Physical development of girls from Krakow in the aspect of socioeconomical changes in Poland (1938-2010)
Department of Anthropology, University School of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland. American Journal of Human Biology
(Impact Factor: 1.7).
09/2012; 24(5):626-32. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22283
This survey aimed at analyzing secular changes in the development of girls from Krakow, in the first decade of the 21st century, against the background of transformations observed in the previous century.
The data collected during a survey conducted in Krakow in 2010, in which the measurements of a total of 1,974 girls aged 3.5-18.5 years were taken, made a basis for this study. The results from the contemporary series were compared with previous surveys conducted in 1938, 1971, 1983, and 2000. The analysis of the survey made use of the results of body height and weight measurements, BMI, and the menarche, thelarche, and pubarche onsets determining the level of pubertal development. The development of secondary sex characters was assessed utilizing the criteria 5-stage scale established by Tanner. The mean age of the menarche onset and ages at beginning breast (B2) and pubic hair (PH2) development were calculated by means of the probit method.
In the physical development of girls a positive trend in body height changes in prepubescence and adolescence was still observed. The acceleration of body weight development in peripubescence is expressed by increased BMI. It is spectacular that body build gets slimmer at the age of 17 and 18, which is probably connected with conscious control of body weight, and pubertal acceleration is also maintained.
Still observed trends in morphological factors and pubertal acceleration require further monitoring out of concern for the health and proper development of children and adolescents.
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- "Numerous evidences showed that AAM is likely to change with the development of society[5,6], the degree and speed of which are not necessarily the same among different races, countries and regions. In the past 160 years, a systematic decrease in AAM was observed worldwide789. In recent decades, the age at onset of menarche and its variability have decreased[10,11]or stabilized in some European countries[12,13], but the downtrend of AAM is still ongoing in Africa[14,15]and Asia. "
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Early adiposity rebound (AR, below 5 years) is an important predictor of adult obesity. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to explore changes in body weight and height, BMI, body fat, and AR timing in girls from Krakow within the last 3 decades. METHODS: 1,970 girls were measured in 2010. Using the results of body height, weight and skin folds measurements, the BMI and %BF was calculated. The LMS method was used to constructed BMI and %BF centiles. Three fractions were distinguished in individual age groups of the subjects-below the 15th percentile (underweight girls), 50th percentile and above 85th percentile (overweight girls). These data were compared with the results from previous survey series (1983 and 2000). The mean age of the menarche onset were calculated by means of the probit method. RESULTS: The girls from last series are taller and heavier than girls measured in 1983. Before the time of AR, girls from last series have lowest BMI and %BF than girls from the first series. In spite of this, all girls measured in 2010 have the time of AR earlier than girls measured in 1983. The girls from the last series of measurements showed also acceleration of sexual maturation and the average menarche age was the earliest in them and equalled 12.68 years. CONCLUSIONS: AR cannot be explained only by changes in body adiposity. Early AR could be a marker of acceleration of development already in an early postnatal ontogenesis. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that the vacation-study-expectancy scholar regime produces most of the monthly rhythm of the age at menarche (AaM) was tested. Studies on monthly menarche incidence (MI) refuted climatic factors as a main factor in this rhythm, and indicated that the main factor of this rhythm is the succession of expectancies of study (Stu-months) or vacation (Vac-months) months within a year. Thus the hypothesis of seasonal circa-annual rhythm should be modified to the circa-[vacation (fiesta)]-[study (non-fiesta)]-expectancies rhythm for the MI and age at menarche annual rhythms. In several countries Vac-months had higher MI than Stu-months. The high MI of Vac-months was followed by a large decrease when girls started their studies and a MI increase occurred as vacations approached. The hypothesis proposes that at the end of vacations and at the beginning of the study period the AaM should be lowest, and then the mean of AaM should increase because of the menarche delay of girls whose menarche was arrested by the initiation of school work. This pattern was found in four independent samples, from Chile, Colombia, USA and Brazil. The probability that this result be due to random fluctuation of means is extraordinarily low (P<10-8). I conclude that the influence of the expectancy of vacation and study periods on the monthly rhythm of the age at menarche is a real process that accounts for most of this rhythm.
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