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The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving

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This is why computers are inferior tutors
... An implication for classroom teaching is that teachers are the more competent knowers who create effectual interactional environments for learners to participate in and ultimately scaffold learners' language development (van Lier, 1996(van Lier, , 2004Hall, 2022). The scaffolded assistance has been thoroughly discussed within the sociocultural theory (Wood et al., 1976;Vygotsky, 1978;Wertsch, 1985;van Lier, 1996van Lier, , 2004Lantolf and Thorne, 2006;Lantolf, 2011). McCormick and Donato (2000), e.g., examine six scaffolded roles of teacher questions following Wood et al. (1976) and Wertsch (1985): recruitment, reduction in degrees of freedom, direction maintenance, marking critical features, frustration control, and demonstration. ...
... The scaffolded assistance has been thoroughly discussed within the sociocultural theory (Wood et al., 1976;Vygotsky, 1978;Wertsch, 1985;van Lier, 1996van Lier, , 2004Lantolf and Thorne, 2006;Lantolf, 2011). McCormick and Donato (2000), e.g., examine six scaffolded roles of teacher questions following Wood et al. (1976) and Wertsch (1985): recruitment, reduction in degrees of freedom, direction maintenance, marking critical features, frustration control, and demonstration. McCormick and Donato (2000) describe how questions as dynamic discursive tools construct collaboration and facilitate comprehension. ...
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Teacher talk plays an important role in second-language classroom interaction. Studies are informed by multiple theories and yet could be classified under two general approaches, i.e., cognitive and social. The two approaches provide different but complementary perspectives on the role of teacher talk in interaction, with a focus on either learners' cognitive change or their social participation. A conversation between them is called for in the academic field to understand their interdependent relationship as well as the loss and gain in the respective approach. However, the conversation is difficult to launch because the cognitive and social approaches have developed distinct perspectives on what constitutes language and how learning evolves, leading to seemingly incompatible descriptive paradigms. With reference to systemic functional linguistics (SFL), this article argues for reconciling the two approaches in the following aspects. First, the meaning-oriented view of language in SFL expands the learning scope beyond language forms and offers both approaches an angle to reconsider the focus of the interaction. Second, the semiotic view of learning in SFL blurs the boundary of cognition and language use and provides a perspective for understanding the mediated role of language in the cognitive and social processes of learning. Finally, the functions of scaffolding in teacher talk revealed by SFL based on a linguistic analysis may not only enrich the description of each approach but also enable findings across the two approaches to be comparable. It is anticipated that SFL would create new spaces for the conversation between the two approaches.
... Lastly, if automated chatbots are to be a norm in education, the type of help they provide must be explored in greater depth. One way of doing so is to turn to scaffolding theory (Wood et al., 1976), which emphasises personalized learning. As this chatbot becomes more sophisticated for future runs, there needs to be room for the brains of the chatbot, the AI-led NLP engine, to learn more effective teaching and scaffolding techniques. ...
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... However, there are also many direct interventions that can support the development of a respectful attitude. To get some ideas in this regard, we can draw inspiration from the idea of tutoring as it was set up by Jerome Bruner [75] in the study of children's learning. In fact, tutoring is a type of relationship that is established between two subjects, one of which is more competent than the other. ...
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