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Abstract

Through the Web communication development, new users’ needs are rising related to the amount of information and its findability, and also in relation to the increasing necessity to ensure quality for user-technology interaction. The current model of information ranking by search engines is based on quantitative Web Popularity (WP) and it binds the user to a cognitive adaptation based on an heterodirected rank-system restrictions which transposes the rich-get-richer effect from technologies to reality. Several works in literature show the need to implement the current Web-ranking models through the introduction of algorithms, which are able to evaluate the quality of pages and the information they contain on a qualitative level easing users’ cognitive adaptation to the technology.
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... The (FEDERICI et al., 2008. In WoW, the indexed Web datasets are represented through graphdrawing methods based on sophisticated graphic visualisation algorithms through the use of semantic correlations and clusters. ...
... The way in which search engines represent and transmit information may hinder people with disabilities to access and use web-indexed information (FEDERICI et al., 2008. This is particularly true for people with visual disabilities, individuals who may face high accessibility problems in consulting web information content (JAY et al., 2007) because of the flat top-down spatial ways in which search engines are commonly organised. ...
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Trata-se de uma descrição do perfil de estudantes universitários sobre o uso de internet e sua influência nas interações presenciais.
... The first version of the web search engine, WhatsOnWeb (WoW) (DI GIACOMO et al., 2007;DI GIACOMO et al., 2008), proposed to overcome the limitation of flat top-down spatial representation used by the most common search engines, where the order of results does not take into account the quality of the information conveyed (FEDERICI et al., 2008. In WoW, the indexed Web datasets are represented through graphdrawing methods based on sophisticated graphic visualisation algorithms through the use of semantic correlations and clusters. ...
... The way in which search engines represent and transmit information may hinder people with disabilities to access and use web-indexed information (FEDERICI et al., 2008. This is particularly true for people with visual disabilities, individuals who may face high accessibility problems in consulting web information content (JAY et al., 2007) because of the flat top-down spatial ways in which search engines are commonly organised. ...
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In this work, we present the sonification procedure of a visual Web search engine called WhatsOnWeb (WoW) and its usability evaluation. The WoW search engine is based on graphic visualisation algorithms conveying datasets by semantic correlations and clusters through graph-drawing methods. WoW has been developed combining different visual and auditory features in three sonificated layouts that transmit spatial information through acoustic non-verbal events. WoW usability has been evaluated for both visual and sonificated versions with blind and sighted users. Since results show no differences in usability, we conclude that the sonification methodology makes visual content accessible, usable and, therefore, equally learnable for both blind and sighted people.
... As previous studies show (Federici et al. 2008;), the order in which web indexed information is represented by most common web search engines (e.g. Google or Yahoo) does not take into account the quality of the information they transmit. ...
... The way in which information is represented and transmitted by the most common search engines may hinder people with disabilities to access and use indexed data (Federici et al. 2008;). In particular, people with visual disabilities show problems in accessing all the information content (Jay et al. 2007 ) due to the flat top down visuocentric spatial way in which most of the current web search engines are organised. ...
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In order to represent the information usually conveyed through visual interfaces, information representation research has increasingly centred its attention on the development of non-visual ways to transmit spatial data by means of sonification, namely “the transformation of data relations into perceived relations in an acoustic signal for the purposes of facilitating communication or interpretation” (Kramer et al. 1997, p.3). In the present work we applied the Action by Design Component (ADC) sonification model (Zhao, Shneiderman, and Plaisant 2007) to the sonification of the visual Web search clustering engine WhatsOnWeb (WoW) (Di Giacomo et al. 2007; Di Giacomo et al. 2008). WoW is a search engine based on sophisticated graphic visualisation algorithms which conveys the information dataset by means of both semantic correlations and semantic clusters through graph-drawing methods. By following a user-centred approach, we developed and analysed three combinations between visual and auditory features, in this way, we obtained three sonification layouts, (PanAndPitch, VolumeAndPitch and BlinkAndPitch) transmitting both global and particular spatial information through sound events. A usability evaluation of the visual and the sonificated layouts has finally been carried out, with blind and sighted users. The results show similar levels of efficacy, efficiency and satisfaction for both information and presentation modalities. The usability index emerging from the performance evaluation of the two analysed groups seems to be homogeneous, therefore suggesting that the sonification of visual information makes visual content learnable for blind people in a comparable way to a sighted person learning from a purely visual environment.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the relationship between the accessibility and usability constructs and how they relate to the user experience (UX) theoretical approach. We present an integrated model of interaction evaluation, a new evaluation perspective based on UX that is intended to be used as a framework for evaluating users’ interactions with assistive technology (AT) and to organize and evaluate the AT assessment process. The evaluator’s mental model is used to evaluate the relationship between the designers’ and the users’ mental models from objective and the subjective points of view. The new perspective endorsed by the chapter is that the UX concept can be used not only to set up an evaluation of users’ interactions with AT, but also to organize and evaluate the AT assessment process and to design (or redesign) technologies to overcome the barriers to use that disabled users typically experience. The redesign of a sonificated web search engine is presented as an example of the growing need to use a UX-based approach to AT design.
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