Article

Comparison of full‐fat and low‐fat cheese analogues with or without pectin gel through microstructure, texture, rheology, thermal and sensory analysis

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Abstract

The effects of pectin gel and protein base on processed semi-solid cheese analogues were studied through microstructure, texture, rheology, thermal analysis and sensory evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in the microstructure of processed cheese analogues. Samples made with full-fat contained higher concentrations of fat globules and were denser compared with low-fat cheese analogues with or without pectin gel. The pectin gel in the products acted as a linkage with other ingredients and made the products more compact and had less cavity compared with the products without pectin gel added. On rheological analysis, the full-fat products manifested a more solid-like form. The storage modulus of pectin gel sample was higher than that without pectin gel. All the samples’ rheological parameters were depending on the oscillatory frequency and temperature. In low-fat samples, pectin gel added or not affected the hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness significantly. The pectin gel addition show positive effect to the texture profile of the low-fat cheese analogues. Through thermal analysis, the meltability and glass transition temperature of the processed cheese analogues were measured. The low-fat cheese analogue with pectin gel addition got the higher texture and mouthfeel scores through sensory evaluation.

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... The textural properties of cheese where milk fat was substituted in whole or in part with vegetable oil were investigated by Yu and Hammond [20], Lobato-Calleros et al. [21], Cunha et al. [22], Arslan et al. [23], Abd El-Salam [24], Al-Ismail et al. [25], Felfoul et al. [26], Hjalmarsson [27], Badem and Uçar [28], Yagoub et al. [29] and Abd El-Wahed and Hassanien [30]. The rheological properties of cheese were discussed by Lee et al. [31], Budiman et al. [32], Liu et al. [33], Sadowska et al. [34], Oliveira et al. [35], Sołowiej [36], Cunha et al. [37], Farbod et al. [38], Hanáková et al. [39], Karaman et al. [40], Henno et al. [41], Rafiq and Ghosh [42], and Giri et al. [43]. Changes in the viscoelastic properties of cheese were also evaluated during ripening. ...
... The rheological properties of cheese are determined in compression tests [8,10,13,27,33,38,42,44,46], stress relaxation tests [13,33,40,44,[50][51][52] and creep tests [1,6,7]. Rheological parameters are usually estimated based on the generalized Maxwell model [13,32,34,40,[50][51][52][53] and the Kelvin-Voigt model [54][55][56][57], but the Herschel-Bulkley model [1,[58][59][60], Burgers model [40,61,62] and Peleg's empirical model [40,52,63,64] are also applied. ...
... The rheological properties of cheese are determined in compression tests [8,10,13,27,33,38,42,44,46], stress relaxation tests [13,33,40,44,[50][51][52] and creep tests [1,6,7]. Rheological parameters are usually estimated based on the generalized Maxwell model [13,32,34,40,[50][51][52][53] and the Kelvin-Voigt model [54][55][56][57], but the Herschel-Bulkley model [1,[58][59][60], Burgers model [40,61,62] and Peleg's empirical model [40,52,63,64] are also applied. ...
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In cheese-like products, milk components (in particular fat) are partially or completely replaced with non-dairy substitutes. An attempt was made in this study to determine whether Edam-type cheese can be distinguished from its substitute, where milk fat was replaced with palm oil, based on rheological properties. The rheological properties of Edam cheese and its substitute were analyzed during a 16-week ripening period, based on the results of a stress-relaxation test. The values of the rheological parameters were estimated with the use of the generalized Maxwell model and a non-linear model proposed by the authors, which accounted for the plastic deformation of the analyzed samples. The study revealed that both methods were equally effective in describing the stress relaxation process; therefore, they can be regarded as equivalent. Excluding the initial stage of ripening (which is not important from the consumers’ point of view), the replacement of milk fat with palm oil did not influence the rheological properties of Edam-type cheese and the cheese-like product. In subsequent stages of ripening, no significant differences were found in the rheological properties of both products, which could only be used to evaluate their ripeness.
... The moisture content also varied widely between all products and was negatively correlated with the fat content; that is, as the fat content is reduced the moisture content is increased (Fig. 1). This relationship was also noted by Liu, Xu, and Guo (2008) and Mistry (2001) in their studies of the formulation challenges with low fat cheeses in general, which commonly have higher moisture contents than their full fat counterparts. When investigating the influence of fat in cream cheese, Roundy and Price (1941) found that fat and moisture tended to impart similar characteristics on the physical properties of cream cheese and that moisture could Locust bean gum a Values are in g 100 g À1 ; moisture was calculated by subtracting the combined mass of fat, protein and carbohydrate from 100 g; this value is an approximation and does not take into consideration the mass of sodium, gum and other ingredients used, the sum of which may equate to~2 g 100 g À1 . ...
... Water also contributes to the spreadable nature of a spreadable cream cheese product. This reduction in fat content and its effect on spreadability has been reported in previous studies (Brighenti et al., 2008;Glibowski, Zarzycki, & Krzepkowska, 2008;Liu et al., 2008;Muir et al., 1997;Wendin et al., 2000). Although there is no specific ...
... These results reflect the general trend for simply formulated dairy products, whereas the fat content is reduced the moisture content is increased, leading to a less structured and more spreadable product. Similar observations have previously been reported for acid gels (Lucey, Munro, & Singh, 1988), cheese analogues (Liu et al., 2008), processed cheese spreads (Dunstan et al., 2001;Lee, Anema, & Klostermeyer, 2004;Pereira, Bennet, & Hemar, 2001) and cream cheese (Brighenti et al., 2008;Kealy, 2006). These rheological findings also support both CLSM and cryo SEM images obtained for products 1 and 3e6 and together provide insight into the functionality of the various cream cheese products. ...
Article
Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to compare the microstructure of six Australian commercial cream cheese products. The optimal conditions for cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo SEM) analysis of cream cheese microstructure were also examined. These complementary techniques revealed a typical cream cheese microstructure of homogenised fat globules embedded in a non-continuous protein network. The association between fat and protein within the microstructure was influenced by product composition (fat:protein ratio, moisture content) and ingredients. The addition of emulsifier led to a softer product with distinct microstructure. Cryo SEM also revealed a “honeycomb”-like structure, which was interpreted as a eutectic artefact formed by the addition of gum(s). Product hardness and gel strength generally correlated with high fat, low moisture content and a compact microstructure. Overall, this study shows how product composition affects the microstructure, texture and rheological properties of cream cheese.
... Numerous methods are used for monitoring changes in the cheese matrix and interactions involved; use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for showing the microstructure and evaluation of the product has been successful (Liu et al. 2008). To determine the rheological properties of viscoelastic materials, dynamic testing and transient testing are fundamental methods, which have been used to investigate the structure of cheese (Gunasekaran and Ak 2003). ...
... Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is able to probe the changes in the physical or chemical properties of materials as a function of temperature by detecting the heat changes related to such processes. Thermal analysis by DSC on cheese has been utilised by some researchers (Tunick et al. 1989;Lopez et al. 2006;Liu et al. 2008). ...
Article
The functionality of Zedu gum as a fat mimetic in low-fat brined cheese was studied. The physicochemical, textural, rheological, microstructural and sensory properties of cheese samples modified with 0.1% and 0.25% of Zedu gum were compared to those of control cheeses (low-fat and full-fat cheeses with no fat mimetic) during ripening. To obtain further information about the cheeses' structure and interactions between macromolecules (casein protein and Zedu gum), other parameters were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Incorporation of Zedu gum into low-fat cheese caused an open microstructure and softer texture in comparison with the control low-fat cheese. The thermal properties and FTIR spectra of the cheeses were influenced by both fat mimetic and ripening time. On days 1 and 60 of ripening time, the lower value of enthalpy of the low-fat cheese with 0.25 g of Zedu gum/kg of milk (AS 0.25) in comparison with control low-fat cheese could have been due to the electrostatic nature of the interactions between Zedu gum and casein protein. On both days, the FTIR spectrum of AS 0.25 showed a well separated absorption at 1746 cm⁻¹ possibly due to the formation of ester groups as a result of the interaction of the carbonyl groups in Zedu gum with the hydroxyl groups of some amino acids in casein.
... PC250 low-fat processed cheese and 0.250% AMS, PC375 low-fat processed cheese and 0.375% AMS, PC500 low-fat processed cheese and 0.500% AMS, WI whiteness index, YI yellow index, TPA texture profile analysis [34]. Low-fat processed cheeses require less work to overcome the forces of attraction between the food and the surface in contact (adhesiveness), such as tongue, teeth or palate at the time of ingestion or, in the contact of the food with the packaging, allowing a better use of the product, or even easier flow during industrial transport through pipes and equipment. ...
... Water (moisture content) has a great influence on the rheological properties of low-fat processed cheese. High humidity causes the casein structure to swell, which decreases molecular interactions, which reduces G' [34], so the freer water the samples had, the lower the G'. ...
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Mechanical and textural properties of processed cheeses are affected by low-fat, and hydrocolloids are commonly used as fat mimetics due their ability to make connections with water molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilizing effect of Acacia mearnsii gum in low-fat processed cheeses, through physicochemical, composition, rheological and texture analyses. Processed cheeses were made with a 50% fat reduction and added with 0.125, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.5% (w/v) of A. mearnsii gum (AMS), and also were prepared samples full-fat (standard sample) and low-fat without gum (control sample). The chemical composition, physicochemical, textural and viscoelastic properties of processed cheeses were analyzed. Samples with A. mearnsii gum showed a higher amount of carbohydrates and protein content similar to the standard sample. The low-fat content influenced the rheological and textural properties of the processed cheeses, and they had liquid-like behavior and were softer and more spreadable. Processed low-fat cheese with a higher AMS concentration showed viscoelastic behavior similar to the full-fat sample. With standard sample exception, all other processed cheeses when subjected to temperature variation cycles (thermoreversibility test) showed identical behavior, without changes in viscoelastic behavior, being characterized as thermostable systems. AMS addition promoted the molecular interactions (increased cohesiveness) between the formulation constituents. The results showed that A. mearnsii gum has stabilizing potential for the food processing, being able to stabilize products with low-fat content.
... Especially, protein is the only continuous solid phase in cheeses, and it has important influence on texture (Salinas-Valdés et al., 2015). Oommen, McMahon, Oberg, Broadbent, and Strickland (2002) observed higher hardness in cheeses with higher protein content, while higher content of water can interrupt crosslinking between proteins, effectively acting as a lubricant to generate products with softer texture (Liu, Xu, & Guo, 2008;Rudan, Barbano, Yun, & Kindstedt, 1999). Besides of moisture, some substances can also break up the protein network, and thus decrease the hardness and G′ of products, such as carrageenan, gum tragacanth and sesame protein isolate (Cooke et al., 2013;Lu, Schmitt, & Chen, 2010;Wang, Tong, Luo, Xu, & Ren, 2016). ...
Article
Using soybean beverage can improve the nutrition of cheeses and expand their varieties. However, addition of soybean beverage results in cheese-like products with undesirable soft texture and loose structure. Herein, soybean beverage was treated with flavourzyme and then mixed with cow milk to prepare Cheddar cheese-like products, and the chemical composition was not standardized before the production. Compared with non hydrolysis soybean beverage, enzyme-modified soybean beverage significantly decreased the moisture content and yield of cheese-like products, increased the protein and fat content and pH, but had no effect on protein and fat recoveries. Changes were more dramatic in products with high degree of soybean beverage hydrolysis. Hardness and storage modulus were increased upon addition of enzyme-modified soybean beverage, and especially values of products supplemented with high hydrolysis soybean beverage were comparable with those of products made only with cow milk. The protein matrix became compact upon adding enzyme-modified soybean beverage, with numerous small whey pockets, similar to the microstructure of products made only with cow milk. Thus, without decreasing the yield, low hydrolysis soybean beverage can effectively improve the texture and structure of Cheddar cheese-like products.
... Formation of a thicker network construction can be clarified by the increase in the level of asparagus, which could be due to more intensive interactions between its fibre chains. There are similar findings about the effect of k-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan and pectin gel (Cernıkova et al. 2008;Liu et al. 2008). ...
Article
The qualitative properties of processed cheese (PC) fortified with different levels of asparagus powder (AP) (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) were evaluated during storage. AP decreased the pH and lipolysis indexes and increased the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and proteolysis of the processed cheeses. AP made the structure of the cheese more elastic, increased the rigidity and decreased the spreadability compared with the control sample, which corresponded to the results obtained using dynamic oscillatory rheometry. The results showed that AP as a rich source of bioactive components could be used for the fortification of processed cheeses.
... The advantage of cheese analogue was the production cost which was relatively lower compared to cheese made from cow's milk [3]. The studies on cheese analogue that had been conducted were on, for example, cheese analogue made from soybeans [4], pectin gel [5], inulin [6], rice flour [7], apricot pulp [8], and replacement of fat types [9]. It is proven that vegetables, fruit, or cereals can be used as substitutes in making cheese analogue [10]. ...
Article
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Analogue cheese made from sweet corn extract was expected to fulfill the people’s need for cheese and as alternative cheese made from cow’s milk. The use of maltodextrin as a filler and citric acid as an acidulant was expected to improve the characteristics of corn cheese. The aims of this article were to (1) determine the optimum concentration of maltodextrin, papain, and citric acid in order to produce corn milk-based cheese analogue with the best characteristics; (2) determine the characteristics of cheese analogue produced using the optimum concentration. The research design used in this study was Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD) with three factors: citric acid concentration (0.12%, 0.16%, and 0.20%), commercial papain (0.026%, 0.030%, and 0.034%), and maltodextrin (10%, 15%, and 20%). The optimum formula to produce cheese analogue with the highest protein content and yield was with the addition of 0.20% citric acid, 0.029% papain, and 20% maltodextrin. The cheese analogue produced from the optimum formula had moisture content of 61.590%, yield of 17.512%, total dissolved solids of 19.00°Brix, dissolved protein of 19.837%, acidity (pH) of 5.4, and fat of 6.976%. The sensory characteristics of cheese analogue spread from sweet corn extract are similar to those of cheese from cow’s milk; i.e., it had a yellowish-white color, distinctive aroma of cheese, no sour taste, and soft texture and was easy to spread. Therefore, it was possible to explore the sweet corn as ingredient of spread cheese that has low fat content.
... An extremely porous, open and coarse structure was obtained in reduced-fat Ras cheese (Fig. 4B), whereas a continuous phase of protein aggregate network characterized by a more compacted and dense structure accompanied by less voids was revealed in the full-fat Ras cheese where the spherical fat globules of different sizes (pointed with white arrows) were obviously dispersed and scattered throughout the protein matrices. This result is in parallel with that of Lobato-Calleros, et al. (2007) and Liu et al. (2008). ...
... Interactions between casein and pectin at higher concentration have also been exploited to form a gel with desirable microstructure for potential development of low-fat cheese analogues (Liu, Xu, & Guo, 2008). In this study, both casein and NaCas were tested as protein base, which was then blended with a pectin gel formed by mixing lowmethoxylated pectin and calcium, as major ingredients in the recipe to prepare cheese analogues with different fat content. ...
... apricots, sunflower seeds, or other plants) (Cunha et al., 2010;O'Riordan et al., 2011;Mohamed and Shalaby, 2016). The fat originating from milk is replaced by vegetable oil or fat in cheese analogue production, resulting in saturated fatty acid levels being very low, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease among consumers (Liu et al., 2008;Tuntragul et al., 2010). Sweet corn extract can be processed into yogurt (Aini, Prihananto, Wijonarko, Astuti et al., 2017); therefore, it is assumed that it can also be processed into cheese ...
Article
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Cheese is not only created using cow's milk and can also be made from a mixture of vegetable extracts, including corn extract. Cheese from corn extract has the advantages of low-fat and high-carotene. Notably, papain can be used as a coagulant in the production of cheese analogue, while maltodextrin functions to increase volume and total solids for greater yield. The objectives of the present study was 1) to optimize the formula composition between lime extract, papain, and maltodextrin to create a cheese analogue from sweet corn extract with high yield and protein as well as good sensory properties, 2) to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the cheese analogue using the optimal formula, and 3) to compare analog cheese from corn milk to cow's milk cheese. The experimental design involved response surface methodology with three factors (lime extract, papain, and maltodextrin). The results of the study produced the optimal cheese analogue formula from corn extract with the addition of lime extract (2.283%), papain (0.022%), and maltodextrin (15%). The characteristics of this cheese analogue include a yield of 20.3%; pH of 5.4; 14oBrix soluble solids; water content of 65.3%; protein content of 13.5%; total-carotene of 544.4 ppm and of fat content 4.6%. The cheese analogue has sensory characteristics of soft texture, the ability to spread evenly, the typical color of cheese (i.e. yellowish-white), and was preferred by panelists. Cheese analogue has protein content of 7.1%, fat content of 4.55%, total carotene of 544.4 mg/g, cholesterol 0.02 mg/g; while commercial cheese from cow’s milk has protein content 6.3%, fat content 24.53%, total carotene 5.32 mg/g and cholesterol 0.19 mg/g. Thus, sweet corn can potentially be used as a raw material for producing low-fat cheese analogues.
... First, as explained by Hoseney and Smewing [28], stainless steel own a high surface free energy when compared to polymeric surfaces or skin. Consequently, adhesion between skin and steel is higher comparing to adhesion between skin and a polymeric surface such as Delrin®, frequently used in texture analysis [8,32,33]. Adhesion intensity of cosmetics products being generally low, it is preferable to use probe material which increases adhesion to better discriminate tested products. ...
Article
Prediction of sensory texture attributes using instrumental measurements is a very important challenge for cosmetic industry because in vivo sensory studies are expensive, time consuming and limited by the safety issue of applied products. The aim of this work is to investigate how residual sensory properties of cosmetic products can be predicted without using a panel of assessors, focusing on the residual film attribute “Stickiness”. 10 cosmetic products with different galenics have been selected and evaluated in vivo using a classical sensory protocol, developed according to the SpectrumTM Descriptive Analysis method. In addition to this study, products were evaluated after their application on non-biological skin models in order to compare perceptions onto in vivo skin and artificial surfaces. Results obtained show that in vivo perceptions can be compared with the ones on artificial surfaces meaning that residual film stickiness is similar between in vivo skin and non-biological skin models. An instrumental protocol using a texture analyzer has been set up to evaluate residual film adhesiveness. This protocol has been tested and validated in vivo (r²adjusted = 0.90 ; RPD = 3.06) before being optimized on a selected non-biological skin model Bioskin® (Beaulax, Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan) owning good correlation with in vivo perceptions. Established model shows excellent predictive ability with a r²adjusted of 0.94 and a RPD of 3.38, as highlighted by the 4 steps cross-validation performed. It proves that physical stimulus responsible for cosmetic film stickiness can be instrumentally measured on both in vivo skin and artificial skin.
... For example, in sausages, fat was reduced by 50% using oleogel rich in oleic acid (da Silva et al., 2019), by 60% using pork skin and green banana flour (dos Santos Alves et al., 2016) and by 32.8% using a gelled emulsion of linseed oil with carrageenan (Alejandre et al., 2016). In cheese, pectin gel was used as a fat replacer at 50% (Liu et al., 2008). In muffins, fat was reduced by 60% using oleogels (Giacomozzi et al., 2018), by 25% using coca fibres (Martinez-Cervera et al., 2011), by 40% using waxy corn starch (Chung et al., 2010) and by 27% using peach dietary fibres (Grigelmo-Miguel et al., 2001). ...
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In seeking to tackle obesity and metabolic disease, research on reformulating ultra-processed foods has intensified in recent years. Despite numerous publications, information on reformulation may not be accessible to many small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), because they are generally low-tech with little budget for research and development. This paper presents the development of a knowledge-base that illustrates a holistic approach to food reformulation to provide SMEs with practical information on successful methods to reduce sugar and fat from existing products. This knowledge-base uses recent findings in food reformulation, assesses and evaluates outcomes and presents them in an industrially relevant context. The knowledge-base (which is demonstrated on a working example of sweet American-style muffins) identifies the readiness of various reformulation techniques for industrial application by indicating the consequences of different techniques of reformulation on a products' nutritional profile, acceptability, quality and processability. Adhering to the sequential process described ensures that processed foods are reformulated using healthier alternatives, comply with food legislations and are suitable to be used on an industrial scale.
... The texture profile of labneh was investigated using a TA-XT texture analyzer (CNS-Farnell, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire,185 UK), as reported by [18]. During the 29 days of storage, all treated samples were exposed to a deformation force equal to 25% of their weight. ...
... Adhesiveness is the work needed to remove a food adhering to the mouth. Texture profile analysis procedure was slightly modified from theLiu et al. (2008) method as follow: the pectin gel was compressed with a cylindrical probe i.e., P0.5 with pretest speed of 1 mm / s, test speed and posttest speed of 2 mm / s, and 75 % strain. ...
Article
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This work was aimed at evaluating the properties of pectin from unripe cavendish banana peel using different acidic extractions. Hydrochloric (HCl), citric, and malic acid solutions at various pH values (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5) were used in this study. The properties of a raspberry jam added with the obtained pectins were also investigated. The extraction yield, galacturonic acid content, degrees of esterification (DE) and methylation (DM) of the samples were quantified and compared. The highest pectin yield was obtained using extraction with citric at pH 2.0. The citric extraction also gave the highest percentages of DE (50.27 %) and DM (59.57 %) at pH 1.5. Extraction with HCl gave higher galacturonic acid content to the extracted pectin. Additionally, the use of HCl at pH 1.5 also provided the highest gel hardness (30.26 g). For food application, most of the pectins significantly decreased raspberry jam hardness along with decreasing lightness and redness when compared with the control.
... The lower score in appearance and consistency of P1C1 and P1O1 was likely due to the denser microstructure which made the sample too hard. In addition, the lower score in taste and consistency of P1C1 and P1O1 samples might be due to the too soft feeling of the samples resulting from the high moisture level of the product (Liu et al., 2008). ...
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The aim of this study was to develop a new assortment of high-quality cream cheese, with a high amount of biologically active compounds, namely a spreadable cheese from goat milk with addition of Aloe vera microcapsules and essential oils of thyme and oregano. The research was focused on the testing and optimization of an appropriate manufacturing recipe for this new product. Two assortments were made: one with Aloe vera microcapsules and thyme essential oil and the other one with Aloe vera microcapsules and oregano essential oil. For each assortment two different concentrations of Aloe vera and essential oils were tested. The obtained products were analysed for organoleptic, physico-chemical (fat, protein, total dry matter, sodium chloride and acidity) and microbiological parameters. In terms of consumer preferences, the cream cheese with 3% microcapsules of Aloe vera gel and 0.018% thyme essential oil was the most appreciated in terms of commercial aspect, consistency, and taste. We concluded that the addition of Aloe vera microcapsules improves the sensory characteristics and leads to an increase nutritional value of the finished product. Also, the addition of essential oils (thyme and oregano) ensured a stable quality during storage.
... Se determinó la variaciones del módulo de almacenamiento G', del módulo de perdida G" y del factor de cedencia (tan δ), con respecto al porcentaje de deformación (%γ) (ver tabla 7.4). En todos los casos, G'>G", esto se traduce en un carácter viscoelástico predominantemente sólido (Liu et al., 2008). ...
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Cream Cheese Chiapas, traditional product whose origin dates back to around 1890, it comes from the current zone of Bochil, Chiapas. The importance of its history and popularity, are reasons enough to generate a descriptive letter and contribute to its preservation This research aims to characterize variations in the physicochemical, rheological, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of this cheese, in relation to the composition of the milk produced in two seasons, and in two different production areas as well as the effect of cheese factories. Defined intervals were established, creating a record with their characteristics, thereby encompassing their identity and typicality.
... Likewise, several researchers have attempted to replace fat in imitation cheeses. Noronha et al. [18] and Liu et al. [19] applied resistant starch and pectin gel as fat alternatives to reduce the fat level of cheese analogs, respectively. However, because most of the fat replacers previously tested have different chemical structures from conventional fat, they cannot replace fat fully on a one-to-one basis, potentially deteriorating the quality attributes of cheese [20]. ...
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Canola oil was structured into oleogels with different amounts of carnauba wax, and their processing performances were assessed as an alternative to solid fat for imitation cheese low in saturated fat. The contents of solid fat in the oleogels were less vulnerable to the change in temperature than the palm oil. The replacement of palm oil with oleogels produced cheese samples with harder and more cohesive/chewy textures. Dynamic and transient viscoelastic measurements demonstrated that the use of oleogels was effective in increasing the elastic nature of the cheeses. Two distinct components with different proton mobilities were observed in the imitation cheeses, and longer T2 relaxation times were detected in the oleogel samples. The meltability of the cheese with palm oil was not significantly different from those with 3% and 6% oleogels. The saturated fat level of the oleogel cheese was significantly reduced from 45.70 to 5.20%. The application of canola oil-carnauba wax oleogels could successfully produce imitation cheese high in unsaturated fat and low in saturated fat. This study thus demonstrated that the health-functional properties of imitation cheese could be enhanced by using oleogels.
... One of the challenges of these analogues is to exhibit similar functionality of the original cheese because an alteration in the fat profile of the cheese may affect its physical properties and stability (Awad et al., 2014;Ennis & Mulvihill, 2001;Ehsannia & Sanjabi, 2016;Kaminarides & Stachtiaris, 2000). Among the technological properties of cheeses, rheological, textural, and microstructural characteristics are fundamental to increase the versatility of the end use applications of the cheese analogues (Hennelly et al., 2005;Liu et al., 2008;Mounsey & O'Riordan, 2001;Montesinos-Herrero et al., 2006). Hence, the formulations of cheese analogues always tend drastically to avoid modifications of the original technological characteristics of the cheese after replacing the milk fat with vegetable oil; therefore, this will depend on the type of cheese and its characteristics, as well as the intended purpose of the end product (Kapoor & Metzger, 2008). ...
Article
Over the past few years, the market for cheese substitutes has been growing on account of the simple and cost‐effective production of these cheese‐like products. It is well established that the functional properties of cheeses are directly related to their composition. Therefore, the variation of fat in cheese substitutes certainly affects the characteristics of the cheeses. The purpose of this review was to summarize the latest research on the effects of milk fat replacement with vegetable oils on the rheological, textural, and microstructural properties of cheese analogues. The findings suggest that the primary effects of modifying fat in cheese analogues are associated with an alteration in the interactions among the components of the protein matrix, which varies because of milk fat extraction. Overall, changes in the functional properties of analogous cheeses will depend on the type of oil, the percentage of fat modification, and the type of cheese produced.
... The sample with the highest amount of water (a flour-to-water ratio of 1:5) had a smooth appearance but had the lowest levels of hardness, chewiness, and springiness amongst the samples. These results were expected because incorporation of increasing amounts of water into a gel network is reflected by a softer and smoother texture [26]. The flour-to-water ratio of 1:4 resulted in a firm and sliceable sample, which was also the easiest to handle during preparation, confirming findings by others [18]; thus, the flour-to-water ratio of 1:4 was used in subsequent trials. ...
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Despite the many benefits of pulses, their consumption is still very low in many Western countries. One approach to solving this issue is to develop attractive pulse-based foods, e.g., plant-based cheeses. This study aimed to assess the suitability of different types of pulse flour, from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans, to develop plant-based cheese analogues. Different stabilizer combinations (kappa- and iota-carrageenan, kappa-carrageenan, and xanthan gum) were tested. The results showed that firm and sliceable pulse-based cheese analogues could be prepared using all types of pulse flour using a flour-to-water ratio of 1:4 with the addition of 1% (w/w) kappa-carrageenan. The hardness levels of the developed pulse-based cheese analogues were higher (1883–2903 g, p < 0.01) than the reference Gouda cheese (1636 g) but lower than the commercial vegan cheese analogue (5787 g, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the crude protein (4–6% wb) and total dietary fiber (6–8% wb) contents in the developed pulse-based cheese analogues were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in the commercial vegan cheese analogue, whereas the fat contents were lower. In conclusion, flours from boiled and roasted yellow peas and faba beans have been shown to be suitable as raw materials for developing cheese analogues with nutritional benefits.
... With increased oil substitution, the hardness and stickiness of moon-cake skin gradually increased, whereas its elasticity and chewability decreased. This finding was due to the strong water-retention ability of the fat substitutes, which increased the viscosity of the system, generated large bubbles in the product, and increased the hardness (Liu et al., 2008). The increase in hardness reduced the product's palatability and ultimately reduced its elasticity and chewability. ...
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Abstract The high-methoxyl pectin of citrus was used to prepare a fat substitute and applied to the processing technology of moon-cake skin. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties of fat substitutes and prepared moon-cake skins were studied by selecting texture properties, rheological properties, water distribution, and water-holding capacity. Results showed that the gel hardness of glucan–sucrose (G-SG) (glucan/sucrose = 4:6) as synergistic gel was 6.23 ± 0.10 N, the elasticity was 3.97 ± 0.03 mm, the adhesive viscosity was 4.87 ± 0.20 N, the chewiness was 16.87 ± 0.51 mj, the water-holding capacity was 98.33%, and the gel obtained from sucrose (SG) as gelation agent had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The consistency coefficient and thixotropic circle area of G-SG was larger than that of SG. Through dynamic viscoelastic scanning, we found that the tanδ of G-SG was smaller, and it had stronger hydrophobic interaction and stronger fluid properties after high-speed shear. It also more easily maintained a flow state similar to oil. G-SG was further applied to the processing technology of low-fat moon-cake skin. The color of the prepared low-fat moon-cake skin darkened, the water-holding capacity was enhanced, the fat content decreased from 22.21% ± 0.54% to 14.07% ± 0.57%, the oil droplets enlarged, and flocculation strengthened. Results of texture-characteristic and sensory-score analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) from the control group when the oil substitution amount was 40%. At this time, the total sensory score was 41.71 ± 2.02.
... In order to simulate features of the natural product as closely as possible, different dairy and non-dairy ingredients are usually added to cheese analogues such as (Anonymous 2017;Eymery and Pangborn 1988;European Parliament and Council 2006;Gupta and Reuter 1993;Liu et al. 2008;Hsieh et al. 1993;Jana et al. 2010;Mohamed et al. 2013;O'Riordan 2001, 2008): ...
Chapter
Every kind of foodstuff requires a unique packaging model. This statement is especially true when speaking of peculiar products such as milk, dairy products and cheese. There are some additional needs to take into consideration (i.e. manufacture, transport, ‘shelf appeal’, branding and packaging functionality) in addition to the traditional ones. Moreover, the type of packaging material(s) for dairy products become of primary importance because of its impact on quality, safety, odour control, toughness and flexibility. These reasons explain the continuous development of the packaging market towards new technologic processes, new materials and innovative solutions. Food packaging may be designed to enhance the product image, to differentiate the product in comparison with other competitors, adding variety for consumers, and finally offering a great potential to build the brand awareness and differentiation. However, these changes have led many innovations within the entire supply chain as well as in product development, packaging, branding and sales channels. Retailers respond to this new market demand in the milk and dairy sector by moving packaging innovation (e.g., portion-controlled, snack-sized, re-sealable and fit-for-purpose models). The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the most common food packaging solutions related to cheese products, taking into account different needs, production and preservation technologies and sustainability.
... However, the chewiness of PFB increased significantly with increasing KGM. The chewiness is the energy necessary to chew a solid food to a status that is ready to swallow (Liu, Xu, & Guo, 2008), which is an essential indicator of mouthfeel (Varela, Mosca, Nguyen, McEwan, & Berget, 2021). The chewiness of PFB was incredibly enhanced by KGM from 561.93 to 2787.54 g‧mm (Fig. 1B), demonstrating that structural strength was enhanced in PFB6.5 and PFB8.0. ...
Article
Global fisheries pressure generates interest in sustainable seafood production and developing plant-based seafood. This study took fishball as an example of seafood products applying konjac glucomannan (KGM) in developing plant-based fishball (PFB) analogues mimicking the texture of fishball. Increasing KGM concentration (up to 8.0%) influenced texture and rheological properties of PFB progressively, where the hardness, chewiness, and gel strength of PFB were significantly enhanced. Decreased pH value (9.38 to 7.93) and increased α-helix, β-sheet, and helix/coil ratio (1.40 to 1.70%) validated a promotion of hydrogen bonds and ordered structures by KGM. The strengthened interaction strength and hydrogen bonds formed at -OH groups of KGM and amide linkage of soy protein could be responsible for textural improvement. A more compact and regular microstructure also validated a firmer texture in PFB with higher KGM levels. Besides, KGM (3.5–8.0%) significantly decreased instantaneous compliance J0 (101.3 × 10⁻⁶ to 58.1 × 10⁻⁶ Pa⁻¹), indicating denser crosslinks and firmer structures. In conclusion, KGM improved the texture and viscoelasticity of PFB and had an excellent application value in developing plant-based seafood analogues.
... Previous research studies focused on the effects of inulin on the quality of imitation cheese (Hennelly et al., 2006), full-fat and lowfat cheese analogues (Liu et al., 2008), fresh cheese made from caprine milk (Salvatore et al., 2014) and the acid casein processed cheese analogues (Solowiej et al., 2015). However, studies involving the effects of inulin on reduced-fat fresh cheese, particularly on the physicochemical properties, are very limited. ...
Article
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This experimental study investigates the effects of inulin on the physicochemical properties of reduced-fat cheese and its potential as a partial fat replacer. In the study, the compositional, textural, thermal, and microstructural properties of inulin-containing reduced-fat cheese were compared with those of full-fat cheese (control) and inulin-free reduced-fat cheese. The findings revealed that the addition of inulin induced fat and protein recovery in the inulin-containing reduced-fat cheese. Furthermore, the use of inulin significantly reduced the hardness of the reduced-fat cheese, particularly after 7 days of refrigerated storage, but minimally altered the cheese's springiness and cohesiveness. The microstructure of the inulin-containing reduced-fat cheese was noticeably less dense and resembled that of the full-fat cheese. Moreover, the fat melting enthalpy and the fat melting profile of the inulin-containing reduced-fat cheese closely resembled those of the full-fat cheese. Overall, the addition of inulin contributed to the improved compositional, textural, thermal, and microstructural characteristics of the reduced-fat cheese, rendering it comparable to those of the full-fat cheese. Thus, inulin is an effective partial fat replacer in a reduced-fat cheese product.
... In order to simulate features of the natural product as closely as possible, different dairy and non-dairy ingredients are usually added to cheese analogues such as (Anonymous 2017;Eymery and Pangborn 1988;European Parliament and Council 2006;Gupta and Reuter 1993;Liu et al. 2008;Hsieh et al. 1993;Jana et al. 2010;Mohamed et al. 2013;O'Riordan 2001, 2008): Furthermore, health attributes of imitation cheese could be improved by adding nutritionally beneficial ingredients such as dietary fibre and by lowering the fat content. ...
Chapter
This chapter is explicitly dedicated to a particular and multi-faceted category of entering raw materials (input data) for the production of processed cheeses and cheese imitation products. The entering information in a traceability (tracking and tracing) system for these products has to concern many possible ingredients, including food additives. Different chemicals may be added with various functions when speaking of processed cheeses, but the production of analogue cheeses appears more interesting. In general, the classification of food additives takes into account the particular function(s) these compounds are expected to perform during the production and in the subsequent steps. Moreover, the proposed use of these compounds has to be declared on food labels. At the same time, traceability has to take these information—specific for each possible additive—into account. The aim of this chapter is to describe the complex operations—named joint ‘traceability’—with exclusive concern to ‘minor’ ingredients (food additives) by means of a software product: the ExTra tool. Discussed simulated products are a processed cheese and a general imitation cheese.
... In order to simulate features of the natural product as closely as possible, different dairy and non-dairy ingredients are usually added to cheese analogues such as (Anonymous 2017;Eymery and Pangborn 1988;European Parliament and Council 2006;Gupta and Reuter 1993;Liu et al. 2008;Hsieh et al. 1993;Jana et al. 2010;Mohamed et al. 2013;O'Riordan 2001, 2008): Furthermore, health attributes of imitation cheese could be improved by adding nutritionally beneficial ingredients such as dietary fibre and by lowering the fat content. ...
Chapter
The world of food-contact materials and objects is continually evolving at present because of different exigencies that could be defined ‘needs’, including extended shelf-life values, marketing targets and other minor factors. The role of these materials as accessory ingredients of a specific food product is no longer accepted, and the European Union has recently issued the (EC) Regulation No 1935/2004 in this ambit with concern to specific traceability systems and procedures for food-contact materials. As a result, the problem of traceability in food industries concerns food ingredients, additives and other substances that should be defined ‘edible’ and food packaging materials on the other hand. This innovation has an important impact on the management of food business operators, including non-food industries producing articles for the food industry. Traceability is one of the main pillars of the modern food safety strategy worldwide. In addition, because of the complexity of different food sectors and sub-sectors, foods and beverages cannot be managed in the same way when speaking of processed meats, eggs, seafood products, cheeses and so on. As a result, the matter is new enough and should be discussed critically, and the ambit of cheese products is interesting. With concern to packaged cheese products, the aim of this chapter is to describe in practice the complex operations—named jointly ‘traceability’—related to food-contact materials used. Three case studies are evaluated in this ambit, with concern to different cheeses and food packaging materials. The flow of input and output information is critically discussed and analysed when speaking of information complexity.
... The beads contained WPC had soft texture. The protein is broken up by the action of water and act as a lubricant by providing softness and smoothness to the beads [43]. Likewise, the fat present in whey act as a lubricant, changing the compression properties of gel matrix and prevent from gel deformation [44]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bifidobacterium longum BL-05 encapsulated beads were developed by using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin (PE) as encapsulating material through extrusion/ionic gelation technique with the objective to improve survival of probiotics in harsh gastrointestinal conditions. B. longum BL-05 was grown in MRS (de man rogosa and sharpe) broth, centrifuged and mixed with polymeric gel solution. Bead formulations E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) and E5 (2% PE) showed the highest value for encapsulation efficiency, size, and textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness) due to increasing PE concentration. The survivability and viability of free and encapsulated B. longum BL-05 was assessed through their resistance to simulated gastric juice (SGJ), tolerance to bile salt, release profile in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and storage stability during 28 days at 4 °C. The microencapsulation provided protection to B. longum BL-05 and encapsulated cells were exhibited significant (p < 0.05) resistance to SGJ and SIF as compared to free cells. Bead formulations E3 (5.0% WPC + 1.0% PE) and E4 (2.5% WPC + 1.5% PE) exhibited more resistance to SGJ (at pH 2 for 2 h) and at 2% bile salt solution but comparatively slow release as compared to other bead formulations. Free cells lost their viability when stored at 4 °C after 28 days but microencapsulated cells demonstrated promising results during storage and viable cell count was > 10⁷ CFU/g. This study revealed that extrusion using WPC and PE as encapsulating material could be considered as one of the novel technologies for protection and effective delivery of probiotics.
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Waxy rice starch, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and glutamine transaminase (TG) were used in mozzarella cheese as texturizers and crosslinking agents. The effects of waxy rice starch (1%), CMC (0.5%) and TG (0.5%) on the texture and rheological properties of mozzarella cheese were evaluated. Protein dissociation tests and the fluorescence probe method were used to evaluate the interactive forces in cheese. The results showed that cheeses with 0.5% CMC added had a smoother surface and lower degree of protein crosslinking. Waxy rice starch had a lower crosslinking effect on cheese. The detection of surface hydrophobicity revealed that CMC and TG promoted the hydrophobic interaction between molecules, whereas starch reduced the hydrophobic interaction. TG can significantly enhance the protein structure; however, it inhibits the meltability and stretchability of cheese.
Article
Lower-fat cheeses with desirable texture can be difficult to produce. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of concentrated emulsions as a fat replacer on the viscoelastic properties of reduced-fat (15% fat) and low-fat (6% fat) Cheddar cheeses. Concentrated emulsions were prepared by adding a fish gelatin–gum arabic mixture at pH 5.0 and 3.6 to olive oil at a water:oil ratio of 30:70 (w/w). Cheddar cheeses containing emulsions were made by adding the emulsions to skim milk after adding starter culture and before renneting and subsequent cheesemaking. Two control cheeses at each fat level were produced using either olive oil or cream. Cheeses containing emulsions showed greater nonlinearity under large amplitude oscillatory shear, and smaller critical stress and moduli values compared with controls at all storage timepoints. These results were ascribed to greater casein network discontinuity and more open spaces created by aggregated emulsion droplets.
Chapter
Over the past decade, the increasingly consumer demand for low-fat food products influenced by many health-related concerns has led modern food industry to research healthier products in order to reduce the amount of fat, salt and additives. Dairy manufacturers have answered with the development of cheese alternatives. Even not being harmful to health, these alternatives may give a lower nutritional benefit due to the reduction of calcium content and may contain different artificial flavours and colours. Therefore, many strategies have been proposed to improve low-fat cheeses such as making process modification and the use of fat replacers with the main objective of obtaining a reduction in the caloric value. At present, there are on the market both cheese substitutes and imitation products which can now unanimously be defined as products which clearly imitate cheese produced from milk by means of the partial or total substitution of milk components with non-dairy ingredients. The main advantages of these cheese types are related to the price and shelf-life values. Since many inexpensive ingredients can be used in its production, it is typically more interesting to manufacture these foods than traditional cheeses; the above-mentioned cheapness makes them attractive to food business operators. The European Legislator is aware that some products obtained from mixtures of dairy ingredients and some fats or protein matters from other sources are marketed as ‘cheese analogues’. Consequently, he has restricted the use of the designation ‘cheese’ to products which are manufactured from milk and from milk products and where milk ingredients are not replaced by a constituent not occurring naturally in milk. For this and other reasons, the traceability of similar foods is critical at present. The aim of this chapter is to give a description of these products from the European regulatory viewpoint.
Article
The effects of concentrated emulsions as a fat replacer in reduced-fat (15% fat) and low-fat (6% fat) Cheddar cheese microstructural and rheological properties were determined. Concentrated emulsions were prepared by adding a fish gelatin–gum arabic mixture at pH 5.0 and 3.6 to olive oil at W:O = 30:70 (w/w). Cheddar cheeses containing the emulsions were produced by adding the emulsions to skim milk after adding starter culture and before renneting and subsequent cheesemaking. Two control cheeses at each fat level were produced with either olive oil or cream. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that concentrated emulsions acted as casein matrix breakers by making large pockets of aggregated emulsion droplets. Emulsion-containing cheeses exhibited lower rigidity under compression compared with controls. However, aging and emulsion addition had no significant effect on cheese mechanical spectra.
Article
The development of new cheeses with novel flavors, is an increasing trend in the cheese market. Three experimental cheese‐like products (ECs) with different processing parameters were manufactured from Saccharomyces cerevisiae‐fermented milk, and their composition, functionality, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics were compared with those of model Cheddar cheese (CC) during storage. Compared with CC, ECs had higher moisture content, yield and pH, but lower protein and fat content. In the early stage of storage, CC had the highest hardness and storage modulus, however, these values were higher in ECs than in CC with storing. After 90 days of storage, S. cerevisiae‐inoculated milk significantly increased the levels of alcohols and esters in the ECs, contributing to high taste score, especially ECs manufactured with high saccharose. Overall, cheese‐like products manufactured from S. cerevisiae‐fermented milk had a high yield, good functionality and improved flavor profile and taste, with market potential.
Article
This study investigated the effect of aqueous inulin gel, as a fat substitute (FS), on the physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance of low-fat margarine (LFM). Inulin gel (35% w/v) was added to the margarine formulations at proportions of 10%–60% and the resulting LFMs compared with full-fat margarine. Rheological analysis showed that the apparent viscosity, elastic modulus (G′) and viscous modulus (G″) of the LFMs decreased with increasing proportions of FS, whereas the thermal stability increased. Textural analysis showed that the hardness and consistency of all LFMs decreased gradually with increasing FS addition, but the fat crystal type was not affected. E-nose analysis showed that the aroma volatile profiles of LFMs were changed by FS, including a decrease in sulfide content. The addition of FS lightened the color of LFM, but achieved a smoother texture and mouth-feel. The overall sensory acceptability score of LFM was highest at FS additions of 20%–40% and the optimal addition was 40%, from all considerations. These findings indicate that margarine can be made with acceptable sensory attributes, while markedly reducing fat content, through the addition of inulin gel.
Article
BACKGROUND Mono‐, di‐ and oligosaccharides, polyhydric alcohols and lipids are three main types of plasticizers used to process food materials. In this study, inulin, maltitol and lecithin were selected as representative oligosaccharide, polyhydric alcohol and lipid fat replacers, respectively. Their effects on the physicochemical properties of reduced‐fat mozzarella cheese were evaluated. RESULTS Lecithin reduced the hardness and increased the degree of free oil released. Inulin and lecithin decreased the hydrophobic interaction of reduced‐fat cheese. Maltitol improved the elasticity of the reduced‐fat cheese and increased the hydrophobic interaction within the casein matrix. Maltitol‐added cheese had a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than did the other cheeses. Maltitol significantly improved the stretchability of the reduced‐fat cheese. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that maltitol is an effective fat replacer in reduced‐fat mozzarella cheese and might enhance the cheese's functional properties. The Tg of cheese was related to the water and fat content, fat replacer addition and crosslinking degree of casein. The relationship between Tg and the physicochemical properties of cheese will be studied in further research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
This study investigated how compositional properties and ingredient trends of commercial cream cheese products plus a model cheese affected physical and structural properties. The cheese categories were 3 block (B), 2 spreadable (S) and 2 spreadable light (SL), with fat ranging from 13.7 to 35.7%. Most cheeses contained starter culture and all cheeses had stabilizer. Protein/moisture (p/m), measuring effective protein concentration in the non‐fat substance, correlated well with a positive slope for fracture stress (R2= 0.808) and modulus of deformability (R2 = 0.721). The datapoint for SL2 on this modulus versus p/m graph was lower than its regression line and one rationale is that lower fat content (13.7%) gave a lower modulus from the milkfat component at 10°C test temperature. B1, with the highest p/m of 0.17, had a more‐dense distribution of larger fat globules coated with proteins than B2 and B3. Fracture stress and modulus of deformability were higher for full fat than for lower fat cheese. In all products elastic characteristics dominated viscous flow.
Article
Reduced-fat food products can help to prevent obesity and other diet-related diseases. However, the removal of fat often impairs the sensory and textural properties of foods, leading to low consumer acceptance. In this study, we tested various concentrations of fat replacers (inulin, corn dextrin, polydextrose, and microparticulated whey protein) combined with rennet casein to investigate their effects on the melting behavior, dynamic rheological properties, and hardness of reduced-fat processed cheese. We found that increasing concentrations of inulin and corn dextrin reduced the flowability of cheese in the melting test and can thus be used to inhibit flow during heating. Microparticulated whey protein did not affect flowability but caused an increase in the storage and loss moduli as well as the temperature at gel-sol transition. A similar effect was also shown for rennet casein, whereas inulin and polydextrose had little or no effect on these rheological parameters. Corn dextrin had no effect on the storage and loss moduli, but affected the gel-sol transition temperature. No changes in hardness were detected for any concentration of the fat replacers, but increasing the rennet casein content also increased the hardness of the samples, regardless of the fat replacer used. Our results indicate the different concentrations and combinations of fat replacers and rennet casein that can be included in reduced-fat processed cheese to develop products with specific rheological properties, thus meeting future demand for reduced-fat products with attractive sensory attributes.
Article
The effect of fat replacement by modified potato starch (MPS) along with seaweed salt on the physicochemical, textural, functional, microstructural, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of low-fat processed cheese was investigated after freezing and thawing. Incorporation of MPS into processed cheese formulation declined the fat and Na content, syneresis, and lightness while it had no impact on dry matter, pH, and acidity. The reduced-fat processed cheeses were instrumentally found to have higher adhesiveness, hardness, gumminess, springiness, and cohesiveness values than those of high-fat samples. Meltability and oiling off of all the cheeses significantly decreased after adding MPS. Fat globules filled the protein matrix in processed cheeses containing the highest fat content, while MPS promoted a denser microstructure. MPS and seaweed salt had no impact on the number of microorganisms in processed cheese. Sensory properties of processed cheeses with partial substitution of fat with MPS were the most preferred.
Chapter
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrates built from monosaccharide units. They have been recently used in food treatment industries. These natural polymers have the capability of interacting with food to preserve the texture, gel formation, freezing, etc., of food materials. Polysaccharides improve the quality, texture, mouthfeel, and flavor of the food as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers and gelling agents.
Article
The effect of simultaneous transglutaminase (TGase) treatment with pectic fat mimetics (PFM) addition on regularity of protein and fat degradation and flavour compound variations in Cheddar cheese during ripening was investigated. In the early stages of fermentation, the cheese with 20% PFM and 15 U/L TGase had a higher amino acid content. In the middle stage of fermentation, cheese with high concentration of TGase hydrolysed more proteins. Cheese supplemented with PFM and TGase showed increased content of long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C18:2). In addition, PFM and TGase compensated the flavour deficiencies of low‐fat cheeses and had positive effects on volatile compounds such as alcohols, acids and methyl ketones. Overall, the characteristics and flavours of Cheddar cheese with the addition of PFM and TGase were superior to the control group, which could provide a theoretical basis for the application of PFM and TGase in cheese production. The addition of TGase and PFM influence the flavor compound profile of Cheddar cheese during maturation. The content of long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the addition of PFM and TGase. Substitution of fat with PFM and TGase had a positive effect on the flavor compound profile of the cheese, while markedly reducing the fat content.
Chapter
Special processed cheeses (SPCs) are derived from processed cheese by applying a similar formula and manufacturing process. They can be produced from dairy and/or nondairy ingredients without a specific composition. The major group in this category is analogue or imitation cheese that is produced with similar structure and functionality to those of a certain cheese. Adding a nutrient or a functional component to processed cheese can also result in a SPC. Activity of added nutritional or functional component must be ensured in these functional processed cheeses. Milk protein or plant protein powders, milk fat or plant oil/fat, starch, and stabilizers are commonly used ingredients in these products. The ingredients determine structure, functionality, and stability of the products. Therefore, most studies have searched for suitable ingredients and formulation for achieving desired functionalities and stability. While research and marketing of imitation cheeses have been slow, extension of the same concept to plant-based cheeses have accelerated developments in this field. Special processed cheeses will present an opportunity for both producers and consumers as efforts for efficient use of natural resources for sustainable production of health-improving foods continue.
Article
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Low-calorie and low-fat foods have been introduced to the market to fight the increasing incidence of overweightness and obesity. New approaches and high-quality fat replacers may overcome the poor organoleptic properties of such products. A model of processed cheese spread (PCS) was produced as a full-fat version and with three levels of fat reduction (30%, 50%, and 70%). Fat was replaced by water or by corn dextrin (CD), a dietary fiber. Additionally, in the 50% reduced-fat spreads, fat was replaced by various ratios of CD and lactose (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The effect of each formulation was determined by measuring the textural (firmness, stickiness, and spreadability), rheological (flow behavior and oscillating rheology), tribological, and microstructural (cryo-SEM) properties of the samples, as well as the dynamic aroma release of six aroma compounds typically found in cheese. Winter’s critical gel theory was a good approach to characterizing PCS with less instrumental effort and costs: the gel strength and interaction factors correlated very well with the spreadability and lubrication properties of the spreads. CD and fat exhibited similar interaction capacities with the aroma compounds, resulting in a similar release pattern. Overall, the properties of the sample with 50% fat replaced by CD were most similar to those of the full-fat sample. Thus, CD is a promising fat replacer in PCS and, most likely, in other dairy-based emulsions.
Chapter
There is a growing number of plant-based products that offer consumers numerous options that are intended to have the same taste, flavor, and functionality of conventional animal products. To ensure product success in the marketplace, the industry performs and relies on measures of quality and sensory attributes. Establishing sensory and quality measures is important to ensure that alternative products provide a similar cooking and eating experience as their conventional products. This continues to be a challenge for alternative products. This chapter describes both the instrumental and sensory methods for evaluating appearance, mouthfeel, and aroma attributes and describe challenges and factors impacting their performance. Additionally, examples of important sensory and quality attributes are discussed for different product categories, specifically analogs of meat, meat extenders, yogurt, cheese, milk, ice cream, eggs, and seafood. Regardless of the product, developers need to select the appropriate instrumental methods and sensory approach in order to optimize the overall product quality.
Thesis
Full-text available
Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated health problems, the demand for low-calorie and low-fat foods is growing worldwide, especially in the fast food and convenience sectors. However, fat- or calorie-reduced products are often accompanied by sensory deficiencies. Although fat reduction in foods has been addressed in literature, an ideal fat replacer has not been identified due to the variety of fats, their multifarious functions in foods, and the wide range of food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of selected fat replacers on the properties of reduced-fat model emulsion systems and processed cheese. The use of dietary fibers as fat replacers was of particular interest due to their intrinsic health benefits. In addition, both new and established methods of measurement of sensory attributes were applied and compared to determine correlations of findings between different methods of measurement. Chapter 1 addresses the influence of fat replacers on attributes such as energy density, flowability, and firmness in a real food product, processed cheese. To this end, microparticulated whey protein (MWP), which has been widely used as a fat replacer, and three dietary fibers (corn dextrin (CD), inulin, and polydextrose), were used in reduced-fat processed cheese slices. A reduction in energy density of about 30 to 40% was achieved using a fat replacer compared to standard commercial full-fat processed cheese. Higher CD and inulin concentrations reduced the flowability of the cheese slices upon heating, but only had a minor impact on the firmness of the unheated cheese. The addition of MWP resulted in firmer cheese slices with higher flowability compared to the other fat replacers. However, changes in the MWP concentration had little effect on either property. The results demonstrated that different fat replacers with varying concentrations need to be applied to achieve desired attributes for specific conditions of use, e.g., unheated cheese in sandwiches or heated cheese in cheeseburgers. To evaluate newly developed reduced-fat foods, the impact of fat replacers on sensory properties and aroma release also needs to be investigated, which is addressed in chapters 2 to 4. Due to the complex composition of cheese, systematic investigation of the mode of action of fat replacers is difficult. Therefore, emulsion-based model foods were used to eliminate interfering factors and natural variations of ingredients. The second study (chapter 2) focused on developing and validating appropriate methods to investigate the effects of fat, fat reduction and the use of fat replacers on emulsion systems. Tribology, a comparatively new method in food research, was used to instrumentally analyze selected aspects of food mouthfeel. Reduced-fat salad mayonnaises were prepared as separate samples containing different CD concentrations, and characterized using textural, rheological and tribological analyses together with measures of spreadability and human-sensory analysis. The results showed a very high correlation between tribological measurements and the sensory evaluation of the attribute stickiness. In addition, it was shown that some correlations between instrumental and sensory data were best described by a non-linear correlation (Stevens’ power law), such as the relationship between Texture Analyzer measurements and sensory sensations of firmness. Furthermore, the Kokini oral shear stress correlated very well with the sensory attribute creaminess. Hence, the instrumental analytical methods used showed the potential to predict elements of the sensory analysis and reduce the overall analytical effort. While aroma release plays a key role in consumer acceptance, the influence of fat replacers on this attribute has rarely been studied. The third study (chapter 3) therefore investigated not only techno-functional properties but also the release of typical cheese aromas using a liquid emulsion as a model food. While both MWP and CD exhibited a retarding effect on the release of lipophilic aroma compounds, MWP also reduced the release of hydrophilic aroma compounds. It was also shown that aroma release is not only influenced by a change in viscosity, but also by interactions between aroma compounds and fat replacers. In this context, CD exhibited a similar ability to interact with aroma compounds as fat, which is desirable for the development of low-fat foods. In the final study (chapter 4), the findings and methods developed in chapters 1-3 of this work, supplemented with additional methods, were used to investigate the effect of fat reduction and CD concentration on a model processed cheese spread (PCS). By replacing 50% of fat completely with CD, the fat content of the PCS could be reduced without causing any significant changes in properties compared to the full-fat version, e.g. in firmness, flowability upon heating and aroma release. CD was determined to be a promising fat replacer, mimicking important properties of fat. Additional correlations, such as those between the parameters of Winter’s critical gel theory (gel strength and interaction factor) and spreadability and lubrication properties were identified and can help to further reduce the analytical effort. In conclusion, CD has been confirmed as a promising fat replacer in both liquid and semi-solid food emulsion products. Furthermore, this work contributes to closing the research gap in the instrumental measurement of sensory attributes by outlining correlations, for example, between tribological methods and mouthfeel sensations. Thus, the evaluation tools of this work can help to assess the potential applications of new fat replacers without extensive application and sensory testing which significantly shortens the development time for food manufacturers. In addition, the results contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between fat, fat replacers and aroma compounds in food matrices. This facilitates the systematic development of reduced-fat processed cheese and other dairy- and emulsion-based products which meet consumer preferences and accelerate the trend towards healthy eating.
Chapter
Lipids are an essential component of our daily food intake; however, their overconsumption has been associated with high incidences of obesity and high risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. Fats are also responsible for many high-quality attributes in the food we consume, mainly related to texture, aroma, taste, and stability. Therefore, the development of fat-reduced products is challenging because fats have a large impact on the physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional properties of foods. Another challenge is the use of natural products for fat replacing, which allows clean labeling avoiding E-numbers. In this chapter, clean label ingredients to replace fat in foods, including fat substitutes and fat mimetics, are studied. A description of different clean label reduced-fat foods as sauces and bakery, meat, or dairy products is provided as well.KeywordsFat substituteFat mimeticBakery productsDairy productsMeat productsDressings
Chapter
Consumer awareness about clean label has driven the industries to utilize natural additives in their food products. The emulsifiers are essential food additives with the ability to stabilize the foods comprising of immiscible phases. In addition to this, they perform several other functions like lubrication, crystal modifier, texture enhancer, shelf-life enhancer, moisture barrier, etc. The natural emulsifiers are obtained from plant, animal, and microbial sources. They are mainly categorized as proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, and bio-emulsifiers. The present chapter provides details about various natural emulsifiers, their origins, and possible applications in multiple foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The behavior of these emulsifiers towards interface and factors (pH, ionic strength, temperature) affecting their functionality as well as emulsion stability have also been discussed.
Chapter
The need for transparency in health and food safety always confronts customers with questions such as product content, the origin of production, production processes, additives used, and the status of ethical factors in the production process. These factors seem to be answered transparently in clean-label foods. This is why the clean label is increasingly advancing and developing among food industry trends. Today, clean labels and clean food are recognized as an international standard in nutrition. They can influence the decisions of customers and consumers in different regions all over the world. So, increasing demands to purchase and use food with a clean label and free of chemicals in other countries. In general, “clean label” as one of the biggest trends in the food market (Cheung et al. 2016), is a new and widely used term in the food industry, which refers to challenges including the health and safety of food products from the perspective of maintaining environmental sustainability. Park and Kim (2021) reviewed the clean label trend in starch (as an abundant natural ingredient) using blending, physical and enzymatic modification methods. The importance of using clean food has been considered for many years. Recently, due to the power of the media and social media platforms across the world, environmentally friendly organizations and NGOs, as well as critics of the use of chemicals and pesticides in agricultural ecosystems it has become a fundamental issue and a global trend (Cheboi et al. 2021). Replacing salt, sugar, saturated and trans fats, and artificial colors with natural additives with minimum adverse effects on human health is one of the most important aspects of clean food. Milner et al. (2020) evaluated the effects of safe alternatives for sugar in cake products. They reported the effectiveness of apple pomace, whey permeate, oligofructose, polydextrose as sucrose-replacing additives. Yi et al. (2018) reported the significant effect of kiwifruit puree application as a natural additive for preserving apple juice. McDonnell et al. (2013) suggested applying natural-based antimicrobial additives for enhancing the healthiness of meat and poultry products. Table 7.1 represents the policy of clean labels for various food products in different countries worldwide.
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Benefits of prebiotics for stimulating a healthy intestinal tract are well known. From suppression of pathogens to proliferation of indigenous bacteria of intestines, prebiotics have it all. Since the research on the scope of prebiotics is expanding, new applications are coming up every day thus upgrading the choices consumer has for a healthy living. Incorporation of prebiotics in a wide range of products that food industry offers on shelf is an innovative way to replace fat and sugars along with enhancing the mouthfeel by providing better tongue lubrication. In some cases, the thermal stability of the product is improved along with other sensory, textural and physiological benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various prebiotics available from different sources and their applications in various segments of food industry, notably dairy, beverage, processed fruit-vegetable, bakery, confectionary, extruded snack, sweetener, infant formula, pet food and livestock industry. The effects observed on addition of various prebiotics are also elaborated.
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Pectin is a high value functional food ingredient widely used as a gelling agent and stabilizer. It is also an abundant, ubiquitous and multifunctional component of the cell walls of all land plants. Food scientists and plant scientists therefore share a common goal to better understand the structure and functionalities of pectic polymers at the molecular level. The basic properties of pectin have been known for nearly 200 years, but recently there has been tremendous progress in our understanding of the very complex fine structure of pectic polymers and pectinolytic enzymes. This has been made possible by synergies between plant and food research and by the application of a range of state-of-the-art techniques including enzymatic fingerprinting, mass spectrometry, NMR, molecular modelling, and monoclonal antibodies. With this increased knowledge comes the prospect of novel applications. Producers are beginning to develop a new generation of sophisticated designer pectins with specific functionalities. Moreover, the ability to manipulate pectin in planta would have a major impact on fruit and vegetable quality and processing, as well as on pectin production.
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Cheese analogues are usually defined as products made by blending individual constituents, including non-dairy fats or proteins, to produce a cheese-like product to meet specific requirements. They are being used increasingly due to their cost-effectiveness, attributable to the simplicity of their manufacture and the replacement of selected milk ingredients by cheaper vegetable products. Sales of cheese analogues are closely linked to developments in the convenience food sector, where they extend the supply and lower the cost. Moreover, there is an ever-increasing interest among consumers in food products which contain less total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and calories.Development of cheese analogues involves the use of fat and/or protein sources other than those native to milk, together with a flavour system simulating as closely as possible that of the natural product. It is also necessary to develop a suitable processing regime capable of combining these elements to provide the required textural and functional properties. Cheese analogues may be regarded as engineered products.Cheese analogues represent little threat to the continued consumption of natural cheeses: Their major role at present is undoubtedly in the cost-cutting exercises of pizza manufacturers. The dairy industry has to take the view that imitation products are the result of developments in product technology and market demand. Thus not to get involved would mean curtailment of product innovation and market opportunities.
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The relationship between instrumental (vane method, texture profile analysis (TPA), uniaxial compression) and sensory texture measurements of Cheddar cheeses was investigated. A Haake VT 550 viscotester equipped with a four-bladed vane rotor was used for the vane test. Instrumental TPA was performed with a TA.XT2 Texture Analyser, and compression variables were calculated from TPA data. Vane parameters were significantly correlated with respective variables of compression and TPA (r=0.56–0.91), and sensory tests (r=0.54–0.88). Multivariate analysis indicated that seven sensory attributes of ten commercial Cheddar cheeses were satisfactorily predicted (calibration regression coefficient,Rcal >0.62) by variables of the vane, uniaxial compression and TPA tests. In particular, cheese firmness and cohesiveness evaluated by sensory panel were well described by vane stress and apparent strain. The results validate the vane method as an alternative to the existing cheese testing methods for rapid evaluation of cheese texture.
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Textural differences between Cheddar and Cheshire cheeses were examined rheologically to provide a means of distinguishing these two English cheeses. Body breakdown of a 60-wk Cheshire sample occurred at a lower strain than did a 20-wk sample, whereas a 60-wk Cheddar sample did not break down under the same conditions. All cheeses followed the Arrhenius equation, and the energy of activation obtained varied with age and type of cheese. Other analytical techniques showed differences between the samples but were not suitable for distinguishing one type of cheese from the other.
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Casein gels are found in hard and soft dairy foods such as cheese and yogurt, and their rheological properties can be analyzed with various instrumental techniques. Empirical tests of cheese have been used since cheese making began, and imitative tests have been conducted in laboratories since the 1930s. Texture profile analysis is now the most frequently used imitative test. Fundamental tests provide a better representation of cheese and yogurt rheology because of the systematic mathematical treatment involved. Uniaxial compression and stress and strain relaxation tests are among the fundamental tests performed on cheese, and viscosity data are often used to investigate the physical characteristics of yogurt. Small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements are applicable to both products. Food scientists can acquire a clearer picture of the structure of dairy foods by performing appropriate rheological studies of the casein matrix.
Article
The effects of fine structure and molecular size on the rheological properties of six mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-β-d-glucans (β-glucans) in the solution and gel state were studied. Molecular size characterization was carried out with high-performance size exclusion chromatography combined with a refractive index detector. Samples were divided into two groups according to the values of apparent molecular weight (Mw) of the peak fraction of the main eluting peak calculated as ∼200×103 for an oat, a barley, and a wheat β-glucan and ∼100×103 for an oat and a barley β-glucan, and a lichenan sample. All polysaccharides analyzed by 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cellulosic oligomers released by the action of lichenase showed the typical fine structure of mixed-linkage linear (1→3), (1→4)-β-d-glucan. Following lichenase digestion of β-glucans, the molar ratios of tri- to tetrasaccharides (DP3/DP4) were found to follow the order of lichenan (24.5)>wheat (3.7)>barley (2.8–3.0)>oat (2.1). Differences in critical concentration (c∗ ∗), viscosity, viscoelastic and shear thinning properties among samples were dependent mainly on differences in molecular size of the polymeric chains as well as on the β-glucan fine structure. All β-glucan isolates were able to form gels, as probed by dynamic rheometry; with decreasing molecular size and increasing DP3/DP4 ratio, the gelation time decreased and the gelation rate increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that cereal β-glucan gels exhibit rather broad endothermic gel→sol transitions at 55–80 °C, while lichenan gels give a sharper transition, implying a more cooperative process. The DSC kinetic data showed similar responses to that from dynamic rheometry; the rate of development of the endotherm increased with increasing DP3/DP4 ratio of the polysaccharide. Furthermore, the storage modulus (G′) and the apparent melting enthalpy values (plateau ΔH) increased with decreasing molecular size and with increasing DP3/DP4 ratio. The melting temperature of the gel network, as determined by DSC and dynamic rheometry, was found to increase with the molecular size and the DP3/DP4 ratio of β-glucans; the Tm for lichenan was ∼89 °C and for cereal β-glucans varied in the narrow range of ∼65–72 °C. Large deformation mechanical tests (compression mode) up to failure revealed an increase in strength and a decrease in brittleness of mixed-linkage β-glucan gels with increasing DP3/DP4 ratio and molecular size of the polysaccharide.
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The present study examines the thermal and mechanical properties of agarose/sugar mixtures using micro-DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyser. In DSC experiments, addition of sugar was reflected in a broad exothermic event compared to sharp transitions generated by the aqueous agarose preparation. At high levels of co-solute, agarose networks show a reduced enthalpic content per gram of the polymer thus arguing for a transformation to a more entropic finely stranded networks of reduced number of junctions zones, the networks exhibited long large deformation properties. At high levels of sugar, agarose samples show a mechanical spectrum that can be modelled according to the WLF/free-volume theory, which requires an entropic lightly cross-linked network.
Article
The effects on the perceived flavour of processed cheese analogue (spreadable type), of changes in the milk protein base, and of the substitution of milk fat by starch or microparticulate whey protein were studied. The gross chemical composition (g 100 g−1fat 12.3-22.8, protein 11.6-14.4 and carbohydrates 3.2-9.0) of the experimental samples was within the range typical of full- and low-fat commercial processed cheese spreads. Differences in sensory character were not associated with microbial contamination because coliforms were absent, and the counts of total viable count (TVC), yeast and moulds and of aerobic and anaerobic sporeforming bacteria were of no practical significance; for example, TVC=2.4×103cfu g−1). Products made using high protein skimmed milk powder were notably different in flavour and aftertaste from those made with retentate. Moreover, the analogues incorporating anhydrous milk fat were easily distinguished from those containing the other `lipid' types by their higher ratings for `creamy' and `buttery' flavour. Overall intensity of `flavour', `bitterness' and the `intensity' and `persistence' of aftertaste were influenced by storage period. These changes were associated with protein degradation during storage.
Article
During the past 15 years, the demand for reduced- and low-fat cheeses has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, fat plays a key role in the flavor, body and texture of cheese. Many commercial reduced- and low-fat cheeses as a result exhibit poor flavor and texture. Intense research in the area of reduced- and low-fat cheese technology has produced three basic strategies to combat problems associated with fat reduction.
Article
Low fat cheeses are usually characterized as having poor body, flavor, and functional properties because of high moisture and low salt. Procedures developed for manufacturing low fat cheeses include processing techniques, starter culture selection, and use of additives. Fat removed in manufacturing low fat cheese is largely replaced with moisture and the ratio of moisture in fat free substance of cheese is similar to that of a full fat cheese. Lower cook temperatures and times, high draining and milling pH, and washing of curd are used. Considerations include use of slow cultures (to prevent excessive acid formation and bitter flavors), adjunct cultures, and enzymes. Homogenization of cream improves body and texture and functional properties of low fat cheeses, and increases yield when used for up to 50% reduction in fat. Stabilizers, fat-replacers, and sweet buttermilk have also been used to improve the quality of low fat cheeses.
Article
Pizza cheese was manufactured from two types of Ultrafiltration (UF)-fortified milks: high solids (UFHS; 15.2% TS) and medium solids (UFMS; 13.5%). Cheese milks were obtained by blending cold processed UF retentate with partially skimmed milk and UF (skim milk) retentate. Cheese functionality was assessed using oscillatory rheology and by baking on a pizza. Gels made from UF-fortified milks had similar clotting times and they clotted faster than control milk. Shear stress values of gels from UF-fortified milks were higher than control. Fat recoveries in the cheeses increased in the order UFHS
Article
The effect of two commercially available adjunct cultures, LBC 80 (Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus) and CR-213 (containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis) on the compositional, sensory and textural characteristics of low-fat hard ewes’ milk cheese of the Kefalograviera-type was investigated. Two controls, a full-fat cheese (30.6g 100g−1 fat, 37.8g 100g−1 moisture) and a low-fat cheese (9.7g 100g−1 fat, 48.6g 100g−1 moisture, made using a modified procedure), were also prepared. The results indicated that the addition of the adjunct cultures did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the composition (moisture, fat, protein, salt, pH) and textural characteristics (force and compression to fracture, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness) of the low-fat cheese. The low-fat cheeses made with the adjunct cultures received significantly higher scores for flavour intensity and body and texture than the control low-fat cheese after 90 and 180 days ripening. Moreover, the low-fat cheeses made with adjunct cultures received flavour scores similar to those of the full-fat cheese, but significantly lower body and texture scores.
Article
The yield, moisture loss and viscoelastic properties of white fresh cheeses containing sodium caseinate were determined and compared to those of a reference cheese without sodium caseinate. Added sodium caseinate resulted in higher cheese yields and lower moisture losses during aging. Creep compliance tests were performed on the cheeses using a parallel plate viscoelastometer. Multiple regression analysis of the experimental data provided first order models that explain the variation of most of the viscoelastic parameters of the white fresh cheeses in terms of sodium caseinate level, moisture content, aging and pH. The instantaneous elastic compliance and the Newtonian viscosity increased with moisture content and pH, respectively. The retarded elastic compliances increased and the first retardation time decreased during aging. The influence of sodium caseinate on most of the viscoelastic parameters was significant.
Article
Imitation cheese was manufactured with various levels of pre-gelatinized maize starch. Melt characteristics were assessed by an empirical melt test, based on the Olson and Price method. Using dynamic rheology, the storage modulus (G′), the loss modulus (G”) and the loss angle (tan δ) were measured as a function of temperature (22-100°C). Melt-ability decreased with increasing levels of starch. Maximum tan δ values and the temperature at which they occurred decreased with increasing starch levels. A high correlation (r2=+0.96) was found between the maximum tan δ values and melt-ability as assessed by the empirical method. Tan δ may be a useful indicator of imitation cheese melt-ability.
Article
The texture of a variety of French cheeses was studied by examining their compositional and mechanical parameters. The data obtained were correlated to those derived from a panel assessment of the sensory textural attributes of the samples. Statistical treatment of the results employing cluster analysis, analysis of variance, and redundancy analysis revealed that the most influential objective variables to characterize the cheese texture are the dry matter content and the resistance to force compression at 10% deformation of the initial sample height. These variables were highly correlated with sensory attributes such as hardness, brittleness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness.
Article
The microstructure of acid skim milk gels (14% w/w milk protein low heat powder) with or without addition of locust bean gum (LBG), xanthan gum (XG) and LBG/XG blends was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), phase-contrast light microscopy (PCLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three polysaccharide concentrations (0.001%, 0.02% and 0.1%, w/w) were used for binary mixtures. In the case of ternary mixtures, three LBG/XG weight ratios were used (4/16, 11/9 and 16/4) at 0.02% total polysaccharide concentration. Control acid skim milk gels were structured by a homogeneous network of casein particles (0.1–0.7 μm in diameter) and clusters immobilizing whey in small pores (1–5 μm in diameter). Filamentous structures and small aggregates were observed at the surface of casein particles. Low concentration of LBG or XG (0.001% w/w) did not affect markedly the microstructure of acid skim milk gels. Conversely, LBG or XG at 0.02 or 0.1% concentration and LBG/XG blends at the three ratios selected had a great influence on the gel microstructure. Although the size and surface structure of the casein particles were not modified by the presence of polysaccharides, the primary casein network appeared very compact with a decrease of pore size and a large increase in the porosity of the network at the supramolecular level (sponge-like morphology). The effect is stronger for gels containing LBG and XG used at higher concentration and less apparent for gels containing LBG/XG blends. Skim milk/XG gels were highly organized into fibrous structures whereas skim milk/LBG gels were more heterogeneous. These structures were discussed in the light of volume-exclusion effects (demixing) and specific interactions between casein micelles and polysaccharides. At the three weight ratios, skim milk/LBG/XG gels displayed both jagged “coral-like”, “veil-like” and filamentous structures. These structures could originate from a secondary network constituted by the known LBG/XG synergistic interactions.
Article
The viscoelastic properties and the matrix structures of three different retailed soft cheeses (M1, M2 and M3), for which the manufacturing process was varied, were studied from the surface to the centre of the cheese using dynamic rheology and front-face fluorescence spectroscopy. The storage modulus (G′) and the loss modulus (G″) values of the samples increased from the surface to the inner part of the cheeses, while strain and tan δ decreased. Protein tryptophan (excitation: 290 nm; emission: 305–400 nm) and vitamin A (emission: 410 nm; excitation: 250–350 nm) spectra were recorded at 20°C in samples cut from the surface to the centre. For each cheese, the data sets containing fluorescence spectra and rheology data were evaluated using multidimensional statistical methods. In addition, the three cheeses were well discriminated by their spectra by applying factorial discriminant analysis. From the tryptophan fluorescence data sets, 94% and 87.7% good classifications were observed for calibration and validation groups, respectively. A better classification (100% and 96% for principal and test samples) was obtained from the vitamin A spectra. Canonical correlation analysis was performed on the rheology and tryptophan fluorescence spectral data sets, and on the rheology and vitamin A fluorescence spectra data sets. The two groups of variables were found to be highly correlated since the squared canonical coefficients for canonical variates 1, 2, 3, 4 were higher than 0.98. These high correlations indicate that cheese rheology is a reflection of its structure at the molecular level.
Article
Rotational rheometers and texture analysers are commonly used to test liquid and solid samples, respectively. This paper explores data provided by a texture analyser and a rheometer compared with that provided by a trained taste panel for semi-solid food.Associations are shown to exist for four different types of cream cheese with respect to the findings of a taste panel, rotational rheometry and texture profile analysis (TPA). Hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness are discussed for both taste panel and TPA. Good relationships were found between these techniques for hardness and adhesiveness, cohesiveness exhibited a less satisfactory correlation. In the case of the rheometer, yield stress, complex viscosity and viscoelastic moduli were measured. Yield stress was found to relate to hardness and adhesiveness, and complex viscosity and viscous modulus had relevance for cohesiveness. Elastic modulus, measured by the rheometer, and TPA elastic quality also correlated well. The relationships between textural measurements and microstructural engineering of the products have been discussed. The presence of vegetable gums, in particular addition of guar in instances where fat content is low can reduce the textural impact of the fat removal. The effects of high levels of calcium in spreadable products can be reduced by the addition of citric acid, which has been shown in the past to solubilise colloidal calcium phosphate.Combining instrumental techniques with a taste panel can increase the efficiency product quality assurance and design.
Article
The influence of pectin (low methoxyl—LM, low methoxyl amidated—LMA, high methoxyl—HM) on the stability of milk was investigated using the dynamic light scattering and viscosimetric methods. At pH 6.7, a depletion flocculation of the casein micelles was observed. This mechanism involves the exclusion of the polymer pectin chains from the space between colloidal particles (casein micelles), which induces an effective attractive interaction between the colloidal particles. If the attraction is strong enough a phase separation occurs in agreement with the theoretical predictions.At pH 5.3 the pectin molecule adsorbs onto the casein micelles; at low concentrations of pectin, a bridging flocculation is observed. On increasing the pectin concentration further the casein micelles become fully coated and attraction between the particles is lowered. On increasing the pH from 5.3 to 6.7, pectin desorbs. These experiments thus show that depending on the interaction between protein and polysaccharide, different ‘instabilities’ are observed.
Article
A kefir-type drink was prepared by fermentation with kefir granules of cheese whey containing fructose and black raisin extract. Milk (20%) was then added to improve its rheological and sensory properties and in order to prevent casein coagulation and sedimentation in the acid environment of the mixture, a number of polysaccharides were evaluated as stabilizers. Xanthan appears to be more effective at relatively low concentration levels (0.2%) compared to guar gum while high methoxyl pectin, a well-known acid milk drink stabilizer was less effective in this respect even at concentrations as high as 1%. Particle size and rheology measurements pointed out to the importance of the weak gel properties of xanthan solution in stabilizing the system against ‘wheying off’ while other stabilization mechanisms such as particle network formation as a result of depletion flocculation in the case of guar gum or pectin adsorption at the casein particle surface resulting in steric stabilization appear to be less dominant.
Article
Functionality of modified tapioca starch and lecithin as fat mimetics in Feta cheese was studied. Cheeses were made with no fat mimetics, 1% modified tapioca starch, 0.2% lecithin, and a combination of 0.5% tapioca starch and 0.1% lecithin. Low-fat Feta cheeses (9–16% fat) were prepared from bovine 1.6–2.2% fat milk. Cheeses were ripened for 45 d before chemical, sensory, SEM, and textural evaluation. Levels of fat and fat mimetics significantly affected moisture, protein, yield, and hardness. Reduced-fat cheeses with modified tapioca starch had the highest moisture (67.6%) and lowest protein (13.5%) content and their hardness was higher. SEM micrographs revealed that the size of protein aggregates increased as the fat content of the cheese decreased. The combination of modified tapioca starch and lecithin improved flavor, texture and overall acceptability of reduced-fat and low-fat Feta cheeses.
Article
The composition, proteolysis, sensory and texture characteristics of low-fat white-brined cheeses (∼60% fat reduction) made from bovine milk and containing two commercial hydrocolloid-fat replacers (1% w/w Simplesse® D-100 and 0.125% w/w Novagel™ NC-200) were examined throughout aging for 90 d. For comparison, the low-fat variant without fat replacers (L) and the full-fat cheese (F) were also studied. All the low-fat products showed reduced values for MNFS and yield, whereas the moisture and protein content significantly increased; however, the cheeses containing fat replacers had higher moisture and yield values than the L product. The extent of proteolysis and lipolysis in the low-fat white-brined cheeses made with the fat replacers significantly increased compared to the F cheese. The kinetics of αs1-and β-casein degradation as well as the evolution of the peptide profile (reversed phase HPLC) were not largely affected by the hydrocolloids. For the cheeses containing fat replacers, the mean values of TPA (texture profile analysis) parameters and the maximum stress (σmax at 80% deformation on uniaxial compression) were significantly less than those of the L cheese, showing a great improvement in cheese texture when the fat replacers were included. The textural attributes of the product made with Novagel™ resembled more closely those of the F cheese. Significant correlations (p<0.05) with negative slopes were obtained between the variables reflecting the degree of proteolysis and instrumental (TPA) texture parameters; such relationships were even stronger when the data were analyzed for each type of cheese separately. The rheological measurements showed an improvement in the low-fat cheeses containing fat replacers, but this was not clearly evident by sensory testing. Overall, the full-fat white-brined cheese was perceived as more elastic, less salty and had higher flavor and odor intensity scores than all low-fat variants. Although Simplesse® (S) had a marked improving effect on cheese appearance, the product was rated as a harder cheese than its full-fat counterpart.
Article
To achieve the required texture Cheddar cheese must undergo a substantial ripening period. To investigate changes that occur during ripening, the textural attributes of an English Cheddar were evaluated by a trained panel at selected stages during maturation (0, 8, 18, 28, 34, 50 and 64 weeks). Rheological properties were determined using compression and stress relaxation tests carried out on an Instron Universal Testing machine. Panel results indicated changes in most textural attributes, particularly springiness and creaminess and, to a lesser extent, firmness. Variations in the rheological properties also occurred, most notably a decrease in strain at fracture. Progressive changes in the textural and rheological properties could be divided into three distinct stages representing the period prior to retail sale, the stage at which the cheese would be commercially classified as ‘mild’ through to ‘medium’ and a final stage at the end of which it would be labelled ‘Mature’.
Article
The use of sucrose solutions as a binary solvent for the agarose biopolymer is investigated over a broad range of concentration. Three different molecular weight agarose samples have been studied in different sucrose/water ratios using small and large deformation mechanical measurements, DSC measurements, turbidity measurements and TEM microscopy. It is shown that the addition of sucrose results in a less heterogeneous gel network though the aggregation of helices into fibres is still present. The small deformation oscillatory measurements indicate that addition of sucrose induces a modification of the kinetics of gelation, i.e. a modification of the apparent gelation temperature and long-time modulus. Large deformation results indicate that increasing the sucrose/water ratio results in a large increase in the strain at failure, which can extend from 40% to more than 150%. This phenomenon can be explained by melting (under stress) and reforming of cross-links within a more homogeneous physical network (character exhibited by gelatin/water gels). Strain and stress at failure have been fitted empirically using an exponential function whose parameters can be interpreted in terms of agarose molecular weight and concentration. An inflexion point is always found at 20% w/w sucrose concentration when strain and stress at failure and also the Young's modulus are plotted as functions of sucrose concentration at a given agarose concentration.In addition it is concluded that the effect of agarose average molecular weight on gelation and gel properties is reduced when sucrose is added.
Article
Contenido: Elaboración de quesos, un repaso; Métodos reológicos fundamentales; Pruebas de quesos en un solo eje; Propiedades de fractura del queso; Viscosidad lineal del queso; Viscosidad no lineal el queso; Textura del queso; Medición del derretimiento del queso y propiedades de flujo; Medición de la estirabilidad del queso; Factores que afectan las propiedades funcionales del queso.
Article
The effect of mixing on the properties of agar gels was investigated with consideration being given to both macrostructural and microstructural characteristics of the gel through rheological techniques that include conventional and ultrasound based methods and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Agar gels of 1 and 3% concentrations were prepared. The gels were subjected to three different mixing conditions: no mix, slow mix (400 rpm), and fast mix (900 rpm). A pulse echo ultrasound technique was utilized to obtain velocity measurements and these velocity measurements were used to obtain ultrasound derived mechanical modulus values. A controlled-stress rheometer was used to obtain rheological properties of the gel as well. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was performed to determine thermal transitions of the various systems studied in order to obtain information on the degree of microstructural association of the agarose fractions. Mixing speed affected the degree of porosity induced in the system, by incorporation of the air bubbles, and the rheology of the system. Both ultrasound derived mechanical properties and those obtained in a conventional rheometer showed that mixed gels were stronger than the no mix gels in spite of the no mix gels exhibited negligible porosity, i.e. they did not have bubbles that could weak the macrostructure of the gels. In addition, DSC results indicated that gels mixed at different conditions exhibited thermal transitions at different temperatures. These results showed that material properties of agar gels might be more sensitive to changes in the microstructure than the macrostructure of these systems. This highlights the importance on preparation conditions and utility of an agar gel. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Handbook of Fat Replacers
  • R Siebel
  • A J Sylvia
Siebel, R. & Sylvia, A.J. (1996). Handbook of Fat Replacers. Pp. 161– 174.
Comparison of full-fat and low-fat cheese analogues H
  • Liu
Comparison of full-fat and low-fat cheese analogues H. Liu et al.