Article

The Anatomy of Loneliness

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Abstract

Loneliness is a potent but little understood risk factor for broad-based morbidity and mortality. We review five social neurobehavioral mechanisms that may account for this association. The evidence suggests that different mechanisms explain short-term and long-term effects, and that the long-term effects operate through multiple pathways. Implications for the design of interventions are discussed.

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... It is thought that these negative health outcomes may stem, in part, from the fact that loneliness and social isolation can trigger a heightened vigilance for threats. Although this heightened threat vigilance is adaptive in that it prepares an animal to defend itself in the absence of social support and group protection, it also increases fear and stress, ultimately leading to harmful wear-and-tear on the body and mind (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003). While this increase in emotional and physiological stress can have ill effects on general bodily systems and mental health, it is notable that the increased threat-vigilance induced by social disconnection may have ill effects on fear systems in particular (Cacioppo, Hughes, et al., 2006;Cacioppo et al., 2003;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2013). ...
... Although this heightened threat vigilance is adaptive in that it prepares an animal to defend itself in the absence of social support and group protection, it also increases fear and stress, ultimately leading to harmful wear-and-tear on the body and mind (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003). While this increase in emotional and physiological stress can have ill effects on general bodily systems and mental health, it is notable that the increased threat-vigilance induced by social disconnection may have ill effects on fear systems in particular (Cacioppo, Hughes, et al., 2006;Cacioppo et al., 2003;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2013). Specifically, by amplifying fear and stress, loneliness and social isolation may augment the processes by which individuals learn about threats and threatening cues in their environment. ...
... It should be noted that while it may seem unlikely that high lonely participants would have a strong social support figure, loneliness occurs because of the disparity between one's desired level of social connection and one's perceived level of social connection (Weiss, 1973;Cacioppo et al., 2003)-thus, lonely individuals are not necessarily devoid of any close social bonds, but instead do not perceive the bonds they do have to be satisfactory. Therefore, individuals who score high in loneliness are still likely to be able to identify one close social support figure (as was found with the participants here and in Study 2). ...
Article
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The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in many disruptions to daily life, including an abrupt increase in social disconnection. As measures were put in place to combat the spread of COVID-19, people across the globe began living in states of limited social contact, fostering feelings of social isolation and loneliness. Previous literature suggests that these increases in social disconnection can have profound effects on both physical and mental health, perhaps especially in the case of fear disorders. The combination of feeling disconnected from others and the high level of daily threat experienced due to COVID-19 created conditions under which dysfunctional and persistent fears were especially likely to develop. Building on current understanding of the harmful effects of social disconnection on well-being in general as well as specific implications for fear, here we present findings from three preliminary investigations that are the first to directly examine the effects of loneliness on how fears are learned and maintained. The Results of this work show that loneliness impairs the process by which fears are extinguished, which is central to both the regulation of fear and treatment of fear disorders, and provide insight into potential avenues to mitigate such effects.
... The relationship between loneliness and health is proposed to be reciprocal in nature; such that poor health may lead people to feel lonelier (potentially through variables such as one's physical functional ability or isolation) (Savikko et al., 2005;Shankar et al., 2017) or the experience of loneliness may cause people to experience poorer health (potentially via altering one's physiology) (Luo et al., 2012). Loneliness has been proposed to affect health through the experience of stress (Christiansen et al., 2016;Segrin et al., 2018), whereby lonely people have been found to report higher levels of stress compared to people who are not lonely (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Segrin & Passalacqua, 2010). Stress may be especially problematic for people experiencing loneliness, because they often lack social supports to help them manage stress and other mental health problems (Cacioppo et al., 2003). ...
... Loneliness has been proposed to affect health through the experience of stress (Christiansen et al., 2016;Segrin et al., 2018), whereby lonely people have been found to report higher levels of stress compared to people who are not lonely (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Segrin & Passalacqua, 2010). Stress may be especially problematic for people experiencing loneliness, because they often lack social supports to help them manage stress and other mental health problems (Cacioppo et al., 2003). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss two conceptualisations of loneliness: a singular construct and a multidimensional construct that can be experienced in both social and emotional forms. Based on these two views of loneliness, we discuss measurement approaches and difficulties capturing loneliness, which can be a highly subjective experience. We review two key theories that may help to explain how loneliness arises, is maintained and may be overcome. These are cognitive theories of loneliness and the social identity approach. The chapter goes on to highlight the significant physical and mental health implications of loneliness, including proposed mechanisms by which health affects loneliness and conversely how loneliness can affect health. Finally, we discuss research about the relationship between loneliness and various forms of psychopathology, including depression, anxiety, psychosis and substance use disorders. Empirical studies are reviewed throughout, and clinical implications of this evidence are highlighted.
... Thus, loneliness is a subjective experience of unsatisfying social relationships and needs greatly influenced by the individual's own appraisals of these, remaining independent to the actual amount of social contact or solitude (Heinrich & Gullone, 2006;Junttila & Vauras, 2009). Loneliness has been reportedly associated with physical and mental health outcomes that can impact a wide range of life domains (Masi et al., 2011); indeed, research reported that loneliness constitutes a risk factor for a number of health conditions, such as increased blood pressure in older adults (Cacioppo et al., 2003;, increased vascular resistance in young adults (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003); it has also been associated with sleep difficulties, particularly with the restorative aspect of sleep . In terms of cognition, individuals experiencing chronic School belonging on wellbeing and loneliness 2 loneliness are more likely to be affected by cognitive decline (Tilvis et al., 2004) and progression degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's (Wilson et al., 2007). ...
... Thus, loneliness is a subjective experience of unsatisfying social relationships and needs greatly influenced by the individual's own appraisals of these, remaining independent to the actual amount of social contact or solitude (Heinrich & Gullone, 2006;Junttila & Vauras, 2009). Loneliness has been reportedly associated with physical and mental health outcomes that can impact a wide range of life domains (Masi et al., 2011); indeed, research reported that loneliness constitutes a risk factor for a number of health conditions, such as increased blood pressure in older adults (Cacioppo et al., 2003;, increased vascular resistance in young adults (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003); it has also been associated with sleep difficulties, particularly with the restorative aspect of sleep . In terms of cognition, individuals experiencing chronic School belonging on wellbeing and loneliness 2 loneliness are more likely to be affected by cognitive decline (Tilvis et al., 2004) and progression degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's (Wilson et al., 2007). ...
Article
Objective: In recent years, school belonging has been associated with wellbeing and has been targeted in mental health promotion programmes in schools. Less attention has been paid to the relationship between school belonging and loneliness, especially during primary school years. This study aimed to first analyse the relationship between socioemotional well-being, school belonging and loneliness during primary school years, and secondly, according to the belonginess hypothesis, to examine the role of school belonging as a mediator of the relationship between socioemotional wellbeing and loneliness. Methods: Children (N = 517) of primary school age were recruited from three schools in London to participate in a mental health screening, which involved the completion of standardized self-reported scales for sense of school belonging, loneliness and socioemotional wellbeing. Results: Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that although correlated, socioemotional wellbeing does not predict loneliness. However, in line with belonginess hypothesis, school belonging partially mediated the relationship between socioemotional wellbeing and loneliness in primary school age children. Conclusions: Our findings provide novel data concerning the key role of school belonging in shaping the relationship socioemotional wellbeing and loneliness in primary school years. This has implications for practitioners working to promote health and wellbeing in schools.
... Relatedly, lonely, and isolated individuals experience a lack of perceived control in their lives (Adelman & Ahuvia, 1995;Lei et al., 2017). Also, loneliness and isolation have mental and physical health effects such as depression, anxiety, cardiovascular issues, elevated blood pressure, increased illness, and premature mortality (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Laermans et al., 2020;Steptoe et al., 2013). The detrimental impact of loneliness and isolation can be aggravated by a crisis, such as a pandemic, where fewer face-to-face gatherings take place, and social distancing reduces an individual's sense of control (Killgore et al., 2020). ...
... As expected, results indicated that during the pandemic, students' isolation increased students' loneliness (H1). While students were already experiencing loneliness before the pandemic (Cigna, 2018), this detrimental feeling is concerning because of its dire health and mental consequences (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Laermans et al., 2020;Steptoe et al., 2013). This finding highlights the importance of a professor's awareness of students' emotional states, especially given the negative effects of loneliness on perceived control (H2). ...
Article
Before the pandemic, loneliness was already a burden affecting the health and well-being of students. The COVID-19 pandemic, with mandated isolations and closures of campuses, amplifies feelings of isolation and loneliness. Previous work shows that isolated and lonely individuals experience a lack of perceived control, but educators have little understanding of the type of pedagogy that can help students deal with these emotions. Two studies demonstrate that instructors can foster perceived control in their students and provide guidance on best practices for teaching during a pandemic. Given the desire to discover the new normal for teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, this research has important implications for educational practices and instructional techniques to help students manage the loneliness, isolation, and lack of perceived control during these unprecedented times.
... 21 For example, people higher in loneliness are less able to capitalize on the benefits of interpersonal interaction because they withdraw from social situations, fail to perceive support that is offered by others, and retain relatively higher levels of stress even when being supported, ultimately reinforcing feelings of loneliness. [22][23][24] Although profile-based research on loneliness distinguishes between individuals at high, intermediate, and low patterns of loneliness in ways that are consistent with a 'trait-like' structure LONELINESS PROFILES OVER TIME 5 of loneliness, 13,14 these studies are typically cross-sectional and thus cannot test the stability of profiles across time. Investigating the likelihood of transitioning into/from distinct profiles of loneliness is necessary for researchers to identify those at the greatest risk of becoming lonely and thus longitudinal analyses are a prerequisite for future interventions. ...
... 15 The patterns of transition from intermediate into highloneliness profiles is consistent with a process in which people's loneliness accompanies behaviors and perceptions that diminish the benefits of receiving social support. 22 In the current research, we also test the likelihood of transitioning into and from loneliness profiles across time to identify the groups at risk of severe loneliness. ...
Article
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Objective: We investigated the characteristics of loneliness by identifying distinct 'profiles' of loneliness and investigating transitions between those loneliness profiles over two years. Method: We conducted Latent Transition Analyses on two years of data from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N=15,820) and modelled how people's health and age were associated with changes in profile membership. Results: Four loneliness profiles emerged: 'low-loneliness' (58% of the sample), 'high-loneliness' (5%), 'appreciated outsiders' (28%; perceived acceptance from others but felt like social outsiders), and 'superficially connected' (9%; lacked acceptance from others but felt socially included). Profile membership was relatively stable over time and transitions were most likely from higher to lower loneliness. Younger people and people reporting poorer health were more likely to transition into profiles with greater loneliness indicators. Conclusions: Findings replicated a four-profile pattern of loneliness, supported the theorised 'trait-like' structure of loneliness and identified the possibility that moderate states of loneliness are transitional states into/from low and high loneliness. Implications for public health: The stability of loneliness across years reiterates the need for societal interventions, particularly interventions that are adaptive to whether people's loneliness forms as a lack of acceptance/value or a lack of social inclusion.
... In urban and industrialized societies, the overwhelming spread of virtual technology and the vast dependence on digital communication, people are beginning to lose the art of face-to-face relationship and heart-to-heart connection. Disconnectivity, poor social skills, and loneliness are increasing and becoming the main struggles of this 21st century (Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003). ...
... Negative experiences and losses, tensed interactions and conflicts, separation from loved ones, and feelings of loneliness and isolation are associated with a high risk for maladjustment and dysfunction and eventually can lead to psychiatric morbidity and mortality (cf. Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003;Stroebe, Schut, & Stroebe, 2007). Different groups, communities, and cultures manifest and utilize intimate support in different ways. ...
Article
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It is always refreshing to revisit an old concept and redefine it in light of modern psychological and cultural changes. Perhaps, we can describe social support as enjoying warm and secure bonding, living in a tight community, having a close circle of friends, being part of a family-oriented home, belonging to an intimate sphere of people, flourishing in an interactive environment, having daily input from significant others, relying on colleagues in time of need, and growing up in a warm culture... all of these, and more, are features portraying the rich aspects of social support. Although the styles, means, techniques, and manifestations change across time and location, the core nature, function, and value of meaningful support remain the same. The psychosocial literature is full of definitions, discussions, and illustrations of what it means to have nurturing relationships with tangible resources. Fundamentally, the concept of social support can be defined as an available help, a ready assistance, and a personal care from many sources and places, together sharing sustainable aid in different ways and forms, at different times and stages, and for different reasons and a variety of needs. Social support is rather a phenomenon that facilitates survival in time of crisis, connects a particular need with a corresponding resource, empowers function during difficulty, and increases resiliency in time of adversity. Therefore, the benefits of such a support are both in intervention and prevention to enable further mobility and enhance personal growth. This phenomenon draws from the gains of living in close community (bonding, intimacy, and sustenance) and the new emphasis of positive psychology (health, strength, and virtue)...... People’s background and cultural heritage actually determine, to a large extent, whether they reach out to others and share a high moment or a pleasant event as well as to seek assistance and care in a low moment or a negative hap- pening. Those who are not used to tight communal living may have a hard time requesting or receiving help. And if they do, they may not internalize the supportive care deeply enough in order for it to have a transformative and healing effect........ Mainly, the idea of “needing support” is connected with the human experience during struggle, loss, crisis, and distress. However, a genuine and “comprehensive support” is equally important during times of stability, accomplishment, contentment, and celebration. These landmarks and positive events become more meaningful and even richer when shared, because as human beings we are inherently relational at the core. The benefits of connecting on deep levels are obvious and substantial....... Different groups, communities, and cultures manifest and utilize intimate support in different ways. Cultural mediators are major factors in shaping social support. Not only is there wisdom in multiple perspectives but also there is a capital of physical, emotional, and existential resources readily stored in every community. Such capital helps group-members in their belonging needs, identity formation, person-al growth, caregiving skills, and character maturation.
... Apparently, they affect her personality with depressive mood and isolation. Negative emotions have been associated with inadequate physical health in chronic diseases or chronic complications [43]. ...
Article
We report a case study of a woman with Septic Shock who attended Psychological Intervention after medical treatment in the Intensive Care Unit of a Greek Teaching Hospital in Athens. Qualitative analysis of data was collected from Focused Interview, Genogram as a family history tool and Psychological Intervention based on Short/ Systemic Psychotherapy. The study focuses on the deep understanding of the patient’s changes in terms of thoughts, emotions and behaviors after the invasion of a serious disease, like Septic Shock.
... Loneliness may potentially negatively affect one's physical, emotional and psychosocial functioning (Cacioppo et al., 2015). Amidst loneliness may emerge alcoholism (Åkerlind and Hörnquist, 1992), depression (Cacioppo et al., 2003), social anxiety (Kearns et al., 2015), cognitive decline and even suicidal ideation (Wilson et al., 2007). Moreover, loneliness may exacerbate obesity, elevate blood pressure, and hasten mortality (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2015). ...
... Although the negative implications of social disconnectedness and loneliness have been well-documented (Cacioppo et al, 2003(Cacioppo et al, , 2006(Cacioppo et al, , 2010Blazer, 1982;Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2009;Dolen & Bearison, 1982;Luo et al., 2012;Perissinotto et al., 2012;Seeman, 1996), the relationship between aging and social isolation is somewhat complex. For instance, although older adults are at risk for experiencing social isolation due to retirement, outliving family and friends, loss of role occupancies due to lifecourse changes, and declining physical health (Fazio, 2007;Ferraro, 1984;Li & Ferraro, 2006;Thoits & Hewitt, 2001;Weiss, 2005), older adults may become more socially integrated due to retirement, which leaves more opportunity to volunteer in the community (Cornwell, Laumann, & Schumm, 2008). ...
Article
The number of older adults at risk for social disconnectedness, loneliness, and the negative mental and physical health outcomes associated with each will reach unprecedented size in the next decade. Elder orphans, or adults aged 65+ who live alone and are unmarried and childless, are particularly at risk for social isolation. Prior research has shown that social media use, specifically Facebook use, can provide individuals with access to social resources that promote well-being. To date, the research regarding Facebook use and its impact on loneliness is somewhat inconclusive. There have been studies with young adults, however, that suggest that Facebook use might promote the perception of mattering - a protective resource against loneliness. It is the aim of this study to assess how the modalities of Facebook can be harnessed in order to address the threat of loneliness among elder orphans through the promotion of mattering. This study employed online survey methodology among a sample of elder orphan Facebook users (n = 517). Results of this study show that Facebook activities were significantly and positively related to mattering and significantly and negatively related to loneliness among elder orphans.
... While on the one hand, these can increase productivity and be used to provide objective feedback, FLEs might perceive them as invasive and experience high levels of job strain, role overload, and exhaustion (Ravid et al. 2020). Further, the lack of stable workgroups and physical interactions with coworkers in virtual work can frustrate FLEs' intrinsic need for relatedness (Deci and Ryan 1985), creating a sense of social isolation that can result in a variety of negative psychological and physiological outcomes (Cacioppo, Hawkley, and Berntson 2003). Which of these negative outcomes are most closely tied to technologymediated work arrangements, such as online and remote models? ...
Article
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This article utilizes input from service scholars, practitioners, reviews of published literature, and influential policy documents to identify service research priorities that push the boundaries of extant research. In a companion piece, we focused on four service research priorities related to managing and delivering service in turbulent times. Further, we identified a set of stakeholder-wants from the literature and included research questions that tie key stakeholder-wants to each of the three priorities in this article and the four priorities in the companion article. Here, we highlight the critical importance of scholarship and practice related to the design of sustainable service ecosystems and discuss three key service research priorities: large-scale and complex service ecosystems for transformative impact (SRP5), platform ecosystems and marketplaces (SRP6), and services for disadvantaged consumers and communities (SRP7). We call for an engaged service scholarship that considers the interrelationships among consumers, organizations, employees, platforms, and societal institutions and pursues transformative goals.
... These studies continued after Cacioppo left for Chicago, highly facilitated by Louise Hawkley, who had worked with Cacioppo and Berntson at OSU, and ultimately received her Ph.D. with Berntson, before joining Cacioppo in Chicago, as a post-doc (e.g., Cacioppo et al., 2003;Cacioppo, Hawkley, Crawford et al., 2002;Cacioppo et al., 2011). Of relevance was the development of the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS), funded by a Program Project Grant to Cacioppo, with Hawkley as a central figure in this effort (e.g., Hawkley et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Traditional disciplines have frequently dealt with complex phenomena from a given level of analysis, be that molecular, cellular, organ system or organismic level. This can yield highly valuable information on biological and psychological processes. There is an explanatory value added, however, by an integrative multilevel approach, in which different levels of analysis and different levels of neural organization are considered in the models and theories of psychological functions. This is the essence of the emerging discipline of social neuroscience, promoted by John Cacioppo, which seeks to inform the interactions between social psychological and biological processes.
... Individuals who experience emotional pain, such as loneliness, may exhibit cues (e.g., nonverbal behaviors) that attract others with a similar history (Cacioppo et al., 2006). Research further illustrates that the experience of loneliness is an aversive state similar to hunger, and thus individuals are motivated to satiate their social appetite using readily accessible resources (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004). Just as people may consume less than ideal food sources during times of starvation, the socially starved individual may relax their standards and preferences for interpersonal affiliation during a period of social famine. ...
Article
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This study focuses on the formation of bullied individuals’ friendships and romantic relationships. Individuals bullied in their past may be more likely to form connections with those who share similar oppressive experiences. Thus, we investigated the possibility that implicit homophily underlies the formation of interpersonal relationships among previously bullied individuals. Moreover, we investigated whether these individuals were aware of their friends’ and romantic partners’ similarly oppressive experiences prior to initiating the relationship. Our findings suggest that the young adults in our sample bullied in grade school are significantly more likely to have a close friend and or significant other who also experienced bullying. The findings of this study contribute to the relatively small, yet growing, body of research on implicit homophily, add to research extending homophily processes to bullies and victims, and are in line with research suggesting that deselection (a form of induced homophily) can coexist with homophily by personal preference.
... More broadly, the observed interaction effect between rejection sensitivity and perceived closeness aligns theoretically with research on trait loneliness. Rejection sensitivity can be viewed as a personality precursor to trait loneliness, with the "added-stress hypothesis" stating that the negative health risks of being lonely occur due to the chronic perception of rejection and exclusion (Cacioppo et al., 2003). At the same time, other hypothesized pathways by Cacioppo and colleagues depict a more complicated story of social experiences in daily life. ...
Article
The elevated satisfaction that comes from interacting with close ties, as opposed to distal ties, is well-established in past research. What remains less clear is how the quality of daily interactions between close versus distal ties may vary as a function of personality. Drawing on data from a 2-week experience sampling study ( N = 108 participants, N = 7755 observations), we consider how trait rejection sensitivity (RS)—or the tendency to worry about potential social rejection—interacts with perceived closeness and interaction channel (i.e., face-to-face vs. technology-mediated) in daily life. We find that individuals who are high (vs. low) in rejection sensitivity not only view distal tie interactions as less satisfying, they also perceive close tie exchanges as more enjoyable and supportive—but only for technology-mediated (vs. face-to-face) interactions. We also find that individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity have higher variability in the perceived quality of their interactions. These findings demonstrate the interlocked factors of personality tendencies, perceived closeness, and interaction channel in shaping the variability in the quality of daily interactions.
... This is similar to other aversive states such as hunger which motivates individuals to seek for food and physical pain which motivates individuals to extricate themselves from harm. The deterioration of social connections would cause individuals to experience "social pain"-also known as loneliness (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Eisenberger et al., 2003;Heinrich & Gullone, 2006). Capaccio and Hawkley (2009) theorised that individuals have different levels of sensitivity towards the pain of social disconnection, and this sensitivity is a heritable trait. ...
Thesis
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Loneliness is a prevalent issue among older persons. The literature largely indicated that the loneliness at old age would be a rather different experience than those of young adults and the middle-aged. Yet, there had never been a loneliness scale tailored for the unique experience of old age. This study aims to fill the gap by constructing a scale to measure loneliness among older persons. 94 older persons in Singapore were surveyed using a set of 30 items comprising of the UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 and 10 original items. These items were subjected to exploratory factor analysis and resulted in three candidate scales for measuring loneliness-the 19-item Senior Loneliness Scale (SLS19), as well as the 9-item variant (SLS9) and the 12-item variant (SLS12). The SLS scales were highly reliable and validated against the direct question LON1 "How often do you feel lonely?". Each candidate scale comprises of three sub-scales-emotional loneliness (EL), social loneliness (SL) and affiliative loneliness (AL). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Cohen's kappa suggested that the EL sub-scales of SLS19 and SLS12 were effective in distinguishing older persons who were never/ rarely lonely from those who were sometimes/ often lonely. Regression of LON1 against the SLS sub-scales indicated that only the EL sub-scale was a significant predictor of the frequency of loneliness among older persons. This finding suggests that loneliness among older persons might be a unidimensional construct, but it would require further validation in future studies.
... While on the one hand, these can increase productivity and be used to provide objective feedback, FLEs might perceive them as invasive and experience high levels of job strain, role overload, and exhaustion (Ravid et al. 2020). Further, the lack of stable workgroups and physical interactions with coworkers in virtual work can frustrate FLEs' intrinsic need for relatedness (Deci and Ryan 1985), creating a sense of social isolation that can result in a variety of negative psychological and physiological outcomes (Cacioppo, Hawkley, and Berntson 2003). Which of these negative outcomes are most closely tied to technologymediated work arrangements, such as online and remote models? ...
Article
Full-text available
Transformative changes in the societal and service context call out for the service discipline to develop a coherent set of priorities for research and practice. To this end, we utilized multiple data sources: surveys of service scholars and practitioners, web scraping of online documents, a review of published service scholarship, and roundtable discussions conducted at the world's foremost service research centers. We incorporated innovative methodologies, including machine learning, natural language processing, and qualitative analyses, to identify key service research priorities that are critical to address during these turbulent times. The first two priorities-technology and the changing nature of work and technology and the customer experience-focus on leveraging technology for service provision and consumption. The next two priorities-resource and capability constraints and customer proactivity for well-being-focus on responding to the changing needs of multiple stakeholders. Further, we identified a set of stakeholder-wants from the literature and include research questions that tie key stakeholder-wants to each of the four priorities. We believe the set of research priorities in the present article offer actionable ideas for service research directions in this challenging environment. Because service shapes the behavior and well-being of individuals and communities and constitutes the bulk of the global economy , the interdisciplinary field of service research has evolved to describe, predict, and manage various facets of the service experience. Periodic large-scale reviews have identified priorities for service scholarship relevant to the changing times (Ostrom et al. 2010, 2015). For instance, Ostrom and colleagues (2015) identified external forces shaping services, such as advances in technology, the proliferation of service innovation , and the growth in big data, and highlighted the need to enhance service experience and improve well-being through transformative service. However, in less than a decade, the world-at-large and services, in particular, are experiencing tec-tonic shifts resulting from technological innovations, challenges to institutions, demands for social justice, climate change, and a global pandemic, among other disruptions. As these disruptions become more frequent, services will need to evolve to be robust to such persistent turbulence. This requires a comprehensive reexamination and extension of service scholarship and practice. The aim of this article and its companion piece (Field et al. 2021) is to attempt just that, utilizing a multiple-stakeholder lens that integrates the perspectives of those who influence, and are influenced by, the design and delivery of any (commercial or noncommercial) service. We believe that customers, employees, managers, and the community are, and will remain, key stakeholders and have specific wants regarding service content and processes. Our aim is to develop service research priorities (SRPs) that are rooted in, and responsive to, these wants. We also discuss their implications for researching and managing services in turbulent times. The multiple-stakeholder approach to services is consistent with the application of stakeholder theory in several business disciplines (Parmar et al. 2010). Further, the Responsible Research in Business and Management (RRBM) movement, a growing community of scholars and partners (including organizations such as AACSB and EFMD; www.rrbm.network), emphasizes the value of plurality and multidisciplinary
... While on the one hand, these can increase productivity and be used to provide objective feedback, FLEs might perceive them as invasive and experience high levels of job strain, role overload, and exhaustion (Ravid et al. 2020). Further, the lack of stable workgroups and physical interactions with coworkers in virtual work can frustrate FLEs' intrinsic need for relatedness (Deci and Ryan 1985), creating a sense of social isolation that can result in a variety of negative psychological and physiological outcomes (Cacioppo, Hawkley, and Berntson 2003). Which of these negative outcomes are most closely tied to technologymediated work arrangements, such as online and remote models? ...
Article
Transformative changes in the societal and service context call out for the service discipline to develop a coherent set of priorities for research and practice. To this end, we utilized multiple data sources: surveys of service scholars and practitioners, web scraping of online documents, a review of published service scholarship, and roundtable discussions conducted at the world’s foremost service research centers. We incorporated innovative methodologies, including machine learning, natural language processing, and qualitative analyses, to identify key service research priorities that are critical to address during these turbulent times. The first two priorities—technology and the changing nature of work and technology and the customer experience—focus on leveraging technology for service provision and consumption. The next two priorities—resource and capability constraints and customer proactivity for well-being—focus on responding to the changing needs of multiple stakeholders. Further, we identified a set of stakeholder-wants from the literature and include research questions that tie key stakeholder-wants to each of the four priorities. We believe the set of research priorities in the present article offer actionable ideas for service research directions in this challenging environment.
... Peplau and Perlman (1982) tested their theoretical formulation utilizing the UCLA loneliness scale that aimed to measure the degree or depth of one's loneliness. Cacioppo et al. (2000Cacioppo et al. ( , 2002Cacioppo et al. ( , 2003 and Hawkley et al. (2003) utilizing questionnaires and direct observations or measurement of physical variables, subscribed to Peplau and Perlman's conceptualization of loneliness and furthered the field by researching how it is related to physical and mental health, to depression, to various social variables, and how it may even be "contracted" from one person in a group, to others. Salient threads in those definitions focus on deficiency of intimacy and meaning within a relationship, while others emphasize shortcomings in people's sense of belonging and limited or lack of social connections (Stein and Tuval-Mashiach, 2015). ...
Article
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Loneliness has been termed a social epidemic, especially when experienced by people with disabilities. In order to better understand how loneliness is experienced in vulnerable populations, the present study compared the qualitative dimensions of loneliness of the blind and visually impaired with the general population not on the frequency or intensity of their loneliness, but on its qualitative aspects. One hundred and eighty-seven participants responded to a questionnaire which measured the qualitative aspects of loneliness on five subscales: Emotional distress, social inadequacy, Growth and discovery, social isolation, and emotional alienation. Results indicated that as expected, the two populations differed significantly in their scores on four of the five subscales (except emotional alienation), but in the opposite direction of what was expected. That may indicate that the visually impaired person’s ability to transcend their blindness, and connect with those around them, and the larger society, in different—and not necessarily less meaningful-manner than the seeing general population. As expected, the visually impaired scored significantly higher than the general population on the Growth and development subscale.
... Asimismo, promover o estimular los contactos sociales, potenciando relaciones tanto cercanas como más periféricas y hacer esto mismo, pero utilizando el vecindario, la comunidad como ámbito es especialmente positivo para el bienestar. Cuando nuestras necesidades sociales no están satisfechas, las consecuencias llevan a soledad, aislamiento social y puede derivar en procesos de enfermedad y en mortalidad (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Steptoe et al. 2013). Por el contrario, realizar actividades sociales, mantenerse activo o activa socialmente tiene un rol protector en nuestras vidas, y sobre esto existen numerosas evidencias en la literatura (Al-Kandari &Crews, 2014). ...
... Social relationships are a basic human need (Maslow et al. 1970). Unsatisfied social needs negatively impact both physical and mental health (e.g., Cacioppo et al. 2003) while satisfied social needs positively impact physical and mental health as well as well-being (e.g., Golden et al. 2009). Involvement of family members in nursing home care improves the well-being and quality of life of both residents and their loved ones (Janssen et al. 2011). ...
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Nursing homes aim to provide person-centered care and recognize residents as unique individuals with their own histories, life goals, and preferences. The life expectancy of nursing home residents is rather limited. Nursing homes have been hit hard by COVID-19 because of an increased risk of death and a total nursing home lockdown from March 19 until the end of May 2020. Although social relationships are a basic human need and the fulfillment of social needs is essential for both physical and mental health, nursing home residents were no longer allowed to meet their loved ones. This decision was taken without involving residents and their loved ones and without considering the psychosocial impact of such measures for residents and their loved ones. When visitors were again allowed in the nursing homes, this was valued highly. To enable decent decision-making, we call both the government and nursing homes to involve residents and their families in decision-making. It is essential to know how residents weigh the risk of a COVID-19 infection and the possible implication of them opposing social isolation. We have to adapt to a new common and need to stop talking about residents and their loved ones and start talking with them.
... While there are many instruments to measure social network, the Lubben Social Network Scale-18 (LSNS-18) has been used in this study to assess the integrated and comprehensive social network across the population. This scale has very good validity and reliability with the sample of older people and has been translated into many languages and applied to older populations across different countries and ethnic groups (Brown et al., 2009;Burnette & Myagmarjav, 2013;Cacioppo et al., 2003). This scale is a self-reported measure of social engagement with family, neighbours and friends. ...
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The percentage of older persons in India is projected to rise to 11 percent of the total population by 2025 and to 19 percent by 2050. Available literature suggests that life satisfaction of older persons depends extensively on their social network. Young people in urban areas have a busy lifestyle and little time for older family members. The present study aims to explore the role of social networking and the support from these networks on life satisfaction of the older people in India. Primary data from 530 households were collected between November 2014 and March 2015. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and Berkman’s theoretical model were partially used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to examine the association between the social network and life satisfaction, arbitrated by different types of social support. Different types of social network act differently on the perception of life satisfaction among the older person. Findings show that networks with family, neighbours, friends and close ones were significantly associated with life satisfaction of the older people in urban area. Support derived from different social networks is important for life satisfaction at later ages. Having a strong confidant social network is significant in promoting life satisfaction among older persons. The main characteristic of this network support is trust between the support provider and old people.
... These observations correspond to previous reports (25,32,33). In addition, it should be noted that researchers believe the link between exposure to stress and the level of resilience may be moderated by individual differences, including the nature and intensity of psychological and physiological reactions to stress and the frequency of exposure to stress, which allows for further potential explanation of the negative association between active coronavirus infection and resilience (42). In this sample of Polish participants, age was not relevantly related to a higher resilience index. ...
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Reports to date indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has negatively impacted mental health in the general population. On the other hand, positive associations of mental resilience and well-being have been widely demonstrated. The objective of this study was to assess the links between resilience (Brief Resilience Scale), persistent thinking about COVID-19 (Obsession with COVID-19 Scale), coronavirus anxiety (Coronavirus Anxiety Scale), and well-being (World Health Organization's 5-item Well-being Index) using serial mediation. The study considered online survey data from 1,547 Poles aged 18–78 (62% of whom were women). Bootstrap sampling analysis revealed that persistent thinking about COVID-19 (M1) and coronavirus anxiety (M2) partially mediate the relationship between resilience and well-being. The results of this study indicate that persistent thinking may be dysfunctional for mental health, as it inflates pandemic anxiety and disrupts well-being. Moreover, practitioners should focus on interventions enhancing resilience in order to reduce negative mental effects during the spread of a pandemic infectious disease.
... Furthermore, social acceptance becomes even more important for youths, who, being immersed in their identity creation process, attach greater importance than adults to feeling included in a group. In contrast, social isolation and the lack of strong social bonds are linked to poor mental, physical, and psychological health and a higher death rate (House et al., 1988;Bugental, 2000;Cacioppo et al., 2003;Cacioppo and Patrick, 2008;Gable and Impett, 2012). ...
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Given the negative costs of exclusion and the relevance of belongingness for humans, the experience of exclusion influences social affiliation motivation, which in turn is a relevant predictor of prosocial behavior. Skin conductance is a typical measure of the arousal elicited by emotions. Hence, we argued that both inclusion and exclusion will increase skin conductance level due to the increase of either positive affect or anger affects, respectively. Moreover, we argued that emotional arousal is also related to social affiliation motivation and prosocial behavior. A total of 48 students were randomly allocated to either an inclusionary or exclusionary condition and their skin conductance levels were recorded during an experiment in which they completed an online questionnaire and played the game “Cyberball.” Results indicated that (a) individuals who perceived high exclusion felt angrier than individuals perceiving high inclusion, who feel positive affect; (b) no differences were evidenced in terms of skin conductance between exclusion and inclusion situations; (c) over-aroused individuals were less motivated to affiliate; and (d) individuals with lower affiliation motivation behaved in a less prosocial way. The results were congruent to the argument that behaving prosocially may be a way to gain the desired affiliation.
... These tensions are evident in housing systems globally, including in Australia, which has seen lockdowns of: individual buildings, such as public housing towers (Kelly et al., 2020); individual 'hotspot' suburbs, with neighbouring suburbs free from these restrictions (Grattan, 2020), and state-wide borders (Burridge, 2020). Household lockdowns have their own implications for well-being, considering that socialising and social support are important for enhancing well-being (Turner, 1981), and isolation and loneliness have negative impacts on both physical health and well-being (Cacioppo et al., 2003). Thus, it can be observed that the housing situation of individuals during times of lockdowns, virus threats and economic frailty, can have a significant bearing on both physical and mental health. ...
... Our research shows that being perceived as boring likely conveys low competence and low warmth, being a social burden, thus causing avoidance by others. Rather than innocuous, such social reactions can lead to social isolation, for example, in the form of loneliness or ostracism (Weiss, 1973;Williams, 2002) with profound psychological consequences (Cacioppo et al., 2003;Williams, 2012). Those perceived as boring may thus be at greater risk of harm. ...
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Unfortunately, some people are perceived as boring. Despite the potential relevance that these perceptions might have in everyday life, the underlying psychological processes and consequences of perceiving a person as “boring” have been largely unexplored. We examined the stereotypical features of boring others by having people generate (Study 1) and then rate (Study 2) these. We focused on occupations (e.g., data analytics, taxation, and accounting), hobbies (e.g., sleeping, religion, and watching TV), and personal characteristics (e.g., lacking humor and opinions, being negative) that people ascribed to stereotypically boring others. Experiments then showed that those who were ascribed boring characteristics were seen as lacking interpersonal warmth and competence (Study 3), were socially avoided (Study 4), and enduring their company required compensation (Study 5). These results suggest that being stereotyped as a bore may come with substantially negative interpersonal consequences.
... Loneliness is often described as a subjective, unpleasant experience because of a perceived discrepancy between the desired amount, frequency, and closeness of social relationships and actual social interactions [7]. Feelings of loneliness are associated with adverse mental and physical health, and increased mortality risk [8][9][10]. Under normal circumstances, loneliness is present in at least one-third of older people, with an even higher proportion among residents of nursing homes [8,[11][12][13]. ...
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During the COVID-19 outbreak in March 2020, restrictive measures (e.g., prohibiting physical visits and group activities) were introduced in nursing homes to protect older residents. Although the importance of social contacts and social activities to fulfill social needs and avoid loneliness is known, these were challenged during the pandemic. This qualitative study specifically focused on how residents, close relatives, and volunteers in nursing homes experienced the restrictive measures in retrospect and gained insights into the impact of the restrictive measures on social needs and loneliness, and the lessons that could be learned. Thirty semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with residents and close relatives, and one online focus group with ten volunteers, were conducted. Recruitment took place at psychogeriatric and somatic units in the Northern, Eastern and Southern regions of the Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium. The interviews and focus group were transcribed verbatim, and an open, inductive approach was used for analysis. Alternative ways of social contact could not fully compensate for physical visits. Generally, participants reported that it was a difficult time, indicated by feelings of loneliness, fear, sadness, and powerlessness. A great diversity in loneliness was reported. The most important reasons for feeling lonely were missing close social contacts and social activities. The diversity in the impact of restrictive measures depended on, e.g., social needs, coping strategies, and character. Restrictive COVID-19 measures in nursing homes resulted in negative emotions and unmet social needs of residents, close relatives, and volunteers. During future outbreaks of the COVID-19 virus or another virus or bacterium, for which restrictive measures may be needed, nursing homes should actively involve residents, close relatives, and volunteers to balance safety, self-determination, and well-being.
... The second mechanism describes social influence on people's behavior. People who receive appropriate information or advice from their personal networks tend to adopt a healthier lifestyle (Berkman, Glass, Brissette, & Seeman, 2000;Cacioppo, Hawkley, & Berntson, 2003). Socially isolated individuals do not have the opportunity or are less likely to engage in behaviors such as exercise, remembering to take medications, seeing their doctors, enjoying good nutrition, and relaxation (Pérodeau & Du Fort, 2000;Yarcheski, Mahon, Yarcheski, & Cannella, 2004). ...
Chapter
Social exclusion and social isolation refer to situations in which people are detached from society. A key distinction between the two terms is that social isolation is conceptualized and operationalized as an individual-level characteristic of being detached from social contacts, whereas social exclusion emphasizes broader and multifaceted or multidimensional societal conditions that produce poverty and inequality which reduce people’s abilities to participate in society. In this chapter, we discuss the origins, core components, and measurement of social exclusion and social isolation. We describe how the two concepts have been measured in empirical research, drawing examples from studies focused on older adults. Empirical studies document that older adults in general are relatively vulnerable to both, although disparities are documented on the basis of gender, socioeconomic status, and other individual-level characteristics. Both social exclusion and social isolation are associated with detrimental effects on health and well-being.
... Ainsi, lorsque les individus sont intégrés dans un réseau social de qualité, ils ont tendance à vivre plus longtemps (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010, à avoir une meilleure santé (Berkman, 2000) et un plus grand bien être (Gallagher & Vella-Brodrick, 2008). A l inverse, lorsque ces derniers ont un sentiment de solitude élevé, cela peut les mener à des changements cardiovasculaires, endocriniens et immunitaires ayant un impact préjudiciable sur leur santé (Cacioppo et al., 2003). Ainsi, selon la théorie de la base sociale, lui, se définir comme la répartition des efforts associées à l atteinte d un objectif. ...
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La cognition, la perception et l’action peuvent être considérées comme faisant partie d'un même processus dynamique avant tout orienté vers le maintien adaptatif des individus. Ce que perçoivent les individus, ce n’est pas un environnement objectif et indépendant d’eux, mais c’est un environnement leur offrant des opportunités d’action (e.g., des affordances). En se couplant à l’environnement, les organismes créeront leur propre domaine de signification, ce qui leur permettra en retour d’entreprendre des actions adaptées. Un principe illustrant bien une telle conception au niveau écologique est le principe d’économie d’action. Ce principe stipule que pour survivre, grandir et se reproduire, les organismes doivent conserver leurs énergies dans le temps. Cela, implique alors qu’ils puissent se maintenir autour d’une ligne de base homéostatique autour de laquelle les coûts énergétiques de leurs actions pourront être évalués. Chez l'homme, cette ligne de base serait fonction à la fois des ressources physiologiques, mais également des ressources sociales. Cette idée est notamment défendue par la théorie de la base sociale qui suggère que le fonctionnement par défaut de la cognition humaine serait d’agir au sein d’un environnement social. Selon cette théorie, lorsque les individus feraient face à des demandes environnementales, ils auraient tendance à partager la charge afin de minimiser le coût de leurs interactions avec le monde. Se basant sur cette approche incarnée des relations sociales, cette thèse aura donc pour objectif de comprendre comment s’opère ce partage des charges lorsque les individus anticipent d’agir dans un environnement donné. Précisément, elle sera de montrer que l’impact du partage des charges sur l’économie d’action, est fonction des caractéristiques de la situation (axe 1) mais également du niveau de base sociale des individus (axe 2).
... Although loneliness is embedded in the social fabric, relating to an emotive topography of inclusion and exclusion (Riley, 2002: 2), it is also both highly subjective and concealed by a veil of silence -that is, a reluctance among many people to admit to lonely feelings. Much research has focused on the relationship between loneliness and forms of physical and mental health (for example, Brown and Day, 2008;Cacioppo et al., 2002Cacioppo et al., , 2003, but less attention has been directed at understanding wider patterns of loneliness (De Jong Gierveld et al., 2006), including the normative climates and socioeconomic contexts in which loneliness is produced and embedded. This is also true for prison research in this area, the focus of which has tended to be medical or psychological, linking loneliness to outcomes such as suicide (Brown and Day, 2008;Liebling, 1999), bullying (Ireland and Qualter, 2008) and sexual offending (Marshall, 1989), without differentiating between the various forms that loneliness can take. ...
Article
At first glance, contemporary prisons are environments defined by an ‘enforced collective’ (Goffman, [1961] 1991) and prisoners are, if anything, plagued by ‘life en masse’ (Sykes, 1958), yet the depth and weight of loneliness in prison can be intense. Prisons are often associated with metaphors of loneliness, disruption and empty time, and, as Armstrong (2018) highlights, imprisonment is an exemplary symbol for being stuck in space and time. Based on empirical data from a study of imprisonment in England & Wales and Norway, in this article we analyse several forms of loneliness found in prisons and beyond, from the visceral, immediate sense of being physically alone and separated from loved ones to the ethical or existential experience of abandonment and hopelessness. We conclude by pointing to the fact that the two otherwise very different penal contexts yield similar findings when it comes to the experiences of loneliness. This implies that the sense of not fitting in, of being ‘ethically alone’ (Stauffer, 2015) and essentially misrecognized (Lister in Fraser and Bourdieu, 2007), goes beyond specific prisons and jurisdictions. We also note that, as well as evoking feelings of loneliness, in some circumstances imprisonment can provide some respite from it.
... Social exclusion is a serious threat to people's physical and mental wellbeing. It can manifest in the body through heightened tension in various body parts and somatic diseases (Argyle, 1987; xxii About this book Berntson, 2003;Wilczyńska-Kwiatek and Bargiel-Matusiewicz, 2008). The mental pain of exclusion is comparable to very real physical pain. ...
Article
This study aims to explore the challenges the older Chinese immigrants (aged 55 and older) are facing in Australia, while identifying good practices that some have been utilising in maintaining an active lifestyle, after moving to Australia. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was applied in this study. Focus group, interview and storytelling were adopted for in-depth conversations and subsequent analysis. The research team worked closely with three Chinese associations (one in Western Australia and two in Australia Capital Territory), for the primary study. The study helped to identify the benefits of the creative practice in the older Chinese immigrants’ active ageing in a multicultural environment. It also provided the opportunity to understand the changes the senior immigrants have made, after joining the regular group activities, including their communication habits, their access to local information and their fashion needs and consumption.
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V predkladanej práci autori sústredili pozornosť na prelínanie sa fenoménov osamelosti a závislosti, s dôrazom na perspektívu abstinencie. Teoretická časť mala za cieľ pojmovo a myšlienkovo uchopiť koncept osamelosti s úzko súvisiacimi konštruktmi, v zmysle prežívania látkovo závislých klientov. Realizovaný kvantitatívny výskum, ktorý nadväzoval na teoretické koncepty osamelosti a závislosti, mal za cieľ prispieť k objasneniu vzťahov medzi uvedenými fenoménmi. Osamelosť bola v rámci empirickej časti pojmovo uchopená a operacionalizovaná pomocou dvoch rôznych konštruktov, sociálnej opory a sociálnej začlenenosti. Výskum so vzorkou 190 respondentov bol zameraný na zisťovanie štatisticky signifikantných rozdielov vo vymedzených konštruktoch medzi hospitalizovanými a abstinujúcimi závislými. Štatistickou analýzou boli overované i hypotézy o signifikantnosti vzťahov medzi vymedzenými konštruktmi a porušením abstinencie. Výskum jednoznačne preukázal štatisticky významné rozdiely v testovaných kritériách porovnávaných skupín závislých respondentov so záverom, že abstinujúci klienti, navštevujúci psychoterapeutické a svojpomocné skupiny, sa cítia menej osamelí ako aktuálne hospitalizovaní.
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Yalnızlık, hayatın herhangi bir döneminde yaşanması muhtemel bir duygudur. Her toplumda yalnızlık yaşayan bireyler olmasına rağmen yalnızlık durumu çoğu zaman açıkça ifade edilmediğinden kendisini yalnız hisseden bireyler dikkati çekmeyebilmektedir. Bu durum yalnızlığın toplumsal sorun olarak yeterince ciddiye alınmamasına neden olmuştur. İşyeri yalnızlığının da benzer şekilde yöneticiler tarafından dikkate alınmadığı söylenebilir. İşyeri yalnızlığının örgüt üzerindeki özellikle uzun vadedeki etkileri, çalışanın yaşadığı yalnızlık duygusunun bireysel değil örgütsel bir sorun olduğunu göstermektedir. Bir sorunun çözümü için öncelikle sorunun fark edilmesi ve ciddiye alınması gerekir. Bunun için öncelikle yalnızlığın kavramsal olarak iyi anlaşılması, olası nedenleri ve örgüt üzerindeki sonuçlarının ortaya konması önem taşımaktadır. İşyeri yalnızlığını daha iyi anlayan yöneticiler, kendisini yalnız hisseden çalışanlarını yalnızlık duygusundan kurtulmalarına yardımcı olmaya yönelik etkili adımlar atabilir.
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Sleep problems, loneliness and social isolation often increase with age, significantly impacting older adults’ health and wellbeing. Yet general population health empirical evidence is surprisingly scant. Using the largest national database to date, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses was undertaken on 140,423 assessments from 95,045 (women: 61.0%) community living older adults aged ≥ 65 years having standardised home care assessments between 1 July 2012 and 31 May 2018 to establish the prevalence and relationships between insufficient sleep, excessive sleep, loneliness and social isolation. At first assessment, insufficient sleep (women: 12.4%, men: 12.7%) was more commonly reported than excessive sleep (women: 4.7%, men: 7.6%). Overall, 23.6% of women and 18.9% of men reported feeling lonely, while 53.8% women and 33.8% men were living alone. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, those who were lonely and socially isolated were more likely to experience insufficient sleep. Respondents with excessive sleep were more likely to live with others. Both loneliness and social isolation contributed to insufficient sleep, synergistically. Loneliness, social isolation and health-concerns may affect the restorative properties of sleep over and above the effects of ageing. Further research is warranted.
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Loneliness is an intense experience, subjectively perceived state, in which the person experiences a significant qualitative and/or qualitative deficit in the networks of social relationships. In adolescence, loneliness relates to social exclusion and risk behaviour symptoms. Although identifying loneliness in the adolescent population is a practical issue, no suitable methodology has been adapted so far. The goal of this paper is to adapt the SELSA-S methodology (DiTomasso et al., 2004) identifying social and emotional loneliness in the European conditions. A Slovak version has been created for the purpose of identifying psychometric attributes in the adolescent population as a target group. The empirical research involved a research file of N=331 adolescents. The factor analysis was used to confirm the suitability of the three-factor structure (loneliness in family, social, and romantic relationships) (χ 2 =207.08; df=87; p<.001; CFI=0.94; GFI=0.91; RMSEA /IC90%=.07 /.06-.08). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the methodology is supported by the correlation with the measured variables representing the factors of social support (r=-.20-.68), attachment prototypes (r=.11 - .28), number of close social contacts (r=-.17 - -.22), and the UCLA loneliness scale (Russel, 1996) (r=.17-.66). The suitability of the SELSA-S methodology in the Slovak version has been confirmed.
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Elderly migrants who face the dual challenges of aging and migration are more likely to suffer psychological disorders. Existing research has demonstrated a link between loneliness and psychological disorders in the general elderly population. However, we know little about the relationships among elderly migrants, and the psychological mechanisms linking them. This study aims to examine the effects of loneliness on anxiety and depressive symptoms among Chinese elderly migrants, and explore the mediating roles of perceived stress and resilience. All 654 participants were recruited in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Results showed that loneliness was significantly correlated with anxiety and depressive symptoms ( p < 0.001). Perceived stress and resilience mediated the relationship between loneliness and anxiety symptoms. The mediating effect of perceived stress was 0.128 (Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.092–0.168, Ratio = 37.4%). Resilience was 0.026 (Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.005–0.049, Ratio = 7.6%). Furthermore, perceived stress and resilience also mediated the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms. The mediating effects were 0.111 and 0.043, respectively (Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.073–0.151, Ratio = 27.9%; Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.020–0.069, Ratio = 10.8%). All the mediating effects were significant because the bootstrap 95% CIs did not contain zero. Overall, our findings suggested that loneliness not only can directly influence elderly migrants' anxiety and depressive symptoms but also by increasing perceived stress or decreasing resilience.
Technical Report
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Tässä tutkimusraportissa tarkastelemme koronapandemian heijastumista suomalaiseen yhteiskuntaan pandemian ensimmäisen vuoden aikana. Tarkastelun ajanjakso sijoittuu vuoden 2020 huhtikuun ja marraskuun välille ja kohteena ovat suomenkielisen aikuisväestön kokemukset. Tutkimme suomalaisten näkemyksiä pandemiaan liittyvistä syistä ja seurauksista, mielipiteitä hallinnon onnistumisesta sekä arkipäivän kokemuksia laajojen seuranta-aineistojen avulla. Väestöryhmittäisiä vertailuja tehdään esimerkiksi iän, sukupuolen, koulutusasteen, taloudellisen aktiivisuuden ja mediakulutuksen perusteella
Article
There is evidence that loneliness and unemployment each have a negative impact on public health. Both are experienced across the life course and are of increasing concern in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review seeks to examine the strength and direction of the relationship between loneliness and unemployment in working age individuals, and in particular the potential for a self-reinforcing cycle with combined healthcare outcomes. A systematic search was undertaken in Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and EconLit from inception to December 2020. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed throughout this review, study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist and results were summarised in a narrative synthesis. English language studies evaluating the relationship between loneliness and unemployment in higher income western countries were included. Thirty-seven studies were identified; 30 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal. Loneliness was measured by a direct question or loneliness scale while unemployment was self-reported or retrieved from a national register. A positive association between unemployment and increased loneliness was observed across all studies. Thus, across the life-course a clear yet complex relationship exists between unemployment and greater experience of loneliness. The magnitude of this relationship increases with the severity of loneliness and appears to peak at age 30–34 and 50–59. Logistic regression provided the greatest consistency at statistical significance revealing at least a 40% increase in the likelihood of reporting loneliness when unemployed. Recent longitudinal studies identified in this review found higher levels of loneliness following job loss, but also that loneliness was predictive of unemployment suggesting potential bi-directionality in the relationship. This bi-directionality may create a multiplier effect between loneliness and unemployment to form a self-reinforcing relationship and greater health concerns for those most at risk. Thus, review findings suggest the need for cross-sector awareness and intervention to tackle both loneliness and unemployment.
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A fundamental dimension along which all social and personal relationships vary is closeness. The purpose of present study was to investigate the factor structure and Item-Response parameters of the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale. In a descriptive-correlational design and test validation 180 Birjand University students in the first study and 250 students in the second study were selected through multi-stage random sampling and completed the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (Dibel, Levin & Park, 2012). The data were analyzed by internal consistency, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, discrimination and threshold parameters and Item and test information curves. Results showed that the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness scale had a one-factor structure with explained variance of 63.39. Confirmatory factor validity was also confirmed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.95 and 0.93 and split half coefficients were 0.89 and 0.88, respectively in two studies. The Item-Response parameters were also at the optimum level. It seems that the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness scale, and in particular the structure of its 12 item versions, has a good reliability and validity in students.
Article
Objective Middle-aged and older adults with diabetes are at increased risk for loneliness and functional limitations. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between loneliness and functional limitations have been demonstrated among the general population, but have not been established among those with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the following models describing the direction of the association between loneliness and functional limitations among people with diabetes: (1) loneliness leads to functional limitations, (2) functional limitations lead to loneliness, and (3) a bidirectional association between loneliness and functional limitations. Methods Data came from the Health and Retirement Study. Participants were middle-aged and older individuals with diabetes in the United States (n = 2934). Loneliness and functional limitations were measured at baseline, 4-year follow-up, and 8-year follow-up. Path models for each of the three models, as well as a stability model, were created. Model fit was compared using Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC). Results Participants were 54.6% female, 74,98% White, had a mean age of 69.66 years, had an average of 1.48 comorbid chronic conditions, and had diabetes for an average of 10.40 years. The bidirectional model best fit the data as evidenced by the lowest AIC value (AIC = 171,162.81). ∆AIC between the bidirectional model and the next best fitting model was 16.19, indicating strong support for selecting the bidirectional model. Higher levels of loneliness were associated with subsequent higher levels of functional limitations at all time points (βs = 0.07, 0.02) and higher levels of functional limitations were associated with subsequent higher levels of loneliness (βs = 0.13, 0.06) at all time points. Conclusion Results suggest that the association between loneliness and functional limitations among individuals with diabetes is bidirectional. This study demonstrates the value of directly comparing directional models.
Article
Purpose: Peer support programmes that provide services for various health conditions have been in existence for many years; however, there is little study of their benefits and challenges. Our goal was to explore how existing peer support programmes help patients with a variety of health conditions, the challenges that these programmes meet, and how they are addressed. Methods: We partnered with 7 peer support programmes operating in healthcare and community settings and conducted 43 semi-structured interviews with key informants. Audiorecordings were transcribed and qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory methods. Results: Peer support programmes offer informational and psychosocial support, reduce social isolation, and connect patients and caregivers to others with similar health issues. These programmes provide a supportive community of persons who have personal experience with the same health condition and who can provide practical information about self-care and guidance in navigating the health system. Peer support is viewed as different from and complementary to professional healthcare services. Existing programmes experience challenges such as matching of peer supporter and peer recipient and maintaining relationship boundaries. They have gained experience in addressing some of these challenges. Conclusions: Peer support programmes can help persons and caregivers manage health conditions but also face challenges that need to be addressed through organizational processes. Peer support programmes have relevance for improving healthcare systems, especially given the increased focus on becoming more patient-centred. Further study of peer programmes and their relevance to improving individuals' well-being is warranted.
Article
Background: Loneliness and social isolation are associated with multiple health problems, including depression, functional impairment, and death. Mobile sensing using smartphones and wearable devices, such as fitness trackers or smartwatches, as well as ambient sensors, can be used to acquire data remotely on individuals and their daily routines and behaviors in real time. This has opened new possibilities for the early detection of health and social problems, including loneliness and social isolation. Objective: This scoping review aimed to identify and synthesize recent scientific studies that used passive sensing techniques, such as the use of in-home ambient sensors, smartphones, and wearable device sensors, to collect data on device users' daily routines and behaviors to detect loneliness or social isolation. This review also aimed to examine various aspects of these studies, especially target populations, privacy, and validation issues. Methods: A scoping review was undertaken, following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews). Studies on the topic under investigation were identified through 6 databases (IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ACM, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase). The identified studies were screened for the type of passive sensing detection methods for loneliness and social isolation, targeted population, reliability of the detection systems, challenges, and limitations of these detection systems. Results: After conducting the initial search, a total of 40,071 papers were identified. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 (0.07%) studies were included in this scoping review. Most studies (20/29, 69%) used smartphone and wearable technology to detect loneliness or social isolation, and 72% (21/29) of the studies used a validated reference standard to assess the accuracy of passively collected data for detecting loneliness or social isolation. Conclusions: Despite the growing use of passive sensing technologies for detecting loneliness and social isolation, some substantial gaps still remain in this domain. A population heterogeneity issue exists among several studies, indicating that different demographic characteristics, such as age and differences in participants' behaviors, can affect loneliness and social isolation. In addition, despite extensive personal data collection, relatively few studies have addressed privacy and ethical issues. This review provides uncertain evidence regarding the use of passive sensing to detect loneliness and social isolation. Future research is needed using robust study designs, measures, and examinations of privacy and ethical concerns.
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To highlight the significant impact of social relationships on health and illness and suggest implications of these effects for health promotion efforts among older adults. Published studies on social relationships and health (or health behaviors) for the period 1970-1998 were identified through MEDLINE by using the key words social relationships, social support, and health, as well as review of health-related journals such as the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, American Journal of Public Health, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Social Science and Medicine, and the Journals of Gerontology. Major published original research was considered. Where published research was too extensive for full discussion of all studies, preference was given to studies focusing on older adults and those using stronger methodology (i.e., representative samples, longitudinal data, or multivariate analyses controlling for potential confounders). Reported findings were organized in terms of three major categories: (1) results related to major health outcomes such as mortality, CHD, and depression; (2) findings related to health behaviors; and (3) findings related to potential biological pathways for observed health effects of social relationships. Protective effects of social integration with respect to mortality risk among older adults are the most thoroughly documented, although protective effects have also been documented with respect to risks for mental and physical health outcomes and for better recovery after disease onset. There is also now a growing awareness of the potential for negative health effects from social relationships that are characterized by more negative patterns of critical and/or demanding interactions, including increased risks for depression and angina. Biological pathways are suggested by evidence that more negative social interactions are associated with physiological profiles characterized by elevated stress hormones, increased cardiovascular activity, and depressed immune function, whereas more positive, supportive social interactions are associated with the opposite profile. Available data clearly indicate that social relationships have the potential for both health promoting and health damaging effects in older adults, and that there are biologically plausible pathways for these effects. Such evidence suggests that aspects of the social environment could play an important role in future health promotion efforts for older adults, although careful consideration of both potentially positive as well as negative social influences is needed.
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Loneliness predicts morbidity and mortality from broad-based causes, but the reasons for this effect remain unclear. Few differences in traditional health behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise, nutrition) have been found to differentiate lonely and nonlonely individuals. We present evidence that a prototypic restorative behavior--sleep--does make such a differentiation, not through differences in time in bed or in sleep duration, but through differences in efficacy: In the study we report here, lonely individuals evinced poorer sleep efficiency and more time awake after sleep onset than nonlonely individuals. These results, which were observed in controlled laboratory conditions and were found to generalize to the home, suggest that lonely individuals may be less resilient than nonlonely individuals in part because they sleep more poorly. These results also raise the possibility that social factors such as loneliness not only may influence the selection of health behaviors but also may modulate the salubrity of restorative behaviors.
At-traction and close relationships The handbook of so-cial psychology
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Berscheid, E., & Reis, H. (1998). At-traction and close relationships. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of so-cial psychology (4th ed., pp. 193– 281). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Reducing suicide: A national imperative
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