Longitudinal Predictors of Cyber and Traditional Bullying Perpetration in Australian Secondary School Students
Cyberbullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyberbullying. The current article examines the individual, peer, family, and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not use technology) in adolescents. This article draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this article, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in grade 5 are analyzed to examine grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyberbullying perpetration in grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyberbullying, 21% in traditional bullying, and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying, such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyberbullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration (cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This article reports the findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed published evaluation literature which documents the outcomes of Australian youth violence prevention programmes. Method: A total of 19 evaluation studies evaluating 17 different programmes implemented across Australia were identified and categorised in terms of whether they examined programme effects on bullying, alcohol and other drug-related violence, and antisocial/violent behaviour. Results: Evidence to support their effectiveness was mixed. The more successful programmes focus on both addressing known risk factors for violence and enhancing protective factors across individual, family, and community levels. Conclusions: There is a need to continue to evaluate the effects of adolescent violence prevention programmes to ensure that efforts to reduce youth violence in Australia are indeed successful. Key words: adolescent; alcohol and other drugs; antisocial behaviour; bullying; school based; violence prevention.0Comments 0Citations
- "Violent behaviour has multiple causes, which is reflected in the diversity of risk factors that exist across community, family, school, peer group, and individual domains (e.g., Cross et al., 2009; Hemphill et al., 2012; Hemphill et al., 2009; Hemphill, Toumbourou, Herrenkohl, McMorris, & Catalano, 2006; Herrenkohl et al., 2000; Herrenkohl et al., 2007; Saner & Ellickson, 1996; Williams et al., 2009 ). Furthermore, the ecological model highlights how different risk factors emerge and/or become salient at specific developmental periods (Catalano & Hawkins, 1996; Moffitt, 1993). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the progress in information technology, cyber-bullying is becoming one of the most common forms of interpersonal harm, especially among teenagers. The present study (N = 548) aimed to investigate the relation between perceived parenting style (in terms of autonomy support and psychological control) and cyber-bullying in adolescence. Thereby, the study tested for the intervening role of adolescent need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and relatedness), empathic concern towards others, and adolescents’ recognition of full humanness to cyber-bullying offenders and victims. Findings revealed both a direct and an indirect relation between parenting and cyber-bullying. More specifically, parental psychological control directly predicted cyber-bullying, whereas parental autonomy support related to less cyber-bullying indirectly, as it was associated with the satisfaction of adolescents’ need for autonomy, which predicted more empathic concern towards others, which in turn differentially related to recognition of humanness to victims and bullies. The discussion focuses on the implications of the current findings.0Comments 0Citations
- "Further, the behavior is repeatedly displayed, with the intention to harm another individual (Olweus 2013). In addition, research has shown that individuals involved in traditional bullying also often get involved in cyber-harassment (Hemphill et al. 2012). These similarities have led researchers to suggest that cyberbullying and traditional bullying are closely related, pointing out that electronic media is another medium through which individuals who already aggress offline, can now aggress online as well (Werner et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Research has shown that there is a co-occurrence between bullying and cyberbullying in relation to certain variables that describe and explain them. The present study aims to examine the differential influence of individual and contextual variables on perception of the role played in the involvement in both phenomena. Method: Participants were 1278 schoolchildren (47.7 % girls) of primary education, aged 10 to 14 years (M=11.11, SD= 0.75). Results: Logistic regression analysis indicated that social adjustment, normative adjustment, disruptiveness, gender, and self-esteem explain a substantial part of the involvement in both violent phenomena as victims, aggressors, and bully/victims. Conclusions: The results are discussed regarding the weight that must attributed to individual versus contextual factors, concluding that the explicative weight of the immediate social elements and educational context may make the difference.0Comments 1Citation
- "In conclusion, not only do individual factors affect involvement in aggressive behaviour, but it is also infl uenced by environmental conditions ( Hemphill et al., 2012). Contextual factors tend to carry a greater explicative weight in bullying and personal variables in cyberbullying (Atik & Güneri, 2013; Feslt & Quandt, 2013; Hemphill et al., 2012; Law et al., 2012), perhaps due to the fact that we cannot understand the bullying independently from the social context in which it occurs without considering its physical and relational nature, and in cyberbullying it is necessary to begin to pay attention to the personal variables. These results should be taken with caution due to the methodological limitations related to the short age range and the transversal nature of analysis. "