Randomized controlled trial of CARE: An intervention to improve outcomes of hospitalized elders and family caregivers
School of Nursing, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box SON, Rochester, NY. Research in Nursing & Health
(Impact Factor: 1.27).
10/2012; 35(5):533-49. DOI: 10.1002/nur.21491
In this randomized controlled trial we tested the efficacy of an intervention program (CARE: Creating Avenues for Relative Empowerment) for improving outcomes of hospitalized older adults and their family caregivers (FCGs). FCG-patient dyads (n = 407) were randomized into two groups. The CARE group received a two-session empowerment-educational program 1-2 days post-admission and 1-3 days pre-discharge. The attention control group received a generic information program during the same timeframe. Follow-up was at 2 weeks and 2 months post-discharge. There were no statistically significant differences in patient or FCG outcomes. However, inconsistent evidence of role outcome differences suggests that CARE may benefit certain FCG subgroups instead of being a one-size-fits-all intervention strategy. Closer examination of CARE's mechanisms and effects is needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 35:533-549, 2012.
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Available from: Kathy H Whittamore
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ABSTRACT: To examine in depth carers' views and experiences of the delivery of patient care for people with dementia or delirium in an acute general hospital, in order to evaluate a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit (MMHU) compared with standard hospital wards. This qualitative study complemented the quantitative findings of a randomised controlled trial.
Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with carers of patients with cognitive impairment admitted to hospital over a 4-month period.
A specialist MMHU was developed in an English National Health Service acute hospital aiming to deliver the best-practice care. Specialist mental health staff were integrated with the ward team. All staff received enhanced training in dementia, delirium and person-centred care. A programme of purposeful therapeutic and leisure activities was introduced. The ward environment was optimised to improve patient orientation and independence. A proactive and inclusive approach to family carers was encouraged.
40 carers who had been recruited to a randomised controlled trial comparing the MMHU with standard wards.
The main themes identified related closely to family carers' met or unmet expectations and included activities and boredom, staff knowledge, dignity and fundamental care, the ward environment and communication between staff and carers. Carers from MMHU were aware of, and appreciated, improvements relating to activities, the ward environment and staff knowledge and skill in the appropriate management of dementia and delirium. However, communication and engagement of family carers were still perceived as insufficient.
Our data demonstrate the extent to which the MMHU succeeded in its goal of providing the best-practice care and improving carer experience, and where deficiencies remained. Neither setting was perceived as neither wholly good nor wholly bad; however, greater satisfaction (and less dissatisfaction) with care was experienced by carers from MMHU compared with standard care wards.
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Reducing early (<30 days) hospital readmissions is a policy priority aimed at improving health care quality. The cumulative complexity model conceptualizes patient context. It predicts that highly supportive discharge interventions will enhance patient capacity to enact burdensome self-care and avoid readmissions. OBJECTIVE To synthesize the evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce early hospital readmissions and identify intervention features-including their impact on treatment burden and on patients' capacity to enact postdischarge self-care-that might explain their varying effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and Scopus (1990 until April 1, 2013), contacted experts, and reviewed bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION Randomized trials that assessed the effect of interventions on all-cause or unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge in adult patients hospitalized for a medical or surgical cause for more than 24 hours and discharged to home. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Reviewer pairs extracted trial characteristics and used an activity-based coding strategy to characterize the interventions; fidelity was confirmed with authors. Blinded to trial outcomes, reviewers noted the extent to which interventions placed additional work on patients after discharge or supported their capacity for self-care in accordance with the cumulative complexity model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Relative risk of all-cause or unplanned readmission with or without out-of-hospital deaths at 30 days postdischarge. RESULTS In 42 trials, the tested interventions prevented early readmissions (pooled random-effects relative risk, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.73-0.91]; P < .001; I2 = 31%), a finding that was consistent across patient subgroups. Trials published before 2002 reported interventions that were 1.6 times more effective than those tested later (interaction P = .01). In exploratory subgroup analyses, interventions with many components (interaction P = .001), involving more individuals in care delivery (interaction P = .05), and supporting patient capacity for self-care (interaction P = .04) were 1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 times more effective than other interventions, respectively. A post hoc regression model showed incremental value in providing comprehensive, postdischarge support to patients and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Tested interventions are effective at reducing readmissions, but more effective interventions are complex and support patient capacity for self-care. Interventions tested more recently are less effective.
Available from: Jacqueline Jones
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Poor self-management of heart failure (HF) is an essential contributor to poor outcomes. Caregivers are involved in the care of HF patients, but caregiver interventions intended to improve the outcomes of patients have been largely unsuccessful. Improved knowledge of caregivers' desired roles in care may improve future interventions.
Methods and results:
This qualitative study of 20 caregivers of HF patients recruited from an academic medical center used a general inductive approach, with insights from role theory, to analyze the data. Caregivers perceived themselves as health care managers and care plan enforcers, advocates for quality of life, and experts in the lived experience of HF at home. However, they encountered role strain (expectations of role exceed ability to perform role) and role conflict (incompatible or contradictory roles) when it seemed that these roles were incompatible with those that they felt the health care system saw them in. This resulted in expressions of anger and distrust towards the health care system.
Clinicians caring for patients with HF can seek to better empower and enable this care. Involving caregivers in disease management research and assessing their roles before intervention may hold promise for enabling and empowering caregivers to improve outcomes of HF patients.
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