Incidence and Etiology of New Liver Lesions in Pediatric Patients Previously Treated for Malignancy

Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 07/2012; 199(1):186-91. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.11.7690
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the time course, cause, and imaging characteristics of all new liver lesions in pediatric patients with a previously treated malignancy.
Our hospital cancer registry was used to identify patients between 1980 and 2005 who met the following criteria: solid tumor, survival > 2 years after diagnosis, no liver lesions at a posttreatment baseline, and cross-sectional imaging follow-up of > 2 years. Final dictated reports of all cross-sectional imaging examinations including the abdomen were reviewed for any mention of new liver lesions. Positive reports were followed by consensus review of the images and clinical data. Patients were divided into three groups: those with suspected or proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), those with suspected or proven metastases, and those with other lesions. An exact Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the differences between the groups.
Of 967 patients who met the initial inclusion criteria, 273 had adequate follow-up to be included in the study. Forty-six patients (16.8%) developed new liver lesions during the study period, and 14 of those 46 were classified into the FNH group (30.4%) and seven were classified into the metastasis group (15.2%). A significant difference was found in the median time to the development of FNH versus metastasis and other lesions (FNH, 92.9 months; metastasis, 43.2 months; other lesions, 18.5 months; p < 0.0001). A significant difference was also seen in the median length of follow-up between the groups (FNH, 115.6 months; metastasis, 57 months; other lesions, 50.8 months; p = 0.002). The imaging features of the groups also differed.
The most common liver lesion encountered in pediatric patients previously treated for malignancy was FNH, which occurred farther from the time of diagnosis and had different imaging characteristics from both metastases and other liver lesions.

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    • "More rarely, weight loss and weakness can be encountered, mostly in very large tumors, and these symptoms can give concern for malignancy. Patients who have a history of malignancy are more likely to have small asymptomatic lesions discovered on routine surveillance (Figure 1) [13] [21]. FNH associated with CPSS can be discovered either during routine surveillance of the vascular malformation or may be fortuitously discovered and then reveal the vascular malformation [22] "
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    ABSTRACT: Benign liver tumors are very rare in children. Most focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) remain sporadic, but predisposing factors exist, as follows: long-term cancer survivor (with an increasing incidence), portal deprivation in congenital or surgical portosystemic shunt. The aspect is atypical on imaging in two-thirds of cases. Biopsy of the tumor and the nontumoral liver is then required. Surgical resection will be discussed in the case of large tumors with or without symptoms. In the case of associated vascular disorder with portal deprivation, restoration of the portal flow will be discussed in the hope of seeing the involution of FNH. HepatoCellular Adenoma (HCA) is frequently associated with predisposing factors such as GSD type I and III, Fanconi anemia especially if androgen therapy is administered, CPSS, and SPSS. Adenomatosis has been reported in germline mutation of HNF1- α . Management will depend on the presence of a predisposing factor and may include metabolic control, androgen therapy withdrawn, or closure of the shunt when appropriate. Surgery is usually performed on large lesions. In the case of adenomatosis or multiple lesions, surgery will be adapted. Close followup is required in all cases.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic MRI findings and clinical features of benign hypervascular hepatic nodules in childhood-cancer survivors. Materials and methods: We reviewed dynamic MRI findings and clinical features in 15 patients who had been treated for childhood malignant solid tumors and in whom hypervascular hepatic nodules were later found on surveillance imaging by either CT or ultrasound (or both). The benign nature of the lesion was based on histologic examination or clinical and radiologic follow-up (or both). Results: Time between initial diagnosis of malignancy and detection of the hepatic nodule ranged from 4.5 to 13.5 years with the majority of the malignancies being neuroblastoma treated by high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 43 nodules were detected, often multiple and small. Most of the lesions were isointense or slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and isointense or slightly hypointense on T1-weighted imaging. All nodules had intense enhancement on the arterial phase and were isointense or slightly hyperintense on the delayed phase. A central scar was seen in four. Additionally, hepatic hemosiderosis was noted in four patients, in whom all the lesions were hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging. Conclusion: Benign hypervascular hepatic nodules in survivors of childhood malignancy occur years after high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Dynamic MRI findings including intense arterial enhancement and absence of washout in the delayed phase are of great value in the differential diagnosis of these hepatic nodules.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the clinical and imaging features of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) developed in children. Materials and methods: At a single institution, pediatric patients who underwent imaging studies and who had pathologically proven FNH were studied. Clinical characteristics, including presenting symptoms and signs and the presence of underlying disease, were reviewed from the medical records. Imaging features of FNHs, including the number, size, ultrasound echogenicity and vascularity, CT attenuation, MRI signal intensity and enhancement pattern, and the presence of a central scar, were evaluated. Results: Twenty-five patients (11 boys and 14 girls; median age, 8.6 years) were found to have a solitary (n = 23) or multiple (n = 2) FNH lesions with a mean size of 4.9 cm (range, 1-10 cm). Multiple lesions were associated with small size of the lesions and history of malignancy treated by chemotherapy. Most patients were asymptomatic (n = 22). Biliary atresia was the most common underlying disease (n = 5). On ultrasound, FNHs most commonly appeared to be isoechoic and hypervascular. On dynamic CT and MRI, strong enhancement on the arterial phase and becoming isoattenuated or of isointense signal intensity on the portal or delayed phase was common. A central scar was usually noted in large lesions in about half the cases. Conclusion: Pediatric FNH is uncommon and usually is found incidentally in otherwise healthy children. However, it may occur in children who have underlying diseases, including biliary atresia. In addition, it can be encountered during surveillance of childhood cancer survivors with less common imaging features, including lack of a central scar and multiplicity.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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