PD personality disorder
PDNOS personality disorder not otherwise specified
PFC prefrontal cortex
PPI Psychopathy Personality Inventory
QTL quantitative trait loci
ROI regions of interest
ROV regions of variance
RST Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
16PF Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
SDT self-determination theory
SEL social and emotional learning
SEM structural equation modelling
SIT sustained information transfer
SNAP Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality
SPQ Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
SRL self-regulated learning
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SRM social relations model
SRP Self-Report Psychopathy
SSSM standard social science model
STM short-term memory
SWB subjective wellbeing
TCI Temperament and Character Inventory
TIE typical intellectual engagement
TMI transmarginal inhibition
UCR unconditioned response
UCS unconditioned stimulus
YPI Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory
xx List of Abbreviations
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Preface
The study of personality requires an unusual feat of mental vision. Those of us
who work in this field must focus narrowly on one or more specialized research
topics, while simultaneously maintaining a wide-angle view of personality in a
broader sense. The day-to-day demands of doing research can make it hard to
preserve the broader focus, especially when immediate research projects are
progressing well. The aim of this Handbook is to assist researchers, practitioners
and students to regard the larger picture of personality research. Recent years have
seen a resurgence of interest in personality, directed along lines of research that
sometimes converge and sometimes seem to diverge. Our motivation in compiling
this Handbook was to provide a general overview of the many areas of study that
together define this branch of psychological science that many of us consider to
be becoming increasingly relevant and important in psychology more generally.
The contributors to this Handbook rose to their task admirably, producing
relatively brief summaries of their respective areas of expertise in an accessible
style that are intended to inform and stimulate, and at times provoke. We
instructed contributors to present their material in a way that they thought most
appropriate: our concern was to ensure that chapters were presented in the way
that best suited the topics as a result, some chapters are longer than others, and
some topics are divided over several chapters. We offer a collective thank you to
all contributors not only for producing such high-quality chapters but also for their
forbearance in the production process which, as a result of the number of chapters,
was slower than anticipated. We can only hope that contributors are pleased by the
finished Handbook.
We are very grateful to Cambridge University Press for agreeing to publish this
work; especially to Sarah Caro, Commissioning Editor, for her constant encourage-
ment and advice, and then, after Sarahs departure, to Andrew Peart and Carrie
Cheek for their patience and skill in bringing this project to fruition. Gerald
Matthews wishes to thank the University of Cincinnati for allowing a period of
sabbatical leave, and the Japan Society for the Promotion for Science for supporting
a study visit to the University of Kyushu, which assisted him in his editorial role.
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
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Editors’ general introduction
Philip J. Corr and Gerald Matthews
Personality psychology has never been in better health than at the present time.
The idea that we can describe and measure meaningful stable traits, such as
extraversion and emotionality, is no longer very controversial (though see James
T. Lamiell, Chapter 5). The study of traits has been boosted by, at least, a partial
consensus among researchers on the nature of the major traits, by advances in
genetics and neuroscience, and by increasing integration with various fields of
mainstream psychology (Matthews, Deary and Whiteman 2003). Other perspec-
tives on personality have also flourished, stimulated by advances in social-cognitive
theory (Cervone 2008; Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda, Chapter 27), by the
rediscovery of the unconscious and implicit personality processes (Bargh and
Williams 2006), and by increasing interest in the relationship between emotion
and personality (Rainer Reisenzein and Hannelore Weber, Chapter 4). The growing
prominence of personality as an arena for an integrated understanding of psycho-
logy (Susan Cloninger, Chapter 1) has motivated the present Handbook. In this
introductory chapter, we provide a brief overview of the main issues, themes
and research topics that are addressed in more depth by the contributors to this
volume.
Despite contemporary optimism, the study of personality has often been con-
tentious and riven by fundamental disputes among researchers. A persistent issue
is the nature of personality itself: what issues are central to investigating person-
ality, and which properly belong to other sub-disciplines of psychology? At times,
it has seemed as though different schools of personality research have been
addressing entirely different topics. Until quite recently, there was little commu-
nication between biologically and socially oriented researchers, for example.
Debates in the field tended to devolve into rigid dichotomies, forcing researchers
into one camp or another:
*
Is personality a nomothetic quality, described by general principles applying
to all individuals? Or should personality be studied idiographically, focusing
on the uniqueness of each individual?
*
Does behaviour primarily depend on personality, or is it more powerfully
shaped by situation and context?
*
Is personality infused into conscious experience, so that people can explicitly
describe their own traits? Or, as Freud argued, is much of personality uncon-
scious, so that people lack insight into their own natures?
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*
Is personality primarily a consequence of individual differences in brain func-
tioning, or of social learning and culture?
*
Is personality mainly determined by the individuals DNA, or by environmental
factors? (note that this dichotomy is not the same as the preceding one:
environment affects brain development)
*
Is personality fixed and stable throughout adulthood, or does the person gen-
erally change over time, and perhaps grow into maturity and wisdom?
The increasing wisdom of the field is suggested by progress in finding satis-
fying syntheses to these various dialectics, including a recognition of the impor-
tance of person-situation interaction in shaping behaviour, and the intertwining of
genes and environment (and brain and culture) in personality development
(Matthews, Deary and Whiteman 2003). Nonetheless, important and sometimes
fundamental differences in perspective remain (Caprara and Cervone 2000).
Many contributors to the present Handbook approach personality via the resurgent
notion of stable personality traits that exert a wide-ranging influence on many
areas of psychological functioning. The editors own work aligns with this
perspective. However, it is important to present a historical perspective on the
controversies within the field, to examine critically the core assumptions of trait
theory, and to expose some of the fissures that remain within different versions of
this theory. Part I of this Handbook briefly introduces some of the basic conceptual
issues that have shaped inquiries into personality.
The historical arc that has seen trait psychology go into and out of favour
may (most simply) reflect the changing dialectic between scientific and human-
istic approaches noted by Susan Cloninger (Chapter 1). One can do personality
research as a hard or natural science without subscribing to universal traits, as
demonstrated by work on behavioural signatures (the individuals consistencies
in behaviour across different environments: e.g., Shoda 1999). However, trait
theories have had a lasting appeal through their aspirations towards a universal
measurement framework (akin to Cartesian mapping of the Earth or the periodic
table), and their relevance to all branches of personality theory. Nonetheless, trait
theory does not satisfy those seeking to understand the individual person, or
the intimacy of the person-situation relationship, or the humanists that want to
help humankind. Contributors to Part I of this Handbook address some of the
central issues that define a struggle for the soul of personality theory. We espe-
cially highlight (1) the psychological meaning of measures of personality, (2) the
role of personality in predicting behaviour, and (3) the holistic coherence of
personality.
There are some points of agreement that are close to universal, at least among
scientifically-oriented researchers. As further explored in Part II of this Handbook,
personality researchers have a special concern with the meaning of measurements
of personality (whatever the particular scale or instrument). Numerical measure-
ments must be anchored by some process of external validation to reach theoret-
ical understanding. For example, a theory that specifies multiple brain systems
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allows us to link the numbers we get from personality scales to parameters of those
systems (Philip J. Corr, Chapter 21), and to make predictions about how trait
measurements relate to objective measurements of brain functioning (e.g., from
functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI). We are right to be wary of the
factor analysis of questionnaires interpreted without such theoretical and external
referents.
Another basic concern is the prediction of behaviour (whether at individual or
group level). We are all interactionists now, in accepting the importance of both
person and situation factors, but the simple acknowledgement of interaction does
not take us very far (see Seth A. Wagerman and David C. Funder, Chapter 2;
Jens B. Asendorpf, Chapter 3). At the least, we need both a fine-grained under-
standing of how personality factors bias the dynamic interaction between the
individual and the environment in some given social encounter, as well as a
longer-focus understanding on how personality and situations interact develop-
mentally over periods of years, or even decades (see M. Brent Donnellan and
Richard W. Robins, Chapter 12).
A focus on the general functioning of the person, emerging from many indi-
vidual components or modules, is a further common theme. There is a tension
between the idea of a coherent self and several features of biological science,
including the division of the brain into many functionally distinct areas (neuro-
science), the determination of brain structure by multiple genes (molecular gene-
tics), and the evolution of the brain to support multiple adaptive modules
(evolutionary psychology). Contrasting with these fissile tendencies, if there is
one issue on which most personality psychologists agree, it is that the whole is
more than the sum of the parts. Comparable difficulties in finding personality
coherence also arise in social-cognitive approaches which discriminate multiple
cognitive, affective and motivational processes underlying personality (Caprara
and Cervone 2000). Should we see personality as a fundamental causal attribute of
the brain that, in Jeffrey Grays(1981) phrase, becomes a great flowering tree as it
guides the development of many seemingly disparate psychological functions? Or
does personality coherence reside in the idiosyncratic schemas that lend unique
meanings to the lives of individuals (Caprara and Cervone 2000)? Or is person-
ality coherence functional rather than structural in nature, reflecting the persons
core goals and strategies for adaptation to the major challenges of life (Matthews
2008a)? Defining personality in some holistic sense, as opposed to a collection of
functional biases in independent modules, may be informed by integration of
personality and emotion research. As discussed by Rainer Reisenzein and
Hannelore Weber (Chapter 4), the study of emotion has similar integrative aims.
Trait researchers pursue normal science (Kuhn 1962), in that they share
common core assumptions about the nature of personality. There is a reasonable
degree of consensus on dimensional models, the importance of both biology and
social factors, and person x situation interaction. Some alternative perspectives on
personality, such as those grounded in social constructivism, are clearly outside
the paradigm. Social-cognitive perspectives appear to be in the process of
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negotiating their stance towards trait models. Some aspects of social-cognitive
research use normative trait-like measures (e.g., self-esteem), and might be
integrated with the trait paradigm (Michael D. Robinson and Constantine
Sedikides, Chapter 26). Other aspects that take an idiographic view of personality
coherence (Caprara and Cervone 2000) may represent an alternative paradigm.
This volume primarily covers the various expressions and applications of trait
theory as the dominant paradigm in personality, while recognizing the important
contributions of social-cognitive models (Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda,
Chapter 27) and the idiographic (Auril Thorne and Vickie Nam, Chapter 28) and
humanistic (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, Chapter 25) traditions of the
field. The remainder of this introductory chapter briefly highlights key issues
relating to the focal issues reflected in the section structure of the book: measure-
ment issues, theoretical stances (biological, cognitive and social), personality
development, the role of culture, and applications.
Measurement of personality
Measurement issues may be broken down into a series of interlinked
questions. First, should quantitative measurements be at the center of personality
research at all? Answers in the negative would come from psychodynamic
theorists, and from social constructivists (cf., Avril Thorne and Vickie Nam,
Chapter 28). There are also those who challenge the basic assumptions of psycho-
metric methods used in personality assessment (James T. Lamiell, Chapter 5), or
even the validity of any psychological measurement (Barrett 2003). For the most
part, however, personality researchers share the assumption that scientific tests of
personality theory require quantitative assessments of personality. Typically, it is
dimensional traits such as extraversion, anxiety and sensation-seeking which are
assessed, but personality characteristics unique to the individual may also be
quantified (Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda, Chapter 27).
Assuming that measurement is desirable, the next question is what do we
measure? As Ian J. Deary (Chapter 6) points out, Gordon Allport raised a question
that still awaits an answer: what is the basic unit of personality? In practice,
various sources of trait data have been used, following Raymond Cattells classi-
fication (see Gregory J. Boyle and Edward Helmes, Chapter 7), that distinguishes
self-reports (which need not be accepted at face value), objective behaviours and
life-record data. Questionnaire assessments of traits are familiar, and need no
introduction. The major structural models of personality such as the Five-Factor
Model (FFM) (Robert R. McCrae, Chapter 9) are largely based on questionnaire
scales, although they gain authority from evidence on the convergence of self-
report with other measurement media, such as the reports of others on the person-
ality of the individual (Goldberg 1992). Assessment may also be reconfigured by
the resurgence of interest in the unconscious. Implicit personality dimensions
distinct from self-report dimensions assessed via behavioural techniques based on
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speed of response to trait-relevant stimuli are promising, although psychometric
challenges remain (Schnabel, Banse and Asendorpf 2006).
Having chosen a data source, the next issue for trait researchers is what specific
analytic techniques should be used to identify and discriminate multiple dimen-
sions of personality (Gregory J. Boyle and Edward Helmes, Chapter 7). The
traditional tool here (Cattell 1973) is exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which
assigns the reliable variance in responses (e.g., on a questionnaire) to a reduced set
of underlying factors or dimensions. For example, factor analysis of the various
English-language verbal descriptors of personality suggests that most of the
variation in response can be attributed to just five underlying factors that provide
a comprehensive description of personality in this medium (Goldberg 1990). EFA,
however, is subject to various limitations, including the existence of an infinite
number of mathematically-equivalent factor solutions (alternate rotations), dif-
ferent principles for factor extraction, and the lack of any definitive method for
deciding on the key question of how many factors to extract (Haig 2005). These
difficulties have been known from the beginning of research using factor analysis,
and most theorists have advocated using factor analysis only in conjunction with
other approaches that may provide converging evidence, such as discriminating
clinical groups and performing experimental investigations (Eysenck 1967).
As Gregory J. Boyle and Edward Helmes (Chapter 7) discuss, interest is
growing in modern methods for scale construction that contrast with classical
test theory; these methods include item response theory and Rasch scaling.
Multivariate methods that complement or replace traditional EFA have also
become increasingly sophisticated. The single most important advance may be
the development of confirmatory techniques, which are used to test whether or not
a factor model specified in advance fits a given data set. Testing goodness of fit
provides some protection against making too much of the serendipitous factor
solutions that may emerge from EFA. Confirmatory factor analysis is itself one
instance of a larger family of structural equation modelling techniques that allow
detailed causal models to be tested against data (Bentler 1995).
The final set of questions concerns the nature of the measurement models that
emerge from the application of multivariate statistical methods. For many years,
debate over the structure of personality revolved around disputes over the optimal
number of factors for personality description. Famously, Cattell advocated
sixteen (or more) factors, whereas Eysenck preferred a more economical three.
The Five-Factor Model represents the most popular resolution of the debate
(Robert R. McCrae, Chapter 9), although there remain significant dissenting
voices (e.g., Boyle 2008). In addition, disputes can to some extent be resolved
within hierarchical, multilevel models that differentiate broad superfactors such
as the Big Five, along with more numerous and narrowly defined primary
factors (Boele De Raad, Chapter 8).
A more subtle issue is how to discriminate dimensions of personality from other
domains of individual differences, especially intelligence (Phillip L. Ackerman,
Chapter 10). The term personality is sometimes used in a wider sense to refer to
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the full spectrum of personal characteristics, including abilities. Careful psycho-
metric modelling can help to resolve the boundaries of different domains within
this broader sphere of individual differences. The new construct of emotional
intelligence is an example of the problems that may arise. Different versions of
the construct have been proposed that seem variously to belong in either the ability
or personality domain, or some no mans land in between (Matthews, Zeidner and
Roberts 2007).
Developmental processes
Given that we can assess personality descriptively, one of the next
fundamental issues to consider is personality development. How do our person-
alities originate? How do they change over time? What psychological processes
support development? Broadly, two rather different perspectives have been adop-
ted historically. An essentialist position (see Haslam, Bastian and Bissett 2004)
supposes that individuals have a rather stable nature, evident early in childhood,
which is perpetuated, with minor changes, throughout the lifespan. This position
is compatible with a strong hereditary component to personality and a view that
biology is destiny. Conversely, in the spirit of J. B. Watson, we may see person-
ality as accumulating over time through significant learning experiences. Theories
as various as psychoanalysis, traditional learning theory and modern social-
cognitive theory have all seen learning as central to personality. Such approaches
tend to suggest a more malleable view of personality.
Understanding development breaks down into a number of discrete research
issues, including measurement models for the lifespan, identifying qualitative
differences between child and adult personality, modelling the processes that
contribute to development, and linking personality development to the persons
broader experience of life and wellbeing. Contributors to this volume address
some of the key issues involved.
Assessment and continuity of personality in the early years are often attacked
via studies of temperament. The general idea is that even infants may show
rudimentary qualities such as emotionality and activity. These basic tempera-
ments may persist into adulthood, for example as positive and negative emotion-
ality, and also provide a platform for development of more sophisticated
personality attributes. It is sometimes assumed that temperament is closer to
biological substrates than adult personality, which is more strongly influenced
by social-cultural factors (Strelau 2001). Just as with adult personality, we can
investigate the dimensional structure of temperament, although, with young
children, the primary data source must be observations of the childs behaviour
rather than self-report.
One of the most parsimonious and also most influential models of temperament
is that proposed by Rothbart and Bates (1998; Mary K. Rothbart et al., Chapter 11).
Its major dimensions include Surgency/Extraversion (including activity and
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sociability), negative affectivity and effortful control, all of which may be identified
through observational methods. A key question is the extent to which childhood
temperament shows continuity with adolescent and adult personality. Do active
children become extraverted adults? Do whiny infants become emotionally unsta-
ble in later life? The consensus on such issues is that temperament does indeed
predict adult personality, although personality may be somewhat unstable during the
childhood years. An important line of research constitutes longitudinal studies that
track temperament, personality and real-life behaviours of periods of years. For
example, the Dunedin study in New Zealand has tracked around one thousand
infants into adulthood, and demonstrated that childhood temperament is modestly
but reliably predictive of adult personality and further criteria including criminal
behaviour and mental disorder (e.g., Caspi, Harrington, Milne et al. 2003).
As M. Brent Donnellan and Richard W. Robins (Chapter 12) discuss, the FFM
has proved a useful framework for investigating both stability and change in
personality over the lifespan. Factor analytic studies confirm the convergence of
personality and temperament dimensions (Strelau 2001). We should note that
factorial convergence does not preclude qualitative changes in the nature of the
dimension over time.
Coupled with statistical modelling of personality change over the lifespan is a
concern with the underlying processes driving change and stability. We prefigure
our later discussion of personality theory by indicating several avenues towards
understanding development. The grounding of temperament in biology points
towards the role of neuroscience. There are good correspondences between the
fundamental dimensions of temperament and some of the key constructs of bio-
logical theories of personality (Mary K. Rothbart et al., Chapter 11). Importantly,
brain development depends on both genes and environmental influences, and, as
genes may become active at different ages, genetic influences may incorporate
personality change. Cognitive and social processes are also critical for personality
development. Traits such as Extraversion and Neuroticism are associated
with biases in cognitive functioning that confer, for example, an aptitude for
acquiring social skills in extraverts, and heightened awareness of threat in high
neurotic persons (Matthews 2008a). Self-regulative theories (Charles S. Carver
and Michael F. Scheier, Chapter 24; Michael D. Robinson and Constantine
Sedikides, Chapter 26) have addressed how cognitive representations of the self
mediate the individuals attempts to satisfy personal goals in a changing external
environment. Furthermore, cognitive development takes place within a social
context (Bandura 1997) that may powerfully affect personality, for example, in
relation to exposure to role models, internalization of cultural norms and educa-
tional experiences (Moshe Zeidner, Chapters 41, 42).
Most researchers accept that neural, cognitive and social processes interact in
the course of personality development, although building and validating detailed
models of the developmental process is difficult. Two examples will suffice. There
is a growing appreciation that research on personality and health should be placed
in the context of the lifespan (Marko Elovainio and Mika Kivimäki, Chapter 13).
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Activities such as smoking and exercise exert their effects over long intervals.
Whiteman, Deary and Fowkes (2000) suggested that a full understanding of
personality requires the integration of two models, a structural weakness model
that focuses on internal vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic predispositions to illness),
and a psychosocial vulnerability model that focuses on external factors such as
life/work stress. Cognitive factors such as choosing health-promoting coping
strategies may play a mediating role.
Similarly, development of emotional competence depends on the interaction
between biologically-based elements of temperament that confer emotionality on
the child, and social learning processes, such as modelling of emotional response.
Individual differences in brain systems for handling reward and punishment stimuli
(Philip J. Corr , Chapter 21) may govern whether children develop cheerful or
distress-prone temperaments, respectively. However, the distress-prone child may
still grow up to be well-adapted if he or she learns effective strategies from parents
and peers for coping with vulnerability to negative emotion. Cognitions are also
critical in that language capabilities influence the childs capacity to understand and
express emotion. T raits such as emotional intelligence emerge from this complex and
enigmatic interactional process (Zeidner, Matthews, Roberts and McCann 2003).
Finally, in this section, we note the resurgence of one of the grand theories of
personality, John Bowlbys attachment theory, reviewed in this volume in two
chapters authored by Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer (Chapters 14, 15).
Bowlbys insight was that the childs pattern of relationships with its primary
care-giver affected adult personality; secure attachment to the care-giver promoted
healthy adjustment in later life. The theory references many of the key themes of this
review of personality. Attachment style may be measured by observation or
questionnaire; a common distinction is between secure, anxious and avoidant styles
(Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall 1978). It also corresponds to standard traits;
for example, secure attachment correlates with Extraversion and Agreeableness
(Carver 1997). Attachment likely possesses biological aspects (evident in etholog-
ical studies of primates), social aspects (evident in data on adult relationships),
and cognitive aspects (evident in studies of the mental representations supporting
attachment style) (Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer, Chapter 14). As with
other personality theories, a major challenge is developing a model that integrates
these different facets of the attachment construct.
Theories of personality
Allport (1937) saw personality traits as possessing causal force. Traits
correspond to generalized neuropsychic structures that modulate the individuals
understanding of stimuli and choice of adaptive behaviours. Thus, traits represent
more than some running average of behaviour. For example, we could see trait
anxiety as simply the integral of a plot of state anxiety over time, but this
perspective tells us nothing about the underlying roots of vulnerability to anxiety.
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A theory of the trait is required to understand the causal basis for stability in
individual differences, and the processes that incline the person to view stimuli as
threatening, and to engage in defensive and self-protective behaviours.
One of the hallmarks of personality theory is the diversity of explanatory
concepts it invokes (Susan Cloninger, Chapter 1). We could variously attribute
trait anxiety to sensitivity of brain systems controlling response to threat, to
cognitive processes that direct attention to environmental threat, or to culture-
bound socialization to see oneself as threat-vulnerable. Three sections of this
Handbook address three major perspectives that mould contrasting theories.
According to biological perspectives, personality is a window on the brain. Hans
Eysenck and Jeffrey Gray articulated the influential view that individual differ-
ences in simple but critical brain parameters, such as arousability and sensitivity to
reinforcing stimuli, can drive far-reaching personality changes, expressed in traits
such as Extraversion and Neuroticism. These theories emphasized the role of
individual differences in genes for brain development (polymorphisms) in gen-
erating personality variation (in conjunction with environmental factors). As a
broad research project, biological theory thus emphasizes studies of behaviour and
molecular genetics, psychophysiology, and the linkage between neuroscience and
real-world behavioural functioning, including clinical disorder.
Cognitive and social-psychological theories bring different issues into the
foreground of research. The essence of cognitive theories is that personality is
supported by differing representations of the world, and the persons place within
it, coupled with individual differences in information-processing. For example,
Aaron Beck (Beck, Emery and Greenberg 2005) attributed depression to the
negative content of self-schema, such as beliefs in personal worthlessness.
Emotional pathology also relates to biases in attention, memory and strategies
for coping. A major feature of cognitive approaches is the use o f the experi-
mental methods of cognitive psychology to link traits to specific components of
information-processing. These approaches typically link cognition to real-life
behaviour and adaptation through self-regulative models that seek to specify
stable individual differences in the processing supporting goal attainment
(Charles S. Carver and Michael F. Scheier, Chapter 24).
Social psychological accounts focus on the interplay between personality and
social relationships (Lauri A. Jensen-Campbell et al., Chapter 29), and several
interlocking issues. These include the extent to which personality characteristics
(including traits) arise out of social interaction, the reciprocal influence of person-
ality on social interaction, and the role of culture in modulating these relation-
ships. Biological and cognitive theories typically conform to a natural sciences
model, but at least some variants of social psychological theory owe more to the
idiographic and humanistic traditions of the field discussed by Susan Cloninger
(Chapter 1). A vigorous research programme that looks back to the social learning
theories of Walter Mischel and Albert Bandura combines elements of both
cognitive and social psychology within an idiographic framework (Caprara and
Cervone 2000; Ronald E. Smith and Yuichi Shoda, Chapter 27).
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In a sense, each research tradition may stand alone. Each has its own distinct
research agenda and methods supporting a self-contained domain of scientific
discourse. However, each perspective on theory faces contemporary challenges
that are a product of previous progress. We will review these shortly. The more
general point to emphasize is that there is increasing convergence between different
approaches. Cognitive and social neuroscience approaches are increasingly infusing
personality research, and it is also clear that core social-psychological constructs,
such as the self-concept, overlap with trait-based constructs (Matthews, Deary and
Whiteman 2003). There are still unresolved issues regarding the extent to which, for
example, cognitive and social accounts of personality may be reduced to neuro-
science (Matthews 2008b; Corr and McNaughton 2008). It can be agreed, though,
that there has never been a greater need for proponents of different research
traditions to talk to one another in the service of theoretical integration.
Next, we reflect briefly on some of the main challenges for each theoretical
perspective, which are taken up by contributors to this volume.
Neuroscience
The neuroscience of personality has advanced considerably from Hans Eysencks
(1981) pioneering efforts to advance biological models as a new Kuhnian para-
digm for the field. Genetic studies, psychophysiology and the neuroscience of
real life have all made major advances. The leading biological theories, such as
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Philip J. Corr, Chapter 21), aim to integrate
various strands of evidence in delineating the neuroscience of personality.
The case of heritability of personality was originally based on behaviour
genetics, and the finding that the similarity between related individuals, such as
siblings, related to their degree of genetic similarity (Johnson, Vernon and Mackie
2008). The attribution of around 50 per cent of the variance in major personality
traits to heritability is uncontroversial. The field has also tackled such important
issues as non-additive effects of genes and gene-environment interaction. Studies
of personality variation within a given population are not, however, informative
about the mechanisms through which genes build the individual brains that differ
in the familiar personality traits.
There is currently some excitement about the prospects for molecular genetics,
i.e., identifying polymorphisms (different variants of the same gene) that may
produce individual differences in neural functioning and ultimately observed per-
sonality. Approaches focusing on genes for neurotransmitter function have had
some success in linking personality to DNA (Marcus R. Munafò, Chapter 18). The
search is on for endophenotypes’–highly specific traits that are shaped by the
genes and influence broader personality traits and vulnerability to mental illness. At
the same time, the likely complexity of mappings between genes, brain systems and
behaviour may present a barrier to future progress (Turkheimer 2000).
There is also growing interest in the evolutionary basis for human neural functio-
ning. Initially, evolutionary psychology was more concerned with personality in the
sense of how all people are the same, rather than with individual differences.
Editors’ general introduction xxxi
www.cambridge.org© in this web service Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-68051-6 - The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology
Edited by Philip J. Corr and Gerald Matthews
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... Personality concerns the individual's relatively stable pattern of thoughts, emotions and behaviors [1]. There are various personality theories from the Big Five [2] to Affective Neuroscience [3] and Mischel's contextual approach to personality [4]. ...
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Modeling human personality is important for several AI challenges, from the engineering of artificial psychotherapists to the design of persona bots. However, the field of computational personality analysis heavily relies on labeled data, which may be expensive, difficult or impossible to get. This problem is amplified when dealing with rare personality types or disorders (e.g., the anti-social psychopathic personality disorder). In this context, we developed a text-based data augmentation approach for human personality (PEDANT). PEDANT doesn't rely on the common type of labeled data but on the generative pre-trained model (GPT) combined with domain expertise. Testing the methodology on three different datasets, provides results that support the quality of the generated data.
... Personality is "the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character" 1 (Corr and Matthews, 2009). There are several methods to investigate human personality, among which we mention observation, experiment, conversation, psychological investigation, physiognomy study, anamnesis, sociometric test, graphology, case study, etc. ...
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Personality is an essential component in our lives, influencing the way we behave, speak, and respond, but also the activities we do. Usually, people turn to a psychologist or a personality test to get this information. At the moment we display most of our life on social networks, so the posts that the user makes can be analyzed in order to obtain personal information about them. This paper presents a way to extract text from social media posts for personality recognition.
... Personality refers to an individual's characteristic set of behaviours, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors (13). It is a key determinant of wellbeing in the general population (14). ...
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AimsManaging weight in the context of type 2 diabetes presents unique hormonal, medicinal, behavioural and psychological challenges. The relationship between weight management and personality has previously been reviewed for general and cardiovascular disease populations but is less well understood in diabetes. This systematic review investigated the relationship between personality constructs and weight management outcomes and behaviours among adults with type 2 diabetes.Methods Medline, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus databases were searched to July 2021. Eligibility: empirical quantitative studies; English language; adults with type 2 diabetes; investigation of personality-weight management association. Search terms included variants of: diabetes, physical activity, diet, body mass index (BMI), adiposity, personality constructs and validated scales. A narrative synthesis, with quality assessment, was conducted.ResultsSeventeen studies were identified: nine cross-sectional, six cohort and two randomised controlled trials (N=6,672 participants, range: 30-1,553). Three studies had a low risk of bias. Personality measurement varied. The Big Five and Type D personality constructs were the most common measures. Higher emotional instability (neuroticism, negative affect, anxiety, unmitigated communion and external locus of control) was negatively associated with healthy diet and physical activity, and positively associated with BMI. Conscientiousness had positive associations with healthy diet and physical activity and negative associations with BMI and anthropometric indices.Conclusions Among adults with type 2 diabetes, evidence exists of a relationship between weight management and personality, specifically, negative emotionality and conscientiousness. Consideration of personality may be important for optimising weight management and further research is warranted.Systematic review registrationwww.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42019111002.
Thesis
In this thesis, the author investigates the therapeutic potential of psychedelics through literature analysis. First, he places psychedelics in a historical context and presents the current legal regime. Through the presentation of the psychedelic experience through aspects of safety, physiological effects, neurobiological effects and psychological effects, the author answers the question of how, if at all, psychedelics work in combination with psychotherapy. In the discussion, the author notes that psychedelics: (a) create new connections between different centers in the brain; (b) release high-level beliefs of the default brain network, (c) reduce normal ego functions, (d) enhance feelings of connection with others, nature and self and lead from avoidance of emotions to acceptance; (e) affect the personality structure.
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Chapter
Personality plays a vital role in psychological feature analysis, product recommendation, and mental health assessment. Analyzing personality based on social networks is becoming mainstream since it allows collecting user behaviors and continuously output personality prediction results in a non-intrusive manner. However, existing methods face either over-fitting problems due to the small-sized training datasets or inaccurate feature representation due to the limited information of the testee. This paper proposes a general personality analysis model based on posts and links in social networks, called GPAM. To solve the problem of insufficient training data, we use a user linkage technique to collect large-scale and high-quality labeled personality data in a short time. By introducing posts from high-influence friends, we propose a unified personality feature extraction model to represent the users without enough information. Under various parameter settings, the experimental results demonstrate that importing moderate posts from high-influence friends benefits state-of-the-art models. The average f1-scores of predicting both MBTI and Big Five in GPAM are higher than the latest model Trignet. Compared to without introducing extra posts, the average f1-scores of in GPAM improve at least 4% for wordless users and 51% for silent users.KeywordsPersonality analysisBig fiveMBTIUser linkagePersonality feature extraction
Chapter
[Objective] We face a period in time where alternative ways of motivating software personnel must be explored. This study aimed for a detailed description and interpretation of the topic of pair programming roles and motivation. [Method] Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study examined a proposed nomological network of personality traits, programming roles, and motivation. Three experimental sessions produced (N = 654) motivation inventories in two software engineering university classrooms which were quantitatively investigated using student’s t-test, χ2 test, and hierarchical cluster analysis. Consequently, the author conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve experiment participants and utilized the thematic analysis method in an essentialist’s way. [Results] Eight produced themes captured that pair programming carries both positive and negative motivational consequences, depending on personality variables. The statistical analysis confirmed that the suitability of a given role for a programmer can be determined by his personality: (i) pilot – openness, (ii) navigator – extraversion and agreeableness, (iii) solo – neuroticism and introversion.
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