Article

Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and the Positivity of Self-Views: Two Portraits of Self-Love

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Abstract

The authors hypothesized that both narcissism and high self-esteem are associated with positive self-views but each is associated with positivity in different domains of the self. Narcissists perceive themselves as better than average on traits reflecting an agentic orientation (e.g., intellectual skills, extraversion) but not on those reflecting a communal orientation (e.g., agreeableness, morality).In contrast, high-self-esteem individuals perceive themselves as better than average both on agentic and communal traits. Three studies confirmed the hypothesis. In Study 1, narcissists rated themselves as extraverted and open to experience but not as more agreeable or emotionally stable. High-self-esteem individuals rated themselves highly on all of these traits except openness. In Study 2, narcissists (but not high-self-esteem individuals) rated themselves as better than their romantic partners. In Study 3, narcissists rated themselves as more intelligent, but not more moral, than the average person. In contrast, high-self-esteem individuals viewed themselves as more moral and more intelligent.

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... Dinić et al., 2020b;Muris et al., 2017), pa ipak, nisu sve povezane sa negativ nim viđenjem sebe (npr. Campbell et al., 2002). ...
... U jednom novijem istraž ivanju, od svih crta Mračne trijade, samo je narcizam pozitivno bio povezan sa samoprocenjenom fizičkom atraktivnošću (Borráz-León & Rantala, 2021). Preuveličavanje slike o sebi kod grandioznog, agensnog narcizma ograničeno je na domen inteligencije i ekstraverzije, te se slabije uočava i u domenu prijatnos ti i moralnosti u kojem osobe s višim narcizmom sebe procenjuju kao prosečne (Campbell et al., 2002). Osobe sa višim agensnim narcizmom vide sebe kao efikasne u radnom okruženju i kao socijalno smele (Radojević i Dinić, 2020). ...
... Za razliku od ostalih mračnih crta, kada je u pitanju narcizam, može se očekivati drugačiji obrazac veza. Imajući u vidu da je za grandiozni narcizam karakteristično precenjivanje pozitivnih osobina u domenu delotvornosti (Campbell et al., 2002), može se očekivati da narcizam bude pozitivno povezan sa pozitivnom evaluacijom sebe usled neuviđanja sopstvenih mana tj. nekritičnosti prema sebi. ...
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The aim of this research was to examine the relations between the Dark Tetrad traits (narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and sadism) and six domains of self-concept (social, competence, affect, academic, family, and physical self-concept). Using a sample comprised of 210 participants (69.5% women), aged between 18 and 78, the Serbian adaptations of the following instruments were applied: the Short Dark Triad (SD3), the Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP), and the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS). The results indicate that narcissism was positively related to all domains of Self-Concept, especially to social and physical self, while psychopathy was negatively related to Self-Concept domains, especially to social self. Machiavellianism was negatively related to social Self-Concept and competence, while sadism was negatively related to competence and academic self-concept. Although narcissism is considered as the "brightest" dark trait, results could indicate biased evaluations of the self in narcissism, which is in line with its grandiose and superior self-view.
... However, another line of research supports an alternative hypothesis: people with higher self-esteem would be less tolerant of unfair offers. High self-esteem may be associated with a positive view of self (Campbell et al., 2002), which may lead to a sense of deservingness (Wood et al., 2009). For instance, people with higher self-esteem tend to report greater levels of confidence (Campbell, 1990), optimism (Wenglert & Rosén, 1995), and self-worth (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001). ...
... For instance, people with higher self-esteem tend to report greater levels of confidence (Campbell, 1990), optimism (Wenglert & Rosén, 1995), and self-worth (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001). They also rate their personal traits as above average (Campbell et al., 2002), perceive themselves to be more socially approved and valued by others (Anthony et al., 2007;MacDonald et al., 2003), and are more confident in their ability and competence (Lane et al., 2004;Wojciszke & Struzynska-Kujalowicz, 2007). Importantly, there indeed exists some direct evidence showing that people with higher self-esteem tend to believe that they deserve better outcomes, and this tendency motivates them to be more likely to express and repair their negative moods (Wood et al., 2009) and less likely to engage in self-handicapping behaviors (Callan et al., 2014). ...
... One may argue that our findings on the association between selfesteem and rejection of unfairness offers may be due to participants' level of narcissism, given that high self-esteem and narcissism are somewhat related (Raskin et al., 1991) and that both are likely to be associated with aggression and punishment (Bushman & Baumeister, 1998;Rasmussen, 2016). However, previous evidence also suggests that narcissism and self-esteem are distinct constructs with low correlations (see Brown & Zeigler-Hill, 2004;Brummelman et al., 2016;Campbell et al., 2002). In particular, high self-esteem is characterized by self worth and value, whereas narcissism is more associated with feelings of superiority over others and self-focus orientations, which might result in exploitative and self-interested behaviors in social interactions. ...
Article
People are averse to being treated unfairly, and are even willing to pay a personal cost to reject unfair others. Despite this general tendency, there might be individual differences in responses to unfairness. Across two studies, we measured participants' self-reported self-esteem and examined how people varying in self-esteem respond to unfairness in a repeated one-shot ultimatum game (Study 1, N = 160) and a one-shot ultimatum game (Study 2, N = 302). Findings revealed that participants with higher self-esteem were more likely to reject unfair offers, and that this effect was mediated by increased levels of feelings of deservingness. However, participants' self-esteem did not significantly predict their perceptions of fairness, anger, or unhappiness after receiving the unfair offers. These findings highlight the differences caused by self-esteem in acting against, but not perceiving, unfairness.
... Communal narcissists exhibit the BTAE predominantly in the communal domain (e.g., morality, prosociality, warmth-Nehrlich et al., 2019), as this domain is more personallyimportant to them (Gebauer et al., 2013). Agentic narcissists, by contrast, exhibit the BTAE predominantly in the agentic domain (e.g., intelligence, competence, leadership), as this domain is more personally-important to them (Campbell et al., 2002;Zajenkowski et al., 2019). ...
... Indeed, high agentics are prone to distorting their misbehavior rather than managing their impressions. They disregard social approval won through prosocial means (Lannin et al., 2014), are proud of their agentic qualities (Giacomin, 2019), and self-enhance on these qualities while being aware and accepting of their low communion (Campbell et al., 2002;Jones & Brunell, 2014). They might even intentionally create an uncommunal self-image, insofar as they consider communion a mark of low status (Czarna et al., 2014;Drat-Ruszczak et al., 2014). ...
... We did not expect high (vs. low) agentic narcissists to exhibit the BTAE, given that self-enhancing in the communal domain is not part of their behavioral repertoire (Campbell et al., 2002). ...
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Article
People believe that they would disobey immoral authority in the Milgram experiment. We asked whether high (vs. low) communal and agentic narcissists would manifest a more pronounced better-than-average effect (BTAE) in their predicted disobedience. Participants (N = 348) estimated the moment at which they and the average peer would quit the Milgram experiment. High communal narcissists claimed that they would disobey the immoral authority and quit the experiment earlier (positively predicting the BTAE), whereas high agentic narcissists claimed that they, as well as an average other, would obey longer (negatively predicting the BTAE). Differences in the impression management component of socially desirable responding played a role in these links.
... If these views are correct, then narcissism and self-esteem should correlate highly and there should be no individuals who have high narcissism but low self-esteem levels. Contrary to these predictions, narcissism and self-esteem are only modestly correlated (Campbell et al., 2002;Thomaes et al., 2008), and this correlation becomes even weaker when researchers use more valid measures of narcissism and self-esteem (Brown & Zeigler-Hill, 2004) and when they encourage individuals with high narcissism levels to report their self-esteem truthfully (Myers & Zeigler-Hill, 2012). In fact, when looking at individuals with high narcissism levels, there are about as many who have high self-esteem as those who have low selfesteem Nelemans et al., 2017). ...
... Narcissism and self-esteem both involve positive perceptions of the self, which explains why they were modestly related in the current study. Yet, they differ markedly in their phenotype, consequences, development, and origins Campbell et al., 2002;Donnellan et al., 2005;Hyatt et al., 2018;Tracy et al., 2009). Extending this past work, our research shows that narcissism and self-esteem have distinct early physiological indicators. ...
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Article
A common belief is that narcissism is a manifestation of high self-esteem. Here, we argue that self-esteem and narcissism are fundamentally distinct and have unique early physiological indicators. We hypothesized that children predisposed to narcissism would show elevated, whereas children predisposed to high self-esteem would show lowered, physiological arousal in social-evaluative contexts. We tested this in a prospective study including 113 children, who were first assessed at age 4.5, a critical age when children begin evaluating themselves through others' eyes. At age 4.5, children sang a song in front of an audience while being videotaped. Children's physiological arousal (skin conductance, heart rate, and heart rate variability) was assessed while children anticipated, performed, and recovered from the singing task. At age 7.5, children's narcissism and self-esteem levels were assessed. Consistent with our predictions, children predisposed to higher narcissism levels showed elevated skin conductance levels during anticipation. Their skin conductance levels further rose during performance (but less so than for other children) and failed to return to baseline during recovery. By contrast, children predisposed to higher self-esteem levels showed lowered skin conductance levels throughout the procedure. The effects emerged for skin conductance but not heart rate or heart rate variability, suggesting that arousal was sympathetically driven. Effects were larger and more robust for self-esteem than for narcissism. Together, these findings uncover distinct physiological indicators of narcissism and self-esteem: Narcissism is predicted by indicators reflecting early social-evaluative concerns, whereas self-esteem is predicted by indicators reflecting an early sense of comfort in social-evaluative contexts.
... They perceive themselves as special and unique (Emmons, 1984), and have a strong sense of entitlement to more positive outcomes than others (Campbell et al., 2004;Emmons, 1987). Moreover, narcissists pay more attention to agentic qualities, such as competence, power and superiority than communal qualities, such as agreeableness, kindness and warmth (Campbell et al., 2002). They crave attention and admiration from others and they particularly focus on their sense of superiority being reaffirmed (Grapsas et al., 2020;Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001). ...
... Furthermore, narcissistic leaders' tendencies of self-enhancement create social differences in the team, which creates unfair clues that may also impede the process of team information elaboration. With a strong motivation to maintain the inflated ego and reinforce their positive self-image, narcissistic leaders prefer to interact with people who can satisfy such needs (Campbell et al., 2002;Grijalva and Harms, 2014). Following this logic, narcissistic leaders may develop a high-quality leader-member exchange (i.e. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on social information processing theory and trait activation theory, this study aims to examine the mediating effect of leader narcissism on team radical creativity via team information elaboration and explores the moderating role of inter-team competition. Design/methodology/approach Time-lagged and multisource survey data were collected from 86 team leaders and 409 employees in a Chinese company. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results indicated that leader narcissism could impede team radical creativity via team information elaboration. Moreover, the negative indirect effects of leader narcissism on team radical creativity were more pronounced when the inter-team competition was low. Originality/value This study makes contributions to the literature on leader narcissism and team radical creativity by examining the detrimental indirect effects of leader narcissism on team radical creativity via team information. Furthermore, it broadens current literature by investigating the potential positive intervention of inter-team competition on the negative aspects of leader narcissism.
... However, several scientific authors have suggested that some personality factors predispose individuals to alcohol abuse [14,15]. Against this background, theorists have proposed concepts that backup this assumption, contesting that certain personality types are linked to alcoholism and alcohol-related behavioural problems [16]. ...
Article
Alcohol Abuse among students has become a serious public health issue in Nigeria. Research documentation of alcohol abuse has only been concentrated in the developed world with little or no empirical evidence to account for the perceptions from the developing world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the mediating effect of self esteem in the predictive relationship between personality traits and alcohol abuse among Ebonyi State University students. , Abakalilki. A Cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Three hundred and twelve (312) Ebonyi State University students from the faculty of Health Sciences, Presco Campus were selected for this study. They comprised 208 (63.2%) males and 104 (32.3%) females with an age range between 19 years and 33 years. Their mean age was 23.36 which the SD was 6.36.This study made use of multi-stage sampling technique which comprised simple balloting and purposive sampling technique. Measures of the personality traits in this study were based on the Big Five Inventory (BFI), Index of Self-Esteem (ISE) was used to measure global indices of self-esteem and the McAndrew Alcoholism Scale was used to measure destructive drinking. Results showed that, personality trait significantly predicted alcohol abuse in this manner Extroversion (R= .087; β; 28 p< .01), Agreeableness (R= .087; β; 11, p< .01), Conscientiousness (R= .087; β; .03, p< .01), openness (R= .087; β; .24, p< .01), Finally neuroticism (R= .087; β.32, p< .01). The result also indicated that personality characteristics (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness and neuroticism), combined significantly predicted alcohol abuse among Ebonyi State University students (R= .087; β; .33, p< .01). Finally Self-esteem significantly predicted alcohol abuse (β -.14, t -2.99, p< .01). Post-Hoc Sobel test that was conducted reveled that perceive self-esteem significantly mediated the relationship between personality trait and alcohol abuse (Ƶ = 2.31, p., <. 05). Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that academic institutions at all levels should try as much as possible to engage in reward systems that increase student’s propensities which will enhance the psycho-emotional perspectives of the students and able to cope with social pressures with campuses, and also effort should be made to reduce to minimal access to alcoholic beverages within the university environment. Also, symposiums and seminars including workshops should be organized to sensitize and students at all levels on social acceptable best practices. Also, therapies and interventions should be conducted for students who report or show behavioural problems which are linked to alcoholism and abuse of illicit drugs. This study portends several implications for the academia, in that research studies can be harnessed to help in policy formation and implementation concerning the sale and accessibility of alcoholic beverages within university campuses.
... For example, people high in pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder traits only modestly agree with their peers in describing their own and other people's Big-5 personality characteristics (Tandler et al., 2016) and their own levels of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Lukowitsky & Pincus, 2013). As to dominance and DI SARNO ET AL. hostility, grandiose narcissism has been associated with describing oneself as higher compared to others on agentic properties (Campbell et al., 2002;Di Pierro & Fanti, 2021;Krizan & Bushman, 2011), matching a narcissistic tendency toward derogation of others' abilities (Morf & Rhodewalt, 1993;Park & Colvin, 2015;Smalley & Stake, 1996;South et al., 2003) and devaluation of others' personality profiles (Rauthmann, 2012;Tandler et al., 2016;Wood et al., 2010). Finally, research shows that individuals high in pathological narcissism tend to describe themselves as low (Back et al., 2013;Mielke et al., 2020;Seidman et al., 2020) or neutral (Di Pierro & Fanti, 2021) on communal attributes, and to perceive others as more hostile (Back et al., 2013;Edershile & Wright, 2019). ...
Article
Objective: Evidence suggests that pathological narcissism impacts psychotherapy process and outcome. This study investigates whether traits of pathological narcissism account for distinctiveness (construal) of patients' interpersonal perceptions in treatment settings. Methods: Patients enrolled in psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment (N = 150) described a segment of a session in a written format and subsequently assessed both self- and clinician's behavior on the dimensions of dominance and hostility (patient-reported ratings), along with their pathological narcissistic traits. Three independent raters also assessed interpersonal behaviors (observer-reported ratings) based on the written session descriptions. Indices of construal were defined by the residuals of self-reported (net of observer-reported) ratings and were regressed onto pathological narcissistic traits. Results: No association emerged between pathological narcissism and construal in patients' perceptions of their clinicians. However, grandiose traits of pathological narcissism were related to distinctively perceiving oneself as more dominant, while vulnerable traits were related to distinctively perceiving oneself as more hostile. The former association (but not the latter) also held after incorporating additional observer ratings to investigate the robustness of the results. Conclusion: Findings are discussed in light of treatment-related self-enhancement and self-concealment processes.
... Selfesteem is defined as the subjective evaluation of self-worth or simply as having a favorable or unfavorable opinion about oneself [13]. It is also described as the sense of personal worth that one associates with oneself [14], and can be understood as self-love [15]. It is considered a relatively stable personality trait that varies between individuals [16]. ...
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The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) generated a global health crisis, resulting in people facing a distressing and unexpected situation. The risk of contamination and the experience of social distancing changed people's behaviors and impacted individual feelings, habits, and relationships. Uncertainty about the timeline of the growing pandemic, Isolation, and restrictions due to quarantine worsened feelings of anxiety and loneliness among both older and younger populations. Moreover, the loss of one's usual routine and reduced social contacts may cause boredom, frustration, and isolation, which can generate high levels of distress in individuals increasing the risk of mental disorders, such as anxiety, mood, addiction, and thought disorders. During the COVID-19 lockdown, there was a steep increase in social media usage as individuals were confined to their homes, which paved the way for many harmful effects on their mental health. Due to this wide popularity, many researchers are inspired to conduct several studies on excessive social media usage and its impact on our lives. One such prominent research area is the impact of social media on self-esteem. By reviewing different studies, it is evident that one gets a boost in their self-esteem when they get positive responses to their actions (posts, stories, etc.) on social media, on the other hand, as one gets exposed to other‘s highlighted episodes of life (promotion in job, vacations) they have a fundamental drive to compare these with their normal episodes (daily hassles, work routines, academic assignments) in their lives. This tendency called “upward comparisons” frequently occurs among social media users, especially among adolescents eventually leading to low self-esteem.
... Status concerns are chronically accessible among high narcissists, who are also often characterized by unstable state self-esteem and status (Benson and Giacomin, 2020;Gregg and Sedikides, 2010;Zeigler-Hill, 2006). Narcissists' status motive overshadows other motives, such as their motive for affiliation, defined as catering to the welfare of one's social environments or forming close interpersonal bonds (Campbell et al., 2002;Grapsas et al., 2020;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2019). Narcissists, then, may pursue status even at the cost of their social relationships. ...
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Research has linked hormones to behavioral outcomes in intricate ways, often moderated by psychological dispositions. The associations between testosterone and antisocial or prosocial outcomes also depend on dis-positions relevant to status and dominance. In two studies (N1 = 68, N2 = 83), we investigated whether endogenous testosterone, measured in saliva, and narcissism, a psychological variable highly relevant to status motivation, interactively predicted men's preferences regarding resource allocation. Narcissism moderated the links between testosterone and social value orientation: among low narcissists testosterone negatively predicted generosity in resource allocation and probability of endorsing a prosocial (vs. pro-self) value orientation, whereas among high narcissists testosterone tended to positively predict generosity and the probability of endorsing a prosocial (vs. pro-self) value orientation. We discuss these results as examples of calibrating effects of testosterone on human behavior, serving to increase and maintain social status. We advocate the relevance of psychological dispositions, alongside situations, when examining the role of T in social outcomes.
... Machiavellianism -i.e., being manipulative, cynical, and amoral (Christie & Geis, 1970) -is uniquely characterised by long-term oriented manipulation and alliance-building (Bereczkei & Birkas, 2014;Bereczkei & Czibor, 2014;Jones & Paulhus, 2014). Narcissistic individuals have exhibitionistic tendencies and a uniquely grandiose self-image with the feeling of entitlement (Raskin & Terry, 1988) that are strongly correlated with positive self-esteem in normative samples (Campbell et al., 2002). Unique traits associated with psychopathy are impulsivity and callousness (Jones & Paulhus, 2014). ...
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Article
Currently our understanding of environmental factors that influence the development of dark personality traits (DT) is limited. Therefore, we conducted three studies using online questionnaires, each examining a different aspect of the relation between dark personality traits and family environment. In Study 1, 117 adults (mean age: 30.36 years, SD = 10.19) filled out questionnaires regarding their childhood relationship with siblings and their own DT traits. We found that the amount of conflicts with siblings during adolescence correlated positively with Machiavellianism and psychopathy. The feeling of closeness towards the siblings showed negative correlation with Machiavellianism. Parental partiality towards the other sibling was positively correlated with narcissism. In Study 2, 111 adolescents (mean age: 15.92, SD = 1.24) reported their perceptions of the rearing style of their parents, in addition to their sibling relationships and DT traits. Perceived parental emotional warmth was negatively associated, whereas both rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with psychopathy. Parental warmth was positively, while rejection negatively associated with narcissism. Machiavellianism was positively associated with the amount of conflicts with siblings, but negatively with closeness to siblings. In Study 3, 110 adults (mean age: 32.62 years, SD = 12.25) reported their levels of the Vulnerable Dark Triad that included measures of primary and secondary psychopathy, maladaptive covert narcissism, and borderline personality organization. Results indicated that sibling relation quality had a significant effect on primary psychopathy and borderline traits. Parental rejection and overprotection correlated with borderline traits and vulnerable narcissism. The results of these studies shed some light on how environmental impulses, particularly the quality of relationships between family members, affect the development of personality.
... Ryzyko to jest wynikiem powtarzania przez osoby, firmy określonych zachowań i związanych z tym skutków. Jeśli chodzi o charakterystyczne dla roszczeniowości narcystycznej [Campbell, Rudich, Sedikides, 2002;Morf, Horvath, Torchetti, 2011, za: Żemojtel-Piotrowska, 2016 skutki wyparcia wspólnotowości (communion) przez promowanie bądź agresywną obronę swojej wielkościowości (grandiosity), to nie sposób ich przecenić. Chodzi między innymi o obniżenie zaufania w organizacji czy o pojawienie się rys na jej wizerunku. ...
... Ryzyko to jest wynikiem powtarzania przez osoby, firmy określonych zachowań i związanych z tym skutków. Jeśli chodzi o charakterystyczne dla roszczeniowości narcystycznej [Campbell, Rudich, Sedikides, 2002;Morf, Horvath, Torchetti, 2011, za: Żemojtel-Piotrowska, 2016 skutki wyparcia wspólnotowości (communion) przez promowanie bądź agresywną obronę swojej wielkościowości (grandiosity), to nie sposób ich przecenić. Chodzi między innymi o obniżenie zaufania w organizacji czy o pojawienie się rys na jej wizerunku. ...
... For example, they see themselves as more intelligent and attractive than others even when they are not (Carlson et al., 2011;Zajenkowski et al., 2020), and describe themselves as special, extraordinary individuals who are more deserving than others (Exline et al., 2004;Ohmann & Burgmer, 2016). Accordingly, they are driven by agency (reflecting dominance and superiority) over communion (reflecting caring or concern for others; Campbell & Foster, 2007;Campbell et al., 2002). ...
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We examine the role of narcissistic admiration and rivalry in consumers’ word of mouth about promotional games. We show that, although narcissistic admiration and rivalry are both positively associated with belief in good luck (Study 1), their associations with word of mouth in reference to a retailer diverge when consumers lose a chance-based promotional game (Study 2). Specifically, when consumers lose (but not win), narcissistic admiration is associated with more favorable word of mouth (i.e., leaving a positive review on a website), whereas narcissistic rivalry is associated with less favorable word of mouth. These diverging effects vary depending on the effort that consumers exert to participate in the game (Study 3), and are informed by authentic and hubristic pride (Study 4). Positive and negative affect do not account for the findings. The results provide further evidence of the distinct processes motivating self-enhancement among consumers higher in narcissistic admiration and rivalry.
... In contrast to vanity, narcissism has received much attention, particularly from investigators interested in interpersonal functioning (e.g., Brunell et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2002;Emmons, 1987;Grijalva et al., 2015;Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001;Wetzel et al., 2017;Wink, 1991) and psychopathology (e.g., Irwin, 1995;Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010;Zeigler-Hill et al., 2011). Arguably, narcissism is a broader and more complex concept than vanity, as it describes both grandiose and vulnerable aspects of self-concept (Gore & Widiger, 2016) and is characterized by traits such as attention-seeking, arrogance, low anxiety, entitlement, a lack of empathy, and exploitation of others (e.g., Cain et al., 2008;Kenneth et al., 2012). ...
Article
For almost 50 years, psychologists have understood that what is beautiful is perceived as good. This simple and intuitively appealing hypothesis has been confirmed in many ways, prompting a wide range of studies documenting the depth and breadth of its truth. Yet, for what is arguably one of the most important forms of "goodness" that there is-moral goodness-research has told a different story. Although greater attractiveness is associated with a host of positive attributes, it has been only inconsistently associated with greater perceived morality (or lesser immorality), and meta-analyses have suggested the total effect of beauty on moral judgment is near zero. The current research documents one plausible reason for this. Across nine experiments employing a variety of methodological and measurement strategies, we show how attractiveness can be perceived as both morally good and bad. We found that attractiveness causally influences beliefs about vanity, which translates into beliefs that more attractive targets are less moral and more immoral. Then, we document a positive association between attractiveness and sociability-the nonmoral component of warmth-and show how sociability exerts a countervailing positive effect on moral judgments. Likewise, we document findings suggesting that vanity and sociability mutually suppress the effects of attractiveness on each other and on moral judgments. Ultimately, this work provides a comprehensive process account of why beauty seems good but can also be perceived as less moral and more immoral, highlighting complex interrelations among different elements of person perception. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Previous studies have shown that the associations between narcissism and IPV perpetration or aggression are smaller than the relationships between Machiavellianism and psychopathy and such aggressive acts (Carton & Egan, 2017;Kiire, 2017;Muris et al., 2017). However, because we exclusively focused on psychological IPV perpetration, the results might reflect previous findings that narcissism was associated with jealousy, monopolizing partners' time, and punishing partners for infidelity threats or that people with highly narcissism looked down on their partners (Campbell et al., 2002). In other words, narcissistic people characterized by an exaggerated sense of self, superiority, and vanity (Raskin & Terry, 1988) might want to keep their partners under their control by perpetrating psychological IPV. ...
Article
Although cross-sectional research showed a correlation between the Dark Triad and intimate partner violence (IPV), it was unclear whether the Dark Triad facilitated violence toward partners or whether violent acts fostered the dark personality traits. We aimed to statistically clarify the causal relationships between the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration in romantic relationships. We conducted a longitudinal study every four months for one year across four waves in a sample of individuals who were currently in romantic relationships. A total of 1392 individuals (Mage = 29.73, SDage = 5.92) who dated the same partners throughout completed the four waves of surveys that measured the Dark Triad traits, psychological IPV, and demographic variables. Cross-lagged panel models revealed consistent patterns in the associations between each of the Dark Triad traits and psychological IPV perpetration throughout the four waves. Machiavellianism and psychological IPV perpetration increased each other. Psychological IPV perpetration reinforced the tendency for psychopathy, but not vice versa. Narcissism promoted future psychological IPV perpetration, but not vice versa. Our study illustrates how the Dark Triad traits accelerate psychological violence toward romantic partners and how such violence fosters the dark side of personality.
... Kim et al., 2009;Wang & Kim, 2013). Newcomers with positive self-perceptions (i.e., high CSEs) perceive themselves as valuable employees, which leads to feelings of being welcomed by other group members (Campbell et al., 2002). Such positive perceptions are likely to reinforce positive self-evaluations by fostering feelings of coherence and predictability in the new work environment, eventually protecting positive self-evaluations. ...
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Building on a self-enhancement perspective (Sedikides & Alicke, 2019), we connect job crafting and organizational socialization research and propose that, based on their core self-evaluations (CSEs), newcomers use job crafting to create a resource-rich and stimulating work environment and construct a sense of organizational insider status during socialization. We hypothesize a reciprocal relationship between job crafting and insider status such that perceptions of insider status motivate newcomers to personalize their work through job crafting, and job crafting improves insider status perceptions. We also propose that leaders’ developmental coaching strengthens the positive effects of CSEs on job crafting and insider status. Survey data were collected from a four-wave sample of 125 newcomers at various organizations in China. The results showed that 1) positive CSEs were associated with more job crafting behaviors as well as higher perceptions of insider status, 2) job crafting and insider status were positively and reciprocally related to one another over time, and 3) leaders’ developmental coaching moderated the positive effect of CSEs on insider status, but not on job crafting, such that the association between CSEs and insider status was positive for higher levels of developmental coaching and non-significant for lower levels of leaders’ developmental coaching. These findings reveal a self-enhancement process during organizational socialization and the important role of leaders’ developmental coaching in such a process.
... Kets de Vries and Miller (1984), for example, showed that executives' depressive personality (i.e., neuroses) led to a culture of helplessness in organizations. In addition, researchers began exploring leader narcissism-the personality trait related to the extent to which people self-enhance or self-promote (Paulhus, 1998) due to their grandiose and inflated sense of abilities (e.g., Campbell, Rudich, & Sedikides, 2002;Gabriel, Critelli, & Ee, 1994;Goncalo, Flynn, & Kim, 2010)-and its effects on cultures. In the data from 56 large, publicly traded, hightechnology firms in the United States, O'Reilly, Chatman, and Doerr (2020) found that CEOs who were rated by their employees as more narcissistic tended to create organizational cultures that were less collaborative and less concerned about integrity. ...
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This review presents comprehensive analyses of extant research on culture creation and change. We use the framework of culture creation and change (Kim & Toh, 2019), which consists of three unique perspectives, to understand past research on the antecedents of cultures. The basis of the functionality perspective is that environmental changes shape cultures, and thus, the created cultures enable an organization to address the demands of its environments effectively. In contrast, the leadership perspective argues that leaders have disproportional influence on cultures, and when exercising such influence, they are often unsuccessful at creating functional cultures. The leadership perspective comprises two subperspectives-the leader-trait and cultural transfer perspectives. The leader-trait perspective argues that when creating cultures, leaders often overlook the functionality of cultures but rely heavily on their traits. The cultural transfer perspective suggests that leaders often recreate the cultures that they have experienced in the past. Building on this framework, we review 74 studies in 68 articles across multiple disciplines to widen our understanding of culture creation and change. We then present agendas for future research guided by a four-stage model and a theory of coordinated actions for creating functional cultures. Finally, we discuss methodological limitations in past studies and offer possible solutions.
... Taken together, studies on self-reported narcissism and social desirability produced many null results and, when they did find correlations, they were typically small, nonreplicable, and inconsistent. From a theoretical point of view, both a positive and a negative connection a priori make sense: that grandiose narcissists self-enhance by presenting themselves favorably on agentic and egoistic values (e.g., intelligence, dominance, and assertiveness; Campbell et al., 2002), regardless of context, stakes, and incentives (Hart et al., 2019;Maaß & Ziegler, 2017). Alternatively, (grandiose) narcissists might not value social acceptance. ...
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Are personality traits related to symptom overreporting and/or symptom underreporting? With this question in mind, we evaluated studies from 1979 to 2020 ( k = 55), in which personality traits were linked to scores on stand-alone validity tests, including symptom validity tests (SVTs) and measures of socially desirable responding (SDR) and/or supernormality. As to symptom overreporting ( k = 14), associations with depression, alexithymia, apathy, dissociation, and fantasy proneness varied widely from weak to strong ( r s .27 to .79). For underreporting ( k = 41), inconsistent links ( r s − .43 to .63) were found with narcissism, whereas alexithymia and dissociation were often associated with lower SDR tendencies, although effect sizes were small. Taken together, the extant literature mainly consists of cross-sectional studies on single traits and contexts, mostly offering weak correlations that do not necessarily reflect causation. What this field lacks is an overarching theory relating traits to symptom reporting. Longitudinal studies involving a broad range of traits, samples, and incentives would be informative. Until such studies have been done, traits are best viewed as modest concomitants of symptom distortion.
... First, narcissistic employees have inflated self-views and are extremely self-confident (Campbell et al., 2002;Martin et al., 2016). They believe that they are more knowledgeable and experienced than others and that they should be dominant in leading organizational change (Zhu and Chen, 2015). ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations need to effectively manage changes, and employees need to proactively adapt to these changes. The present research investigated when and how individual employees' narcissism was related to their change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, based on a trait activation perspective, this research proposed the hypotheses that individual employees' narcissism and environmental uncertainty would interactively influence employees' change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior via felt responsibility for constructive change; furthermore, the effect of narcissism on change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior via felt responsibility for constructive change would be stronger when the environmental uncertainty prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic was high rather than low. Two studies were conducted to test these hypotheses: an online survey of 180 employees in mainland China (Study 1) and a field study of 167 leader-follower dyads at two Chinese companies (Study 2). The current research reveals a bright side of narcissism, which has typically been recognized as a dark personality trait, and enriches the understanding of the antecedents of change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. This research can also guide organizations that wish to stimulate employee proactivity.
... A precursor like grandiosity which 'leads to an inflated self concept may gradually solidify over time, due to other interactive processes. Excessive self-esteem (e.g., Kemis, 2003) may in turn lead to fragile and unstable self-esteem (e.g., Rhodewalt, Madrian, & Cheney, 1998), grandiosity as stated here (e.g., Raskin et aI., 1991), and a defensive self-enhancement which may lead to egoism (e.g., Campbell, Rudich, & Sedikides, 2002;John & Robins, 1994;Paulhus & Williams, 2002). Thus though no obvious elements of narcissism were visible via the texts in his childhood, yet a precursor like grandiosity was apparently present. ...
... While grandiose narcissistic leaders appear charming and receive positive leader-ratings at first sight (e.g., Ong et al., 2016), this picture changes as time goes by with a longer acquaintance, grandiose narcissistic leaders are rated less favorable (e.g., Judge et al., 2006;Ong et al., 2016). Leading also requires relationship-building with followers (e.g., Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) something grandiose narcissistic leaders might not be good at because they are not interested in close and warm relationships (e.g., Campbell et al., 2002). Instead, grandiose narcissistic leaders might exploit their followers due to their selfishness, which might turn into destructive leadership (e.g., Krasikova et al., 2013) or abusive supervision (e.g., Waldman et al., 2018). ...
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Prior research has revealed relevant associations between narcissism and leadership, but most studies have focused on narcissism as a personality trait and its grandiose dimension. However, other forms of narcissism (e.g., vulnerable, pathological, and communal narcissism) might also be relevant for leadership but have mainly been neglected in leadership research. Therefore, in this research spotlight, I investigate the link between alternative forms of narcissism and leadership criteria such as leader emergence and leader effectiveness. Along with theoretical considerations, I will derive suggestions for future research on these forms of narcissism and leadership.
... empirical evidence in the field of social personality psychology (Miller et al., 2011) indicate that feelings of superiority are typical of grandiose narcissists. To the best of our knowledge, however, only a few studies have investigated the association between traits of grandiose narcissism and proneness to feel superior over others (Campbell et al., 2002). By comparing individuals' selfand other-descriptions in both agentic and communal domains, the authors found that the higher grandiose narcissism, the higher proneness to describe oneself as more agentic than significant others (i.e., romantic partner), but not as more communal. ...
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Objective: Clinical theories suggest that narcissists have a compromised self-concept. However, empirical investigation on attributes of the self that would be impaired in pathological narcissism is limited and inconsistent. The present study aims at detecting distinctive profiles of narcissistic manifestations on facets of the self that have been indicated as relevant in clinical and empirical literature on narcissism. Method: We measured adaptive and pathological narcissistic traits in a community sample of adults (N = 539). Participants also completed measures of self-uniqueness, self-authenticity, self-consistency, and self-other comparisons on agentic and communal domains. Results: Results indicate distinctive profiles of adaptive and pathological narcissistic manifestations on these facets of the self. Among the set of distinctive facets for each narcissistic manifestation, however, some showed to have a more prominent role. Adaptive and pathological narcissism were captured mostly by a greater sense and need for uniqueness that was primarily expressed by public exposure. Sense of superiority over others in the agentic domain, however, showed to have an essential role only in adaptive narcissism. Moreover, self-concept in adaptive grandiose narcissism was qualified by high levels of self-authenticity and a consistent sense of self. Self-concept in vulnerable pathological narcissism revealed greatest impairment, especially in facets of high concern regarding others' reactions and feeling of a tenuous existence. Conclusions: The study points out that adaptive and pathological manifestations of narcissism can be profiled based on specific facets of self. Theoretical and research implications are discussed.
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The extant literature has revealed that leader narcissism has paradoxical impacts on follower outcomes. In this research, we argue that its paradoxical effects can be disentangled by the presence of two distinct types of leader narcissism—narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry—which can shape leaders’ initial relationship‐building with new followers (i.e., newcomers) differently. Integrating a dual‐type view of narcissism with leader–member exchange (LMX) theory and conducting a multi‐wave, multi‐source field study with 151 leader–newcomer dyads, we found that leader narcissistic admiration is negatively related to leader perceived threat of a newcomer whereas leader narcissistic rivalry is positively related to it. Leader perceived threat of a newcomer, in turn, reduces the newcomer's LMX perceptions and ultimately hinders the newcomer's job satisfaction and task performance. Moreover, leader perceived similarity with a newcomer was found to strengthen the negative (positive) effect of leader narcissistic admiration (rivalry) on leader perceived threat of a newcomer. We did not find support for the moderation effect of newcomer acceptance seeking from the leader. This research sheds light on the value of adopting a content‐specific and multidimensional approach in studying leader narcissism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Grandiose narcissistic traits refer to exploitative and arrogant attitudes, while vulnerable narcissistic traits entail hypersensitivity to judgment and low self-esteem. Little is known about how individuals with narcissistic traits can improve their attitudes toward themselves and others. The current research puts self-and other compassion forward as possible targets to alleviate some of destructive patterns of narcissism. Generally, self-compassion (SC) has previously been associated with beneficial effects on psychological wellbeing, while other compassion (OC) is advantageous for interpersonal relationships. This study explored the relationship between narcissistic traits and the efficacy of experimental compassion inductions. Student and community participants (N = 230, M age = 27.41, 65.2% female) completed grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic trait, SC and OC state questionnaires, and either an SC or OC induction. It was expected that individuals with higher narcissistic traits (particularly grandiose traits) would benefit from the inductions and show higher SC after but would have greater difficulty showing meaningful increases in OC (especially OC directed at the general population). The results indicated that individual differences in grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic traits are related to the magnitude of improvements following the inductions: the theorized lack of SC in individuals with vulnerable oversensitivity to judgment traits seems possible to be counteracted through different types of compassion exercises. Moreover, higher grandiose exploitativeness-entitlement and global vulnerable narcissistic traits related to less increases than others. However, directly inducing OC in individuals with these traits was linked to greater OC improvements than improvements after inducing SC. Overall, the present findings suggest that self-compassionate behavior can be improved in individuals with high oversensitivity and that other compassionate behavior could potentially be increased if, specifically, other compassion exercises are utilized when higher levels of certain narcissistic traits are present.
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Many researchers are interested in the relationship between leaders and their followers, whether in the technology or nontechnology sector. However, the moderating factors of the relationship between leadership types and followers’ performance have been underexplored. This study investigates the moderating role of a leader’s narcissism in the relationship between leadership types (transformational and transactional) and follower performance in technology and nontechnology industries. We analyze the results of a survey of 46 chief executive officers and 205 followers at 46 large companies in Korea, of which 30 are in the technology sector and 16 are in nontechnology industries. The results show that a leader’s narcissism mitigates the positive relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance. Moreover, a leader’s narcissism strengthens the negative relationship between transactional leadership and followers’ performance. When industry type is considered, this effect remains evident only in the technology sector. These findings suggest that the moderating role of narcissism in the relationship between leadership and follower outcomes can be industry-specific. The results contribute to theoretical discussions about the relationship between leadership types and followers’ performance and its moderating factors.
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Introduction CrossFit is among the sports that involve high-intensity exercises. It often takes the form of group training and may lead to an increased risk for injuries in the case of excessive commitment. Exercise addiction (EA), which may lead to more frequent injuries, is often related to low self-esteem and narcissism. The aims of this study were: to establish the percentage of CrossFit participants at risk from EA; to examine whether there are differences in psychological traits between those CrossFit participants at risk and those not at risk; and to establish profiles of CrossFit participants according to their psychological traits and EA levels. Methods The study included 110 women training CrossFit. The questionnaires used were as follows: Exercise Addiction Inventory, Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale, Self-Compassion Short Scale, Appearance Schemas Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Narcissistic Admiration, and a Rivalry Questionnaire. Results In total, 24.5% of the participants were at a high risk of EA. Strong EA in women training CrossFit is related to two profiles of self-esteem and narcissism. One is characterised by high self-esteem and high narcissism connected with admiration, and the second – by low self-esteem and high rivalry narcissism. Conclusions The links between self-image, narcissism and EA are complex; the knowledge of various profiles of psychological factors that may lead to a high addiction risk may translate into creating psychoeducational programs concerning risky training, which are adequately suited to the needs of the women.
Chapter
This chapter “Models of romantic love” describes one of the most scholarly visible forms of love, yet frequently misunderstood in its content and features. Some of its characteristics are shared with other models, while the others are unique. Several salient attributes of romantic love, such as its sexual and passionate nature, are reviewed in comprehensive and cross-cultural perspectives. The specific romantic beliefs and perceptions, especially idealization, which make romantic love “romantic,” received special emphasis in the chapter. Parasocial and narcissistic models of love are elucidated in light of the romantic features.KeywordsConcept of romantic loveFeatures of romantic loveDiversity of romantic loveComplexity of romantic loveCultural complexity of romantic lovePsychological complexity of romantic loveSexuality of romantic loveIdealization in romantic lovePassion of romantic loveAffection of romantic loveRomantic beliefsRomantic beliefs across culturesIrrationality of romantic beliefsRomantic love as a destinyRelations between romantic beliefs and real lifeRelations of romantic love with other models of loveAdmiration in romantic loveAdoration in romantic loveParasocial romantic loveIdolizing romantic loveFanatic romantic loveRomantic self-loveNarcissistic romantic love
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The purpose of the present study was to examine whether narcissistic personality features had indirect associations with state self-esteem through perceived status and inclusion. We used a daily diary approach to examine whether daily perceptions of status and inclusion mediated the associations that narcissistic admiration (an agentic form of narcissism that is characterized by assertive self-enhancement and self-promotion) and narcissistic rivalry (an antagonistic form of narcissism that is characterized by self-protection and self-defense) had with daily reports of state self-esteem in 808 undergraduate students. Narcissistic admiration had positive indirect associations with state self-esteem through perceived status and inclusion, whereas narcissistic rivalry had negative indirect associations with state self-esteem through perceived status and inclusion. These results suggest that perceptions of status and inclusion may contribute to the feelings of self-worth that are experienced by individuals with narcissistic personality features. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for our understanding of the connections between narcissism and self-esteem.
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When and why do narcissists take charge in the workplace? Integrating the narcissism literature and self‐identity theory, we argue that coworker narcissism is a key contingency that triggers narcissistic employees' comparative identity, which subsequently facilitates their taking charge behaviours. The results of two studies (Study 1: a two‐wave survey study of 351 frontline employees and 67 team leaders; Study 2: a scenario‐based experimental study of 190 workers) provide evidence that coworker narcissism moderates the relationship between employee narcissism and employee comparative identity, such that the relationship is strengthened when coworker narcissism is high rather than low. Employee comparative identity is positively related to employee taking charge behaviour. Furthermore, coworker narcissism moderates the indirect effect of employee narcissism on employee taking charge behaviour through employee comparative identity, such that the indirect effect is strengthened when coworker narcissism is high rather than low. These results contribute to the growing literature on the interpersonal dynamics of narcissists in the workplace and the impacts of narcissism on proactive behaviours.
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Zhang and Savalei proposed an alternative scale format to the Likert format, called the Expanded format. In this format, response options are presented in complete sentences, which can reduce acquiescence bias and method effects. The goal of the current study was to compare the psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in the Expanded format and in two other alternative formats, relative to several versions of the traditional Likert format. We conducted two studies to compare the psychometric properties of the RSES across the different formats. We found that compared with the Likert format, the alternative formats tend to have a unidimensional factor structure, less response inconsistency, and comparable validity. In addition, we found that the Expanded format resulted in the best factor structure among the three alternative formats. Researchers should consider the Expanded format, especially when creating short psychological scales such as the RSES.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan bahwa dalam cerita rakyat Indonesia khususnya dalam cerita Si Kelingking, Bujang Katak dan I Tui Tuing terdapat konsep self-love sebagai pendidikan karakter. Self-love merupakan konsep mencintai diri sendiri dan menghargai pendapat orang lain. Individu yang mampu self-love sebelumnya telah melalui self-acceptance dan self-esteem. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif dengan pengaplikasian melalui pengumpulan data dan analisi data. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam cerita rakyat Indonesia tersebut tokoh memiliki self-love karena telah menerima dirinya dan memiliki harga diri yang tinggi yang tidak mengakibatkan dirinya menjadi narsisistik. Pencapaian tokoh memiliki self-love didukung pula oleh masyarakat dan keluarga.Kata kunci: self-love, self-acceptance, self-esteem, cerita rakyat.
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The present research builds on the meager but growing research on within-group differences in men's perception of women's sexual interest. Novel predictions rooted in Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1982) and the Rejection Sensitivity (RS) Model (Downey & Feldman, 1996) were tested in two cross-sectional studies. Heterosexual men (Study 1: N = 497, Study 2: N = 305) rated a series of behaviors on how much sexual interest they communicate had women engaged in them. In Study 2, they also reported how much sexual interest they perceived from women in a series of photographs. As hypothesized, men high in attachment anxiety perceived more sexual interest relative to their less anxious counterparts. Results were mixed for attachment avoidance, RS, and self-esteem. In Study 1, men high in avoidance and RS perceived less sexual interest, and self-esteem was positively associated with sexual interest perception. However, in Study 2, these hypotheses were unsupported. This research goes beyond gender differences and represents a step towards integrating related bodies of psychological literature for a better understanding of sexual interest perception. Results, implications, and future directions are discussed.
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Advice from those who have experience with a decision problem is often believed to be beneficial for decision making. However, if predecessors do not properly update their evaluation of options available for them to choose from based on their experience, they may fail to pass the information obtained from their experience to their successors. This could lead to a worse outcome than in the absence of advice, since the entire group of decision-makers may herd on an inferior choice due to bad advice. Such bad advice could be driven by predecessors’ inability to update properly, or a lack of willingness to exert effort to update. In a laboratory experiment, we study how likely predecessors are to give useful advice and identify the possible reasons for giving bad advice. We find that about half of the predecessors did not give useful advice in the sense that they did not update their beliefs properly. However, individuals making the same decision for themselves multiple times were more likely to update correctly. The difference between the advice givers and the individual decision-makers suggests that unwillingness to exert effort may be the main driving force for bad advice. As a result of bad advice, the presence of advice did not improve successors’ decision quality. We also find that the role of being advice givers may change how they made the decision for themselves. But self-selection of advice givers did not improve their effort level or advice quality. Interestingly, narcissistic personality is negatively related to advice givers’ effort level.
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The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of how employees react to others' help in a day-to-day context, with a focus on the role of narcissism in employees' prosocial motivation and behaviors. We hypothesize that received help generally enhances employees' prosocial motivation at the daily level, in turn increasing their own behaviors to help other coworkers and decreasing their interpersonal deviance. In addition, these effects hold only among employees who are low in narcissism. In other words, employees who are more narcissistic tend not to “pay it forward” when they receive help from their peers at work because received help fails to increase their prosocial motivation. Data from a two-week daily experience sampling study of 129 employees' 1047 daily reports confirmed the hypothesized model. Further, the results demonstrated that the effect was driven by the rivalry, but not the admiration, dimension of narcissism. Implications for the research of received help are presented.
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This study was designed to investigate the effect of the level and stability of self-esteem on self-referent vs. other-referent feedback recall and to determine which of the opposed self-concept motives, self-enhancement or self-verification, will prevail in adolescents with certain type of self- esteem. In a between-subjects experimental design, 450 high school graduates and freshmen were randomly assigned to a self-referent task (n = 230) or other-referent task (n = 220) and their self-esteem was measured by repeated administration of the RSE scale. After personality and cognitive ability test, participants in a self-referent task were presented with a bogus feedback which consisted of statements that described a specific positive or negative behavior that one is likely to do. Participants in the other-referent received the same information, but relating to an unknown person. Memory was tested on a surprise free recall task. Findings confirm preferential processing of self-related information, i.e. self-reference effect, regardless of valence and content-related domain of feedback. Participants in self-referent condition also showed better recall of positive than negative personally relevant feedback, regardless of their self-esteem stability or self-esteem level. However, interaction of self-esteem level and self-esteem stability was significant, but its effect was relatively small.
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Based on in-depth interviews with 29 active drug robbers (25 male, 4 female) from St. Louis, MO (USA), we explore restraint among people and in circumstances where there should be none. Focusing on greed restraint at the crime’s payoff point (i.e., not taking everything one could when rewards are seized), we identify the decision-making constructs and conceptual pathways by which this happens and discuss their implications for improved specification of the relationship between criminal propensity, self-regulation, and risk sensitivity. We contend that self-centeredness is the one dimension of criminal propensity that is sufficiently receptive to risk sensitivity to make self-regulation possible, and that individuals with low trait self-control can show state self-control when ambiguity aversion and reference point expectations align to sate anomic greed. This refinement offers novel pathways for future study of dual-influence models of crime, and suggests that offender decision-making is best conceptualized as a process that unfolds during crimes rather than a discrete event that precedes them.
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We conducted three studies to examine perceptions of grandiose narcissism in college professors. Narcissism might appear incompatible with the profession if professors are viewed fundamentally as helpers or as introverted bookworms. Then again, people might expect professors to display big egos congruent with the prestige of their profession and their privileged public platforms. Our research indicates that professors are generally not seen as highly narcissistic according to the criteria of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, though they are viewed as more narcissistic than elementary school teachers. More professor narcissism was expected at colleges that prioritize scholarly productivity over teaching excellence. Male professors were viewed as more narcissistic, but only for narcissism dimensions associated with interpersonal hostility and for judgments of whether professors are "narcissistic." We discuss possible implications for narcissistic professors' ability to exploit the gap between academic ideals and reward system realities.
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Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance is ambiguous and often even found to be negative. For women, narcissism seems especially likely to lead to negative evaluations. Since narcissists have the tendency to be impulsive and change their minds on a whim, they may come across as inconsistent. We propose “inconsistent leader behavior” as a new mechanism in the relationship between leader narcissism and follower performance and argue that leader gender plays an important role in whether narcissistic leaders are perceived as inconsistent. Specifically, we expect leader narcissism to have a negative relationship with follower performance through perceived inconsistent leader behavior, especially for female leaders. Thus, we examine leader gender as a personal factor moderating the relationship between narcissism and perceived inconsistent behavior. Also, as perceived inconsistency is likely less problematic when a good relationship exists, we examine leader–member exchange (LMX) as a contextual condition moderating the relationship between leader behavior and follower performance. We test our moderated mediation model in a multi-source study with 165 unique leader–follower dyads. As expected, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived inconsistent leader behavior, and this relationship was stronger for female leaders. Inconsistent leader behavior was negatively related to follower performance, but only when LMX was low. Our research highlights that perceived behavioral inconsistency can be problematic and—for female leaders—provides an explanation of the negative relation of leader narcissism with follower performance and of the inconsistencies in evaluations of narcissistic leaders’ effectiveness.
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The study of dysfunctional personality traits and psychological mechanisms related to antisocial behavior is increasingly gaining importance. In this paper we focus on the so-called Dark Constellation of the personality, analyzing Machiavellian, narcissistic, sadistic and psychopathic traits, and their relationship with moral disengagement mechanisms and with emotional intelligence. We specifically focused on the psychopathic personality to examine which studied variables can explain this personality pattern. Participants were 63 prisoners (44 men and 19 women) from three different prisons in Catalonia, Spain. Overall, correlational results indicate that dark constellation personalities are positively associated with moral disengagement and inversely associated with emotional intelligence. Dehumanization is one of the mechanisms most closely related with dark personalities. The study variables explaining psychopathic personality are the sadistic personality pattern and conversely the socio-cognitive mechanism of diffusion of responsibility and the ability to perceive emotions. Finally, the variables that appear as discriminating in extreme cases of psychopathic personality are the sadistic personality trait, and the mechanisms of dehumanization and advantageous comparisons.
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Partner-enhancement refers to perceiving the romantic partner more positively than one’s own self. Partner-enhancement often varies as a function of relationship duration: It is stronger in the earlier than later stage of a relationship. We asked whether narcissism moderates the association between relationship duration and partner-enhancement. We conducted three studies, with two testing participants individually (N1 = 70; N2 = 412) and the third testing couples (N3 = 84). Overall, narcissism negatively predicted partner-enhancement. However, low narcissists enhanced their partners at earlier but not later relationship stages, whereas high narcissists showed little partner-enhancement across relationship stages. High narcissists do not enhance their partner, albeit they self-enhance, a pattern that may have consequences for the quality of their relationships.
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This research investigates the effect of narcissism on consumers’ affective reaction to advertising. Narcissists are burdened with the duality of the overinflated self-view and the vulnerability of the unrealistic ego. They tend to be paranoid of the mere introspection of self-image, because such introspection can expose the vulnerability they have been diligent to avoid. Therefore, ads that are closely relevant to the viewer’s self-image can lead to a negative affective response. Several experiments show support for this hypothesis and illustrate implications for advertising practice. Taking into consideration reports that narcissism is on the rise within the population, promotional ads that expect to encounter narcissistic consumers should consider the appeal relevant to self-image with caution, while preventive ads, such as those based on fear appeal, can benefit from enhanced relevance to this audience.
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We examined affection-giving, affection-denying, respect-giving, and respect-denying behaviors among men and women in heterosexual relationships. In a pilot study ( N = 106 couples), although we had expected the latent variables of affectionate and respectful behaviors to emerge from exploratory factor analyses, we obtained the latent variables of socioemotional rewards and costs instead. In the main study (initial N = 182 couples), we replicated the factor patterns of socioemotional rewards and costs in confirmatory factor analyses. Moreover, we entered (final N = 177 couples) men’s and women’s self-reported narcissism alongside men’s and women’s socioemotional rewards and costs, as reported by partners, into a dyadic model that we tested via covariance structure analyses. Results revealed that, although men and women reciprocated rewards as well as costs (and correlations between individuals’ rewards and costs were negative), narcissism was not reflected in the patterns of reciprocity (men’s and women’s narcissism were positively related.) We discuss implications for studies of relationship processes as two-person group dynamics.
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Research on the social consequences of narcissism points to an intriguing paradox: narcissists are socially aversive and destructive to healthy interpersonal relationships; yet, narcissists also have an ability to be socially magnetic and attractive. This raises the question we seek to answer in this paper: Are narcissists socially accepted by coworkers in the workplace, and if so, when? Drawing on the social‐constructionist perspective and power‐dependence theory, we propose that others’ dependency on narcissists plays a critical role in determining narcissists’ social acceptance in the workplace. Results from two time‐lagged independent studies suggest that narcissists with a high level of expertise status experience less ostracism than non‐narcissists, particularly in a group with high group goal interdependence; by contrast, narcissists who are perceived to lack expertise status experience greater ostracism than non‐narcissists, particularly in a group with low group goal interdependence. In Study 2, in addition to ostracism, we also examined social inclusion and popularity of narcissists, and we found that narcissists with high expertise status are more likely to be social included and to become popular, particularly in a group with a high level of group goal interdependence.
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Psikoloji alan yazınında yaklaşık 20 yıl önce ortaya atılan karanlık üçlü kavramı sosyal bilimlerdeki hemen hemen her disiplinden tüm dünyadaki araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmiş ve kavramla ilgili kapsamlı araştırmalar yürütülmüştür. Takip eden süreçte kavrama dördüncü bir değişkeninin (sadizm) eklenmesi önerilmiş ve kavramın yaratıcıları bu öneriyi dikkate alarak karanlık dörtlü kavramıyla birlikte Karanlık Dörtlü Ölçeği'ni (The Short Dark Tetrad-SD4) geliştirmişlerdir. Bu çalışmada da bu ölçeğin Türkçeye kültürel uyarlaması ve çevirisi gerçekleştirilmiş ve karanlık dörtlünün pazarlama ve tüketici araştırmalarındaki yeri tartışılmıştır. Gerekli çeviri, çeviri kontrol, geri çeviri ve pilot uygulama süreçleri gerçekleştirildikten sonra, iki ayrı örneklem üzerinde keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda sadizmin (davranışsal sadizm ve sadistik tutum) ve makyavelizmin (maske ve strateji) iki alt faktöre bölündüğü tespit edilmiştir. Psikopati ve narsisizm ise orijinal ölçekle tutarlı bir şekilde tek faktör olarak ortaya çıkmıştır.
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The book lays stress on a most essential component of Social Work Education, i.e Field Practicum without which the profession would produce theoreticians unable to walk the talk with competence and confidence in the lived challenge of social reality. The exposure to field experience is what makes the social work profession alive and meaningful to the trainee, and to the larger social context which influences and is influenced by the striving to sustain the quality of human life. Such an important area of learning cannot be left merely to a planned syllabus on paper or to goodwill gestures of allowing students to experiment in an NGO or a public sector unit. It is a question of learning with due respect for the goals and ethical norms of Field Practicum in Social Work. This books provides an overview for novice students and social work educators in India to prepare themselves for the field practicum
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Apstrakt: Iako je napredak tehnologije omogućio ljudima da gotovo trenutno dođu do informacija koje bi im popunile rupe u znanju i unapredilo veštine, ili i udaljilo od neistine ili nepotpune istine, malo je onih koji takvu informaciju zaista i potraže. Prema Daning-Krugerovom efektu, takvi ljudi nisu svesni deficita svoga znanja, a pri tome svoje sposobnosti precenjuju. Ovakve ličnosti, koje karakteriše preterano samopouzdanje, su sastavni deo svakog društva. Istraživanja su pokazala da je njih teško razuveriti u njihovim neargumentovanim ubeđenjima, čak i kada su suočeni sa neospornim činjenicama, iz proste potrebe da odbrane svoje samopouzdanje, ali i zbog toga što uopšte nisu svesni svog neznanja. Takođe, svojim preteranim samopouzdanjem, imaju moć da vrše snažan društveni uticaj, jer kako je nauka pokazala, takav uticaj se dešava na podsvesnom nivou i referentna grupa lakše usvaja njihove stavove. U realnim životnim uslovima ili u digitalnom okruženju, pojedinci koji su prepoznati od strane Daninga i Krigera, kao nekompetentni, ali i previše samouvereni, u svojoj potrebi da nametnu ili odbrane svoje stavove, prema mnogim studijama, žustrije vrše jedan vid kontaminacije društva polovičnim ili kompletnim dezinformacijama, a da toga nisu ni svesni, za razliku od onih koji su u određenim oblastima zaista stručni. Ovakve osobe su često predvodnici mnogih društvenih diskusija, od kritike političkih kandidata, ekonomskih analiza, poznavanja virusologije i negativnih efekata obavezne vakcinacije pa sve do analize performansi i benefita luksuznih brendova. Osnovni cilj ovog rada je da analizira prikupljene informacije iz dostupne naučne literature, pre svega iz oblasti marketinške komunikacije, psihologije, i sociologije i da skrene stručnjacima pažnju, koji se bave analizom ponašanja potrošača, na uticaj Daning-Krugerovog efekta na formiranje ili degradiranje stavova potrošača prema luksuznim brendovima. Znanja o ovom fenomenu mogu pomoći da se preciznije kreira brend komunikacija i adekvatnije odgovori zahtevima tržišta, ali i da se lociraju izvori dezinformacija i na njih blagovremeno reaguje. Negativna elektronska komunikacija od usta do usta u digitalnom okruženju je naročito veliki problem, koji utiče nepovoljno na imidž luksuznih brendova, pre svega što su digitalni mediji omogućili nestručnim individuama da bez ikakve cenzure šire neistine i time određenoj meri vrše reprogramiranje javog mnjenja, ili bar nekih njegovih delova. Ključne reči: Daning-Krugerov efekat, ponašanje potrošača, digitalno okruženje, luksuzni brendovi, negativna elektronska komunikacija od usta do usta.
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Reactions to trait self-enhancers were investigated in 2 longitudinal studies of person.perception in discussion groups. Groups of 4-6 participants met 7 times for 20 rain. After Meetings 1 and 7, group members rated their perceptions of one another. In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions: They were seen as agreeable, well adjusted, and competent. After 7 weeks, however, they were rated negatively and gave self-evaluations discrepant with peer evaluations they received. In Study 2, an independent sample of observers (close acquaintances) enabled a pretest index of discrepancy self-enhancement: It predicted the same deteriorating pattern of interpersonal perceptions as the other three trait measures. Nonetheless, all self-enhancement measures correlated positively with self-esteem.
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Most contemporary theories of the self-concept emphasize the self- defeating nature of low self-regard. Along these lines, most researchers would probably agree that one of the most serious drawbacks of low self-esteem is its close connection to clinical disorders such as depression. Consider the story of Ron, a typical student suffering from low self-esteem. After receiving a low score on an exam, Ron became mildly depressed. As suggested by research on the specific beliefs of people low in self-esteem (e.g., see Pelham & Swann, 1989), Ron had always harbored doubts about his abilities. Under the influence of his negative mood, these doubts were transformed into highly negative beliefs, and these negative beliefs eventually increased Ron’s emotional distress, which contributed still further to his negative beliefs (see Beck, 1967, 1976, for a relevant discussion). Consistent with work on depression and attributional style, Ron then began to make self-blaming attributions for his growing list of failures, and these self-blaming attributions further intensified his misery (e.g., see Metalsky, Seligman, Semmel, & Peterson, 1982).
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Past research suggests that people believe that they perform socially desirable behaviors more frequently and socially undesirable behaviors less frequently than others (Goethals, 1986; Messick, Bloom, Boldizar, & Samuelson, 1985). The present research examined whether this perception also characterizes people's thinking about intelligent and unintelligent behaviors. In Study 1, subjects wrote lists of behaviors that they or others did. Subjects indicated that they performed more good and intelligent behaviors and fewer bad and unintelligent behaviors than others, although the magnitude of these differences was greater for good and bad acts than for intelligent and unintelligent ones. In Study 2, a different group of subjects judged the frequency with which the behaviors generated in the first study occur. While self-ascribed good behaviors were rated as occurring more frequently than the good acts of others, self-ascribed intelligent behaviors were not judged as more frequent than the intelligent acts of...
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164 undergraduates rated the degree to which various traits represented desirable characteristics and the degree to which it was possible for a person to exert control over each of these characteristics. From these initial ratings, 154 trait adjectives for which 4 levels of desirability were crossed with 2 levels of controllability were selected. 88 undergraduates then rated the degree to which each of these traits characterized the self and the average college student. Results support the prediction that self-ratings in relation to average college student ratings would be increasingly positive as traits increased in desirability and that in conditions of high desirability, self-ratings in relation to average college student ratings would be greater for high- than for low-controllable traits, whereas in conditions of low desirability the opposite would occur. Results are discussed in terms of the adaptive advantages of maintaining a global self-concept that implies that positive characteristics are under personal control and that negative characteristics are caused by factors outside of personal control. Mean preratings of desirability and controllability are appended. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A new measure of hypersensitive narcissism was derived by correlating the items of H. A. Murray's (1938) Narcism Scale with an MMPI-based composite measure of covert narcissism. In three samples of college students (total N 403), 10 items formed a reliable measure: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). The new HSNS and the MMPI-based composite showed similar patterns of correlations with the Big Five Inventory, and both measures correlated near zero with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, which assesses overt narcissism. Results support P. Wink's (1991) distinction between covert and overt narcissistic tendencies in the normal range of individual differences and suggest that it would be beneficial for personality researchers to measure both types of narcissism in future studies. (Hendin, H.M., & Cheek, J.M. (1997). Assessing Hypersensitive Narcissism: A Reexamination of Murray's Narcism Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.)
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Two studies examined narcissism and commitment in ongoing romantic relationships. In Study 1, narcissism was found to be negatively related to commitment. Mediational analyses further revealed that this was primarily a result of narcissists’ perception of alternatives to their current relationship. Study 2 replicated these findings with an additional measure of alternatives. Again, narcissists reported less commitment to their ongoing romantic relationship. This link was mediated by both perception of alternatives and attention to alternative dating partners. The utility of an interdependence approach to understanding the role of personality in romantic relationships is discussed.
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Allison, Messick, and Goethals have recently shown that people see themselves as more likely to perform desirable behaviors and less likely to perform undesirable behaviors than others and that this effect is stronger for fair/unfair (moral/immoral) than intelligent/unintelligent behaviors. The present study examined the generality of this so-called Muhammad Ali effect by using a substantially different methodology focusing on Judgments of interpersonal behaviors. Subjects were asked to write a story about their own typical behavior that had influenced another person and a story about another person's typical behavior that had influenced the subjects themselves. After completion of each story, subjects were asked to judge those behaviors in terms of morality (goodness) and intelligence. Consistent with the Muhammad Ali effect described by Allison and associates, it was found that subjects judged their own behavior as more desirable than the other's behavior, and significantly more so in terms of morality than in terms of intelligence. The discussion describes and evaluates some explanations for the Muhammad Ali effect.
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The literature on personality traits and defense mechanisms suggests individual differences in two self-favoring tendencies, which we label “egoistic bias” and “moralistic bias.” The two biases are self-deceptive in nature and can be traced to two fundamental values, agency and communion, that impel two corresponding motives, nPower and nApproval. The two sequences of values, motives, and biases form two personality constellations, Alpha and Gamma. Associated with Alpha is an egoistic bias, a self-deceptive tendency to exaggerate one's social and intellectual status. This tendency leads to unrealistically positive self-perceptions on such traits as dominance, fearlessness, emotional stability, intellect, and creativity. Self-perceptions of high Alpha scorers have a narcissistic, “superhero” quality. Associated with Gamma is a moralistic bias, a self-deceptive tendency to deny socially deviant impulses and to claim sanctimonious “saint-like” attributes. This tendency is played out in overly positive self-perceptions on such traits as agreeableness, dutifulness, and restraint. The Alpha-Gamma conception provides an integrative framework for a number of central issues in personality psychology.
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The present research investigated motives for choosing interaction partners in people with varying levels of self-esteem. The authors predicted that high self-esteem individuals would choose to interact with someone who provided positive feedback about their personalities, regardless of his or her interest in forming a relationship, whereas those with low self-esteem would choose to interact with someone who expressed interest in forming a relationship, regardless of his or her assessment of their personalities. In four studies, participants were asked to choose between two interaction partners who provided feedback that included different combinations of acceptance and positivity. Results supported the authors’ prediction. Discussion addressed the hierarchical nature of social motivation and the seemingly paradoxical interaction preferences of low self-esteem individuals.
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Research in which people compare themselves with an average peer has consistently shown that people evaluate themselves more favorably than they evaluate others. Seven studies were conducted to demonstrate that the magnitude of this better-than-average effect depends on the level of abstraction in the comparison. These studies showed that people were less biased when they compared themselves with an individuated target than when they compared themselves with a nonindividuated target, namely, the average college student. The better-than-average effect was reduced more when the observer had personal contact with the comparison target than when no personal contact was established. Differences in the magnitude of the better-than-average effect could not be attributed to the contemporaneous nature of the target's presentation, communication from the target, perceptual vividness, implied evaluation, or perceptions of similarity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model of narcissism and romantic attraction predicts that narcissists will be attracted to admiring individuals and highly positive individuals and relatively less attracted to individuals who offer the potential for emotional intimacy. Five studies supported this model. Narcissists, compared with nonnarcissists, preferred more self-oriented (i.e., highly positive) and less other-oriented (i.e., caring) qualities in an ideal romantic partner (Study 1). Narcissists were also relatively more attracted to admiring and highly positive hypothetical targets and less attracted to caring targets (Studies 2 and 3). Indeed, narcissists displayed a preference for highly positive-noncaring targets compared with caring but not highly positive targets (Study 4). Finally, mediational analyses demonstrates that narcissists' romantic attraction is, in part, the result of a strategy for enhancing self-esteem (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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It is proposed that satisfaction is associated with idealistic, rather than realistic, perceptions of one's partner. To provide baselines for assessing relationship illusions, both members of married and dating heterosexual couples were asked to rate themselves and their partners on a variety of interpersonal attributes. Participants also rated the typical and ideal partner on these attributes. Path analyses revealed that individuals' impressions of their partners were more a mirror of their self-images and ideals than a reflection of their partners' self-reported attributes. Overall, intimates saw their partners in a more positive light than their partners saw themselves. Furthermore, these idealized constructions predicted greater satisfaction. Individuals were happier in their relationships when they idealized their partners and their partners idealized them. Taken together, these results suggest that a certain degree of idealization or illusion may be a critical feature of satisfying dating and even marital relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides an introduction to personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. The chapter provides a background on the five-factor model, a description of factors, methods of assessment, and introduces the contents of this edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research in which people compare themselves with an average peer has consistently shown that people evaluate themselves more favorably than they evaluate others. Seven studies were conducted to demonstrate that the magnitude of this better-than-average effect depends on the level of abstraction in the comparison. These studies showed that people were less biased when they compared themselves with an individuated target than when they compared themselves with a nonindividuated target, namely, the average college student. The better-than-average effect was reduced more when the observer had personal contact with the comparison target than when no personal contact was established. Differences in the magnitude of the better-than-average effect could not be attributed to the contemporaneous nature of the target's presentation, communication from the target, perceptual vividness, implied evaluation, or perceptions of similarity.
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A widely used measure of narcissism in normal populations, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), was located within the frameworks of two more comprehensive personality models: the Interpersonal Circumplex and the Five-Factor model. The NPI was found to be highly positively correlated with Dominance and Exhibitionism markers of the Circumplex as well as with one of the orthogonal axes (Agency) but not significantly related to the other (Communion). The seven components of the NPI were all positively related to the Agency axis as well, but their relationships with the Communion axis ranged from negative to positive. Among the Big Five personality factors, the NPI was positively correlated with Extraversion and negatively correlated with Neuroticism and Agreeableness; the seven NPI components showed minor variations on this same general theme. Findings supported the viability of two alternative theoretical perspectives with respect to this construct: within a broad clinical perspective, the construct of narcissism may be used to represent a pathological deficit within the communal dimension whereas, within a more narrow perspective, narcissism may be understood to represent a limited but relatively healthy line of agentic development.
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To test Coyne's (1976b) theory of depression, students' levels of depressive symptoms, reassurance seeking, and self-esteem were assessed at Time 1, and their same-gender roommates' appraisals of them were assessed 5 weeks later. Mildly depressed students engaged in the type of reassurance seeking described by Coyne. Among men, but not women, mildly depressed students were rejected if they strongly sought reassurance and had low self-esteem but not if they did not seek reassurance or had high self-esteem. Although induction of depressed symptoms in roommates did occur, this contagion effect did not account for the depression-rejection relationship. The prediction that unsupportive, intolerant, or unempathic others would be particularly likely to respond with rejection to reassurance-seeking depressed students with low self-esteem received partial support. Implications for future work on the interpersonal aspects of depression are discussed.
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This article presents a series of studies on narcissism, a personality syndrome receiving increasing theoretical and practical attention. Four empirical studies were carried out to (a) identify narcissistic acts in everyday life, (b) identify the acts subsumed by dispositions that are seen as central components of narcissism, (c) identify which acts and which dispositions are most and least central to narcissism, (d) test the hypothesis that the conceptually specified component dispositions of the narcissistic personality disorder indeed covary sufficiently to merit the designation of narcissism as a syndrome, (e) identify sex differences in the acts through which narcissism is manifested, (f) validate the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (a major personality instrument developed to assess narcissism), and (g) locate narcissistic act performance within each of three major taxonomies of personality psychology.
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Behavioral acts constitute the building blocks of interpersonal perception and the basis for inferences about personality traits. How reliably can observers code the acts individuals perform in a specific situation? How valid are retrospective self-reports of these acts? Participants interacted in a group discussion task and then reported their act frequencies, which were later coded by observers from videotapes. For each act, observer-observer agreement, self-observer agreement, and self-enhancement bias were examined. Findings show that (a) agreement varied greatly across acts; (b) much of this variation was predictable from properties of the acts (observability, base rate, desirability, Big Five domain); (c) on average, self-reports were positively distorted; and (d) this was particularly true for narcissistic individuals. Discussion focuses on implications for research on acts, traits, social perception, and the act frequency approach.
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Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
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This research provides evidence for the generality of the Muhammad Ali effect (Allison, Messick, & Goethals, 1989), demonstrating that Dutch participants believe that the trait honesty is more descriptive of the self than of others, whereas the trait intelligence is believed to be equally descriptive of the self and others. Congruent with proposed explanations for the Muhammad Ali effect, participants regard honesty as more desirable, more controllable, and less verifiable than intelligence. Mediation analyses indicated that the Muhammad Ali effect is stronger among participants who view honesty as more desirable than intelligence. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Idiographic self-evaluation was conceptualized as the association between a rater's perceptions of trait descriptiveness and that rater's perceptions of trait desirability. In Study 1, self-evaluation was assessed using the 44 items of the Big Five Inventory (John & Donahue, 1994). A subset of 23 items, like the full inventory, showed that most raters' self-evaluations were positive and stable. Study 2 showed that self-evaluation predicted self-esteem and (inversely) depression but not impression management or self-deception. Narcissism was negatively related to self-evaluation when self-esteem was controlled. An idiographic index of evaluative bias (self-enhancement or self-diminishment) was derived from the self-evaluation index by partialing out the group averages of descriptiveness and desirability ratings. In Study 3, this index of bias was compared with two difference-score indices: (1) the degree to which people rated themselves more or less favorably than they rated others and (2) the degree to which they rated themselves more or less favorably than they were rated by others. The idiographic index was independent of the two difference-score measures and showed greater self-enhancement.
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This chapter tries to accomplish three objectives. Firstly, it defines the four motives and provides a selective review of research that indicates their prevalence. Secondly, it addresses the issue of the operation of four motives together to regulate self-evaluation. This chapter presents a conceptual framework for understanding the interplay of the four motives. This framework serves as a useful heuristic for consideration of potential moderators that govern the expression of the four motives. Finally, this chapter discusses several problems related to the self-evaluation motives that one believes are in need of empirical attention. This chapter serves to justify the claim that four basic self-evaluation motives have been demonstrated convincingly. Finally, the speculations of this chapter are meant to remind researchers that empirical work to date has taken certain aspects of the self-evaluation process for granted or has neglected other important issues.
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Discusses the interpersonal motivations associated with different levels of self-esteem (SE). Although SE refers to an intrapsychic attitude, SE scales often measure self-presentational orientation. High SE scores are associated with a tendency to present one's self in a self-enhancing fashion characterized by willingness to accept risks, focus on outstandingly good qualities, strategic ploys, and calling attention to one's self. Low SE scores are associated with a tendency to present one's self in a self-protective fashion characterized by unwillingness to accept risks, focus on avoiding outstandingly bad qualities, avoidance of strategic ploys, and reluctance to draw attention to one's self. Evidence shows that most people rate themselves as above average on SE scales. Measures emphasizing social SE may be more sensitive to interpersonal and self-presentational issues than nonsocial SE measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article examined the impact of relationship closeness on the self-serving bias (SSB). Members of relationally distant dyads working on interdependent-outcomes tasks manifested the SSB: They took credit for dyadic success but blamed the partner for dyadic failure. However, members of relationally close dyads did not manifest the SSB: They did not take more credit than their partner for dyadic success and did not blame the partner more than the self for dyadic failure. This gracious attributional pattern of relationally close dyed members is due, at least in part, to formation of a favorable impression of the partner. Relationship closeness acts as a bound to an individual's self-enhancing tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the relationships among hostility, grandiosity, dominance, narcissism, and self-esteem in samples of 84, 57, and 300 Ss. The intercorrelations among various self-report and observer ratings of these constructs suggest that (1) hostility, grandiosity, dominance, and narcissism are substantially intercorrelated and form a coherent system of constructs and (2) the common variance in this system of constructs significantly predicts variations in Ss' self-esteem. The notion that some people use grandiosity, dominance, and a more generalized narcissistic personality style to manage their hostility and maintain a sense of positive regard was evaluated using hierarchical analyses. The results of these analyses were consistent with this model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
describes . . . a descriptive model, the "Big Five" dimensions of personality description, derived from analyses of the natural-language terms people use to describe themselves and others describes the history of the lexical approach and the discovery of the five dimensions / presents more recent research replicating and extending this model, both in English and in several other languages present a consensual definition of the five dimensions, which I [the author] then use . . . to discuss numerous other dimensions of personality, temperament, mood, and interpersonal behavior proposed by researchers outside the lexical tradition address some criticisms of the Big Five structure, and discuss problems and issues that still await resolution (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Differences between morning and evening types (i.e., diurnal types) on the "Big Five" personality factors and on the personal characteristics of self-esteem, body-esteem, and locus of control were examined. 360 college students participated. Consistent with previous research (e.g., M. J. Blake and D. W. J. Corcoran, 1972), evening types were marginally more extroverted than morning types. More pronounced were differences between diurnal types on the conscientiousness factor of the Big Five, and in self-esteem and locus of control: Morning types were more conscientious, higher in self-esteem, and more internal in locus of control than evening types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It was hypothesized that a positive relationship would be found between narcissism and sensation seeking. 35 female and 29 male undergraduates were given both the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Form IV of the Sensation Seeking Scale. For both sexes, scores on the NPI correlated significantly with scores on the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale. Boredom Susceptibility was correlated with Narcissism for males, while scores on the General and Experience Seeking subscales correlated significantly with Narcissism for females. If disinhibition were a social form of sensation-seeking, the correlations with Narcissism for both sexes would be accounted for. Results support the construct validity of the NPI and provide evidence for regarding Narcissism as a dimension of personality. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work by the authors and colleagues (1984) extended J. A. Lee's (1973/1976) theory of 6 basic love styles: eros (passionate love); ludus (game-playing love); storge (friendship love); pragma (logical, "shopping list" love); mania (possessive, dependent love); and agape (all-giving, selfless love). In Study 1, 807 undergraduates completed a 42-item rating questionnaire, with 7 items measuring each of the love styles. Six love style scales emerged clearly from factor analysis. Internal reliability was shown for each scale, and the scales had low intercorrelations with each other. Significant relationships were found between love attitudes and several background variables, including gender, ethnicity, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem. Study 2, with 567 Ss, replicated the factor structure, factor loadings, and reliability analyses of the 1st study. The significant relationships between love attitudes and gender, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem were also consistent with the results of Study 1. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self is shaped by the dynamic interaction of cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes and interpersonal self-regulatory strategies that are played out in the social arena. A grandiose yet vulnerable self-concept appears to underlie the chronic goal of obtaining continuous external self-affirmation. Because narcissists are insensitive to others' concerns and social constraints and view others as inferior, their self-regulatory efforts often are counterproductive and ultimately prevent the positive feedback that they seek-thus undermining the self they are trying to create and maintain. We draw connections between this model and other processing models in personality and employ these models to further elucidate the construct of narcissism. Reconceptualizing narcissism as a self-regulatory processing system promises to resolve many of its apparent paradoxes, because by understanding how narcissistic cognition, affect, and motivation interrelate, their internal subjective logic and coherence come into focus.
Article
In two studies, participants preselected on their extreme scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory were assessed for self complexity and evaluative integration. Then, for 5 (Study 1) or 6 (Study 2) consecutive days, they recorded their moods, self-esteem, and daily experiences. Narcissists displayed greater positive mood variability, mood intensity, and self-esteem instability than did less narcissistic individuals. Narcissism, self-complexity, and evaluative integration were unrelated; however, narcissists who were low in evaluative integration experienced the greatest self-esteem instability. Narcissism also interacted with daily events such that relative to less narcissistic individuals, negative interpersonal events increased self-esteem instability, and positive interpersonal events decreased self-esteem instability. The findings are discussed within reference to a social-cognitive-interpersonal model of narcissistic behavior.
Chapter
Why Popular Culture has it that Self-love Is a Prerequisite for Loving OthersDoes Loving the Self Promote Loving Others?Does Loving the Self Prompt Others to Love the Self?Does Loving Others Promote Self-love?Does Being Loved Lead to Self-love?Summary and Conclusion
Article
Three studies investigated the relationship between narcissism (as measured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and three forms of self-enhancement. In Study 1, narcissism positively correlated with predictions of own final course grades, but not with actual grades received. In Study 2, narcissism positively correlated with estimated current course grades; high narcissists tended to overestimate their grades, while low narcissists tended to underestimate them. In Study 3, narcissism was associated with optimistic expectations for own performance on a laboratory interdependence task and with attributions of a successful task outcome to own ability and effort, but it did not correlate with attributions to a partner’s ability or effort, suggesting self-aggrandizement but not other-derogation. Narcissism was also associated with weaker gratitude and liking. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the origins and generality of self-enhancement and for the relationship between narcissism and self-functioning in the social domain.
Article
ABSTRACT In this study we compared the ability of narcissism and self-esteem to predict positive illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and physical attractiveness in a sample of 146 college students. Narcissism predicted both types of illusion for males and females; self-esteem predicted intelligence self-illusion for males. Both males and females overestimated their own intelligence, with males, but not females, also overestimating their attractiveness. Positive illusions for intelligence and attractiveness were correlated. Males showed greater positive illusions than females, with this effect at least partly attributable to observed gender differences in narcissism.
Article
We investigated the role of narcissism in reactions to interpersonal feedback. Participants first completed the Narcissism Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988). They then participated in a laboratory session in which they received either positive or negative feedback. A variety of reactions to the feedback were then assessed. The results indicated that following positive feedback, narcissism was related to perceiving the evaluation technique as more diagnostic and the evaluator as more competent. Conversely, following negative feedback, narcissism was associated with perceiving the evaluation technique as less diagnostic and the evaluator as less competent and likeable. However, narcissism did not moderate the impact of feedback on emotional reactions. Additional analyses revealed some, but not complete, overlap with effects found for level of self-esteem. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
The relation between the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Raskin & Hall, 1979) and conceptually relevant self and interpersonal variables was examined in three investigations. Based on clinical theory and description, it was proposed that the NPI would be correlated with self-images which were positive but low in complexity and vulnerable to threat. In addition, it was hypothesized that the NPI would be associated with antagonism and hostility, characteristics that should contribute to narcissists′ frequently observed interpersonal difficulties. As expected, the NPI was associated with extremely positive self-images as well as low self-complexity (Study 1). High NPI scores were also associated with a self-aggrandizing attributional style (Study 1) and higher scores on hostility and antagonism (Study 2). High NPI scorers appeared to benefit the most from the perception of available social support during periods of high stress. The findings are discussed with regard to the construct validity of the NPI and adaptive versus maladaptive aspects of narcissistic behavior.
Article
Two experiments examined narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Participants either completed an interdependent (Experiment 1) or an independent (Experiment 2) achievement task and then received bogus success or failure feedback. Across experiments, narcissistic individuals self-enhanced. Nonnarcissists, however, showed more flexibility in self-enhancement. They did not self-enhance when doing so meant comparing themselves favorably to a partner (a comparative strategy). Otherwise, they did self-enhance, particularly when estimating the importance of the task (a noncomparative strategy). These findings are discussed from a narcissistic self-enhancement perspective and a strategic flexibility perspective.
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A previous failure to observe sex differences in the Narcissistic Traits Scale (NTS) was reexamined by assessing both the validity of the NTS and the degree to which it measured maladaptive as opposed to adaptive narcissism. Correlations with age, depression, anxiety, other measures of narcissism and self-immaturity, and emotional and cognitive empathy all supported the validity of the NTS as an index of mostly unhealthy self-functioning. Males in fact proved to be higher in the specifically more maladjusted aspects of narcissism. Most generally, this investigation once again documented the complexity of self-reported narcissism.
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The 3 major self-evaluation motives were compared: self-assessment (people pursue accurate self-knowledge), self-enhancement (people pursue favorable self-knowledge), and self-verification (people pursue highly certain self-knowledge). Ss considered the possession of personality traits that were either positive or negative and either central or peripheral by asking themselves questions that varied in diagnosticity (the extent to which the questions could discriminate between a trait and its alternative) and in confirmation value (the extent to which the questions confirmed possession of a trait). Ss selected higher diagnosticity questions when evaluating themselves on central positive rather than central negative traits and confirmed possession of their central positive rather than central negative traits. The self-enhancement motive emerged as the most powerful determinant of the self-evaluation process, followed by the self-verification motive.
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There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Book
Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
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Narcissists are thought to display extreme affective reactions to positive and negative information about the se