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The Impact of Psychological Flexibility and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on Health and Productivity at Work

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Psychological Flexibility and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)Overview of Acceptance and Commitment TrainingIntroducing ACT in the WorkplaceResearch on Psychological Flexibility and ACT in the WorkplaceReferences

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... In the work environment, psychological flexibility means people with the capacity to focus on the present moment to being open and curious and, depending on what the situation affords, behaving in line with ones chosen goals and values at work (Bond et al., , 2013. Although acceptance and commitment therapy initially postulated that psychological flexibility may vary across different contexts (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), recently, psychological flexibility has been well extended to an organisational context and been found to reinforce employees psychological health and work productivity (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010;. The role of psychological flexibility in facilitating work-related outcomes has been investigated in previous research via different research methods, including general assessment, work-specific assessment, and group intervention (Bond & Bunce, 2003;Bond & Flaxman, 2006;Bond et al., , 2008Bond et al., , 2010Bond et al., , 2013. ...
... Although acceptance and commitment therapy initially postulated that psychological flexibility may vary across different contexts (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), recently, psychological flexibility has been well extended to an organisational context and been found to reinforce employees psychological health and work productivity (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010;. The role of psychological flexibility in facilitating work-related outcomes has been investigated in previous research via different research methods, including general assessment, work-specific assessment, and group intervention (Bond & Bunce, 2003;Bond & Flaxman, 2006;Bond et al., , 2008Bond et al., , 2010Bond et al., , 2013. These studies consistently demonstrated that people having a higher level of psychological flexibility at work are more able to engross in goal-directed and value-directed actions in approaching effective work outcomes (Bond et al., 2010(Bond et al., , 2013. ...
... The role of psychological flexibility in facilitating work-related outcomes has been investigated in previous research via different research methods, including general assessment, work-specific assessment, and group intervention (Bond & Bunce, 2003;Bond & Flaxman, 2006;Bond et al., , 2008Bond et al., , 2010Bond et al., , 2013. These studies consistently demonstrated that people having a higher level of psychological flexibility at work are more able to engross in goal-directed and value-directed actions in approaching effective work outcomes (Bond et al., 2010(Bond et al., , 2013. These studies connote that psychological flexibility may further contribute to individual proactivity at work. ...
Article
How to promote employees to be proactive behaviourally is a significant issue in the literature because it would benefit organisations in several ways. Drawing on the acceptance and commitment model, we proposed a new antecedent, psychological flexibility that might contribute to employees' proactive work behaviour. Furthermore, we investigated how the contextual role of supervisor need for structure exhibits a cross-level moderating effect on the relationship between employee psychological flexibility at work and proactive work behaviour based on interactionism. Data from 241 full-time employees and their corresponding 45 managers indicated that employee psychological flexibility was positively associated with proactive work behaviour. More importantly, the supervisor need for structure played a moderating role, suggesting that employees would demonstrate greater proactive work behaviour especially when the supervisors have a high need for structure. Implications for psychological flexibility, proactivity, and person-situation interactional research are discussed.
... There are six processes involved: acceptance, cognitive defusion, being in the present moment, self as context, values and committed action. Each of these processes are supposed to be not just a strategy for preventing and alleviating psychopathology but a positive psychological skill themselves (Bond et al., 2010). ...
... Although psychological flexibility is mainly a theory of psychological health (recently developed within the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in a contextual approach), the implications of it, as argued by Bond (2010) may help people to be sensitive to, and contact, contingencies of reinforcement that bear on chosen values (for example doing well at work, even if it is just to get paid), thus making clear its usefulness to the work setting (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven & Biron, 2010). ...
... Although psychological flexibility is mainly a theory of psychological health (recently developed within the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in a contextual approach), the implications of it, as argued by Bond (2010) may help people to be sensitive to, and contact, contingencies of reinforcement that bear on chosen values (for example doing well at work, even if it is just to get paid), thus making clear its usefulness to the work setting (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven & Biron, 2010). ...
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Today, workplace is constantly changing. Organizations are confronted with multiple challenges, brought by continuous change. Facing this situation, organizations have opted for two different types of strategies, either the traditional deficit or problem-solving approach or positive-abundance approach which considers that the goal of the organization is to embrace and enable the highest potential of the organization and its employees. A literature review of the latest advances in positive organizational research was conducted in order to shed light onto two main questions: Are mutual gains for the organization and employees possible? And, what does the evidence shows about the development of theory, research and application of positive approaches? Several keywords and descriptors from positive approaches were used. Finally, 154 articles were reviewed. The results point in favor of the mutual gains but also indicate a lack of theoretical development and the need for further research. Other matters are likewise discussed.
... Estas terapias se usan ampliamente con múltiples problemas psicológicos y tienen evidencia empírica sobre su eficacia (A-Tjak et al., 2015;Hayes, 2019;Kanter et al., 2017;Ruiz, 2010). ACT también está teniendo resultados prometedores con un creciente éxito en el contexto laboral para mejorar la salud (Bond et al., , 2008, el rendimiento laboral y la productividad (Bond et al., 2010). ...
... Por lo que esta terapia desde un primer momento ha estado vinculada al contexto laboral, y sus evidencias han nutrido de manera paralela los hallazgos encontrados en psicología básica, clínica y laboral. Las aplicaciones de estos modelos están teniendo resultados prometedores en el lugar de trabajo con un creciente éxito en el contexto laboral para mejorar la salud (Bond et al., 2008;Macías et al., 2019) el rendimiento y la productividad (Bond et al., 2010). La intervención con FACT presentada aquí y que consideramos innovadora, supone la convergencia entre modelos con raíces filosóficas y analíticas comunes desde el "contextualismo funcional". ...
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Introducción y objetivos: Este estudio examina la eficiencia y efectividad de un programa breve, basado en las dos terapias contextuales más representativas, para mejorar la salud general, y el bienestar laboral de los empleados/ as de una cooperativa agrícola. La evaluación pretest se realizó con 25 empleados de la misma empresa, de los cuales 15 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión; estableciendo como punto de corte puntuaciones moderadas de malestar psicológico. Los empleados recibieron una intervención basada en un programa breve con la combinación de la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso junto con la Psicoterapia Analítica-Funcional (FACT). Material y Métodos: Los participantes recibieron 3 sesiones, 2 individuales y 1 grupal. Se evaluaron con el Cuestionario de Salud General (GHQ-12); la Escala de Observación de Recompensa Ambiental (EROS); y la satisfacción laboral, que se evaluó con la subescala de bienestar laboral de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico (EBP). Se utilizó un diseño intra-grupos con evaluación pre y post intervención. Resultados: Los participantes mejoraron en las variables analizadas, siendo estadísticamente significativos para las variables: GHQ-12 (W = -3.34, gl = 14, p = .001), EROS (W = -3.05, gl = 14, p = .002) y EBP (W = -3.08, gl = 14, p = .002). Conclusiones: Se discuten las implicaciones de la combinación de ambas aproximaciones que comparten las raíces filosóficas y analíticas basadas en el contextualismo funcional. Esta intervención se plantea como un modelo efectivo para producir cambios en la salud de los trabajadores/as en breves periodos de tiempo, de forma rápida y no invasiva para empleados y empresas.
... Una de estas terapias, y probablemente la más representativa, es la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (Lu- ciano Soriano y Valdivia, 2006). Desde la Terapia de Aceptación y Com- promiso (ACT) se han llevado a cabo desarrollos que han impulsado el trabajo en aspectos centrales como la clarificación y el compromiso con los valores y metas personales, incluidas las relacionadas con la salud (Hayes y Duckworth, 2006;Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven y Biron, 2010). Las intervenciones desde este marco, tienen como objetivo pro- mover la flexibilidad psicológica a través de la aceptación emocional, la defusión cognitiva, el contacto con el momento presente, el yo como contexto, la explicitación de los valores de la persona y la promoción de comportamientos ligados a ellos (Luciano y Valdivia, 2006). ...
... Las intervenciones desde este marco, tienen como objetivo pro- mover la flexibilidad psicológica a través de la aceptación emocional, la defusión cognitiva, el contacto con el momento presente, el yo como contexto, la explicitación de los valores de la persona y la promoción de comportamientos ligados a ellos (Luciano y Valdivia, 2006). En concre- to, el mindfulness o atención plena se ha extendido como procedimien- to dentro de ACT por su potencia para facilitar habilidades para estar centrado en el momento presente, no juzgar la experiencia interna o desarrollar el yo como contexto (Bond et al., 2010). Aplicado a la salud, la terapia ACT podría ser especialmente beneficiosa para alcanzar obje- tivos terapéuticos como el aumento de la adherencia a los tratamientos, la mejora de la imagen, autoestima y calidad de vida en el caso de las enfermedades crónicas, el manejo del dolor y fatiga crónica, y la puesta en marcha de hábitos saludables (Shoenberger y Hayes, 2007). ...
... Wenzlaff and Wegner, 2000). The premise of ACT is that people can learn to accept their unwanted feelings and respond to them with committed action that serves valued goals, thereby undermining the ability of negative stimuli to determine subsequent behaviour and emotional states (Bond et al., 2010). ACT argues that a negative internal event will not necessarily lead to poor well-being and performance. ...
... They may be able to see each day's work as part of a pattern of progress towards a specific, long-term contribution to important goals for society (good quality of health care, education, etc.). This sensitivity to a long-term goal-related context may help them focus on the opportunities inherent in everyday situations rather than on the potentially difficult or frustrating aspects (Bond et al., 2010; Bond et al., 2008; Hayes et al., 2006). Taken together, our results suggest that psychological flexibility holds promising opportunities for research in work and organizational settings. ...
Article
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Drawing from job demands−resources theory (Demerouti et al., 2001), this article investigates the effect of psychological flexibility, relative to surface and deep acting, in the relationship between day-level emotional demands and exhaustion. A total of 170 not-for-profit service workers first filled in a questionnaire and then completed a diary survey over three consecutive workdays. The results of multilevel analyses suggest that person-level psychological flexibility was associated with lower levels of daily emotional exhaustion (measured at bedtime). Moreover, person-level psychological flexibility was found to attenuate, whereas person-level surface acting was found to strengthen, the association between day-level emotional demands and day-level exhaustion. Person-level deep acting had no significant effect on daily exhaustion. These findings extend previous research by demonstrating the role of psychological flexibility in encouraging employees to handle their emotions primarily by accepting them rather than actively regulating (i.e. suppressing or changing) them.
... The premise of ACT is that people can learn to accept their unwanted feelings and respond to them with committed action that serves valued goals, thereby undermining the ability of negative stimuli to determine subsequent behaviour and emotional states (Bond et al., 2010). ACT argues that a negative internal event will not necessarily lead to poor well-being and performance. ...
... They may be able to see each day's work as part of a pattern of progress towards a specific, long-term contribution to important goals for society (good quality of health care, education, etc.). This sensitivity to a long-term goal-related context may help them focus on the opportunities inherent in everyday situations rather than on the potentially difficult or frustrating aspects (Bond et al., 2010;Bond et al., 2008;Hayes et al., 2006). ...
... Las terapias basadas en la aceptación y el contacto con el momento presente (por ejemplo: Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso y Mindfulness o Conciencia Plena) están poco a poco acumulando evidencia a favor de la utilización de las mismas en el ámbito laboral con el objetivo de prevenir y/o reducir el estrés y otros efectos negativos del entorno laboral 84 . La terapia de aceptación y compromiso (ACT) busca aumentar la flexibilidad psicológica del individuo. ...
... Durante la intervención se trabajan seis componentes de la misma: la aceptación, la defusión cognitiva, el contacto con el momento presente, el yo como contexto, el esclarecimiento de los valores del individuo y la acción comprometida. Cada uno de estos procesos no son solamente una estrategia para prevenir y aliviar el estrés o el burnout, sino que son habilidades psicológicas positivas en sí mismas 84 . Por otra parte las terapias basadas en mindfulness buscan que el individuo mejore sus capacidades de concentración en el momento Los procesos de estrés laboral y desgaste profesional (burnout): diferenciación, actualización y líneas de intervención Raquel Rodríguez Carvajal, Sara de Rivas Hermosilla ...
Article
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Today´s workplace is constantly changing. Organizations are confronted with multiple challenges, brought by globalization and instability. This situation causes many professionals to experience frustration and a high level of emotional tension, which may easily lead to increased levels of occupational stress and burnout. The importance of studying occupational stress and burnout has led to an increase in the scientific productivity in these areas during the last years. The present literature review provides an overview and update of both occupational stress and burnout processes. The main models are presented as well as the current variables in study. The main lines of intervention that have been developed to date are also reviewed.
... A review completed by Chawla and Ostafin (2007) of studies investigating the relationship between experiential avoidance and psychopathology found that experiential avoidance was associated with substance use relapse, trauma symptoms, maladaptive coping, poor self-regulation, and psychiatric symptom severity. Conversely, facing the difficulty with acceptance and developing cognitive flexibility have been shown to promote health and work productivity (Bond et al. 2010). This is congruent with both Christian theology and studies examining faith maturity. ...
Article
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The practice of prayer has been shown to predict various mental health outcomes, with different types of prayer accounting for different outcomes. Considering the numerous stressors facing seminary students, which have only intensified throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, prayer may be a common coping strategy for students who study theology, spiritual growth, and leadership. The present study investigates the role that different types of prayer may have in reducing anxiety, depression, and work burnout among seminary students. Experiential avoidance is proposed as a mediator such that specific types of prayer contribute to greater spiritual and characterological formation through staying engaged in the midst of struggle. Longitudinal data was collected from 564 graduate seminary students from 17 institutions accredited by the Association of Theological Schools. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that experiential avoidance would mediate the relationship between colloquial, liturgical, meditative, and petitionary prayer types and the negative mental health outcomes of anxiety, depression, and work burnout. Results confirmed significant negative relationships between colloquial, liturgical, and meditative prayer types and all three mental health indicators, fully mediated by experiential avoidance. Petitionary prayer was not significantly related to lower levels of mental health. These results indicate that engaging in certain prayer practices may be a protective factor by facilitating experiential engagement.
... Whenever an organisations' manager is mindful of flexibility in maintaining organizational policy and managing workforce in today labour market, this will not only contribute to his/her success on the job, but growth and survival of that organisation. In the perspective of Bond, Flaxman Veldhoven, Biron (2010) maintain that managers who are more flexible are not expending their limited resources trying to change, control, but they are better able to notice and respond effectively to those performancerelated contingencies that exist in their current environment. ...
... high perceived task demands, threat perceptions, and/or low psychological flexibility) in early training impacts performance in the later stages of training and performance in the real operational context. Thankfully, unlike innate abilities that can be particularly difficult to change/ improve over time, research shows that psychological flexibility is a skill that may be taught and/or increased through mindfulness-based practice [76][77][78][79]. Furthermore, as mindfulness-based practice has already been linked to improved well-being and performance in laparoscopic skills training [60], the combined assessment of psychological flexibility and mindfulness may help to broaden our understanding of performance and establish more effective and individualised tools to prepare potential candidates for a surgical career. ...
Article
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Background Manual dexterity and visual-spatial ability are considered key to the development of superior laparoscopic skills. Nevertheless, these abilities do not reliably explain all the variance found in the technical performance of surgical trainees. Consequently, we must look beyond these abilities to improve our understanding of laparoscopic skills and to better identify/develop surgical potential earlier on. Purpose To assess the individual and collective impact of physical, cognitive, visual, and psychological variables on performance during and after basic simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. Method Thirty-four medical students (laparoscopic novices) completed a proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training program (using either a 2D or 3D viewing mode). This was followed by one testing session, a follow-up testing session with new (yet similar) tasks, and a series of physical, cognitive, visual, and psychological measures. Results The statistical models that best predicted variance in training performance metrics included four variables: viewing mode ( 2D vs 3D ), psychological flexibility , perceived task demands , and manual dexterity ( bimanual ). In subsequent testing , a model that included viewing mode and manual dexterity ( assembly ) best predicted performance on the pre-practiced tasks. However, for a highly novel, spatially complex laparoscopic task, performance was best predicted by a model that comprised viewing mode , visual-spatial ability , and perceived task demands . At follow-up, manual dexterity ( assembly ) alone was the best predictor of performance on new (yet similar) tasks. Conclusion By focussing exclusively on physical/cognitive abilities, we may overlook other important predictors of surgical performance (e.g. psychological variables). The present findings suggest that laparoscopic performance may be more accurately explained through the combined effects of physical, cognitive, visual, and psychological variables. Further, the results suggest that the predictors may change with both task demands and the development of the trainee. This study highlights the key role of psychological skills in overcoming initial training challenges, with far-reaching implications for practice.
... ACT is part of a larger group of cognitive-behavioral therapies, called third generation or contextual therapies (Hayes et al., 2012), and is based on a functional contextual perspective derived from behavioral principles and extended through relational framework theory. ACT argues that people's emotional and psychological distress can be explained not so much by the negative content or frequency of their internal psychological experiences, but by how they relate to difficult experiences when they arise (e.g., unpleasant thoughts, emotions, sensations, or memories; Bond et al., 2010). Mental health problems, such as depression or anxiety, may be caused by psychological processes such as attentional rigidity (i.e., not being able to direct one's attention to what is happening in the present since attention is focused on remembering past events or anticipating future events); avoidance of negative psychological experiences (i.e., devoting energy to controlling or eliminating negative emotions, feelings, or thoughts, due to avoidance); or lack of action by the person based on his or her personal values (i.e., behavior being governed and regulated by adverse mental content, rather than by contingencies of the present situation and an individual's personal values and goals; Hayes et al., 2012). ...
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This study aimed to explore whether an acceptance and commitment (ACT) approach to stress management training improved the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among a group of twenty-two health professionals from an intensive care unit. Questionnaires were administered before and after training, and follow-up was carried out one month after training, including semi-structured interviews with nine participants. The results reflected that the quasi-experimental group reduced their depression and stress levels significantly and showed improvements in stress in the follow-up. A qualitative thematic analysis of interviews showed that nurses were seeking a tool that would help them to cope more effectively with stressful situations and increase their knowledge of stress management. The themes in the professionals’ comments claimed specific improvements in their health, well-being, relationships, and psychological processes. In conclusion, ACT-based trainings offer a possible framework for mental health promotion in health care organizations.
... Psychological flexibility describes people's ability to be connected with the present and to regulate their emotions and actions despite the unpleasant feelings or thoughts they might have [17][18][19] and further, to take value-based actions. People with high psychological flexibility act according to their own values and accept their negative thoughts, emotions, and sensations rather than avoid them and deal with these negative emotions and thoughts by opening up to them and observing them from another perspective mindfully [20]. The origin of psychological flexibility lies in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) [17,18] and is based on the ACT theory of psychopathology. ...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The decline in the well-being among university students well as increasing dropouts has become a serious issue in universities around the world. Thus, effective ways to support students’ well-being and their ability to study are highly needed. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to build an intervention course for university students, which promotes both students’ well-being as well as their learning and study skills, and to describe the experimental study design that explores the effects of this intervention course. METHODS Research has shown that psychological flexibility has a great effect on the well-being as well as the study skills of students pursuing higher education. The basis of our intervention course was to promote psychological flexibility and students’ study skills with the help of peer support and reflection. RESULTS This course was offered as a voluntary course to all the students at the University of Helsinki twice during the academic year 2020-2021. The first course was from October to December and the second course was from January to March. This course was advertised in fall 2020 through social media and by different student organizations and program leaders at different faculties of the University of Helsinki. As of October 2020, we enrolled 566 students comprising 310 students for the course in fall 2020 and 256 students for the course in spring 2021. Of the 256 students who enrolled in the second course, 170 students voluntarily participated in this study and they answered the questionnaires, including all the measures, simultaneously with the participants in the first group and thus served as the control group. The effect of this course will be measured with multiple data, including questionnaire data, reflective journals, and physiological data of well-being with a longitudinal experimental design. This research very strictly follows the ethical guidelines drawn up by the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity. We expect to publish the results of this study in fall 2021 at the latest. CONCLUSIONS We argue that a web-based, 8-week intervention course, which promotes both student well-being and their study skills, is a good way to support students pursuing higher education, and both aspects should be considered when supporting university students. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT DERR1-10.2196/23613
... Contemporary occupational psychologists support this approach, emphasising the need to consider both contextual and individual factors. 28 Although a great deal more work is needed on the development of interventions that effectively support and build resilience, there is some relevant empirical evidence. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), Leppin et al found evidence of 'a modest but consistent benefit of resiliency training programs' for the general population. ...
... The present study suggests the importance of considering students' negative feelings and thought in learning and studying and how they cope with these as part of university learning and teaching. Key components in promoting psychological flexibility are acceptance of emotions, values and the present situation which has been found to promote psychological flexibility in the work place (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). Students should be encouraged to share their feelings and be made aware of the emotions that are encountered during learning and studying among peers and in teaching. ...
Article
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Prolonged study times and dropouts from university studies have created a need to examine more ways to support students’ studying. This study aims to examine the relationship between the self-regulated learning, psychological flexibility and student integration comprising teacher and student interaction, students’ commitment to studying as well as the relationship of these aspects to study progression. The participants of this study were 117 theology students. Items measuring student integration were first analysed with factor analysis. The relationship between student integration, psychological flexibility, self-regulated learning and study progression was analysed with correlation analyses and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show that psychological flexibility is related to study progression, self-regulated learning and student integration. The effect of self-regulated learning and student integration to study progression was not significant. This study suggests that students’ way of coping with negative thoughts and emotions should be taken into account when considering learning and teaching.
... Also, previous studies have highlighted other strategies that may reduce WPC among individuals high in neuroticism. For instance, cognitive and behavioural therapies based on mindfulness have been shown to be effective for this purpose (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). Martin and Tesser (1996) suggested that goal attainment and disengagement from the goal (along with distraction through off-job activities) help individuals reduce their level of WPC. ...
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p>Work-related perseverative cognition (WPC) involves rumination about the past and worry about the future regarding workplace issues. Such cognition impedes workers’ daily recovery and well-being as it fosters prolonged activation of psychological stressors during leisure time. Considering these detrimental effects, it is important, for both theoretical and practical considerations to highlight coping strategies that individuals can use to reduce daily WPC. Previous studies have led to contradictory results regarding the potential of social activities to decrease daily WPC. The aim of this study was to bring new insights on these results by examining how the benefits from time spent on social activities (i.e., reducing WPC) vary according to an individual’s level of neuroticism. A total of 48 daytime workers from a Canadian university completed evening diaries on 10 days during two consecutive workweeks (316 data points). Participants recorded the number of minutes spent on social activities after each workday and the extent to which a series of WPC had crossed their mind during the evening. Results from Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that time spent on social activities was associated to a daily decrease of WPC for workers low in neuroticism but to an increase of WPC for those high in neuroticism. This study suggests that workers high in neuroticism may be less likely to benefit from social activities. The discussion focuses on why potentially protective mechanisms associated with social activities may not be helpful to them. Practical implications based on individuals’ level of neuroticism are offered.</p
... diferentes estudos têm demonstrado que a flexibilidade psicológica caracteriza-se como importante promotora do bem-estar e da saúde mental no ambiente de trabalho (Bond et al., 2013), em função de as pessoas mais flexíveis experimentarem níveis mais elevados de motivação e de foco nas tarefas (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). Bond e Bunce (2000), por sua vez, em intervenção focada no aumento da flexibilidade psicológica como forma de reduzir os problemas de saúde mental no local de trabalho, constataram que a intervenção melhorou significativamente a saúde mental em geral, assim como os sintomas depressivos. ...
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The psychological flexibility at work is related to the ability of the individuals to take work goal directed actions, even in the presence of difficult internal experiences. The study aimed to adapt and gather evidences of validity of the Scale of Psychological Flexibility at Work (WAAQ) in the Brazilian context. The sample consisted of 583 employees, of both sexes, aged 18-62 years. Confirmatory factor analyzes showed that the Brazilian version of the scale reproduced fully the original structure of the instrument. The scale has also presented positive correlations with job engagement, mental health, openness to experience and life satisfaction, as well as a negative correlation with neuroticism. It was concluded that the WAAQ showed adequate psychometric properties and can therefore be used in the future research of flexibility at the workplace.
... Acceptance and experiential avoidance are examples of psychological flexibility and inflexibility, respectively, and it is still appropriate to use those terms; they refer to psychological stances and actions that people take when the present moment contains thoughts and feelings that people may not wish to contact; as a result, they are often used when discussing psychopathology and psychotherapy. However, ACT techniques are increasingly used to maximize behavioral effectiveness; for example, to facilitate job performance and sporting skills (e.g., Bond, Flaxman, & Bunce, 2008;Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). In many of these circumstances (but certainly not all), the avoidance of unwanted internal events is not necessarily ACT's main focus, rather it may be on identifying team values, improving problem solving, or enhancing contingency sensitivity and the like; in such cases, it is more appropriate to refer to ACT's attempts to increase psychological flexibility. ...
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The present research describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a second version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), which assesses the construct referred to as, variously, acceptance, experiential avoidance, and psychological inflexibility. Results from 2,816 participants across six samples indicate the satisfactory structure, reliability, and validity of this measure. For example, the mean alpha coefficient is .84 (.78–.88), and the 3-and 12-month test–retest reliability is .81 and .79, respectively. Results indicate that AAQ-II scores concurrently, longitudinally, and incrementally predict a range of outcomes, from mental health to work absence rates, that are consistent with its underlying theory. The AAQ-II also demonstrates appropriate discriminant validity. The AAQ-II appears to measure the same concept as the AAQ-I (r = .97) but with better psychometric consistency.
... While the majority of research exploring work and study burnout and engagement has been on organisational factors, there have been ongoing recommendations to explore the role of personal resources . Personal resources are important as not all stressors are avoidable and therefore differences in appraisal and varying ability to cope with stressors may significantly impact burnout and engagement (Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). Four personal resources were explored, based on relevance, prior research and whether the variables could be targeted in psychosocial interventions for burnout and engagement. ...
Article
Burnout has been related to increased suicidal thoughts, lower self-esteem and dropout in university students. Engagement in students, however, has been underexplored. This study uses the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model and the Conservational of Resources (COR) model to contribute to the knowledge about burnout and engagement in health profession university students. In particular, the role of personal resources, including psychological flexibility, was examined. Participants were 260 nursing, social work, occupational therapy and psychology students from 10 Australian universities. Regression analyses were used to test the JD-R model with a health profession student sample. The model was extended by including personal resources and testing mediation and moderation hypotheses. Personal resources contributed significant additional variance to the model. Mediation effects of study demands and resources with psychological flexibility were found, while moderation effects were not. The results indicate the validity of the JD-R model in a health profession student population and the important role of personal resources. Further design and evaluation of interventions targeting personal resources and study demands and resources are indicated.
... For discussions and research on how psychological flexibility relates to other work psychology constructs, see the following: for theories on coping and burnout, seeBond and Bunce (2000),and Lloyd, Bond and Flaxman (in press); for theories of motivation, need for achievement, and growth need strength seeBond, Flaxman and Bunce (2008), for emotional intelligence, seeDonaldson and Bond (2004), and for mindfulness, seeBond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven and Biron (2010). ...
Article
Over the past decade, experimental and longitudinal research has shown that psychological flexibility is an important determinant of mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace. These findings have been established using a general measure of this psychological process, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire–Revised (AAQ‐II). Consistent with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) theory, psychological flexibility may demonstrate even stronger associations with variables related to a work context (e.g., job satisfaction) if it were assessed using a measure of the construct that is tailored to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we first developed such a measure, the work‐related acceptance and action questionnaire (WAAQ). Findings from 745 participants across three studies reveal that the structure, validity and reliability of the WAAQ are satisfactory. As predicted, the WAAQ, in comparison with the AAQ‐II, correlates significantly more strongly with work‐specific variables. In contrast, the AAQ‐II tends to correlate more strongly with outcomes that are likely to be more stable across different contexts (e.g., mental health and personality variables). These findings are discussed in relation to ACT theory. Practitioner pointsExperimental and longitudinal research has shown that psychological flexibility is an individual characteristic that is an important determinant of mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace.The Work‐Related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (WAAQ) assesses psychological flexibility as it relates to the workplace.Psychological flexibility is a useful individual characteristic for practitioners to assess, as it is stable over time, but interventions can also enhance it, and, as a result, improve mental health and behavioural effectiveness in the workplace.
... Het managen van deze emoties heet emotiewerk, en op dit gebied heb ik eveneens (mede) een aantal studies verricht, bijvoorbeeld bij politieagenten (Van Gelderen et al., 2007) en bij medewerkers in de GGZ (Van Daalen et al., 2009). Verder heb ik samen met Michal Biron een dagboekstudie gedaan op dit gebied (Biron & van Veldhoven, in press), waarin ook werd gekeken in welke mate psychologische flexibiliteit (Bond et al., 2010) nuttig is om jezelf in emotiewerk staande te houden qua emotionele uitputting. Veel werknemers komen in dit type arbeid niet er aan toe om zichzelf te zijn in het werk: ze zetten hun eigen gevoelens opzij met het oog op de klant, de eisen van de organisatie, of de eisen van het vak. ...
... Managing your own emotions as part of your job is called emotion work, and I have collaborated in research on this interesting issue, for example in police officers (Van Gelderen et al., 2007) and in mental health care providers (Van Daalen et al., 2009). Further, together with Michal Biron I have performed a diary study on emotion work (Biron & van Veldhoven, in press), and investigated to what extent psychological flexibility (Bond et al., 2010) is a useful personality attribute in order to cope with emotional exhaustion in service jobs. Many employees is service jobs report that they are unable to be " themselves " or stay true to their " selves " during this type of work: they ignore their emotions with a view to customer needs, organizational demands or professional standards. ...
... ACT interventions aimed at increasing psychological fl exibility levels have improved performance in several domains (e.g., Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010;Ruiz & Luciano, 2009, 2012. In relation to the workplace, Bond and Hayes (2002) proposed that the "goal-related context sensitivity" feature of psychological fl exibility would help people to behave more effectively at work. ...
Article
Background: Psychological flexibility, a key construct of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), has recently been found to be an important determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in the workplace. This finding has led to designing a measure of psychological flexibility especially tailored to the workplace (the Work-related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; WAAQ) in the hope that it may reveal even stronger associations with variables related to a work context. Method: First, we back-translated the WAAQ into Spanish and then administered it to 209 workers, in addition to other relevant work-related measures. Results: Data were very similar to those obtained with the original WAAQ version. The WAAQ showed a very good internal consistency (a = .92) and a clear one-factor structure. It also showed higher correlations with work-specific measures than a general measure of psychological inflexibility (the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II; AAQ-II). As hypothesized by the ACT theory, the correlation between the WAAQ and the AAQ-II was moderate but not so high as to suggest that they are assessing the same construct. Conclusions: This Spanish translation of the WAAQ emerges as a reliable and valid measure of psychological flexibility in relation to the workplace.
... ACT interventions aimed at increasing psychological fl exibility levels have improved performance in several domains (e.g., Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010;Ruiz & Luciano, 2009, 2012. In relation to the workplace, Bond and Hayes (2002) proposed that the "goal-related context sensitivity" feature of psychological fl exibility would help people to behave more effectively at work. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Psychological flexibility, a key construct of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), has recently been found to be an important determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in the workplace. This finding has led to designing a measure of psychological flexibility especially tailored to the workplace (the Work-related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; WAAQ) in the hope that it may reveal even stronger associations with variables related to a work context. Method: First, we back-translated the WAAQ into Spanish and, then, administered it to 209 workers, in addition to other relevant work-related measures. Results: Data were very similar to those obtained with the original WAAQ version. The WAAQ showed a very good internal consistency (α = .92) and a clear one-factor structure. It also showed higher correlations with work-specific measures than a general measure of psychological inflexibility (the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – II; AAQ-II). As hypothesized by the ACT theory, the correlation between the WAAQ and AAQ-II was moderate but not so high as to suggest that they are assessing the same construct. Conclusions: This Spanish translation of the WAAQ emerges as a reliable and valid measure of psychological flexibility in relation to the workplace.
... Acceptance and experiential avoidance are examples of psychological flexibility and inflexibility, respectively, and it is still appropriate to use those terms; they refer to psychological stances and actions that people take when the present moment contains thoughts and feelings that people may not wish to contact; as a result, they are often used when discussing psychopathology and psychotherapy. However, ACT techniques are increasingly used to maximize behavioral effectiveness; for example, to facilitate job performance and sporting skills (e.g., Bond, Flaxman, & Bunce, 2008;Bond, Flaxman, van Veldhoven, & Biron, 2010). In many of these circumstances (but certainly not all), the avoidance of unwanted internal events is not necessarily ACT's main focus, rather it may be on identifying team values, improving problem solving, or enhancing contingency sensitivity and the like; in such cases, it is more appropriate to refer to ACT's attempts to increase psychological flexibility. ...
Article
The present research describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a second version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), which assesses the construct referred to as, variously, acceptance, experiential avoidance, and psychological inflexibility. Results from 2,816 participants across six samples indicate the satisfactory structure, reliability, and validity of this measure. For example, the mean alpha coefficient is .84 (.78-.88), and the 3- and 12-month test-retest reliability is .81 and .79, respectively. Results indicate that AAQ-II scores concurrently, longitudinally, and incrementally predict a range of outcomes, from mental health to work absence rates, that are consistent with its underlying theory. The AAQ-II also demonstrates appropriate discriminant validity. The AAQ-II appears to measure the same concept as the AAQ-I (r=.97) but with better psychometric consistency.
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The recent proliferation of applications of mindfulness in different fields of psychology, including its use in coaching psychology, has been noted and questions have been raised regarding transfer of concepts and issues of competence. As a psychologist who has been using mindfulness-based input over the past two decades, it seems an opportune time to continue a practice-based discussion on the use of mindfulness in the area of coaching psychology. In particular, to consider ways in which mindfulness inputs facilitate the development of resilience in managing issues arising in working life. This has wide relevance for applied psychologists in the area of executive coaching.
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The present study combines two separate research traditions that have been found to explain the way students deal with their university study and other challenges: psychological flexibility and cognitive-attributional strategies. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelationships between students’ psychological flexibility, cognitive-attributional strategies and academic emotions, and their relationship to study success. Further, the study compares students with low, middle and high scores on psychological flexibility. A total of 247 arts students participated in the study. The interrelationships between psychological flexibility, cognitive-attributional strategies, academic emotions, study success and study pace were analysed with correlational analyses and structural equation modelling. Comparisons of different score groups were analysed with one-way ANOVA and Tukeýs tests. The results showed that psychological flexibility, cognitive-attributional strategies and academic emotions are closely related to each other. Psychological flexibility was positively related to success expectations and positive emotions and negatively related to task avoidance and negative emotions.
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Bireyin yaşadığı zorlu olaylarla baş edebilmesi için birtakım becerilere sahip olması gerekmektedir. Bilişsel esneklik ve psikolojik esneklik de bu beceriler arasında yer almaktadır. Bilişsel esneklik kişinin hayatında karşılaştığı durumlar karşısında farklı seçeneklerinin de olduğunu fark edebilmesi, bu seçenekleri de göz önünde bulundurarak gerekirse başlangıçtaki düşüncesini değiştirebilmesi ve karar verdiği seçenek doğrultusunda davranışlarda bulunabilmesidir. Bilişsel esneklik, bilişsel davranışçı terapilerle sıklıkla ilişkilendirilen bir kavramdır. Psikolojik esneklik ise altı temel öge (kabul, anda olma, bilişsel ayrışma, bağlamsal benlik, değerler ve değerler doğrultusunda yaşam) içeren ve bireyin duygularını, düşüncelerini ve geçmişte yaşadığı olayları değiştirmeye çalışmadan kabul etmesi, anda olması, düşüncelerinden ayrışabilmesi, değerlerini belirleyip onlar doğrultusunda bir yaşam oluşturabilmesini ifade eden bir kavramdır. Psikolojik esnekliğin artırılması kabul ve kararlılık terapisindeki (ACT) temel amaçtır. Bu çalışmada öncelikle bilişsel davranışçı terapiler çerçevesinden bilişsel esneklik açıklanmakta ve alan yazındaki ilgili çalışmalar aktarılmakta; sonrasında ise benzer şekilde psikolojik esneklik ACT çerçevesinden açıklanarak bu kavrama ilişkin alan yazında yapılan çalışmalara yer verilmektedir. Son olarak bilişsel esneklik ve psikolojik esneklik benzer ve farklı yönleri açısından incelenmiş, araştırmacılara ve ruh sağlığı çalışanlarına konuya ilişkin öneriler sunulmaktadır.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable psychological health impacts across the globe. This study aimed to establish the psychological process variables underlying psychopathology in Malaysian public university students during the national Movement Control Order (MCO). The aim was to craft structured and sustainable psychological support programs with these students. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving Malaysian university students subjected to the Malaysian MCO. Structured questionnaires measuring sociodemographic factors, measures of depression, anxiety, stress, psychological mindedness, psychological flexibility and state mindfulness were employed. A total of 515 students participated in this study with 12 students (2.3%) being quarantined at the time. Many of them scored ‘moderate’ or above on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 20.2%, 25.0% and 14.2%, respectively. Quarantined students had higher depressive symptoms, with female students scoring significantly higher for depression, anxiety, and stress. Multiple regressions suggested gender and quarantine status predicted depression scores. However, only gender significantly predicted anxiety and stress. Psychological flexibility and psychological mindedness (Insight subscale) are significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress, with psychological mindedness predicting all three psychopathologies. This study demonstrates that gender, psychological flexibility, and psychological mindedness are key demographic and psychological factors impacting students. Targeting psychological flexibility and psychological mindedness may enable timely prevention and intervention programs for our students to support their mental and physical health as we move through, and out of, the pandemic.
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Students’ poor well-being is a serious problem in higher education. In part, this problem is related to the problems in studying as poorer study skills are related to poorer well-being. Both students’ study skills and their well-being should be enhanced in higher education, but effective ways to do this are needed. The aim of this study was to explore students’ experiences of an ACT-based online, 8-week course on university students’ well-being and studying. Data were collected in two ways: a) with qualitative data consisting of learning journals (n = 97) and with b) a pre- and post-questionnaire (n = 143) during the course. The students’ scores on well-being, psychological flexibility, and time and effort management skills improved, and stress levels decreased during the course. Qualitative analyses showed that the students benefited from the course in many ways, both in terms of studying and well-being; their studying and time management skills had improved and they had learnt stress management skills and how to cope with their negative thoughts. We argue that supporting students’ well-being, as well as their study skills with ACT-based course in higher education studies, can lead to more effective studying.
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Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) programs have rarely been used as tools for promoting adolescents' career preparation. This randomized controlled trial examined the possibility to promote the career preparation of Finnish ninth-grade adolescents (n = 249, 49% females) with a web-based five-week ACT-based online intervention program. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions, of which two groups received an iACT including support via SMS (iACTface: iACT+two face-to-face sessions; only iACT: iACT with no face-to-face sessions) and the third (control) group received no treatment. The results showed that career-related insecurity decreased as a result of the intervention irrespective of adolescent gender or academic achievement. Intervention effects in career-choice self-efficacy, in turn, were moderated by gender as such that girls benefited more from face-to-face support during intervention than boys. All the detected immediate effects were maintained at the six-month follow-up. In turn, delayed intervention effects in career-related insecurity and career-choice self-efficacy were mainly observed among adolescents with low academic achievement. The effect sizes of the found intervention effects were moderate. The results suggest that ACT-based online intervention programs have potential to promote adolescent career preparation. However, such interventions might be especially effective for subgroups of adolescents.
Article
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The copyright of the QEEW2.0 is owned by SKB, Amsterdam (www.skb.nl). Students and scientific researchers are welcomed to use the QEEW2.0, provided that you agree to the conditions of SKB. When you meet the conditions for use, you receive – after filling in your personal information – a specimen of the questionnaire and the corresponding scoring instructions. Please go to www.qeew.eu
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Research
The aim the present study was to comparing the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive training (MBCT) adjusted for Iranian culture and cognitivebehavioral training on job stress and its components in employees of service companies. In this research, using quesi experimental method, 54 employees were selected and randomly assigned into the 2 experimental groups and control (18 per a group), and were assessed in pre-test, post-test and follow up by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE, 1999) job stress questionnaire. First experimental group received 8 sessions of adapted mindfulness based cognitive training (MBCT) for Iranian culture, while second experimental group received 8 sessions of cognitive-behavioral training (CBT), each session took 120 minutes. The results of the within and between subjects from analysis of Repeated Measures and MANOVA revealed that training have a significant effect on enhancement of job stress and its components (P ≤ 0.01). The post hoc test also revealed that MBCT was more effective than CBT in total scores job stress and dimensions of managerial support, relationships and changes (P ≤ 0.01). It is concluded that MBCT affect on enhancement of job stress and its components, significantly.
Research
The aim the present study was to comparing the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive training (MBCT) adjusted for Iranian culture and cognitivebehavioral training on job stress and its components in employees of service companies. In this research, using quesi experimental method, 54 employees were selected and randomly assigned into the 2 experimental groups and control (18 per a group), and were assessed in pre-test, post-test and follow up by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE, 1999) job stress questionnaire. First experimental group received 8 sessions of adapted mindfulness based cognitive training (MBCT) for Iranian culture, while second experimental group received 8 sessions of cognitive-behavioral training (CBT), each session took 120 minutes. The results of the within and between subjects from analysis of Repeated Measures and MANOVA revealed that training have a significant effect on enhancement of job stress and its components (P ≤ 0.01). The post hoc test also revealed that MBCT was more effective than CBT in total scores job stress and dimensions of managerial support, relationships and changes (P ≤ 0.01). It is concluded that MBCT affect on enhancement of job stress and its components, significantly.
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Book
In this unique handbook, Frank Bond and Windy Dryden, have brought together a prominent cast of authors, to discuss issues concerning the definition, assessment and, in particular, the practice of brief Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). Contents include - the difference between brief and regular CBT and evidence for its effectiveness. How to use brief CBT in your own area of practice. Applying brief CBT to emotional disorders, anxiety, workplace stress and more. This handbook is accessible to a wide range of readers, including academics, practitioners, psychotherapists, counsellors, and students training in CBT.
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Chapter
This chapter describes the application of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and the mindfulness skills in work-related stress. The chapter focuses on an individual-oriented worksite intervention-that is, ACT, and does not underestimate the importance of organization focused approach to work stress. ACT protocol can also be used in training programs for other populations that have to cope with demanding situations such as test-anxious students, caregivers, etc. The content of the protocol includes many techniques that are core components of most ACT interventions. ACT encourages the healthy acceptance of undesirable internal states that may stem from unalterable work demands, such as difficult customers, and that might otherwise interfere with effective work-related behaviors. The values component of ACT can readily be used to help individuals to identify work-related goals and actions that enhance their work motivation and performance.
Chapter
Because ACT is a contextual treatment, your attempts to conceptualize a presenting problem might be different from traditional case conceptualization models. The most important principle in contextual analysis is that you are not just assessing a particular symptom with a particular topography; you are also attempting to understand the functional impact of the presenting complaint. The same clinical complaint can function in dramatically different ways for clients. Thus, your case conceptualization and associated treatment plan may differ for clients with seemingly similar problems. For example, many patients are diagnosed with major depression, single episode (a categorical formulation) based on the number and severity of symptoms described by the patient (a topographical assessment). In clinical practice however, it is fair to say that no two depressed patients are alike. Each is unique in how their life space is organized, how depression affects their functioning (and vice versa) and how depressive beliefs and behaviors define the individual’s sense of self and external world.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to show how Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) can be used to reduce stress. Stress has generally been conceptualized as a relational context in which people believe that a particular event threatens their well being, because they evaluate it as taxing, or exceeding, their coping resources (e.g., Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Based on this view, stress interventions have either targeted the stressor (the event itself) or the evaluation of the stressor as a threat to well-being and one’s ability to cope with it. While primarily focused on the latter target, ACT can be used to address them both.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to present a consolidated overview of ACT treatment interventions and therapy processes. In Chapter 1 we described the philosophy, basic theory, applied theory and the theoretical processes that collectively define ACT as a clinical system. In this chapter we will examine the concrete clinical steps used in implementing this model.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
Article
Existing interventions for occupational problems are reviewed and three areas of concern are identified: (1) the predominance of cognitive-behavioural at the expense of psychodynamic approaches; (2) the modest cost-effectiveness of stress-intervention programmes; and (3) sampling and measurement procedures. This paper addresses these issues by presenting a brief therapeutic model comprising two weekly sessions of therapy followed by a third session three months later. This model is termed the Two-Plus-One Model of therapy. Two modes of therapy are presented within this model: a brief cognitive-behavioural package, called ‘Prescriptive therapy’, and a brief relationship-oriented package, called ‘Exploratory therapy’. Initial outcome data are presented from a pilot study comprising 12 consecutive clients, of whom half received one therapy mode and half the other within a psychological clinic. In addition, case material describing a single case within each therapy mode is presented. Issues relating to the three areas of concern are addressed as well as an outline for a large ongoing comparative outcome trial.
Book
Human beings use language to shape their world: to structure it and give it meaning. Language builds our skyscrapers, imparts the strength to our steel, creates the elegance of our mathematics, and forms our art’s depiction of beauty. Language has been the source of so much human achievement that it is only natural that we look to it first to identify a problem and craft a solution. But it is precisely because language can be so useful that it can also be problematic. Language not only enables human achievements, but also our ability to project fearsome futures, to compare ourselves to unrealistic ideals and find ourselves wanting, or to torment our souls with the finitude of life itself. Language is at the core of the remarkable human tendency to suffer in the midst of plenty.
Article
Abstract Affective displays of front-line employees predict beneficial customer reactions, but employees,cannot feel positively at all times. Surface acting (modifying facial expressions) and deep acting (modifying inner feelings) are tested as predictors of emotional exhaustion, and coworker-rated affective service delivery. As predicted by the dramaturgical perspective, surface acting was more detrimental for both stress and service delivery than deep acting, beyond job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Implications for future research and service work are discussed. Submitted as a Research Note 3 “Employers are wise to want workers to be sincere, to go well beyond the smile that’s ‘just painted on’” (Hochschild, 1983: 33). Research has shown that positive affective displays in service interactions, such as smiling and conveying friendliness, predicts important customer outcomes such as the intentions to return, to recommend the store to others, and overall service quality (e.g., Parasuraman, et al., 1985; Pugh, 2001; Tsai, 2001). Service providers do not always feel positively, however, and qualitative research
Article
Researchers studying individual and organizational value congruence are concerned with the degree to which the values of the employee and the organization for which he or she works agree and the affective outcomes that more or less agreement might predict. While a robust area of research, the applications following from it are somewhat limited. This paper reviews the concepts and research findings concerning value congruence, discusses various behavioral interpretations of the values construct, applies those interpretations to the organizational level, and offers recommendations for how these interpretations might point to more successful organizational change initiatives.
Article
Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job satisfaction). In making this comparison, the effects of job control are accounted for; this is a work organisation variable that is consistently associated with occupational health and performance. Results from 290 United Kingdom workers showed that EI did not significantly predict any of the well-being outcomes, after accounting for acceptance and job control. Acceptance predicted general mental health and physical well-being but not job satisfaction, and job control was associated with job satisfaction only. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings. These include support for the suggestion that not controlling one's thoughts and feelings (as advocated by acceptance) may have greater benefits for mental well-being than attempting consciously to regulate them (as EI suggests).
Article
argue that the ultimate failure of American pragmatism within scientific psychology was due to a subtle but crucial problem, beginning with James himself / also argue that the varieties of scientific contextualism make sense when this problem is identified and solved the models of stable truth / the fluid model: truth and consequences / the common error of contextualists: dogmatism [James: the first contextualistic dogmatist, Skinner: more contextualistic dogmatism] / the two contextualisms [descriptive contextualism, functional contextualism, goals and forms of contextualism] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Provides a comprehensive, research-based examination of the relationship between occupational stress and job performance. The author presents an overview of the field, an explanation of terms and concepts, and a summary of relevant theoretical models of the stress process. Jex examines the relationship between major job-related stressors (such as workload, interpersonal conflict, and lack of control) and a variety of performance indexes. In addition, he explores a number of other factors that may affect the relationship between occupational stress and job performance, including gender differences, age, personality, and job experience. This book is intended for students, scholars, and readers who do not have an extensive background in the behavioral sciences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Empirically validated methods for reducing stigma and prejudice toward recipients of behavioral health-care services are badly needed. In the present study, two packages presented in 1-day workshops were compared to a biologically oriented educational control condition in the alleviation of stigmatizing attitudes in drug abuse counselors. One, Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT), utilized acceptance, defusion, mindfulness, and values methods. The other, multicultural training, sensitized participants to group prejudices and biases. Measures of stigma and burnout were taken pretraining, posttraining, and after a 3-month follow-up. Results showed that multicultural training had an impact on stigmatizing attitudes and burnout post-intervention but not at follow-up, but showed better gains in a sense of personal accomplishment as compared to the educational control at follow-up. ACT had a positive impact on stigma at follow-up and on burnout at posttreatment and follow-up and follow-up gains in burnout exceeded those of multicultural training. ACT also significantly changed the believability of stigmatizing attitudes. This process mediated the impact of ACT but not multicultural training on follow-up stigma and burnout. This preliminary study opens new avenues for reducing stigma and burnout in behavioral health counselors.
Article
While traditional cognitive-behavioral skills-training-based approaches to athletic performance enhancement posit that negative thoughts and emotions must be controlled, eliminated, or replaced for athlete-clients to perform optimally, recent evidence suggests that efforts to control, eliminate, or suppress these internal states may actually have the opposite effect. Interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance suggest that internal cognitive and emotional states need not be eliminated, changed, or controlled in order to facilitate positive behavioral outcomes. Rather, it is suggested that an alternative or supplemental approach to the enhancement of athletic performance may be achieved through strategies and techniques that target the development of mindful (nonjudgmental) present-moment acceptance of internal experiences such as thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations, along with a clarification of valued goals and enhanced attention to external cues, responses, and contingencies that are required for optimal athletic performance.
Article
Approximately 14% of the working-age Swedish population are either on long-term sick leave or early retirement due to disability. Substantial increase of sick listing, reports of work disabilities and early retirement due to stress and musculoskeletal chronic pain suggest a need for methods of preventing loss of function resulting from these conditions. The present preliminary investigation examined the effects of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for the treatment of public health sector workers who showed chronic stress/pain and were at risk for high sick leave utilization. ACT was compared in an additive treatment design with medical treatment as usual (MTAU). A group of 19 participants were randomly distributed into 2 groups. Both conditions received MTAU. The ACT condition received four 1-hour weekly sessions of ACT in addition to MTAU. At post and 6-month follow-up, ACT participants showed fewer sick days and used fewer medical treatment resources than those in the MTAU condition. No significant differences were found in levels of pain, stress, or quality of life. Improvements in sick leave and medical utilization could not be accounted for by remission of stress and pain in the ACT group as no between-group differences were found for stress or pain symptoms.
Article
Although thought suppression is a popular form of mental control, research has indicated that it can be counterproductive, helping assure the very state of mind one had hoped to avoid. This chapter reviews the research on suppression, which spans a wide range of domains, including emotions, memory, interpersonal processes, psychophysiological reactions, and psychopathology. The chapter considers the relevant methodological and theoretical issues and suggests directions for future research.
Article
Part I: The Basic Account. 1. Language and Cognition: Constructing an Alternative Approach Within the Behavioral Tradition S.C. Hayes, et al. 2. Derived Relational Responding as Learned Behavior S.C. Hayes, et al. 3. Multiple Stimulus Relations and the Transformation of Stimulus Functions D. Barnes-Holmes, et al. 4. Relations Among Relations: Analogies, Metaphors, and Stories I. Stewart, et al. 5. Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Pragmatic Verbal Analysis S.C. Hayes, et al. 6. Understanding and Verbal Regulation D. Barnes-Holmes, et al. 7. Self and Self-Directed Rules D. Barnes-Holmes, et al. 8. Relational Frame Theory: A Precis S.C. Hayes, et al. Part II: Extensions and Applications. 9. Psychological Development Y. Barnes-Holmes, et al. 10. Education Y. Barnes-Holmes, et al. 11. Social Processes B. Roche, et al. 12. Psychopathology and Psychotherapy K.G. Wilson, et al. 13. Religion, Spirituality, and Transcendence D. Barnes-Holmes, et al. Epilogue. References. Index.
Article
The aims of this study were to examine (a) whether employees with a chronic disease report more fatigue than employees without a chronic disease, (b) whether number or type of chronic disease is related to fatigue, and (c) whether differences in fatigue level in various types of chronic diseases are related to psychological distress. Data were taken from 12,137 employees. Fatigue was measured with the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Employees with a chronic disease reported more fatigue (OR=2.9, 95% CI=2.7-3.2). Small differences were observed in the level of fatigue in various types of diseases. A strong linear association between the number of chronic diseases and fatigue was found. Psychological distress explained the higher level of fatigue in some chronic diseases (gastrointestinal diseases and migraine). Fatigue is more common in employees with a chronic disease. A strong association between number of chronic diseases and fatigue exists. Fatigue in employees with a chronic disease can partly be explained by psychological distress. Some chronic diseases show a stronger association between psychological distress and fatigue.
Article
Cognitive defusion techniques are designed to reduce the functions of thoughts by altering the context in which they occur, rather than the attempting to alter the form, frequency, or situational sensitivity of the thoughts themselves. Applied technologies designed to produce cognitive defusion seem to lead to reductions in the believability of negative thoughts, but defusion techniques are generally only parts of complex packages and the role of defusion techniques per se is note yet known. The present study examined the impact of a cognitive defusion technique first described by Titchener nearly 90 years ago: rapidly repeating a single word. In series of eight single-case alternating treatment designs, this defusion technique was compared to a distraction task, and to a thought control task on reductions in the discomfort and believability of self-relevant negative thoughts. The cognitive defusion technique reduced both discomfort and believability more so than the comparison approaches. Control studies showed that the effect was probably not due to demand characteristics.
Article
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has previously been shown to alter stigmatizing attitudes and to be relatively useful for psychologically inflexible participants. The present study is the first to bring those two findings together by comparing ACT to an education intervention for reducing stigma toward people with psychological disorders, and examining whether results differ for psychologically inflexible versus flexible individuals. A sample of college students (N =95) was randomly assigned to a 2(1)2h ACT or educational workshop. Measures were taken before and after the workshop and at a 1-month follow-up. ACT reduced mental health stigma significantly regardless of participants' pre-treatment levels of psychological flexibility, but education reduced stigma only among participants who were relatively flexible and non-avoidant to begin with. Acceptance could be an important avenue of exploration for stigma researchers.
Article
This quasi-experiment tested the extent to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, moderated the effects of a control-enhancing work reorganization intervention in a call center. Results indicated that, compared with a control group, this intervention produced improvements in mental health and absence rates, particularly for individuals with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Findings also showed that these moderated intervention effects were mediated by job control. Specifically, the intervention enhanced perceptions of job control, and hence its outcomes, for the people who received it, especially for those who had greater psychological flexibility. Discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the processes (e.g., mediators, moderators, and mediated moderators) involved in work reorganization interventions.
Worksite stress management interventions: Identifying the mechanisms of change
  • P E Flaxman
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Flaxman, P. E., & Bond, F. W. (2006a). Worksite stress management interventions: Identifying the mechanisms of change. Paper presented at the Sixth APA International Conference on Occupational Stress and Health, Miami, FL.
Alternative emotion regulation strategies and emo-tional exhaustion: Main and interaction effects. Manuscript submitted for publication Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for stress
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Biron, M., & van Veldhoven, M. (2009) Alternative emotion regulation strategies and emo-tional exhaustion: Main and interaction effects. Manuscript submitted for publication. Bond, F. W. (2004). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for stress. In S. C. Hayes & K. D. Strosahl (Eds.), A practical guide to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (pp. 275–293).
The effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment interven-tion for work stress Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Green State University Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control
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Schwetschenau, H. M. (2008). The effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment interven-tion for work stress. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Green State University. Smart, L., & Wegner, D. M. (1999). Covering up what can't be seen: Concealable stigma and mental control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 474–486.
Recent developments in the behavioral analysis of language: Making sense of clinical phenomena
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Wilson, K. G., & Blackledge, J. T. (1999). Recent developments in the behavioral analysis of language: Making sense of clinical phenomena. In M. J. Dougher (Ed.), Clinical behavior analysis (pp. 27-46). Reno, NV: Context Press.
An overview of occupational stress and health
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Hurrell, J.J., & Murphy, L.R. (1992). An overview of occupational stress and health. In W. M. Rom (Ed.), Environment and occupational medicine (2 nd ed., pp. 675-684). Boston: Little, Brown.
Learning ACT: An acceptance & commitment therapy skills-training manual for therapists
  • J B Luoma
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  • R D Walser
Luoma, J. B., Hayes, S. C., & Walser, R. D. (2007). Learning ACT: An acceptance & commitment therapy skills-training manual for therapists. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger & Reno, NV: Context Press.
Psychological acceptance, and why every OH/HR practitioner should know about it
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Donaldson, E. (2003). Psychological acceptance, and why every OH/HR practitioner should know about it. Occupational Health Review, 101, 31-33.
ACT at work Handbook of brief cognitive behaviour therapy Psychological flexibility, ACT, and organizational behaviour
  • F W Bond
  • S C Hayes
Bond, F. W., & Hayes, S. C. (2002). ACT at work. In F. W. Bond & W. Dryden (Eds.), Handbook of brief cognitive behaviour therapy. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley. Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2006). Psychological flexibility, ACT, and organizational behaviour. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 26, 25–54.
Acceptance, mindfulness, and cognitive-behavioural therapy: Comparisons, contrasts, and application to anxiety
  • S M Orsillo
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  • J B Lerner
  • M T Tull
Orsillo, S. M., Roemer, L., Lerner, J. B., & Tull, M. T. (2004). Acceptance, mindfulness, and cognitive-behavioural therapy: Comparisons, contrasts, and application to anxiety. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioural tradition. New York: Guilford Press.
Organisation development
  • W French
  • C Bell
French, W., & Bell, C. (1999). Organisation development. London: Prentice-Hall.
Alternative emotion regulation strategies and emotional exhaustion: Main and interaction effects
  • M Biron
  • M Van Veldhoven
Biron, M., & van Veldhoven, M. Alternative emotion regulation strategies and emotional exhaustion: Main and interaction effects. (Manuscript under review).
interventions for work stress: A risk management approach. Norwich UK: Health and Safety Executive/Her Majesty's Stationary Office
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Cox, T., Griffiths, A., Barlowe, C., Randall, R., Thomson, L., Rial-Gonzalez, E. (2000). interventions for work stress: A risk management approach. Norwich UK: Health and Safety Executive/Her Majesty's Stationary Office.