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Abstract

The term wearable medical devices describes autonomous devices that are worn by a person and provide medical monitoring or support over a prolonged period of time. Their distinguishing characteristic is that they are worn either as an accessory or are embedded into clothing. Such devices normally incorporate noninvasive physiological sensors, data processing modules, medical feedback, and wireless data transmission capabilities. They are small, light, unobtrusive, and designed for operation by unskilled users. Current developments include real-time feedback, alerting mechanisms, medical decision support, and wireless access to information. Wearable medical devices offer the supporting hardware for dealing with the emerging medical trend of delivering point-of-care service, unconfined medical monitoring and support, and assisting in the remote management of medical conditions for rehabilitating patients, the chronically ill, and the disabled.

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... Wearable medical devices bear specific characteristics like autonomy, non-invasiveness, reliability in performing a designated medical function such as monitoring or support for a desired period of time [4]. The basic element implying wearability is the use of the human body or of a piece of clothing as the support environment for a wearable device. ...
... Different medical sensors used in wearable devices include skin surface electrodes used for ECG, electroencephalography (EEG), and electromyography (EMG), temperature thermistors for skin temperature, piezoelectric sensors for heart rate and respiratory effort monitoring, photoplethysmography (PPG) for blood volume changes, pulse oxymetry, and galvanic skin response [4]. Furthermore, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) are used for measuring blood pressure, respiration and acceleration [6], while microelectronic biosensors are also used being either calorimetric or electrochemical [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Healthcare is expected to undergo a transformation in the near future thanks to wearable health monitoring that makes it possible to offer such services as ubiquitous monitoring of patients’ physiological parameters and health condition. The continuous monitoring of vital patient signals has been primarily motivated by the need to put a barrier in ever increasing healthcare costs. Recent technological advances in miniaturized healthcare sensing devices, wireless communications, microelectronics and embedded systems have contributed towards this end. The PATRIOT system comprises a miniature, wearable, non-invasive, real time electrocardiography system alongside a relevant Cloud platform for the support of proactive personal health management of cardiology patients.
... Wearable medical devices bear specific characteristics like autonomy, non-invasiveness, reliability in performing a designated medical function such as monitoring or support for a desired period of time [4]. The basic element implying wearability is the use of the human body or of a piece of clothing as the support environment for a wearable device. ...
... Different medical sensors used in wearable devices include skin surface electrodes used for ECG, electroencephalography (EEG), and electromyography (EMG), temperature thermistors for skin temperature, piezoelectric sensors for heart rate and respiratory effort monitoring, photoplethysmography (PPG) for blood volume changes, pulse oxymetry, and galvanic skin response [4]. Furthermore, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) are used for measuring blood pressure, respiration and acceleration [6], while microelectronic biosensors are also used being either calorimetric or electrochemical [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Healthcare is expected to undergo a transformation in the near future thanks to wearable health monitoring that makes it possible to offer such services as ubiquitous monitoring of patients’ physiological parameters and health condition. The continuous monitoring of vital patient signals has been primarily motivated by the need to put a barrier in ever increasing healthcare costs. Recent technological advances in miniaturized healthcare sensing devices, wireless communications, microelectronics and embedded systems have contributed towards this end. The PATRIOT system comprises a miniature, wearable, non-invasive, real time electrocardiography system alongside a relevant Cloud platform for the support of proactive personal health management of cardiology patients.
... A wearable medical device can be defined as a device that is autonomous, noninvasive, and that performs a specific medical function such as monitoring or support over a prolonged period of time [1]. In literature; there are many studies about ergonomics of wearable medical devices. ...
... Physical design which is one of the most important point on many studies in literature. It refers to issues dealing with thephysical shape, size, and weight of a wearable and its ergonomics [1]. For the efficient wearable medical device design can be done by applying general design guidelines during the designing stage. ...
... The wearable healthcare device market is one of the fastest-growing areas of the IoT, with emerging nations accelerating the growth resulting in an estimated market size of USD46.6 billion by 2025 (ReportLinker, 2020). Fotiadis et al. (2006) define wearable healthcare devices as autonomous devices that perform specific medical functions. Wearable healthcare devices provide numerous benefits like monitoring physiological parameters and health outcomes (Paluch & Tuzovic, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore factors impacting wearable fitness tracking (WFT) device continued usage intention from perspectives of technology attributes (autonomy benefits), health attributes (self-health management benefits, diet-control benefits and health self-efficacy), and consumer attributes (age, gender, technological innovativeness, symbolic benefits, social benefits and hedonic benefits). Design/methodology/approach The study integrates constructs from the technology acceptance theories and the health promotion model to develop the research model and hypothesis. The empirical analysis was conducted using data from 217 respondents from India. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that discriminate between groups with low and high continued usage intentions. Findings Results indicate higher continued usage intention for WFT devices is driven by perceived benefits-health, autonomy, social and hedonic, and individual characteristics-technological innovativeness and perceived health self-efficacy. Further, perceived symbolic benefits, diet control benefits, age, and gender does not discriminate between the groups with low and high continued usage intentions. Research limitations/implications The results may be limited to the context of the sample and the factors considered. The study suggests future research areas. Practical implications The paper offers insights for marketers, governments, insurance firms, and related healthcare services on promoting higher usage of WFT devices to yield dual benefits of preventive healthcare and higher profitability. Originality/value The study extends existing research by examining factors across consumer, health, and technological domains in a single framework and adds to the limited research in the context of usage of WFT devices in developing countries.
... The health sector has seen a remarkable growth in portable medical equipment and personal portable device [4] that aims to cover comfort and convenience, which people consider as an important aspect of health [5], and enables provision for clinical monitoring outside a hospital institution [6] making it ubiquitous. It is for this reason why portability is considered an important element for this project. ...
Conference Paper
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Medicine intake, as prescribed by physicians and health care providers, is important not only for minimizing the risk of relapse but also to treating conditions and improving one’s overall well-being. However, adherence to a medication routine seems to be a problem for some people which is usually affected by a variety of factors such as hectic day-to-day activity schedules, poor prescription instruction, concurrent intake of multiple medications, and forgetfulness. Medication adherence has been then considered as one of the major medical problems globally. In such cases, a medical device that could alert and remind patients in taking their medicines on time will come in handy. Consequently, this study aimed to design and develop a pocket-sized electronic pillbox device using TFT LCD display, Arduino microcontroller, Piezo Buzzer (for sound notification), Eccentric Rotating Mass (for vibration notification), Lithium Ion battery as power source, and plastic organizer as the main body. The said pillbox device will act as a countermeasure for medication non-adherence particularly by patients under the case of polypharmacy. Thus, this study focused on the design and development of the prototype, hardware testing and system qualification only. Furthermore, this paper is part of a future study where the assessment and measure of device behavior and adherence will be conducted to compare whether the utilization of pillbox device has an impact to the people who are using it.
... Wearable monitoring system assists in managing the treatment of chronic diseases such as heart diseases, asthma, and diabetes and the monitoring of vital signs such as heart rate, blood oxygen level, respiration, and body fat. They normally provide noninvasive sensing, local processing, user feedbacks, and communication capabilities (Fotiadis, Glaros & Likas, 2006). There are more and more products streaming into the market such as intelligent bracelets, heart beat detector, CGMS and so on. ...
Article
Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of healthcare devices. The connections between patients and medical cyber-physical systems are becoming tighter and many patients have got enormous benefits from these convenient systems. Our research, mainly refer to blood glucose-insulin control system, is a hot topic in the field of connected health as the development of diabetes has attracted more and more attention during the past several decades. Mainstream methods for treating diabetes in hospitals is mainly confined to manually injecting insulin to patients, which is inconvenient and highly expensive. Meanwhile, they are not fine-grained for doctors to accurately control insulin levels, so we try to improve the whole system for blood glucose-insulin control. Medical cyber-physical system on blood glucose-insulin control consists of three parts; CGMS (Continuous Glucose Monitoring System), insulin pump and closed-loop control algorithm. CGSM and insulin pump have made great advances in recent years, but we are still trying to find a better method to decrease errors introduced by mechanical measurement. Closed-loop control algorithm is vitally important and complex to study in this system. We introduce a novel algorithm which can better control blood glucose and insulin levels. To optimize this algorithm and solve storage problem, we also add back end analysis to this system. Our simulations are based on real data from patients in Shanghai No.9 hospital. We have finally concluded that our system performs well.
... They are called wearable since they are placed on the human body or clothing. They come in various forms: patches, bandages, glasses, rings, bracelets, etc. [16]. Currently available WMSs can monitor posture, fetal health, heart disease, obesity, diabetes, epilepsy, sleep quality, cigarette smoking, etc. WMSs are a rapidly growing market and expected to become ubiquitous [17]. ...
Article
Long-term exposure to stress may lead to serious health problems such as those related to the immune, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. Once having arisen, these problems require a considerable investment of time and money to recover from. With early detection and treatment, however, these health problems may be nipped in the bud, thus improving quality of life. We present an automatic stress detection and alleviation system, called SoDA, to address this issue. SoDA takes advantage of emerging wearable medical sensors (WMSs), specifically, electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), respiration rate, blood pressure, and blood oximeter, to continuously monitor human stress levels and mitigate stress as it arises. It performs stress detection and alleviation in a user-transparent manner, i.e., without the need for user intervention. When it detects stress, SoDA employs a stress alleviation technique in an adaptive manner based on the stress response of the user. We establish the effectiveness of the proposed system through a detailed analysis of data collected from 32 participants. A total of four stressors and three stress reduction techniques are employed. In the stress detection stage, SoDA achieves 95.8% accuracy with a distinct combination of supervised feature selection and unsupervised dimensionality reduction. In the stress alleviation stage, we compare SoDA with the ‘no alleviation’ baseline and validate its efficacy in responding to and alleviating stress.
... To improve the positive predictive value of ICU alarms, Aboukhalil et al. developed a novel method for suppressing false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU using continuous ECG and arterial BP waveforms [56]. CDSs are software aids for clinical decision making (e.g., Medtronic VitalSync, MN, USA) [57,58]. Integration of wearables data in CDS can improve their utility and outcomes. ...
Article
Wearable sensors are already impacting healthcare and medicine by enabling health monitoring outside of the clinic and prediction of health events. This paper reviews current and prospective wearable technologies and their progress toward clinical application. We describe technologies underlying common, commercially available wearable sensors and early-stage devices and outline research, when available, to support the use of these devices in healthcare. We cover applications in the following health areas: metabolic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal monitoring; sleep, neurology, movement disorders and mental health; maternal, pre- and neo-natal care; and pulmonary health and environmental exposures. Finally, we discuss challenges associated with the adoption of wearable sensors in the current healthcare ecosystem and discuss areas for future research and development.
... Thanks to this type of instrumentation, it is possible to continuously monitor patients and access their historical clinical data. In this context, portable devices present great advantages since they allow this continuous monitoring without requiring the patient to remain hospitalized, unlike clinical instrumentation, which is not easy to transport and requires medical personnel for its configuration and manipulation [1]. The increase rate in the development of this type of devices is steadily growing, as illustrated by the classical Holter monitor, which has now been reduced to a small ear-worn device that monitors several biomedical signals [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable monitoring devices are now a usual commodity in the market, especially for the monitoring of sports and physical activity. However, specialized wearable devices remain an open field for high-risk professionals, such as military personnel, fire and rescue, law enforcement, etc. In this work, a prototype wearable instrument, based on reconfigurable technologies and capable of monitoring electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, and motion, is presented. This reconfigurable device allows a wide range of applications in conjunction with mobile devices. As a proof-of-concept, the reconfigurable instrument was been integrated into ad hoc glasses, in order to illustrate the non-invasive monitoring of the user. The performance of the presented prototype was validated against a commercial pulse oximeter, while several alternatives for QRS-complex detection were tested. For this type of scenario, clustering-based classification was found to be a very robust option.
... This heightened health and fitness consciousness of this generation has led to explosive growth in healthcare services 1 and the digital healthcare device industry. In particular, the development of sensors and communication technologies has enabled the continuous monitoring of various physiological conditions using wearable healthcare devices. 2 Fotiadis et al. 3 defined a wearable healthcare device as "a device that is autonomous, that is noninvasive, and that performs a specific medical function such as monitoring or support over a prolonged period of time." The wearable healthcare device market can be segmented into various devices including diagnostic and monitoring devices, therapeutic devices, rehabilitation devices, and health and fitness devices. 1 The current study focuses only on health and fitness devices such as smart fitness trackers and smartwatches because they are the most popular types for consumers due to their versatility, portability, and smartphone friendliness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Given the rapid growth of the wearable healthcare device market, we examined the associations among health-related and technology-related characteristics of using wearable healthcare devices and demonstrated how the associations differ between the US and Korean users. Methods Online self-administered surveys were conducted with 4098 participants (3035 in the US and 1063 in Korea) who were recruited through two online survey service providers based on quota sampling. The primary outcome was the use of wearable healthcare devices. Seven health-related, two technology-related, and five socio-demographic factors were included as explanatory variables. Binary logistic regression analyses and a Chow test were conducted. Results The health-related characteristics that were significantly associated with using wearable healthcare devices included disease-related worries (β = 0.11**), health information seeking (β = 0.26***), physical activity (β = 0.62***), and health-related expenditures ($50–$199, β = 0.38***; $200 or more, β = 0.56***). Hedonic (β = 0.33***), social (β = 0.31***), and cognitive innovativeness (β = 0.14*) also exhibited positive relationships. Younger, higher earner, and individuals with a child were more likely to use wearable healthcare devices. However, for Korean users, several associations disappeared including health information seeking, hedonic and social innovativeness, age, and household income. Conclusions Key drivers of using wearable healthcare devices include greater concern about a specific illness, active engagement in health-promoting behaviors, and hedonic and social motivation to adopt new technologies. However, more country-specific considerations are needed in future studies to identify the main benefits for target markets.
... When the micro strip patch antennas made with flexible substrates, they provide the possibility of wearing it for communication purposes like tracking, navigation and for public safety purposes [7,8]. The design of wearable devices for medical applications having several challenges like [9]. Some of the wearable antenna applications are shown in Figure 1 [10]. ...
Article
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Due to the development of modern wearable mobile devices, the need of antenna with smaller size and internally flexible to fit becomes necessary. Miniaturization of Micro Strip Patch (MSP) antenna increases its employability for communication in different aspects. The use of flexible material for the fabrication of MSP antenna still improves its use for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) which includes devices for monitoring systems in military, surveillance and medical applications. The devices designed specifically in Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band are used for communication in these applications. Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is adopted as an emerging technique for improving the various parameters of microwave circuits, that is, narrow bandwidth, cross-polarization, low gain, and so forth. In this paper, the design of compact micro strip patch antenna using different flexible substrate materials with DGS is proposed to resonate the antenna at 2.45GHz ISM band which can be used as biomedical sensors. Felt and Teflon with dielectric constant 1.36 and 2.1respectively are chosen as flexible substrate material among various flexible materials like cotton, rubber, paper, jeans etc. Using CST studio suite software, the designed antenna is simulated and the fabricated antenna is tested with Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The performance parameters like return loss, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of the antenna are analyzed.
... Advances in wireless sensors and digital technologies have led to a proliferation of wearable health care devices with which users can examine, monitor, and track their physiological conditions. Wearable health care devices are autonomous, noninvasive, wearable equipment with embedded sensors to collect a variety of physiological health information [1]. These devices range from the popular fitness trackers (eg, Fitbit, AppleWatch, Samsung, Galaxy Fit) that collect data on physical activities such as number of steps taken, calories burned, sleep duration, and heart rate to more sophisticated devices that can collect information on blood pressure, glucose levels, and oxygen levels. ...
Article
Background Despite the growing popularity of wearable health care devices (from fitness trackes such as Fitbit to smartwatches such as Apple Watch and more sophisticated devices that can collect information on metrics such as blood pressure, glucose levels, and oxygen levels), we have a limited understanding about the actual use and key factors affecting the use of these devices by US adults. Objective The main objective of this study was to examine the use of wearable health care devices and the key predictors of wearable use by US adults. Methods Using a national survey of 4551 respondents, we examined the usage patterns of wearable health care devices (use of wearables, frequency of their use, and willingness to share health data from a wearable with a provider) and a set of predictors that pertain to personal demographics (age, gender, race, education, marital status, and household income), individual health (general health, presence of chronic conditions, weight perceptions, frequency of provider visits, and attitude towards exercise), and technology self-efficacy using logistic regression analysis. Results About 30% (1266/4551) of US adults use wearable health care devices. Among the users, nearly half (47.33%) use the devices every day, with a majority (82.38% weighted) willing to share the health data from wearables with their care providers. Women (16.25%), White individuals (19.74%), adults aged 18-50 years (19.52%), those with some level of college education or college graduates (25.60%), and those with annual household incomes greater than US $75,000 (17.66%) were most likely to report using wearable health care devices. We found that the use of wearables declines with age: Adults aged >50 years were less likely to use wearables compared to those aged 18-34 years (odds ratios [OR] 0.46-0.57). Women (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96-1.65), White individuals (OR 1.65, 95% CI 0.97-2.79), college graduates (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.31-3.51), and those with annual household incomes greater than US $75,000 (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.39-4.86) were more likely to use wearables. US adults who reported feeling healthier (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.39), were overweight (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27), enjoyed exercise (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.43), and reported higher levels of technology self-efficacy (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46) were more likely to adopt and use wearables for tracking or monitoring their health. Conclusions The potential of wearable health care devices is under-realized, with less than one-third of US adults actively using these devices. With only younger, healthier, wealthier, more educated, technoliterate adults using wearables, other groups have been left behind. More concentrated efforts by clinicians, device makers, and health care policy makers are needed to bridge this divide and improve the use of wearable devices among larger sections of American society.
... Progress in the field of sensors and communication technology has allowed the use of wearable health devices to continuously monitor the different physiological conditions. Based on the study by Fotiadis, Glaros, and Likas (2006), wearable medical devices can be defined as self-supporting and non-invasive devices that fulfil a certain medical function like monitoring or assistance. The wearable medical devices can be carried or included in a E-ISSN: 2289-8603 JSCDS S E-ISSN: 2289-8603 piece of clothing and monitors physiological data such as activity levels, cardiac rate and blood pressure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable devices have attracted a great deal of attention and popularity among academics and decision-makers in the last decade. The potential of wearable technology to improve health efficiency and cut healthcare costs has been demonstrated in several studies. Wearable devices have a great value for detecting, tracking, and controlling the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Based on the confirmation of expectations and technology acceptance theories, this study has developed a theoretical model to study user perceptions of wearable healthcare devices. The data collected from 163 study samples were examined using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) technique. The study results showed that the security and privacy factor is important for the adoption of wearable healthcare devices in the event of COVID-19.
... Point-of-care devices are in high demand for real time because of their miniaturized and compact sizes, minimized human error, easy to handle and economical as it required low volume of reagents and sample. For the detection of physiologically variable ailment at its initial stage for effective treatment within the physiological environment, wearable POC sensing devices are gaining attention nowadays, with promising results (Fotiadis et al. 2006;Hung et al. 2004;Chandra et al. 2017). Traditional sensing devices and POC systems allow detection of cortisol precisely but have limitations of their availability at many places due to portability constrain, high cost, lengthy processing, long run time for analysis with requirement of trained personnel to operate. ...
Chapter
The development of biosensors and bioassays has focused recently on small, easy to use in a decentralized and portable manner and low-cost analytical devices for sensing and quantitative determination of biomarkers. Biosensors provide numerous advantages over other analytical techniques, including high selectivity and sensitivity, portability, miniaturization and possibility of on-site monitoring. Immunosensors were heavily used during the last decades, since they combine the specificity of the immune reaction between antibody and its specific antigen with the sensitivity provided by the detection platform. More recently, aptamers started to be used for the design of biosensors due to their improved characteristic compared to the antibody-based sensors. In this chapter an overview of the latest trends in electrochemical sensors design for diagnosis purposes of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders, is presented.
... Usually, these devices are very small and light to be fitted for unskilled patients also. In recent years, the development of technology is proving real-time data, alert systems and also wireless communications [22] . In the market, various categories of wearable healthcare devices are available, which is classified with their different functioning. ...
Article
Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMs) device is the most developed technology, which has reshaped manual diabetes management with smart features having sensor, transmitter and monitor. However, the number of users for CGMs device is still very low compared to existing manual systems although this device provides a smart landmark in blood glucose monitoring for diabetes management. Consequently, the aspire of the assessment is to explore the factors that influence users’ intention to adopt CGMs device on the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare. This paper provides an adoption model for CGMs device by integrating some factors from different theories in existing studies of wearable healthcare devices. The proposed adoption model also examines current factors as a guideline for the users to adopt the CGMs device. We have collected data from 97 actual CGMs device users. Partial least square and structural equation modelling were involved for measurement and structural model assessment of this study. The experiential study specifies that interpersonal influence and trustworthiness are the strong predictors of attitude toward a wearable device, which shows significant relationships to use for CGMs device's adoption. Personal innovativeness shows no significant relationship with attitude toward a wearable device. Besides, self-efficacy has no direct influence on a person's health interest where heath interest directly influences users’ intention to use CGMs device. Moreover, perceived value is not found to be significant for measuring intention to use CGMs devices. The results from this research provide suggestions for the developers to ensure users’ intention to adopt CGMs device.
... AME giyilebilir polisomnograf, EKG, EMG, elektrookülografi, EEG, göğüs eforu, nabız oksimetresi, vücut pozisyonu, hava akımı ve horlama sensörlerine sahip, giyilebilir 16 veri kanallı bir kaydedicidir. Veri kaydı için yerel kayıt ve isteğe bağlı kablosuz dijital radyo bağlantısı sağlar ve klinik bir ortam için tasarlanmıştır(Fotiadis et al., 2006).Diğer bir sınıf ise giyilebilir rehabilitasyon cihazlarıdır (WRD; Wearable Rehabilitation Device). Bu cihazlar rehabilitasyon sürecine aktif olarak yardımcı olmaktadır. ...
... Point-of-care devices are in high demand for real time because of their miniaturized and compact sizes, minimized human error, easy to handle and economical as it required low volume of reagents and sample. For the detection of physiologically variable ailment at its initial stage for effective treatment within the physiological environment, wearable POC sensing devices are gaining attention nowadays, with promising results (Fotiadis et al. 2006;Hung et al. 2004;Chandra et al. 2017). Traditional sensing devices and POC systems allow detection of cortisol precisely but have limitations of their availability at many places due to portability constrain, high cost, lengthy processing, long run time for analysis with requirement of trained personnel to operate. ...
Chapter
Advancement in lifestyle and exponential population growth have evoked competitiveness and struggle for survival, resulting in the elevated levels of physiological stress that notably shows correlation with the rising health disparities within the population. Sustained level of stress based on environmental factors, gender inequalities, competitiveness and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) triggers the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) for signalling an abnormal release of cortisol from cortex region of the adrenal gland. Although several biomolecules and hormones are known to be influenced by physiological stress, examining cortisol (a steroid hormone) is observed to be one of the potential clinical strategies to assess the levels of the stress. Cortisol level varies regularly during day–night cycles that eventually regulates circadian rhythm. Free form of cortisol can provide accurate and precise determination of stress and is a biomarker for early diagnosis of disorder; hence real time estimation of cortisol can be beneficial to overcome many health issues. Chromatographic techniques are the conventional technology used for cortisol determination; however they possess several limitations such as bulky and complex system, multi-step lengthy and expensive extraction and purification process as well as high limit of detection leading to superficial information. Nowadays, multiple detection techniques have been discovered which consist of high sensitivity, require less or no sample preparation, miniaturization, rapid quantification and easy to use with minimal limitations. Electrochemical immunosensors and bioelectronics integrated with microfluidic platforms started gaining attention recently due to their non-invasive, quick responsive, highly sensitive and portable nature with wearable features. Considering the testing devices either reported in the literature or available for clinical practices, there still remains some improvements and scope to develop miniaturized and wearable point-of-care diagnostics that may exhibit increased sensitivity performance, simple design and rapid fabrication. This book chapter attempts to highlight information regarding cortisol detection sources in the body, the available sensing techniques and the diagnostic devices. In addition, we focus on recent advancements in the biosensing strategies for cortisol detection in particular using microfluidic technology.
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Wearable healthcare devices offer tremendous promise to effectively track and improve the well-being of older adults. Yet, little is known about the use of wearable devices by older adults. Drawing upon a national survey in US with 1481 older adults, we examine the use of wearable healthcare devices and the key predictors of use viz. sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and technology self-efficacy. We also examine if the predictors are associated with elders’ willingness to share health data from wearable devices with healthcare providers. We find low level of wearable use (17.49%) among US older adults. We find significant positive associations between technology self-efficacy, health conditions, and demographic factors (gender, race, education, and annual household income) and use of wearable devices. Men were less likely (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.36–1.04) and Asians were more likely (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 0.89–7.64) to use wearables, as did healthy adults (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.37–2.87). Those who electronically communicated with their doctors (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.16–2.97), and those who searched online for health information (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.03–3.10) were more likely to use wearables. Though 80.15% of wearable users are willing to share health data with providers, those with greater technology self-efficacy and favorable attitudes toward exercise are more willing.
Chapter
This paper analyses prior literature that identify adoption model for smart wearable healthcare devices. This assessment aims to contribute and identify factors that enable users to adopt wearable devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare to monitor blood glucose measuring. This study has set off in quest of research in IoT smart healthcare focusing on blood glucose monitoring based on previous studies on wearable devices for smart healthcare. The key aim of this paper is to provide a summary of published articles and to find the current factors leading to the adoption of wearable devices for smart healthcare. The authors guided a systematic review of wearable devices in smart healthcare to explore the factors of adopting smart healthcare devices. 55 studies were analyzed where 21 studies directly address wearable devices, adoption models, and also IoT systems. Most of the studies covered a few factors; namely Interpersonal Influence, Self-efficiency, Individual Innovativeness, Attitude toward wearable devices, Self�interest, Perceived Expensiveness, and Perceived Usefulness in a wearable fitness tracker or monitoring. Findings show that the effect of trustworthiness has a very extensive potential to be explored to improve the model prediction to measure the adoption of IoT wearable devices in smart healthcare as well as blood glucose monitoring.
Chapter
This chapter examines the design of wearable medical devices. Design is understood to be a process and output that concerns the form, function and the meaning of the designed object. However, participation in the design process by users can actively influence the output. Involvement in the co-creation of personal medical devices (PMDs) contributes towards patients’ wellbeing and increases their adherence to device usage. The chapter takes a case study approach to the design of orthotics in which patients are involved as co-designers, considering the solutions crafted by traditional and digital technologies within the framework of a biopsychosocial model of healthcare. The chapter concludes with insights into the benefits to patients and healthcare services from orthotics conceived and worn as desirable objects.
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The advancement in wireless sensor and information technology has offered enormous healthcare opportunities for wearable healthcare devices and has changed the way of health monitoring. Despite the importance of this technology, limited studies have paid attention for predicting individuals’ influential factors for adoption of wearable healthcare devices. The proposed research aimed at determining the key factors which impact an individual's intention for adopting wearable healthcare devices. The extended technology acceptance model with several external variables was incorporated to propose the research model. A multi-analytical approach, structural equation modelling-neural network, was considered for testing the proposed model. The results obtained from the structural equation modelling showed that the initial trust is considered as the most determinant and influencing factor in the decision of wearable health device adoption followed by health interest, consumer innovativeness, and so on. Moreover, the results obtained from the structural equation modelling applied as an input to the neural network indicated that the perceived ease of use is one of the predictors that are significant for adoption of wearable health devices by consumers. The proposed study explains the wearable health device implementation along with test adoption model, and their outcome will help providers in the manufacturing unit for increasing actual users’ continuous adoption intention and potential users’ intention to use wearable devices.
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The revolution in information and communication technology has made it easy to innovate and deliver new products and services in the healthcare sectors. The wearable devices fall under such category. They are multi-functional and wearable on the body. They have been extensively studied and implemented in Western countries, but the research on such devices has not received much attention in countries like Oman. In addition, the healthcare institutions in a number of Asian countries are not fully aware of the benefits of wearable devices. This research consisted of conducting an empirical study on the current use, awareness, and challenges to the advancement of wearable devices/technologies in the healthcare sector inside Oman. The responses from 149 healthcare stakeholders were collected through an online-administered questionnaire. The study further discusses the effectiveness, applicability, and corresponding applications of wearable technologies in the healthcare sector, besides assessing the prospects for such technologies in Oman.
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A device providing frequent, automatic, and non-invasive glucose measurements for persons with diabetes has been developed: the GlucoWatch biographer. This device extracts glucose through intact skin via reverse iontophoresis where it is detected by an amperometric biosensor. The biographer can provide glucose readings every 20 min for 12 h. The performance of this device was evaluated in two large clinical studies in a controlled clinical environment (n=231), and the home environment (n=124). Accuracy of the biographer was evaluated by comparing the automatic biographer readings to serial finger-stick blood glucose (BG) measurements. Biographer performance was comparable in both environments. Mean difference between biographer and finger-stick measurements was -0.01 and 0.26 mmol l(-1) for the clinical and home environments, respectively. The mean absolute value of the relative difference was 1.06 and 1.18 mmol l(-1) for the same studies. Correlation coefficient (r) between biographer and finger-stick measurements was 0.85 and 0.80 for the two studies. In both studies, over 94% of the biographer readings were in the clinically acceptable A+B region of the Clarke Error Grid. A slight positive bias is observed for the biographer readings at low BG levels. Biographer accuracy is relatively constant over all rates of BG changes, except when BG decreases more than 10 mmol l(-1) h(-1), which occurred for only 0.2% of points in the home environment study. Biographer precision, as measured by CV%, is approx. 10%. Skin irritation, characterized by erythema and edema, was either non-existent or mild in >90% of subjects and resolved in virtually all subjects without treatment in several days.
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Approximately 5% of spinal cord-injured individuals suffer from respiratory muscle paralysis and require chronic mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, this form of life support is associated with a number of undesirable side effects and discomforts. The only available alternative to mechanical ventilation is diaphragm pacing via bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation. This technique can provide patients with marked improvements in life quality and offers significant advantages compared to mechanical ventilation. Many patients, however, do not have bilateral phrenic function or are not willing to accept the risks inherent with phrenic nerve pacing and therefore are not candidates for this technique. Two alternative methods to ventilate patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia are reviewed in this paper. In patients with only a single functional phrenic nerve who are therefore not candidates for phrenic nerve pacing, combined intercostal muscle and unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation has recently been shown to maintain ventilatory support. In patients with bilateral phrenic nerve function, on-going studies suggest that intramuscular diaphragm pacing may be a useful alternative to direct phrenic nerve pacing. With the electrodes placed into the diaphragm laparoscopically, this method allows for the diaphragm to be activated without manipulation of the phrenic nerve, need for thoracotomy, or hospitalization. Both techniques provide benefits similar to that derived from bilateral phrenic nerve pacing and hold promise as alternative methods of ventilatory support in selected populations groups.
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Cognitive rehabilitation has the capacity to empower persons with brain-injuries and help them achieve heightened functional, personal, and social interactions within their environments. Interventions aimed at compensation for deficits and adaptation to cognitive disability can be aided through the use of assistive technology devices (ATD's). ATDs allow for their users to experience greater levels of independence, as well as social and vocational participation, which leads to a higher quality of life. The ISAAC system is a small, individualized, wearable cognitive prosthetic assistive technology system. Being fully individualized and very easy to use makes this system adaptable to, and appropriate for, patients with a wide variety of cognitive disabilities ranging from individuals with developmental disabilities to high functioning survivors of brain injury. The current article will discuss two cases that illustrate the effectiveness of the ISAAC system in assisting patients with generalization of rehabilitation to their home environments. Both patients incurred significant cognitive impairment, for which they were able to successfully compensate with the assistance of their ISAAC systems. These two case studies are typical examples of the functional independence that can be achieved through the use of the ISAAC system. When patients are properly selected for use of this system, appropriate content is authored, and sufficient training on the system is provided, the ISAAC system can prove very effective at improving patients' functional independence.
Conference Paper
A wearable intelligent platform for the monitoring of the health condition and rehabilitation of athletes is presented. The system provides doctors and trainers with real-time monitoring, alerting and medical decision support. It aims to help them optimize treatment and training procedures during rehabilitation, to prevent injury relapses and to ensure a prompt return to peak athletic condition. The system's design requirements are laid out along with its functional description. It is composed of three main subsystems: the athlete subsystem, the rehabilitation station and the portal. The athlete subsystem includes all the monitoring sensors worn by the athlete during training, along with a signal collector and a processing-transceiver unit for preliminary evaluation and for exchanging information with the rehabilitation station. The rehabilitation station is the main control, access and communication point of the system carrying most of the processing. The measurements derived from the received signals are fed into an intelligent module, which provides with the monitoring, alerting and decision support mechanisms. A virtual reality interface is used by the athlete to communicate with the system. The portal is a long-term data storage facility collecting selected data for research purposes.
Conference Paper
Driven by ever-evolving technological advancements, healthcare institutions must continuously adapt in order to provide optimal patient care. One significant advancement is the development of wireless medical telemetry systems. With wireless systems, patients can move freely around the hospital while their physiological parameters are monitored. This new model of patient care is a revolutionary advancement in modern healthcare. Recently, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) designated protected frequency bands for medical telemetry. Medical device manufacturers and their customers are classified as the primary users of the bands. These licensed frequency bands will guard medical telemetry from the potential interference of other telemetry devices. This governmental decision has enabled U.S. device manufacturers and healthcare institutions to move forward with confidence in the development and use of wireless technology. In healthcare organizations, a successful equipment acquisition process requires clearly defined objectives, stakeholder input, careful research, and correct identification of clinical and technical needs and specifications. By using these guidelines, institutions can increase the probability of selecting a telemetry product that provides the reliability, flexibility, and portability desired.
Conference Paper
Telemedicine has significantly broaden its scope the last few years. In the 90's, it was mainly used by healthcare providers, regardless time and location, for second opinion and patient consultation. Today it elaborates solutions for remote health monitoring to support prevention, early diagnosis, disease management, treatment and home rehabilitation. Remote health monitoring could lead to a significant reduction of total cost in healthcare by avoiding unnecessary hospitalisations and ensuring that those who need urgent care get it sooner. Latest developments in micro- and nanotechnologies as well as in information processing and wireless communication offer, today, the possibility for smart miniaturisation and non-invasive biomedical measurement as well as for wearable sensing, processing and communication. Although developing specific systems and applications to address specific user needs, the "smart health wearable" research and industrial community faces a number of common critical issues, e.g. biomedical sensors, scenarios of use (linked to the business scenarios), data security and confidentiality, risk analysis, user interface, medical knowledge/decision support, dissemination, user acceptance and awareness, business models and exploitation. Beyond technology, which seems providing proof of concept, real future challenges such as clinical validation and impact assessment of the newly developed smart wearable applications, are ahead. This paper review the current status in research and development of smart wearable health applications, developed especially under the EU research activities and analyse the outstanding issues and future challenges to be achieved in the future.
Conference Paper
Monitoring body kinematics and analyzing posture and gesture is an area of major importance in bioengineering and several other connected disciplines such as rehabilitation, sport medicine, and ergonomics. In particular, the knowledge of the position of joints ensures the possibility to remotely describe the posture, and may consent the participation of remote operator to certain performance executed by a subject wearing a sensing garment, including the possibility to tele-rehabilitate patients in their own environment. The aim of this paper is to present a wearable system able to reveal the status of body kinematic chains. In particular a sensing glove developed to detect the posture of the hand is presented.
Conference Paper
This paper reports on an experiment investigating the functionality and usability of novel input devices on a wearable computer for text entry tasks. Over a three week period, twelve subjects used three different input devices to create and save short textual messages. The virtual keyboard, forearm keyboard and Kordic keypad input devices were assessed as to their efficiency and usability for simple text entry tasks. Results collected included the textual data created by the subjects, the duration of activities, the survey data and observations made by supervisors. The results indicated that the forearm keyboard is the best performer for accurate and efficient text entry while other devices may benefit from more work on designing specialist GUIs for the wearable computer
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In 1989, the US Army envisioned a small wearable computer to assist soldiers with battlefield tasks. The concept has since grown from preliminary prototypes and a demonstration Soldier's Computer into the current Land Warrior program and proposals for future systems.
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An overview of the key challenges facing the practice of medicine today is presented along with the need for technological solutions that can "prevent" problems. Then, the development of the Wearable Motherboard™ (Smart Shirt) as a platform for sensors and monitoring devices that can unobtrusively monitor the health and well being of individuals (directly and/or remotely) is described. This is followed by a discussion of the applications and impact of this technology in the continuum of life-from preventing SIDS to facilitating independent living for senior citizens. Finally, the future advancements in the area of wearable, yet comfortable, systems that can continue the transformation of healthcare - all aimed at enhancing the quality of life for humans - are presented.
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