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The Dance of Change: The Challenges to Sustaining Momentum in a Learning Organization

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Abstract

Since Peter Senge published his groundbreaking book The Fifth Discipline, he and his associates have frequently been asked by the business community: "How do we go beyond the first steps of corporate change? How do we sustain momentum?" They know that companies and organizations cannot thrive today without learning to adapt their attitudes and practices. But companies that establish change initiatives discover, after initial success, that even the most promising efforts to transform or revitalize organizationsdespite interest, resources, and compelling business resultscan fail to sustain themselves over time. That's because organizations have complex, well-developed immune systems, aimed at preserving the status quo. Now, drawing upon new theories about leadership and the long-term success of change initiatives, and based upon twenty-five years of experience building learning organizations, the authors of The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook show how to accelerate success and avoid the obstacles that can stall momentum. The Dance of Change, written for managers and executives at every level of an organization, reveals how business leaders can work together to anticipate the challenges that profound change will ultimately force the organization to face. Then, in a down-to-earth and compellingly clear format, readers will learn how to build the personal and organizational capabilities needed to meet those challenges. These challenges are not imposed from the outside; they are the product of assumptions and practices that people take for grantedan inherent, natural part of the processes of change. And they can stop innovation cold,unless managers at all levels learn to anticipate them and recognize the hidden rewards in each challenge, and the potential to spur further growth. Within the frequently encountered challenge of "Not Enough Time," for examplethe lack of control over time available for innovation and learning initiativeslies a valuable opportunity to reframe the way people organize their workplaces. This book identifies universal challenges that organizations ultimately find themselves confronting, including the challenge of "Fear and Anxiety"; the need to diffuse learning across organizational boundaries; the ways in which assumptions built in to corporate measurement systems can handcuff learning initiatives; and the almost unavoidable misunderstandings between "true believers" and nonbelievers in a company. Filled with individual and team exercises, in-depth accounts of sustaining learning initiatives by managers and leaders in the field, and well-tested practical advice, The Dance of Change provides an insider's perspective on implementing learning and change initiatives at such corporations as British Petroleum, Chrysler, Dupont, Ford, General Electric, Harley-Davidson, Hewlett-Packard, Mitsubishi Electric, Royal Dutch/Shell, Shell Oil Company, Toyota, the United States Army, and Xerox. It offers crucial advice for line-level managers, executive leaders, internal networkers, educators, and others who are struggling to put change initiatives into practice.

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... There are also other organizational studies that are more concerned with the dynamics of organizational changes than with the understanding of structures at a certain point in time [Sen+99;KC12;MR04]. Such studies are anchored in systems thinking (or complex thinking), related to complex systems, which is a dynamic view of organizations based on biological metaphors [Mor11]. ...
... Such studies are anchored in systems thinking (or complex thinking), related to complex systems, which is a dynamic view of organizations based on biological metaphors [Mor11]. Complex systems consider the interplay between growth processes and limiting processes [Sen+99]. Senge et al., for example, identify growth processes ("because it matters," "because my colleagues take it seriously," and "because it works"), and strategies to limit these processes (e.g., "don't push so hard for growth") [Sen+99]. ...
... Complex systems consider the interplay between growth processes and limiting processes [Sen+99]. Senge et al., for example, identify growth processes ("because it matters," "because my colleagues take it seriously," and "because it works"), and strategies to limit these processes (e.g., "don't push so hard for growth") [Sen+99]. Researchers also represent complex systems as networks of factors that mutually affect each other through reinforcing and balancing feedback loops [Pen+18]. ...
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DevOps and continuous delivery have greatly impacted the organizational structures of development and infrastructure groups in software-producing organizations. Our research aims at revealing the different options adopted by the software industry to organize such groups, understanding why different organizations adopt distinct structures, and discovering how organizations handle the drawbacks of each structure. By interviewing 68 carefully-selected, skilled IT professionals and analyzing these conversations through a Grounded Theory process, we identified conditions, causes, reasons to avoid, consequences, and contingencies related to each discovered structure (segregated departments, collaborating departments, API-mediated departments, and single department). We, then, offer a theory to explain organizational structures for development and infrastructure professionals. This theory can support practitioners and researchers in comprehending and discussing the DevOps phenomenon and its related issues; it also provides valuable input to practitioners decision-making.
... bodies of theory or conceptual developments) and way of doing (i.e. the accompanying practical tools). Each of these five disciplines which include personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking, represents a lifelong body of study and practice for individuals and teams in organizations (Senge et al. 1999). These five disciplines are shaping the thoughts of practitioners on the development of the learning organization and are examined in greater details. ...
... He argues further that it goes beyond competence and skill even though these are necessary ingredients for achieving this creative life as against a reactive life. The processes involved in the development of personal mastery as pointed out by Senge et al. (1999) include, personal visioning, appreciating reality and balancing of the vision and reality. All these are ingredients of organizational repositioning and transformation. ...
... This principle evokes collective aspiration, which according to Holbeche (2001) offers team members a compelling reason to start learning how to learn together. Employing the technique of dialogue, team learning enlivens the organizational climate (internal environment) as it enables teams transform their collective thinking and mobilize their energies to achieve common goals (Senge et al. 1999). ...
Conference Paper
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This article is an exploratory analysis of environmental advertising among university Lecturers in south-south Nigeria. This analysis involves three environmental advertising constructs; eco-label advertising, celebrity advertising and consumer orientation advertising. We administered the questionnaires to a sample of 383 respondents and 323 copies were found useable. We used stratified random sampling and quota sampling methods to select the participants drawn from three categories of Lecturers - professors, associate professors, and senior lecturers from federal government-owned universities in the south-south Nigeria. The statistical packages of SPSS version (20.0), Lisreal version 9.3 and structural equation modelling were applied to test the descriptive statistic and measurement model respectively. Cronbach Alpha reliability and validity tests were carried out and they all met their thresholds. Out of 15 statement items on the Green Advertising scale, three factors were extracted which were in consonance with our apriori expectations where three factors were initially proposed. All the constructs psychometric properties attained their threshold except eco-label advertising which average variance (AV) fell below 0.5. We therefore conclude that ecolabel construct does not qualify as an environmental advertising construct and cannot be subjected to confirmatory and structural analysis, and therefore recommend that additional statement items be added to eco-label constructs to beef up its average variance.
... Another theoretical lens fitting Thomson's second suggestion for looking at school as organisation is Senge's (1990) concept of the learning organisation extended from the business field to education as schools that learn (Senge, 2012) from a systems thinking perspective. Senge et al. (1999) promote the idea of learning organisation as means of increasing the capacity of organisations to adapt and respond to change (Senge, 2012;Maturana & Varela, 1980). ...
... The study aims to explore inductively and iteratively how implementing change is understood by the Drive Teams and how the participants make sense of their own experiences. For a small sample of fewer than ten participants, Smith et al. (1999) describe the ideographic case-study approach as a basic IPA, which constituted the first phase of my data analysis, involving writing up each individual case, followed by an exploration of convergent or divergent themes present between cases. However, given that my homogenous sample counts 16 respondents, I adopted supplementary procedures in order to explore patterns and relationships within and between cases leading to a potential model as opposed to only providing a rich description (Fade, 2004). ...
... Considering the complex nature of implementing whole school change at practice, process and structure level (Thomson, 2010), my integrated theoretical and analytical framework is used as a lens for the understanding of participants' ecosystemic environment (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) in their unique context through systems thinking perspective (Senge, 1990(Senge, , 1999(Senge, , 2012. The additional analytical lens employs autopoietic influences to interrogate the findings from a living system's standpoint. ...
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Thinking about change in a Thinking School: Conceptualising whole school change in the context of an English secondary school This thesis examines a qualitative case study of whole school change based on the perceived experiences of members of a Staff Drive Team and a Student Drive Team in a coeducational selective secondary school. The Staff and Student Drive Teams are a special feature of Thinking Schools, tasked with driving whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning that encourages an intentional, explicit, and long-term commitment to the process of teaching and learning for, of, and about thinking. This study seeks a further understanding of whole school change through a systems theory perspective by considering the role of practices, processes and structures involved, as well as their interrelationships. The philosophical underpinnings of this research encompass constructivist principles from an interpretive relativist position. The case study draws on two non-participant observations, two initial focus groups, 16 semi-structured interviews and two final focus groups as primary data sources combined with contextual secondary information from three school development plans, ten agendas of Drive Teams meetings and three Thinking School accreditation reports. The semi-structured interviews are analysed adopting Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with Content analysis (CA) employed for the rest of the data. An integrated theoretical and analytical framework is developed to interpret the findings, drawing from previous research on whole school change (Thomson, 2010) based on systems theory with influences from systems thinking (Senge, 1990) and ecological development (Bonfenbrenner, 1979) and subject to autopoietic connotations. This research concludes that initial struggles with resistance to whole school change were reframed and translated into openness to change achieved through systems thinking. The findings indicate that the Student and Staff Drive Teams experienced the whole school change for cognitive teaching and learning as ongoing systemic change and as a multiple-loop, multi-layered learning process supported by risk taking, reflection, teams interrelations, non-negotiable whole school change, common values and language, and continuous learning. From this case study, a ‘petal’ model of whole school change is proposed as meriting further attention.
... This should be after identifying the needs and desires of employees that can be satisfied hence increased performance. Senge, (1999) was of the view that employee performance is more of a response to a specific job. Employee performance is an important element from organizational perspective, as it leads to higher organizational commitment of employees and high commitment leads to overall organizational success and development (Senge, et al., 1999). ...
... Senge, (1999) was of the view that employee performance is more of a response to a specific job. Employee performance is an important element from organizational perspective, as it leads to higher organizational commitment of employees and high commitment leads to overall organizational success and development (Senge, et al., 1999). In the human resources literature, it is widely recognized that promotion of the worker's motivation leads to a higher quality of human resources in both private and public organization and results in optimum performance (Stella, 2008). ...
... The information revealed many similarities to the contemporary literature on facilitators and barriers in change management. [29][30][31] First, a thorough investigation of the problem is crucial, 31 specifically concerning the VBHC dilemma. This means investigating the costs and outcomes from multiple perspectives (such as patient, organisation, doctor, nurses and supportive staff) and balancing these costs versus outcomes. ...
... 36 Ultimately, you need to consolidate and secure your new way of working. 29 Inspired by the work of other researchers in the field of change management, [29][30][31] we summarised the tips from this study in an overview checklist (see online supplemental appendix 4). We hope to inspire and guide residents who want to implement a VBHC project. ...
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Objectives Stimulating the active participation of residents in projects with societally relevant healthcare themes, such as value-based healthcare (VBHC), can be a strategy to enhance competency development. Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies such as leader and scholar are important skills for all doctors. In this study, we hypothesise that when residents conduct a VBHC project, CanMEDS competencies are developed. There is the added value of gaining knowledge about VBHC. Design An explorative mixed-methods study assessing residents’ self-perceived learning effects of conducting VBHC projects according to three main components: (1) CanMEDS competency development, (2) recognition of VBHC dilemmas in clinical practice, and (3) potential facilitators for and barriers to implementing a VBHC project. We triangulated data resulting from qualitative analyses of: (a) text-based summaries of VBHC projects by residents and (b) semistructured interviews with residents who conducted these projects. Setting Academic and non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants Out of 63 text-based summaries from residents, 56 were selected; and out of 19 eligible residents, 11 were selected for semistructured interviews and were included in the final analysis. Results Regarding CanMEDS competency development, the competencies ‘leader’, ‘communicator’ and ‘collaborator’ scored the highest. Opportunities to recognise VBHC dilemmas in practice were mainly stimulated by analysing healthcare practices from different perspectives, and by learning how to define costs and relate them to outcomes. Finally, implementation of VBHC projects is facilitated by a thorough investigation of a VBHC dilemma combined with an in-depth stakeholder analysis. Conclusion In medical residency training programmes, competency development through active participation in projects with societally relevant healthcare themes—such as VBHC—was found to be a promising strategy. From a resident’s perspective, combining a thorough investigation of the VBHC dilemma with an in-depth stakeholder analysis is key to the successful implementation of a VBHC project.
... Schein (204 cocitations), Senge (105), and Lozano (104) are all foundation scholars in this school of thought. This cluster has published articles on organizational culture (Schein, 1984), leadership, and change (Lozano, 2006;Senge et al., 1999). With a deeper analysis, three sub-schools can be identified: sustainable leadership (e.g., Avery, Kantabutra), transformational leadership (e.g., Avolio, Bass, Kotter), and organizational learn-ing (e.g., Argyris, Senge). ...
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The relationship between organizational culture and corporate sustainability initiatives and practices, such as cleaner production, is widely recognized, yet little is known about an organizational culture conducive to sustainability. Cleaner production entails managing the physical aspects of production and transforming the organization's culture. However, the existing research primarily investigates a corporate culture that focuses on enhancing productivity. While research on sustainability-productive culture is scanty, it concentrates on the cultural level of artifacts of sustainability practices, leaving much unknown about the deeper cultural levels of conscious and unconscious assumptions and beliefs that constitute the essence of organizational culture. The present study aims at discovering cutting-edge knowledge on sustainability-productive organizational culture. It adapts the Integrated Systematic Literature Review framework to identify scholars from the Scopus database who have played a significant role in creating the knowledge base and their documents during the past 27 years. As a result, relevant descriptive statistics of the collective body of knowledge, two schools of thought, influential scholars, and methodological issues are derived from the literature. Two frameworks on sustainable cultural transformation and sustainability organizational culture are derived from the cutting-edge knowledge, as informed by the work of the recognized key scholars. These frameworks highlight the hitherto unacknowledged importance of a normative grounding in cultural assumptions and values, delivering cutting-edge knowledge in the field of sustainability organizational culture. Research, theoretical and managerial implications from the review are also discussed.
... The crucial role of learning as support to the implementation of innovation has been widely explored for many years and by numerous researchers (Altman and Iles 1998;Bellison and Chul 2019;Bossink 2020;Davidson and De Marco 1999;Dunphy and Stace 1993;Gann 2001;Gann and Salter 2000;Law and Liang 2019;McElroy 2003;Nam and Tatum 1989;Pries and Janszen 1995;Senge et al. 1999;Wendt 2019). Previous research has often found that learning is necessary to the realization of organizational change, cultural modification, and innovation, and specialized literature on innovation in the construction industry also recognized that learning dynamics and knowledge dissemination can accelerate technology development, innovation, and market advancement in green building (Bellison and Chul 2019;Bossink 2018;Gann 2001;Law and Liang 2019;Nam and Tatum 1989;Pries and Janszen 1995;Wendt 2019). ...
Article
Within the context of sustainable innovation in the building industry, the goal of this study is to investigate and discuss forms of cooperative learning in project organizations as an opportunity for realizing sustainable innovation. This paper analyzes 30 worldwide cases of sustainably innovative building projects, concentrating on the cooperative learning behavior of actors that ignite and contribute to sustainable building innovation. The analysis sheds light on three clusters of project organizations, their typical cooperative learning processes, and the cooperative sustainable learning effects achieved. Theoretically, this work contributes by suggesting an analytical model to study learning forms that support sustainable building innovation; practically, this study indicates that cooperative learning practices facilitate professionals, regardless of their role in project organizations, to be innovators in proposing and achieving green innovation in the construction engineering sector.
... While there are a number of frameworks and models for reference, we are reminded that change is not predictable and there are many factors to be considered. Senge et al. (1999) have observed, "There is no one right way to implement change-no single theory or framework or eight steps can ever capture the complexity of organizational reality" (as cited in Higgs and Rowland, 2000, p. 124). This is echoed by Woodward and Hendry (2004, p. 159) "research shows there is no one formula for managing change." ...
... How to use Digitalization and Lean Management for a Sustainable strategy? 813 C -THIRD -The answers to the first question are consistent with past studies Heppelmann, 2014, 2015;Ohno, 1988;Womack et al., 1996, Ramarapu et al., 1995Prater et al., 2001;Pilotti and Riva, 2018, 2021Pilotti and Rinolfi, 2022;Mella, 2021a,b;Senge, 1999;Kaplan and Norton, 1996, 2004a, 2004bDeming, 2000) and underline the benefits of a strategy for using the new technologies and integration of digital and lean methodologies: IOT (Internet of Things), Artificial intelligence, Big Data, ERP (enterprise resource planning), EAM (enterprise asset management); BPM (business process management); BIM (building information modelling). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to study the integration of digitalization and lean management for improving the processes and developing a sustainable strategy. The paper uses both primary and secondary data. The research identifies the main analogies and differences, and critical success factors based on the application of digitalization and lean methodologies. The results show how the methodology of digitalization, business process improvement, and lean management permits of improving the speed and efficiency of the processes and the develop a sustainable strategy. L'obiettivo di questa ricerca è quello di studiare l’integrazione del processo digitalizzazione e del lean management per il miglioramento dei processi e lo sviluppo della strategia sostenibile. Lo studio utilizza sia dati primari che secondari. Essa individua le principali analogie, differenze e fattori critici di successo basandosi su l’applicazione di processi di digitalizzazione e lean methodologies. I risultati mostrano come la digitalizzazione integrata con strumenti di lean management consenta di migliorare la velocità, l'efficienza dei processi e di sviluppare una strategia sostenibile.
... This was reported in his book Subjekt und Selbstmodell [30], which was followed by several papers in the 2000s in journals such as Progress in Brain Research [31]. During this time, systems scientist, Peter Senge, argued for continuous adaptation between organizations and environments [32]. Similarly, organizational theorist Karl Weick's 1990s concept of sensemaking provided a basis for the perspective that organizations need to adapt through continuous learning [33]. ...
Article
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World models is a construct that is used to represent internal models of the world. It is an important construct for human-artificial intelligence systems, because both natural and artificial agents can have world models. The term, natural agents, encompasses individual people and human organizations. Many human organizations apply artificial agents that include machine learning. In this paper, it is explained how human survival first principles of interactions between energy and entropy influence organization’s world models, and hence their implementations of machine learning. First, the world models construct is related to human organizations. This is done in terms of the construct’s origins in psychology theory-building during the 1930s through its applications in systems science during the 1970s to its recent applications in computational neuroscience. Second, it is explained how human survival first principles of interactions between energy and entropy influence organizational world models. Third, a practical example is provided of how survival first principles lead to opposing organizational world models. Fourth, it is explained how opposing organizational world models can constrain applications of machine learning. Overall, the paper highlights the influence of interactions between energy and entropy on organizations’ applications of machine learning. In doing so, profound challenges are revealed for human-artificial intelligence systems.
... Volgens Dodgson (1993) kenmerkt een lerende organisatie zich door doelgerichte aandacht voor de structuur, cultuur en strategie die noodzakelijk is om het leren van een organisatie plaats te laten vinden. Daarnaast omarmt een lerende organisatie verandering en ontwikkeling, in plaats van deze te vermijden (Fullan, 2009;Senge et al., 1999). Fullan (2009) Het model van Senge (1990) is een organisatiemodel dat ook wordt toegepast in het onderwijs. ...
... Another definition framed by Carlzon (1987) suggests that empowerment is freeing someone from rigorous control by instructions, policies and orders, and giving tha person freedom to take responsibility for his\her ideas decisions, and actions. According to Johnson (1993, p.32) empowerment is the realization and actualization of potential and opportunity just waiting to be unleashed, while other scholars see empowerment as the way of persuading employees to be fully responsible for their own job satisfaction (Senge et al., 1999). Finally, another worth mentioning attempt in defining the field of employee empowerment is that of Bowen & Lawler (1992 who defined empowerment as an approach to service delivery, unveiling four determinants: information, rewards, knowledge, and power. ...
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Abstract This study aims to provide an overview of legislation and employment policies for young people in Albania, mainly for those who have completed professional education studies. The effectiveness of these policies will be attached special priority in our study. By this work we intend to answer questions such as: How really effective are the employment policies for young people? Which are the factors influencing the effective implementation or not of these policies? Which are the consequences of unemployment of young people with professional education? Different statistics and data collected from public or private institutions on professional education and employment opportunities for young people will be analyzed in this study. The entire study will be subject to review of literature sources and critical analysis. It aims to promote the awareness of local policy-makers to draft social policies on the labor market, mainly for the employment of young people with professional education, which should be implemented in the context of current state of affairs of Albania, as well as the sensibilization of young people in term of professional education under market requirements. The study will certainly continue with some conclusions to be introduced at the end, associated with key recommendations from the authors, in order to better address the employment policies for young people oriented to real market demands in Albania. Keywords: effectiveness, employment, employment policies, professional education, young people JEL Classification: M51, M50, J20
... Another definition framed by Carlzon (1987) suggests that empowerment is freeing someone from rigorous control by instructions, policies and orders, and giving tha person freedom to take responsibility for his\her ideas decisions, and actions. According to Johnson (1993, p.32) empowerment is the realization and actualization of potential and opportunity just waiting to be unleashed, while other scholars see empowerment as the way of persuading employees to be fully responsible for their own job satisfaction (Senge et al., 1999). Finally, another worth mentioning attempt in defining the field of employee empowerment is that of Bowen & Lawler (1992 who defined empowerment as an approach to service delivery, unveiling four determinants: information, rewards, knowledge, and power. ...
Article
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... 30 Health care organisations are complex environments and managers are not external to the system, fully controlling it, but rather a part of the environment. 31,32 The implementation of organisational change is difficult without the engagement of managers. 33 The inclusion of managers as members of the action research group was a key enabler to inform the implementation of the organisational clinical supervision framework to ensure that change management principles could be used to guide its implementation. ...
Article
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Objective: To explore and describe strategies to enhance the implementation of an organisational clinical supervision framework and subsequently inform the development of a model of implementation of clinical supervision for allied health professionals in a regional health care setting. Setting: A large regional health service in Victoria, providing hospital, rehabilitation, community, mental health and aged care services. Participants: Allied health managers employed at the health service were members of an action research group. Design: This longitudinal study used an action research approach. The action research group informed the repeated cycles of planning, action and reflection. Data from recorded action research meetings were analysed using content analysis. Results: The action research group met 11 times over a 5-year period informing four action research cycles. Six main themes relating to factors that enhanced the quality of clinical supervision emerged from the analysis of the action research group data: purpose and value of clinical supervision; clinical supervision characteristics; differences between disciplines; framework development; training and support and implementation of clinical supervision. Conclusion: The findings from this comprehensive longitudinal study provide evidence-based approaches to the implementation of allied health clinical supervision. The action research approach used ensures that the strategies described are realistic and sustainable. A model has been developed to inform the implementation of clinical supervision for allied health.
... Stakeholders indicate their wish for a mature consultation process and communication system in which tenured employees, with their wealth of experience and knowledge, are respected and part of an equal relationship, to ensure that the strategic objectives of the project are met (Errida and Lotfi, 2020;Meira and Hancer, 2021). Balance should be found between bureaucratic controls and procedures and allowing inclusive engagement by all stakeholders as this will result in full ownership taken and healthy employee engagement (Senge et al., 2014;Bansal, 2015). ...
Article
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Objective The objective of the study was to explore the power of stakeholder consultation on employee engagement during a cross-border acquisition in a multi-cultural context. Further, to describe the psychosocial factors at play during the employee involvement process towards enhancing employee engagement.Methods This qualitative study presents the results from data collected in Tanzania through semi-structured interviews (46 participants) and analyzed in accordance with the hermeneutic circle and Tesch’s content analysis method.ResultsThe results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge to better understand the psychosocial factors at play within a multi-cultural environment which inform stakeholder consultation and will enable or hinder employee engagement. A transitional space should be created, fostering mature stakeholder engagement, promoting employee inclusion, engagement, and knowledge sharing.Conclusion Bringing together two worlds requires building bridges to cross the cliff between contexts and overcoming diversity challenges, while incorporating diversity management in the consulting process. A multi-cultural team should be established, incorporating diversity management, applying the principles of respect, participation and transparent communication, with regular feedback on decisions made. External stakeholders in authoritative positions are not well received and should consider traditional superiority versus business hierarchy when establishing leader-follower relationships.
... Representation of bond formation dynamics: the thoughts inside the bubbles represent children's negative perceptions and feelings; in capitals the robot's capacities and performance that drive the process, in plain letters children's psychological states that boost the process. (Source: author, inspired bySenge, 1999) ...
Article
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The challenge of long-term interaction between humans and robots is still a bottleneck in service robot research. To gain an understanding of sustained relatedness with robots, this study proposes a conceptual framework for bond formation. More specifically, it addresses the dynamics of children bonding with robotic pets as the basis for certain services in healthcare and education. The framework presented herein offers an integrative approach and draws from theoretical models and empirical research in Human Robot Interaction and also from related disciplines that investigate lasting relationships, such as human-animal affiliation and attachment to everyday objects. The research question is how children’s relatedness to personified technologies occurs and evolves and what underpinning processes are involved. The subfield of research is child-robot interaction, within the boundaries of social psychology, where the robot is viewed as a social agent, and human-system interaction, where the robot is regarded as an artificial entity. The proposed framework envisions bonding with pet-robots as a socio-affective process towards lasting connectedness and emotional involvement that evolves through three stages: first encounter, short-term interaction and lasting relationship. The stages are characterized by children’s behaviors, cognitions and feelings that can be identified, measured and, maybe more importantly, managed. This model aims to integrate fragmentary and heterogeneous knowledge into a new perspective on the impact of robots in close and enduring proximity to children.
... Excessive intervention from the top -down diminishes a system's capacity to autonomously respond to complex changes, which are often beyond the comprehension or control of leaders (Senge et al. 1999). Identifying and selecting the best leaders while weeding out the ineffective ones has not produced the dramatic changes in schools that stakeholders want to see. ...
Chapter
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Teachers' work is often assumed to occur almost exclusively within the confines of a single room (i.e., instruction and interaction with pupils). While the classroom is the dominant setting for teachers' daily professional life, it is not the only context for their work (Kruse & Louis, 1994; McLaughlin, 1993; Siskin, 1994). The school's organisation including other faculty members and administrators who compose the school staff creates a larger context that, at minimum, influences teachers' professional satisfaction. In addition, studies of the relationship of school context to teachers' work suggest that the interpersonal and structural conditions that characterise teachers' work will also affect the impact that they have on their students (e.g., see Lee, Dedrick, & Smith, 1991; Louis & Smith, 1992; Rosenholz, 1989; Talbert & Perry, 1994). Several questions come to mind regarding teachers' preparedness and ability to participate competently in leadership: Where do they learn the skills necessary for leadership? When and how do teachers gain an understanding of schools as complex systems? Who helps them understand the nature of leadership? Are teachers really prepared to provide effective leadership? Answers to these questions and others are vital to making teachers' contributions meaningful and substantive. Keiffer (1981) describes empowerment as a process through which people develop competence in meeting their own needs. By developing their skills teachers need to participate in their social and political worlds, thus as individuals, they gain control of their lives. Usually, prospective school leaders engage in some type of preparation during which they gain a deeper understanding of schools as organisations, the change process, and the context in which schools operate. They also hone their communication, problem-solving, and decision-making skills, and develop or refine attitudes necessary for effective leadership. The teacher leadership role, by contrast, is not currently preceded by any such training. Interestingly, large numbers of teachers complete leadership preparation programmes and do not enter the ranks of formal school leadership. Consequently, these teachers exist within schools as valuable resources for leadership (McLaughlin, 1993; Strain, 2009).
... Para representar el conocimiento, la propuesta se apoyó en los modelos de simulación soportados en Dinámica de Sistemas los cuales fueron usados, como lo propuso Senge (2001), como artefactos de utilidad para estudiar sistemas, de manera similar a como los utilizaron: 1) Jaime (2012) al representar el conocimiento y desarrollar un software para un sistema productivo de conejos y sus requisiciones de alimento, con el cual mejoró la comunicación entre clientes y facilitó el desarrollado y la validación del software. 2) Gómez & Gómez (2013) en la fase de análisis y diseño de un software para administración de empresas de producción textil involucrando elementos como clientes, mano de obra, maquinaria, órdenes de compra, productos, pedidos, proveedores, ventas, entre otros. ...
Conference Paper
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This work presents a training experience in the Systems Engineering program to support the understanding of the complexity of any production system and the importance of development model-driven software supported by representation of knowledge through mental maps and System Dynamics. The proposal taking as case an organization whose general purpose is the commercialization and manufacture of products and therefore requires an inventory system and it is presents in an increasing process that to explain versions, diagrams, and code.
... The idea of change can be alarming because it can impose major or minor disruptions that can lead to delays or setbacks (Kotter, 2012). Change initiatives can alter systems that could cause potential concerns that can affect other business units (Senge, 2014). Stakeholders must understand the process and future resistance systematically to make a logical approach to change (D' Ortenzio, 2012). ...
Article
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In 2019 the global cost of cyber-crime was over 2 trillion dollars. Current research literature outlines that 80-90% of security breaches are due to human-enabled errors in the U.S. and the U.K. Organizations encounter a barrage of cybersecurity threats that prey on the propensity of human error, human inaction, human behavior, and human misbehavior. As a result, there is an emergence of a new area of research development around technical sociology or digital sociology as a domain to explore the human capital perspectives, group dynamics, and social aspects of cybersecurity and technology management. The paper uses a relational content analysis of the literature as the research approach aimed to determine the presence and relationships of common themes and concepts. The results were creation of a concept matrix model of interrelated co-occurring concepts. The approach used was outlined by Krippendorff (1980) who asserts that concepts are "ideational grains;" these grains can be thought of as emblems which develop connotation through their connections to other emblems.
... They need to engender a culture of brand protection that promotes the ongoing search for understanding, innovation, and improvement. In other words, brand protection programs need to become learning organizations (Senge, 1990;Senge et al., 1999;Ortenblad, 2019). Senge defines learning organizations as "organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together" (1990, p. 3). ...
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Brand protection practitioners struggle with several common questions. These include the nature of the risk, its size, articulating the need for resources to address it, effectively allocating these resources, and demonstrating the value of a brand protection program. Little systematic research has been available to help practitioners address these questions. This volume reviews the principles of a total business solution for brand protection and means for implementing it. Its chapters on assessing the nature of product counterfeit risk discuss how to build a brand protection program, apply standards to it, and understand consumer motivations to buy counterfeit. Its chapters on mitigating the risk of counterfeit products discuss specific tactics that practitioners might use and how to communicate the value of them. Its chapters on resource allocation and value measurement discuss specific methods and scorecards for assessing programs. Several case studies provide insight on the total business solution in practice.
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All people want to go to paradise, but they do not like to die while the prerequisite of going to paradise is to die. All people like to succeed but, unfortunately, they do not like to change. Many of us have accepted that change is unavoidable but like fear of death, we postpone it as far as we can. Whether we like or not and whether we stay in business or not, we need change. Intelligent managers look for change, not only to create and bring its waves under control but also ride on change waves on the road to success. Unbelieving managers are yet analyzing it until they see their organization at the end of its route or over the edge of a precipice and just a few steps to destruction. They decide to change themselves and their organizations when there is no hope to survive. Will they succeed? In order to create developmental changes and the movement towards sustainable development in organization and societies, numerous ideas have been presented but a little attention has been paid to methods, practical models and implementation steps. CHANGE Model is a new model which contains six processes which can help achieve practical methods to rapidly obtain development. Each process has an input, an output, a feedback, and some action plans. What is remarkable here is that each process begins with a letter of the word CHANGE.
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CONTEXT Agri-food systems face complex sustainability challenges, containing conflicting interests, goals, worldviews and fragmented knowledge and decision-making. There is a need for a better understanding of how to turn knowledge about sustainability into actions for change. The complexity of these challenges necessitates systemic, cross-sectorial, and multi-actor processes. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to strengthen agri-food systems associated with organic vegetables in the Vestfold region in Norway by involving actors through a living lab and to generate knowledge regarding the establishment phase of cross-cutting change initiatives. This included exploring how actors from within and beyond the agri-food domain could be selected and recruited and investigating what characterize their perceived understanding of the current situation regarding organic vegetables and their shared vision. METHODS We first drew the boundary of the living lab “system” in relation to improving the situation of organic vegetable agri-food systems. We explored potential participants by developing and applying a procedure for discovering sectors and actors that could contribute to overcome development obstacles. We then used the snowball sampling method and interviewed 48 actors, identifying 80 potential participants. Among these, 30 actors participated in a workshop in which we facilitated co-creative processes for creating a common problem understanding and a shared vision. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The procedure helped identify change-oriented actors within the agri-food domain. Actors represented small-scale entities who had power to influence their own business, as well as individuals within large-scale entities with limited power to influence change in own organizations. We also discovered actors beyond the agri-food domain who did not originally identify themselves closely with the topic of organic food, such as actors from waste management, education, regional, business, and tourism development, and health and welfare. The diversity of actors contributed to a rich and holistic perspective on the current situation for agriculture and food. They co-created a manifold, but coherent, shared vision, portraying a more collaborative orientation in localized agri-food systems. The gaps between current and future desired situations clearly served as a starting point for action planning and testing. SIGNIFICANCE The study shows crucial steps in establishing an agri-food living lab, including introductory work of bounding the system, selecting actors, and conducting co-creative processes. The study developed and applied a procedure for discovering actors within and beyond the agri-food domain who could contribute to overcoming development obstacles. This procedure can be adjusted and utilized in other settings.
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