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Personal and environmental factors interacting with disability: Application of the ICF-Checklist on a group of Guatemala street urchins

Authors:
  • University of Perugia. Italy

Abstract

There is an estimate of 5000 (0,4‰) street urchins in Guatemala which for a population of 12,600,000 people (Data from the U.S. Census Bureau estimated for 2000). This large number is a consequence of many social and political factors such as increase in poverty due to the concentration of population in the city after the civil war of the 80s. This survey intends to study the health conditions and the social integration of the street urchins in Guatemala. The ICF-Checklist was adopted to classify both health and health related conditions, focusing on how body functioning and socio/cultural aspects interact. Along with an unstructured interview, in a face-to-face modality, the ICF-Checklist, as a tool to elicit and record information on the functioning and disability from a biopsychosocial perspective, was administered. The contents of the interview were developed by list-codes of the ICF-Checklist selected in order to checking the specific conditions of the street urchins. The codes were selected within the components of Activity and Participation and Environmental factors. 18 subjects (10 male, 8 female) between 16 to 28 years old were interviewed. They were grouped for similar habit and places frequented. The results confirm that the ICF-Checklist is a tool capable classifying multifactorial dimensions of disability in operational, universal, and sharable codes, although applicable and usable only by experts of the instrument and professionals of the field surveyed. A common profile of the street urchins is characterized by a complete lack of trust in governmental institutions and, especially, in police officers. The immediate family doesn't give any kind of social support and very often is seen as the reason to leave their home. Rather friends are experienced as a new family. Their low level of education prevents them to find a stable and profitable job.
Personal and environmental factors interacting with disability:
Application of the ICF-Checklist on a group of Guatemala street urchins
Stefano Federici
1
, - Silvia Caggiano
2
– Marta Olivetti Belardinelli
1,2
1
ECONA, University of Rome “La Sapienza”
2
Department of Psychology, University of Rome ”La Sapienza”
Abstract
There is an estimate of 5000 (0,4‰) street urchins in Guatemala which for a
population of 12,600,000 people (Data from the U.S. Census Bureau estimated
for 2000). This large number is a consequence of many social and political
factors such as increase in poverty due to the concentration of population in the
city after the civil war of the 80s.
This survey intends to study the health conditions and the social integration of
the street urchins in Guatemala. The ICF-Checklist was adopted to classify both
health and health related conditions, focusing on how body functioning and
socio/cultural aspects interact.
Along with an unstructured interview, in a face-to-face modality, the ICF-
Checklist, as a tool to elicit and record information on the functioning and
disability from a biopsychosocial perspective, was administered. The contents
of the interview were developed by list-codes of the ICF-Checklist selected in
order to checking the specific conditions of the street urchins. The codes were
selected within the components of Activity and Participation and
Environmental factors.
18 subjects (10 male, 8 female) between 16 to 28 years old were interviewed.
They were grouped for similar habit and places frequented.
The results confirm that the ICF-Checklist is a tool capable classifying
multifactorial dimensions of disability in operational, universal, and sharable
codes, although applicable and usable only by experts of the instrument and
professionals of the field surveyed.
A common profile of the street urchins is characterized by a complete lack of
trust in governmental institutions and, especially, in police officers. The
immediate family doesn't give any kind of social support and very often is seen
as the reason to leave their home. Rather friends are experienced as a new
family. Their low level of education prevents them to find a stable and
profitable job.
Bibliography
Lutte, G. (2001). Principesse e sognatori nelle strade in Guatemala. Roma:
Kappa.
Ufficio dei Diritti Umani dell'Arcidiocesi del Guatemala. (1998). Guatemala
nunca mas. Roma: La Piccola.
Üstün, T. B., Chatterji, S., Bickenbach, J. E., Trotter II, R. T., Room, R., Rehm, J.,
& Saxena, S. (2001). Disability and Culture: universalism and diversity. Göttingen:
Hogrefe & Huber.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning,
disability and health: ICF . Geneva: World Health Organization.
Article
To present a systematic literature review on the state of the art of the utilisation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) since its release in 2001. The search was conducted through EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsychInfo covering the period between 2001 and December 2009. Papers were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers focussing on the ICF-CY and clinical research on children and youth only were excluded. Papers were assigned to six different groups covering the wide scenario of ICF application. A total of 672 papers, coming from 34 countries and 211 different journals, were included in the analysis. The majority of publications (30.8%) were conceptual papers or papers reporting clinical and rehabilitation studies (25.9%). One-third of the papers were published in 2008 and 2009. The ICF contributed to the development of research on functioning and on disability in clinical, rehabilitation as well as in several other contexts, such as disability eligibility and employment. Diffusion of ICF research and use in a great variety of fields and scientific journals is a proof that a cultural change and a new conceptualisation of functioning and disability is happening.
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