Article

Effectiveness of L2 Instruction: A Research Synthesis and Quantitative Meta-analysis

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study employed (and reports in detail) systematic procedures for research synthesis and meta-analysis to summarize findings from experimental and quasi-experimental investigations into the effectiveness of L2 instruction published between 1980 and 1998. Comparisons of average effect sizes from 49 unique sample studies reporting sufficient data indicated that focused L2 instruction results in large target-oriented gains, that explicit types of instruction are more effective than implicit types, and that Focus on Form and Focus on Forms interventions result in equivalent and large effects. Further findings suggest that the effectiveness of L2 instruction is durable and that the type of outcome measures used in individual studies likely affects the magnitude of observed instructional effectiveness. Generalizability of findings is limited because the L2 type-of-instruction domain has yet to engage in rigorous empirical operationalization and replication of its central research constructs. Changes in research practices are recommended to enhance the future accumulation of knowledge about the effectiveness of L2 instruction.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Furthermore, the present meta-analysis investigates the effects of recasts on L2 grammar in both between-group and within group design analysis. As recommended by Norris and Ortega (2000), calculating and reporting both between and within group effect sizes for the same studies help researchers to analyse the data more thoroughly. The following research questions are addressed and discussed in the present meta-analysis: ...
... morphological and syntactic features) were included. This decision was made to make the studies included in the meta-analysis more comparable and homogeneous and to avoid the so-called apples and oranges problem (Norris and Ortega 2000). Therefore, studies that investigated the effects of recasts on L2 vocabulary, pronunciation and pragmatic features were not included in the study. ...
... (4) The study included in the present meta-analysis had to be either experimental or quasi-experimental, including a true control condition or a comparison group that did not provide recasts in response to learners' errors so that the effects of recasts could be specified by comparing the effects of the feedback condition with a group that did not receive error treatment. It should be noted that although the studies that were included in the present study included a control or comparison condition to legitimize a between subject aggregate effect size, as recommended by Norris and Ortega (2000), within subject effect sizes for the same studies were also calculated and included in the present study to provide a more thorough analysis of recasts effectiveness. (5) The study had to investigate the effects of teacher's recasts rather than peer recasts. ...
Article
The present meta-analysis investigated the effects of recasts along with a number of moderating variables on L2 development by meta-analysing the results of 24 primary studies. The findings revealed an overall medium effect size for the effectiveness of recasts (g = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.48-0.93). Furthermore, the findings indicated that recasts are equally effective for the development of L2 explicit and implicit knowledge. The results also yielded strong effect sizes for the short-term and long-term effects of recasts in foreign language (FL) compared to second language (SL) contexts where weak effect sizes were obtained for both long-term and short-term effects of recasts. Contrary to expectations, the findings did not indicate a significant difference between the effectiveness of partial and full recasts. The findings of the present study, therefore, shed further light on the effectiveness of recasts and suggest that recasts are effective techniques for the development of implicit and explicit L2 knowledge in FL contexts. The findings indicate that instructional context plays the most significant role in the efficacy of recasts. The implications of the study and considerations for interpreting the results will be discussed in the paper in the light of some theoretical justifications as well as a number of limitations of the present meta-analysis.
... There is a body of SLA literature which offers a range of theories and pedagogical techniques regarding how and when to teach grammar (Long & Robinson 1998, Norris & Ortega 2000, Spada 1997). Focus on Form and FormS (henceforth FonF/S^^) research has not received a great deal of attention in the UK secondary school context (Mitchell 2000)^°. ...
... Focus on FormS tends to refer to techniques which are synthetic / proactive / involve abstract practice. Therefore, the term FonF/S is used throughout this thesis to encompass # such techniques (as in Norris & Ortega 2000), to refer to "any pedagogical effort which is used to draw the learners' attention to language form either implicitly or explicitly" Spada (1997) (p73) (though Spada used the term 'Torm Focussed Instruction"). ^ though see Grenfell & Harris (1999), Macaro (2001a & b) Coyle (2001) and Klapper (2003) in the areas of learning strategies, role of LI, interactionist perspectives and task-based learning respectively. ...
... UseAil overviews of input-based instructional techniques and approaches to SLA are provided in Lee (1999), VanPatten (2000), Lightbown (2001), EUis (1999), Izumi (2002) and Gass (1997), though this is perhaps a less developed area than research into output practice (Bygate, Skehan, & Swain 2001, Norris & Ortega 2000. Many input-based studies are fbcussed on the modification of input in interactions and some are laboratory experiments investigating the eSects of implicit and explicit input modes. ...
Thesis
p>This study was conducted in two UK schools / year 9 classrooms. It adopted a quasi-experimental design to compare PI with Enriched Input (EI), which focused learners’ attention on lexical items and / or overall sentential meaning, but allowed an implicit mode of learning the target verb inflections. This shares many similarities with current listening and reading activities in UK classrooms. Progress in learning the target features was also monitored in a non-active control class in school 1. A battery of pre, post and delayed post tests was used to assess the short and longer term impacts on learners’ ability to understand and use, in oral and written modalities, a selection of French verb inflections in the present and perfect tenses. Lessons were monitored in all three classes prior to and throughout the study and the pupils’ and teachers’ reactions to the materials were surveyed to strengthen the study’s validity. In general, instructional type alone did not have a significant impact on the pupils’ learning. However, it was found that in school 2 (class B) the learners who experienced PI made and maintained statistically significant learning gains in all the measures taken, whereas the EI learners did not. This suggests there are potential benefits of using PI to promote the learning of verb inflectional system with such learners. In contrast, in school 1 (Class A), both the EI and PI learners made and maintained statistically significant learning gains, suggesting that with these learners a more incidental mode of processing was equally beneficial. This may be due to a background school ethos of teaching and testing grammar, as the parallel, non-active control class also made some gains between pre and post test. However, this does not account for the extent of the gains by EI learners in class A in the listening, reading and writing measures. It is therefore suggested that the EI learners in class A, unlike those in class B who were at a lower developmental stage, had sufficient processing resources to interpret the meaning of verb inflections as well as lexical items and/or sentential meaning (i.e. engage in incidental / multiple processing). In addition, it is acknowledged that it is possible that more general characteristics of the normal class teaching in class A (e.g. sequencing of grammar pedagogy tasks) may have enabled learners in class A to benefit from EI more than learners in class B.</p
... The meta-analysis approach is a statistical procedure to combine evidence from different empirical studies and hence to derive an overall estimate of a treatment effect. We chose this approach rather than the narrative review since the latter has several limitations, e.g., subjective weighting of primary studies in the interpretation of their findings and the failure to examine their study features as explanations for inconsistent results (Norris and Ortega 2000). To our best knowledge, the research concerning L2 collocation instruction has rarely been reviewed, except with some narrative reviews (Boers and Webb 2018;Mahvelati 2019;Szudarski 2017), which underscores the need to systematically assess pertinent studies with more objective methods. ...
... Collocation instruction was categorized as either explicit or implicit (Norris and Ortega 2000). Explicit interventions present the rules overtly or direct learners' attention to the form of target collocations and invite them to arrive at metalinguistic generalizations on their own, with methods such as consciousnessraising activities (Mahvelati and Mukundan 2012a) and gap-fill tasks (Webb and Kagimoto 2009). ...
... Explicit interventions present the rules overtly or direct learners' attention to the form of target collocations and invite them to arrive at metalinguistic generalizations on their own, with methods such as consciousnessraising activities (Mahvelati and Mukundan 2012a) and gap-fill tasks (Webb and Kagimoto 2009). A typical explicit intervention may include three elements: exposure to relevant input, presentation of rules, and opportunities for practice (Norris and Ortega 2000). Each of the three elements not only presents multiple options for implementation, but also could be combined in various ways in a single intervention. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports a meta-analysis of studies that investigated the effectiveness of instruction on second language collocation learning. A total of 64 research projects in 17 primary studies (the number of participants = 3,859) were included in the meta-analysis. Aggregated results confirmed the effectiveness of collocation instruction for facilitating second language collocation learning (d = 1.415, 95% CI: 1.189, 1.641). The results of moderator analysis indicated that the intervention method was a significant predictor of intervention effectiveness. To be specific, 1) explicit interventions produced larger effect sizes than implicit interventions ; 2) interventions with low session frequency did not produce larger effect sizes than those with high session frequency; 3) long interventions did not show larger effect sizes than short interventions; and 4) constrained-constructed responses, selected responses, and multiple outcome measures did not produce larger effect sizes than free-constructed responses. The study also offered explanations for the results, as well as implications for the teaching and research of collocations.
... As for the relative effectiveness of different types of language instruction, this topic has been investigated extensively by SLA research, including quasi-experimental classroom studies but also laboratory studies using artificial target languages. Overall, the findings suggest that explicit types of language exposure are more effective for L2 learning than implicit types (for meta-analytic reviews, see Goo et al., 2015;Norris & Ortega, 2000;Spada & Tomita, 2010). However, due to inconsistencies with respect to the operationalization of explicit and implicit conditions across studies (see R. Ellis, 2009), and due to methodological biases of early comparative research towards explicit instruction (discussed in Andringa et al., 2011;R. ...
... An extensive body of research has compared the effectiveness of explicit versus implicit conditions for L2 learning, mostly consisting of classroom studies. Overall, cumulative evidence suggests explicit learning conditions to be more effective than implicit conditions (for meta-analytic reviews, see Goo et al., 2015;Norris & Ortega, 2000;Spada & Tomita, 2010). The more recent meta-analysis by Kang et al. (2019), however, found no significant differences between explicit and implicit types instruction at the level of immediate learning outcomes; in addition, the authors even reported an advantage of implicit instruction over explicit instruction on delayed posttests. ...
Thesis
In this thesis, I investigated how second-language (L2) learners learn and process the alternating stem vowels that occur in German strong verbs in the simple present tense – a subregular, non-salient morphosyntactic feature that represents a persistent learning difficulty – and the role of awareness for both acquisition and processing. To this end, I conducted two experimental studies. The first study consisted of a learning experiment during which 48 adult intermediate to advanced L2 learners of German, with Dutch as their first language (L1) and with prior but incomplete knowledge of German strong verb inflection, engaged in a scripted oral dialogue game with the experimenter, an L1 German speaker. The experimenter and the learner in turn orally produced sentences based on pictures eliciting German strong verbs that needed to be inflected in third-person singular, and thus required changed stem vowels (e.g., /a/ in tragen, “to carry” – /ɛ/ in er trägt, “he carries”). All learners were instructed to produce meaningful sentences and to make (tacit) semantic judgments regarding the experimenter’s utterances. Learners in the explicit learning condition were encouraged to pay attention to the strong verbs in the experimenter’s input and to learn from this input, while learners in the implicit learning condition did not know that L2 grammar learning was targeted. Post-experiment debriefing interviews revealed that all participants in the explicit condition had predominantly engaged in intentional learning (‘intentional learners’, n = 21), while most participants in the implicit condition had engaged in incidental learning (‘incidental learners’, n = 21: these participants had occasionally noticed the target structure in the task, but did not realize that the task had a language learning goal), except for a small subgroup of participants that had remained unaware of both target structure and learning goal and that was excluded from the analysis due to insufficient group size (‘unaware participants’, n = 6). Although the intentional learners achieved higher oral production accuracy scores overall than the incidental learners, both groups had similar absolute learning gains, showing that oral input provided during interactive exchanges can lead to further learning of difficult morphosyntactic features, even in the absence of an instruction to learn. The second study used visual-world eye-tracking (a paradigm that combines pictures on a computer screen with auditory input) to investigate to what extent adult L1 German speakers (n = 31) and Dutch-speaking advanced L2 learners of German (n = 30) can exploit number markings in German verb morphology to predict the grammatical number of the upcoming subject, and the influence of several modulating factors on such predictive processing (if present at all). The study consisted of two similar experiments, which only differed in their target structure: while experiment 1 focused on the predictive usage of regular suffixes attached to German weak verbs (a relatively ‘easy’ target structure because of its regularity, productivity, and potential positive L1–L2 transfer in the L2 group), experiment 2 focused on the predictive usage of the alternating stem vowels of strong verbs (in comparison a more difficult structure because of its irregularity, unproductivity, functional redundancy, and potential negative L1–L2 transfer in the L2 group). Each experimental trial exposed the participants to an auditory German sentence with verb-subject-object word order, in combination with two pictures. The task was to select the picture matching the sentence by pressing a button. On critical trials, both pictures showed identical actions, but differed in agent number (one versus two agents). In such trials, the regular suffixes (macht3SG, machen3PL; experiment 1) or the alternating stems of strong verbs (trägt3SG, tragt2PL; experiment 2) provided a reliable cue to anticipate singular or plural subject number. Both target structures yielded significant predictive eye movements and button presses in both participant groups. Prediction started somewhat later in the reaction-time (RT) data of the L2 group than in the L1 group, and emerged also distinctly later when it was based on the alternating stems than when it was based on the regular suffixes. Higher working memory scores were linked to faster predictive button presses. In the L2 group, prediction based on both target structures was facilitated when general proficiency was high; moreover, a lower age of onset of learning German had a beneficial effect on suffix-based predictive RTs, and a higher general frequency of using German in daily life facilitated stem-vowel-based prediction. Post-experiment debriefings revealed that predictive processing was of an aware and strategic kind in all participants in experiment 1; in experiment 2, only half of the participants had become aware of the stem vowel as a predictive cue, yet the presence/absence of awareness did not modulate the stem-vowel-based prediction effect. In sum, these findings show that challenging morphosyntactic structures can be improved upon based on L1-speaker input during dialogue-like situations, and that L1 speakers and advanced L2 learners can exploit the functional properties of such structures for predictive processing during listening in real time.
... However, different research findings regarding the effectiveness of the two approaches were also noted. Norris and Ortega (2000) examined the effectiveness of grammar instruction by conducting a metaanalysis of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. They found that focus-on-formS and focus-on-form instructions were equally effective in facilitating language learning. ...
... Such findings echo Andrews' (2003) questionnaire that six types of teachers' beliefs about grammar teaching were examined in relation to Hong Kong secondary English teachers. The fact that six themes of teachers' cognitions about grammar teaching were often examined is seen in many previous studies (Borg, 1999;Norris and Ortega, 2000;Burgess and Etherington, 2002;Erlam, 2003;Teik, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-acknowledged that teachers play a significant role in enhancing student learning and that investigating teachers' cognitions about teaching is a first and important step to understanding the phenomenon. Although much research into teachers' cognitions about grammar teaching has been conducted in various socio-cultural contexts, little has been reported on cognitions of Chinese teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) so far. Such understanding is of primary importance to student success in language learning given the sociocultural context where grammar takes a lion's share in high-stakes examinations. In order to address this research gap, we developed and validated the Chinese EFL Teachers' Cognitions about Grammar Teaching Questionnaire (TCAGTQ). Two subsamples (n1 = 314, n2 = 215) were randomly invited to respond to the TCAGTQ and the data were then subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. The EFA excluded eight items from the TCAGTQ and generated six factors with 27 items. The CFA result from the other subsample supported a six-factor model with a good model fit. Moderate correlations between the six factors also supported the predictive validity of the questionnaire, showing that the TCAGTQ is a valid and reliable inventory for measuring Chinese university EFL teachers' cognitions about grammar teaching. Our findings suggest that the TCAGTQ can be used as a useful tool for teachers to self-assess their professional practice for improving teaching.
... Grammar according to Downing, (2006) is defined as the study or analysis of rules in the language. Some linguists such as Hinkel (2002), Laufer and Nation (2001), and Norris and Ortega (2000), pointed out that mere introduction in grammar, reading comprehension, and text in L2 may not be effective enough in attaining proficiency. An understanding of synchronic linguistics can provide students with a wide variety of grammar types or vocabulary choice in their writing. ...
... Synchronic linguistics should be purposeful for learners as this will arouse their interest in learning it. Further, it will improve learners' reading and writing if they learn synchronic linguistics "in context" (Norris & Ortega 2000). The training of synchronic linguistics in writing instead of for writing ought to be taught so that learners perceive how the language works, and their performance will be enhanced. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is clear that EFL Iraqi students of English have problems in mastering some grammatical components in English. However, the first year students are struggling with these types of grammar problems, some grammatical rules are similar in the two languages, which makes it rather easy for Arabic speakers to learn English. This study aims to investigate the scope and nature of the syntactic errors made by first year learners of English at Al- Hamdaniya University, Iraq. It identifies, describes, and analyzes errors made in certain specific grammar areas such as tenses, modals, auxiliaries, subject verb agreement, verb forms. The study used a composition writing test of 23 EFL Iraqi first year students. The study focuses on the accuracy in the English writing skills of Iraqi students with the aim to examine the interference of the rules of the target language. For this purpose, researchers in this paper analyse 20 written essays and identified common grammatical errors made by the students.
... This is followed by the commonality of convenience sampling in these papers, which in turn results in limited generalizability of these studies. Reported results (Norris & Ortega, 2000;Plonsky, 2014b) indicated that the majority of the participants in L2 research are young adult university students who live in the USA, west Europe, or East Asia whose first or second language is English. Therefore, no matter how sufficient the sample is selected or how large the effect size is, there is no guarantee that the results may be generalizable for a large number of other contexts (Ortega, 2005(Ortega, , 2009. ...
... Despite the importance of graphics, the use of them in L2 papers is concerning. Norris and Ortega (2000), for example, reported that graphic presentation did not appear in 46% of the papers they studied. Plonsky (2013) reported that about two-thirds (66%) of the studies he surveyed did not use visual displays Similarly, Larson-Hall (2017) found a fairly low percentage of graphical presentation in three well-known L2 journals, i.e., 24% in The Modern Language Journal, 34% in Language Learning, and 48% in Studies in Second Language Acquisition. ...
... No obstante, el papel que la instrucción de estas estructuras juega en su adquisición sigue siendo un aspecto ampliamente debatido. Así, aunque existen en la bibliografía numerosos estudios que revelan que la enseñanza explícita tiene unos resultados positivos en la asimilación de ciertas unidades (Norris y Ortega, 2000;Spada y Tomita, 2010;Goo et al., 2015;Larsen-Freeman, 2015), la cuestión sobre qué tipo de habilidades y de conocimiento (implícito o explícito) se benefician de este tipo de instrucción es aún objeto de debate (Nassaji, 2017). ...
... Sin embargo, de acuerdo con los resultados de múltiples estudios y metaanálisis (Norris y Ortega, 2000DeKeyser, 2003;Pawlak, 2007;Scheffler, 2009;Goo et al., 2015) esta última opción puede resultar más efectiva que el tratamiento implícito de las formas, favoreciendo el procesamiento y consolidación de la asociación forma-significado de las construcciones de la L2 (Ellis, 2015: 14). Por tanto, en vista de los efectos positivos que este tipo de instrucción tiene sobre el proceso de aprendizaje, parece razonable abogar por su inclusión en el aula de lenguas extranjeras, como se propone en este trabajo. ...
Thesis
The perception of prepositions as relational functional units with a secondary role in the creation of meaning has often resulted in a superficial treatment of these elements in the classroom. Their introduction as primarily associated with predetermined functions and expressions usually leads to a memoristic learning that might hinder students’ perception of the logic underlying their use. For this reason, the present study investigates the contribution that the theoretical principles and analytic tools of Cognitive Grammar can make to the description and teaching of Spanish prepositions, on the one hand, and to their learning, on the other. Therefore, I will commence by examining the place that this model occupies in the methodological landscape and its potential to redefine grammatical instruction in communicative terms. Once the most relevant theories on the nature of prepositions and the influence these have on their teaching, I will analyse the approach presented by Cognitive Grammar when it comes to defining these units. Additionally, in accordance with the foundational principles of this model, I will propose a characterisation that reflects the polysemic nature of these elements rooted on a schematic semantic value. Such value is illustrated though a graphic representation that facilitates the students’ understanding of their content, as well as their application to different contexts through metaphorical extension. Subsequently, I will analyse the contributions of this model to the learning of these units through a pilot study and, in a second investigation, I will compare the effects of its applications with those derived from more conventional approaches, such as usage and example lists or exposition to stock phrases containing these elements. Finally, I will finish by examining the results of the conducted empirical studies and how each of the approaches considered contributed to the assimilation and use of prepositions.
... To begin with, explicit grammar instruction turned out to be more effective for teaching grammar than implicit instruction in two major meta-analyses by Norris and Ortega (2000) and Goo et al. (2015) with size effects being respectively d=.96 and d=1.095. The moderator effects in both meta-analyses showed that explicit instruction led to substantially larger effects than implicit instruction. ...
... Yet, it needs to be observed that explicit instruction yields greater benefits in more constrained outcome measures (e.g. multiple choice questions) than freer responses (Norris, Ortega 2000). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article discusses the interface between general human learning mechanisms and second language acquisition. It offers a concise, state-of-the-art overview of the education literature on human learning, as well as a bird's-eye-view of second language acquisition research and theory. An attempt is made to compare and contrast what we know about general learning mechanisms and the specific mechanisms behind acquiring/learning a second language. As a result, a perspective is offered in which language acquisition is seen as not only comprised of explicit learning but as a process which is by default implicit. Therefore, learning additional languages cannot be perceived as memorising facts about language, nor is it an exercise in remembering tons of vocabulary items. In fact, second language acquisition should focus primarily on acquiring meanings and experiential learning. Pedagogical implications follow. Keywords second language acquisition, language learning, human learning, learning mechanisms, implicit and explicit knowledge, language teaching.
... Electrophysiological measures should be assessed in more than one session in order to follow the acquisitional development and capture possible neural changes at all levels (sensory, higher-order processing, interlanguage grammar transfer) of language acquisition and processing. Finally, studies combining an artificial language paradigm with ERPs in second language acquisition have shown that explicit training generally leads to higher performance and earlier native-like neural processing in comparison to implicit learning (Batterink & Neville, 2013Goo et al., 2015;Morgan-Short et al., 2020;Norris & Ortega, 2000). This might indicate that explicite language training might be a more effective technique to achieve native-like processing in subsequent (artificial) language learning, and could be consider in future L3/Ln EEG studies. ...
... Indeed, a natural approach could be used for the teaching of morphosyntax also in secondary education, as grammar-learning ability does not seem to decline until late adolescence. After this opportunity period, we must facilitate acquisition through focus on form tasks (Long, 1991;Norris & Ortega, 2000;Ellis, 2001). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Achieving a proficiency level in a second language (L2) has been proven to be a challenging task as most learners struggle to acquire some linguistic features. Importantly, L2 production error analysis studies (e.g. Franceschina, 2005; González Martín, 2015) have shown that the most complex language features to be learned are those within the phonological and the morphosyntactic domains (e.g. Hahne, 2001; Weber-fox & Neville, 1996). In this study, we review neuroscience studies on morphosyntactic processing to establish their implications for L2 teaching. Through the analysis of behavioral and electroencephalogram experiments, three main factors modulating L2 acquisition have been determined: the degree of similarity between the mother tongue (L1) and L2, listener’s characteristics (age of acquisition, level of proficiency and learning context) and linguistic variability of the speaker (native / nonnative). These data have been used to establish the methodological approaches that fit better student’s age and learning context. Other pedagogical factors such as the importance of the mother tongue in the teaching of L2 and the possible scaffolding of an interlanguage shared between teacher and student are also discussed.
... Form-focused Instruction (FFI) attempts to encourage noticing, drawing learners' attention to linguistic forms that might otherwise be ignored (Ellis, 1993(Ellis, , 1995(Ellis, , 2007(Ellis, , 2008cEllis & Laporte, 1997). Norris and Ortega's (2000) milestone meta-analysis comparing the outcomes from studies that employed differing levels of explicitness of L2 input demonstrated that FFI instruction results in substantial target-oriented L2 gains, that explicit types of instruction are more effective than implicit types, and that the effectiveness of L2 instruction is durable. More recent meta-analyses of effects of type of instruction by Spada and Tomita (2010) and Goo, Granena, Yilmaz, and Novella (2015) likewise report large advantages of explicit instruction in L2 acquisition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Second language (L2) speakers have especial difficulty learning and processing morphosyntax. I present a usage-based analysis of this phenomenon. Usage-based approaches to language learning hold that we learn constructions (form-function mappings, conventionalized in a speech community) from language usage by means of general cognitive mechanisms (exemplar-based, rational, associative learning). An individual’s language system emerges from the conspiracy of these associations. I take the broad theoretical framework of language as a complex adaptive system and then focus in upon several subcomponents of the ecology including: cognitive linguistics and construction grammar; the psychology of implicit and explicit learning; effects of contingency and salience upon associative learning; the linguistic cycle: Zipf’s law, shortening, and grammaticalization; the low learnability of morphology that results from language change; learned attention, blocking, and transfer; form-focused dialogic feedback or instruction in second language acquisition (L2A); the types and tokens of exemplars that lead the learning of particular morphemes from usage and the distributional effects of frequency, reliability, and formulaic contexts. In terms of fundamental principles of associative learning: Low salience, low contingency, and redundancy all lead to morphological form-function mappings being less well learned. Compounding this, adult L2 acquirers show effects of learned attention and blocking as a result of L1-tuned automatized processing of language. I review a series of experimental studies of learned attention and blocking in L2A. I describe educational interventions targeted upon these phenomena. Form-focused instruction recruits learners’ explicit, conscious processing capacities and allows them to notice novel L2 constructions. Once a construction has been represented as a form-function mapping, its use in subsequent implicit processing can update the statistical tallying of its frequency of usage and probabilities of form-function mapping, consolidating it into the system.
... The point is that when learners encounter problems in communicating with peers or the teacher due to a lack of sufficient grammar knowledge, different strategies for FonF should be used (Ellis, 2006;Rashtchi & Khosroabadi, 2009). Several researchers have verified the role of FonF in SLA (e.g., Norris & Ortega, 2000;Ellis, 2002). Thus, the role of teachers who implement the most valuable techniques in EFL/ESL classes requires specific attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
The degree of emphasis on grammar and how it should be taught has always been an issue of controversy among practitioners. The current qualitative case study explored Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions regarding grammar instruction and looked into their views regarding explicit/implicit dichotomy. The findings revealed that the participants believed that explicit instruction is more beneficial for adolescents in EFL situations. However, retaining interactive and communicative classroom practices should also be of focus. Besides, teachers' expertise in explicit grammar instruction is necessary. Teachers should be well-prepared in grammar teaching sessions and when providing corrective feedback. Similarly, the role of grammar in improving learners' language proficiency and its function as a problem-solving activity should be considered an advantage. The study has implications for teachers and curriculum developers in EFL situations.
... Instructed language has a significant role in acquisition rate and accuracy levels. This fact is also supported by research conducted by Norris and Ortega (2000), after reviewing several studies on the effect of instruction for language attainment. The authors concluded that instruction with a focus on form results in better attainment of target structures. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter explores concepts from Cognitive Linguistics to provide a theoretical account of the meanings of the particles in English multi-word verbs. By drawing on the notions of Trajector (TR) and Landmark (LM), Image Schemas, and Conceptual Metaphors, the authors review the relevant literature and present us with the schemas that those particles might express. Such understanding may help teachers and learners determine the contribution of the particle to the meaning of multi-word verbs. The chapter also argues for the pedagogical application of Cognitive Linguistics in the English as a second language classroom as a potential and effective resource when approaching multi-word verbs. Adriana Tenuta and Marisa Mendonça Carneiro
... Our evaluation is contingent upon the analysis of quantitative meta-data since it provides statistical data analysis from research papers. Additionally, literature on quantitative meta-analysis frequently advocates developing criteria for studying quality when making inclusion decisions [86]. In order to completely grasp our research issue, this study analyses data from several perspectives. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) within the context of its applicability as a 21st-century business tool and its survivability in a security threat-infested cyber landscape. WLAN security leverages the Wardriving technique deployed within geolocation to scan for WLAN density and explore the associated security mechanisms. Specifically, the study adopts two approaches; the first part reviews relevant research articles in electronic libraries and databases on WLAN security based on wardriving techniques. The other part comprises a measurement campaign conducted in a mid-sized city in North Cyprus. The field measurement aims to underscore the claims from the literature to find out how the security encryption technologies are used. In particular, the goal is to determine the availability of WLAN infrastructure and monitor how the security measures are implemented in Northern Cyprus. The main objective is to determine the security state of WLAN in Cyprus and examine how it can be generalized for related environments. In order to completely grasp the research issue posed in this study, data analyses from several perspectives are analyzed and examined critically. The wardriving approach has been used in this work to crawl wider regions for examination. This study was conducted with security findings drawn only from publicly accessible information emitted by each investigated wireless access point. The channel usage, Service Set IDentifier (SSID) security, the Encryption type (Open, WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA3, and Mixed mode), WPS usage statistics, geographical locations, detailed security statistics described in Wigle CSV format, and vendor statistics are highlighted. Generally, results indicate that 21,345 WLANs were detected. From the detected WLANs, 23 (0.1 percent) used WEP encryption, 18 (0.08 percent) used WPA-TKIP encryption, 5,359 (25.1 percent) were unencrypted, and a clear majority of 9,139 (42.82 percent) used the more secure WPA2 encryption, while 13 networks (0.06 percent) used the latest WPA3 encryption technique. The results imply that WLAN security in Cyprus can be said to be moderate. Thus, this study adds to the expanding corpus of research on WLAN security and Wardriving to all parties in the wireless security ecosystem. The current study examines WLAN operations in North Cyprus while pointing to future research directions on Wireless LAN security mechanisms. Overall, the dataset from the wardriving experiment is novel and would serve future research exploration in the wireless security systems domain.
... The most basic form of feedback, often referred to as "implicit" feedback, consists of using the correct form of an error made by an interlocutor; this is the type of feedback that children largely rely on when learning their first language. Second language acquisition research, on the other hand, suggests that second language learners generally benefit more from explicit feedback than from implicit feedback, as shown in several syntheses and meta-analyses for various aspects of language learning: pragmatics/appropriate politeness strategies [8,17], grammar [10,14], and vocabulary [4] (not a meta-analysis or a synthesis). However, explicit feedback can take many forms that focus on various aspects of linguistic competence, such as grammar, lexicon, or pragmatics. ...
Preprint
This paper reports on progress towards building an online language learning tool to provide learners with conversational experience by using dialog systems as conversation practice partners. Our system can adapt to users' language proficiency on the fly. We also provide automatic grammar error feedback to help users learn from their mistakes. According to our first adopters, our system is entertaining and useful. Furthermore, we will provide the learning technology community a large-scale conversation dataset on language learning and grammar correction. Our next step is to make our system more adaptive to user profile information by using reinforcement learning algorithms.
... Explicit Instruction Instruction is explicit when information about rules is presented to learners underlying the input (Ellis, 1994;Norris & Ortega, 2000). EI involves 'some sort of rule being thought about during the learning process' (DeKeyser, 1995). ...
Article
إِنَّ الهدف من البحث هو التحقق من أَثر استخدام طریقة التدریس الظاهریة فی تطویر البلاغة اللفظیة، واستخدام استراتیجیات التواصل لدى المتعلمین العراقیین للغة الإِنکلیزیة بوصفها لغة أَجنبیة، وقد اقترحت الدراسة التی من خلالها سیتم تقدیم أُسلوب تدریس جدید یهدف لتدریس الطلبة وبطریقة ظاهریة بعض استراتیجیات التواصل الَّتی من خلالها سیمتلک الطالب القدرة على التلاعب بکیفیة استخدام اللغة لتعویض النقص فی المعرفة اللغویة لدیه، وبهذا سیکون قادرًا على إِدارة نقاش وإِیصال رسالته للآخرین. واختیار40 طالبًا عراقیًا ممَّن یتعلَّمون اللغة الإِنکلیزیة (بوصفها لغة أَجنبیة) من جامعة الموصل کلیة التربیة للعلوم الإِنسانیة قسم اللغة الإِنکلیزیة، وتم توزیعهم على مجموعتین: (مجموعة تجریبیة، ومجموعة ضابطة)، (نعم المقصود هنا هو کلمة controlled) . تم تدریس المجموعة التجریبیة بعض استراتیجیات التواصل باتباع طریقة التلقین الظاهری، بینما تم تدریس المجموعة الضابطة باتباع الطریقة التواصلیة ومن دون ای ترکیز او ذکر لاستراتیجیات التواصل. تم اختبار الطلاب قبلیًا وبعدیًا؛ وذلک لقیاس مدى تطور استخدام استراتیجیات التواصل والبلاغة اللفظیة لدیهم، وحصلت مقابلات استرجاعیة مباشرة بعد کل امتحان لنسبة 25% من الطلبة وذلک للتحقق ولضمان مصداقیة استراتیجیات التواصل التی تم التعرف علیها خلال الاختبارات، وأَکمل الطلاب ملء الاستبانة مرتین: مرة بعد الامتحان القبلی، وأُخرى بعد الامتحان البعدی وذلک لتعویض أَی نقص محتمل فی البیانات التی ستقدمها الطرائق المذکورة آنفًا، وفی الحقیقة إِنَّ الاستبانة ستتیح الفرصة لتقییم مدى أَوسع من استراتیجیات التواصل. وأَظهرت النتائج بشکل جلیٍّ أَنَّ المجموعة التجریبیة قد طوَّرت استخدامها لاستراتیجیات التواصل، وهذا التطوّر قد انعکس وبشکل ملحوظ فی تطویر البلاغة اللفظیة لدیهم، أَمَّا بالنسبة للمجموعة الضابطة فالنتائج جاءت بصورة مغایرة؛ إِذ إِنَّ هذه المجموعة لم تظهر أَی تطور ملحوظ لا فی استراتیجیات التواصل ولا فی البلاغة اللفظیة لدى طلابها.
... Corpora have been very influential in the area of grammar learning from both a theoretical and a pedagogical perspective because we know a good deal about how grammar develops. Research in SLA has, for example, illustrated the benefit of form-focused instruction (Norris & Ortega, 2008) and corpora tell us a good deal about language form. SLA research has also found strong effects for the role of frequency in grammar acquisition . ...
Chapter
Alongside extensive contributions to our understanding of word frequency across and within disciplines, genres, registers, and professional domains, corpus linguistics has contributed rich knowledge of collocations, i.e., how words pattern together. Word meaning is often defined by collocations. To illustrate, in the Corpus of Contemporary American English, “student” collocates with “college, teacher, learning, university” – words that define it in the Cambridge Dictionary Online: “a person who is learning at a college or university”. However, what if you are training to be a teacher? Education reading material in the same corpus shows the domain-specific collocations of “student” reflect important disciplinary concepts, e.g. “achievement, outcomes, progress, retention, persistence”. Teaching corpus-derived collocations in ESP, therefore, can support both fluency and conceptual learning, i.e. disciplinary literacy. This chapter details how corpus research into collocations has informed English language teaching and learning, with a focus on English for specific purposes. It reviews the research and pedagogical shifts from traditional word lists to resources including collocations, and how teachers and researchers identify useful collocations. The subject specificity of collocations is discussed, as well as differences between educational contexts, e.g. tertiary/secondary/primary. Research-based collocation lists available for EAP/ESP are reviewed, and the chapter closes with areas of future research.
... Reviews of empirical studies about the role of FFI on second language learning (e.g. Doughty & Williams, 1998;Ellis, 2001;Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991;Lightbown, 2000;Norris & Ortega, 2000) suggest that FFI can help the second language learners in communicative and content based classrooms to use their L2 more fluently and accurately. It is also argued that studies conducted mostly in French immersion programs confirmed the communicative skills of immersion students, their fluency and confidence in second language production. ...
... The short-term benefits of grammar instruction have been documented for discrete-point language tests (see especially Norris & Ortega, 2000). However, as R. Ellis at al. (2002, p. 421) noted, "there is much less evidence to show that [grammar instruction] leads to the kind of learning that enables learners to perform the targeted form in free oral production (e.g. in a communicative task)", which is at the core of the action-oriented classroom. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the operationalization of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001; CEFR) in the foreign language classroom. More specifically, it points to the contribution usage-based linguisticscould make in relating the CEFR’s action-oriented pedagogy with its criterial features, i.e., “certain linguistic properties that are characteristic and indicative of L2 proficiency at each level” (Hawkins & Filipović, 2012, p. 5). The chapter ends with some practical suggestions for a more effective approach to integrating UBL in the action-based classroom and considers broader implications for applied linguistics.
... In recognition that learners may need assistance in noticing specific forms, consciousness-raising interventions with varying degrees of explicitness or implicitness have been investigated in the field of SLA (Leow, 2018). Studies have explored the role of form-focused instruction (FFI) techniques such as input flood (i.e., providing numerous exemplars of target forms), textual enhancement (i.e., highlighting, underlining, and/or bolding), corrective feedback, and explicit grammar explanations in increasing the salience of linguistic forms and, thus, increasing the likelihood of learners noticing them (see Doughty & Williams, 1998;Kang et al., 2018;Norris & Ortega, 2000). Although these interventions differ in their approaches, all work toward the general goal of helping learners to more effectively notice and acquire forms which might otherwise prove difficult to pick up. ...
Article
Full-text available
Attention is believed to help facilitate learning. Godfroid and Uggen found that attention to irregular verb morphology motivated the learning of novel second language (L2) German forms. The current study explored the generalizability of these findings to geminate and sound verbs in Arabic, a typologically different language with a novel writing system. Eleven fourth‐semester learners of Arabic participated in the experiment. Participants completed a language learning background survey, took a fill‐in‐the blank pretest, read 20 sentence pairs while an Eyelink 1000 recorded their eye movements, and answered true/false comprehension questions that appeared on‐screen following each sentence. A posttest, identical to the pretest, and a prior vocabulary knowledge scale task were then conducted. Learners' reflections were recorded in a subsequent recall task and a follow‐up semistructured interview. Descriptive analyses of the eye‐tracking metrics reveal generally equivalent reading times between verb types, although participants made more direct visual comparisons between geminate‐ than between sound‐verb conjugations. Participants did not report awareness of geminate verbs, but noticed other aspects of input, and, on average, improved their written productive knowledge by 2% after only one exposure. Pedagogical implications are discussed in terms of input enhancement in a communicative L2 classroom.
... Regarding grammatical range and accuracy, the negligible improvement in this area might be explained by the fact that our participants mainly received implicit grammar instructions from their peers and teachers via feedback and peer-editing rather than explicit grammar instructions. Indeed, several studies have revealed the more effectiveness of explicit grammar instruction in comparison to implicit one in improving second language learners' grammar accuracy (Byrd, 2005;Norris & Ortega, 2000;Spada & Tomita, 2010). ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of conducting regular collaborative activities via Google Docs on English academic writing skills. Utilising a mixed methods design, this study was conducted with 24 Vietnamese high school students who participated in a fully online English as a foreign language (EFL) course in academic writing. The pre- and post-test results indicated that the students’ overall academic writing skills were significantly improved over the course. Regarding individual aspects of academic writing, there were significant improvements in the areas of task response and lexical resources, while the areas of cohesion and coherence and grammatical range and accuracy did not witness significant improvements. Further analysis of semi-structured interviews with these students revealed that they valued the usefulness of Google Docs-based collaboration in enhancing their English academic writing skills, however they held mixed opinions about the enjoyment of collaborating on the platform. This study also revealed a number of challenges experienced by this group of students when they used Google Docs in online collaboration. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
... To be more specific, the study showed that more than 90% of the instructors focused on teaching pragmatic knowledge by explanations. Results are in line with Norris and Ortega (2000) who proposed that simulation activities that follow explicit instruction include description, explanation, and discussion of pragmatic features. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mastery over speech acts plays a significant role in the accomplishment of communication between interlocutors. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate Iranian EFL Instructors' perception and instructional practices towards form-focused instruction of speech acts, specifically request, apology, and invitation. To this aim, through a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, the present researchers selected 30 English language instructors in Islamic Azad University (IAU) of North Tehran Branch based on criterion sampling as the study participants. All the participants completed an adapted version of Pragmatic Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ), and were successively interviewed in terms of their claimed perceptions and practices regarding form-focused instruction of speech acts through a semi-structured interview. Finally, six classes were observed by the researchers to get informed of their real classroom practices. The results of data analyses were then triangulated, and the findings revealed that Iranian EFL instructors used explicit strategies rather than implicit strategies to instruct speech acts in their classes. Also, they presumed and agreed that explicit instruction is more effective since this technique seems to be easier, understandable and without ambiguity for the learners. The results of the current study are beneficial for EFL instructors, syllabus designers, materials developers, and scholastic administrators to enrich the current English language teaching curricula.
... Explicit instruction is defined as an approach that involves some sort of rule explanation or directing the learner "to attend to particular forms and try to arrive at metalinguistic generalizations on their own" (Norris & Ortega, 2000, p. 437) either deductively or inductively (Ellis, 2009). On the other hand, implicit instruction is where there are no "rule presentations or directions to attend to particular target forms" (Norris & Ortega, 2000). Implicit instruction is characterized by exposure to relevant exemplars of a target structure in a meaning-focused task (Ellis, 2009). ...
Article
Over the past decades, several studies have focused on the role of data-driven learning (DDL) in language teaching and learning. Nevertheless, research on DDL is still scarce from an emotional perspective. As exposure to authentic language and discovery learning through DDL leads to increased awareness of regular language patterns, it is important to see if it affects learners' emotions, i.e., foreign language anxiety and enjoyment. To address this gap, the current study adopted a quasi-experimental comparison group pretest-posttest design within a validating quantitative data triangulation model. Ninety-six English-major university students were divided equally into two groups, i.e., one comparison and one intervention group, and were later exposed to the placebo and treatment, respectively. The placebo was 12 1-h sessions of traditional explicit instruction on how to mark important points in academic English lectures by a competent teacher, whereas the treatment was 12 1-h sessions of concordancing on how to mark important points in academic English lectures with AntConc. Drawing on foreign language anxiety and enjoyment questionnaires and free-response surveys, the findings of the study showed that concordancing did not result in any statistically significant differences between students in their foreign language anxiety. On the other hand, students found following a DDL approach with concordancing less enjoyable than traditional explicit instruction by the teacher. Altogether, the results highlighted the crucial role of the teacher in creating a supportive and enjoyable learning environment, the students’ inclination towards teacher-centered classes, and their dependence on the teacher as the sole provider of information. The study has theoretical and pedagogical implications for language teaching and learning.
... It seeks to either correct the inaccurate usage or provide information about where the error has occurred and/or about the cause of the error and how it may be corrected (p.12). Indeed, several researchers showed interest in carrying out meta-analysis studies which are generally in support of CF practice (e.g., Brown, 2014;Li, 2010;Nassaji & Kartchava, 2019;Norris & Ortega, 2000). This study claims that whilst L2 writing researchers in the different research dimensions effected to inform EFL classroom instruction, there is a difference in the perspectives of EFL teachers and students. ...
... A bit of background is needed to understand the importance of Shintani's research. Norris and Ortega's (2000) meta-analysis of form-focused instruction studies included a comparison of the effectiveness of FonF and FonFs. They coded individual studies post-hoc as either FonF or FonFs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rod Ellis is a Distinguished Research Professor at Curtin University (Perth, Australia) and also, an Emeritus Distinguished Professor at the University of Auckland (New Zealand). He has also worked in universities in UK, Japan, and the USA and is a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He has published widely in the related fields of second language acquisition research and task-based language teaching. He has won the British Association of Applied Linguists prize (1985), the Mildenberger prize (1987), The Duke of Edinburgh prize (1994), and the International Association of Task-based Teaching prize (2021). His current H-index on Google Scholar is 109.
... Under the influence of CLT and its principles stated above, Norris and Ortega (2000) point out that the role of grammar instruction positively impacts SLA and the teaching strategies of L2 implementation. The finding in their study "Effectiveness of L2 ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Technology-Mediated Task-Based Language Teaching is the combination of technology with Task-Based Language Teaching (González-Lloret & Ortega, 2014) and emphasizes authentic communication and holistic language learning opportunities in Second Language Acquisition. Since its introduction almost thirty-five years ago, Task- Based Language Teaching has received widespread attention from researchers in the fields of Second Language education due to its collaborative nature and the interaction and negotiation of meaning that result from its implementation (Robinson, 2011). Task- Based Language Teaching represents a paradigm shift of mainstream views about language teaching from a focus on ‘knowledge of language’ to a pragmatic and experiential focus on ‘achiev[ing] communicative purposes’ (Scarino & Liddicoat, 2009, p. 45). Still, relatively few studies have addressed grammar acquisition in online courses from a Task-Based perspective. The present study sought to examine the effects of an online Task-Based Language Teaching module on the acquisition of direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish. These grammatical structures are used very frequently by native Spanish speakers, but are less used by Spanish learners because of their difficulty. The main problem is that object clitics in Spanish normally create a structure that appears to be (Subject)-Object-Verb. This can be especially difficult for native speakers of English since these speakers are accustomed to Subject-Verb-Object. Furthermore, Spanish indirect object pronouns look exactly like direct object pronouns except for the third person singular and plural. Hence, learning how to use and distinguish between the direct object and indirect object pronouns is challenging. The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of using an online Task-Based Language Teaching module specially designed for the acquisition of direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish. Participants in the experimental group used the target structures on many occasions, and their results exceeded those of the control group—the mean of the experimental group was 7.50, whereas the mean of the control group was 1.23. Similarly, students in the experimental group also produced five times more instances of the target structures than students in the control group in an identical final exam activity that both groups had to complete—3.22 vs 0.64, respectively. Thus, the data obtained in this study manifest that technology-mediated TBLT can be particularly valuable in the acquisition of L2 grammar.
... 45-46). Numerous studies have provided empirical evidence of the effectiveness and validity of the application of FonF to classroom instruction (see Norris and Ortega 2000;Russell and Spada 2006, for review), demonstrating that explicit focus on linguistic forms during meaning-based activities can induce learners to notice key linguistic features required for effective communication, which would be difficult for learners to pick up on through meaning-based activities only. ...
Article
The present study introduces a novel instructional approach to teaching a Chinese construction to college students in a foreign language classroom. Based on the framework of the construction-grammar approach to language acquisition, this study tested the effect of construction-based teaching, which integrates formal and semantic aspects of language with contextually meaningful visual scenes, in Korean-speaking Chinese learners’ acquisition of the Chinese Ba construction. Two groups of Chinese learners, who were enrolled in second-semester college-level Chinese classes, received constructional (n = 33) or form-focused instruction (n = 33) for 13 weeks. Results from elicited production and grammaticality judgment tasks implemented preceding and following the instruction showed that the constructional instruction group had improvements to a greater extent than the form-focused instruction group. These findings underscore the validity of the construction-grammar approach as an effective teaching method in foreign language learning settings.
... Theoretically, PPP model is supported by skill acquisition theory (SAT) which emphasizes that learning triggers with explicit attention to a linguistic feature to establish declarative knowledge which is then proceduralized and automatized through practice (DeKeyser, 2007). Some previous studies witnessed the effectiveness of implementing PPP in explicit instruction (Norris and Ortega, 2000;Spada and Tomita, 2010;Anderson, 2017). Considering three steps of learning a language (PPP), the researchers of this study attempted to complete the first and second steps (i.e., presentation and practice) by using Instagram feed-based tasks instead of traditional drilling to inspect any possible changes in the production stage of the learners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Advancement of social media in the modern era provides a good incentive for researchers to unleash the potential of social networking (SN) tools in order to improve education. Despite the significant role of social media in affecting second/foreign language (L2) learning processes, few empirical studies have tried to find out how Instagram feed-based tasks affect learning grammar structure. To fill this lacuna of research, the current study set forth to delve into the influence of Instagram feed-based tasks on learning grammar among English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. In so doing, a sample of 84 intermediate EFL learners were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The learners in the control group received regular online instruction via webinar platforms. In contrast, the learners in the experimental group were exposed to Instagram feed-based tasks. Data inspection applying one-way ANCOVA indicated that the learners in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts in the control group. The results highlighted the significant contributions of Instagram feed-based tasks in fostering learning grammar. Furthermore, EFL learners’ positive attitudes toward using Instagram Feed-based Tasks in Learning Grammar was concluded. The implications of this study may redound to the benefits of language learners, teachers, curriculum designers, as well as policy makers in providing opportunities for further practice of Instagram feed-based tasks in language learning and teaching.
... Toulmin's system of substantive reasoning has remarkably humanized and simplified the life of the writing teacher and has helped students to present the argument in basically understandable and more comprehensive terms (Kastely, 2002). One of the most serious challenges in gauging the efficacy of various critical thinking approaches is the evaluation of students' critical thinking advancement (Ennis, 2003;Norris, 2000). Despite the availability of some common general-content-based critical thinking evaluation tools, such as the California Critical Thinking Test (Facione, 1990) and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (Watson & Glaser, 1980), a subject-specific critical thinking assessment is indispensable and influential for apprising the teachers of the level of critical thinking in a writing context. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposed to enquire into the efficacy of a developed writing module in honing the critical thinking skills of Omani General Foundation Program students. The study utilized a pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design. The study participants included 70 Omani students and 2 English language teachers. Convenience sampling technique was employed to sample the participants who were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group embraced 35 students who studied English at the General Foundation Program of higher education institution “A”. The control group encompassed 35 students who studied English at The General Foundation Program of higher education institution “B”. The control group studied the writing syllabus of institution “B”, while the experimental group studied the study module. The critical thinking pre-test was given before module delivery and the post-test was done after the intervention. ANCOVA test was employed to draw a statistical analogy between the mean scores of pre-test and post-test. The findings affirmed that there was a statistically significant mean variance between the control and experimental group’s scores in the critical thinking post-test. The module notably honed the experimental group’s critical thinking skills.
Article
Despite the complexity and importance of sociolinguistic knowledge in the Korean language, KFL textbooks and curriculum fall short in incorporating sociolinguistic issues due to their focus on grammar and communication. To address this challenge, this paper introduces an advanced level content-based course in which online TV shows of various genres in addition to readings on Korean sociolinguistics are effectively utilized to enhance sociolinguistic competency. That is, students watch relevant online TV shows not only for content but also to analyze the language with the sociolinguistic tools gained from the lecture and readings on given topics such as honorifics/address terms, gender and language, dialects, and internet language. Furthermore, the results of student questionnaires and interviews on the effect of sociolinguistic knowledge on their L2 in ter language upon completion of the course are reported. Finally, we discuss the pedagogical implications of explicit sociolinguistic instruction in KFL curricula at all levels.
Article
The purpose of the study is to determine the role and degree of use of the cognitive approach in the study of directive speech acts. The article provides an overview of modern theoretical research in the field of speech acts, and also substantiates the use of a cognitive approach in the study of directive speech acts. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that the widespread use of the cognitive approach for the analysis of speech acts in different language groups has not been sufficiently studied, which leads to communication failures between communication participants. The subject of this article is the functioning of the cognitive approach in the study of directive speech acts. The object is the study of directive speech acts on the example of English and Arabic academic discourses using a cognitive approach. Descriptive, contextual, comparative-historical methods are used as the main research methods. The novelty of our research lies in the fact that the widespread use of the cognitive approach for the analysis of speech acts in different language groups has not been sufficiently studied, which leads to communication failures between communication participants. The study of ways to prevent these communication failures is an important component in building global interaction between communication participants both in linguistics and in the world as a whole. Therefore, the relevance of the study of the use of the cognitive approach lies in the need of society to build adequate interaction at various levels. As a result of the conducted research, it is proved that the use of a cognitive approach in the analysis of directive speech acts helps to reduce the number of communicative failures of representatives of the English-speaking and Arabic-speaking academic discourses. The research materials can be used in universities of the humanities in the study of special courses in comparative linguistics and intercultural communication, as well as the data obtained can be applied in the process of educational and methodological activities in the creation of specialized textbooks.
Article
The present work examines the impact of code-switching (CS) on novel word learning in adult second language (L2) learners of Spanish. Participants completed two sessions (1–3 days apart). In the first session, they were taught 32 nonwords corresponding to novel creatures. Training occurred across 4 conditions: (1) a sentence in English only, (2) a sentence in Spanish only (the L2), (3) a sentence that contained CS from Spanish-to-English, (4) a sentence that contained CS from English-to-Spanish. Immediately after training, participants were tested on their ability to identify the newly trained words using a looking-while-listening paradigm in which videos of participants’ looking patterns were collected remotely via Zoom. In the second session, re-testing of the trained words was completed. In the first session, training in the English-only condition led to better initial learning compared to the other conditions. In the second session, the English-only condition still had the highest accuracy, but performance in the two CS conditions was significantly better compared to the Spanish-only condition. These findings suggest that CS during vocabulary training may aid the retention of newly acquired word-object relations in the L2, compared to when training occurs entirely in the L2. This work has important implications for theories of L2 acquisition and can inform instruction practices in L2 classrooms.
Article
Full-text available
Although communicative language teaching (CLT) was thought to have revolutionized classroom practice, there are “weak” and “strong” versions (Howatt, 1984). Most foreign language classrooms in the world still favor weak versions with structure-based (SB) views on language (Lightbown & Spada, 2013), and practice in the Netherlands is not much different (West & Verspoor, 2016). However, a small group of teachers in the Netherlands started teaching French as a second language with a strong CLT program in line with Dynamic Usage-Based (DUB) principles. Rather than focusing on rule learning and explicit grammar teaching to avoid errors, the DUB program takes the dynamics of second-language development into consideration and focuses on the three key elements of usage-based theory: frequency, salience and contingency. These translate into a great deal of exposure, repetition, learning the meaning of every single word through gestures, and presenting whole chunks of language, all without explicit grammar teaching. This study aims to compare the effects of the SB and DUB instructional programs after three years. We traced the second-language development of 229 junior high school students (aged 12 to 15) learning French in the Netherlands over three years. The participants took three oral tests over the course of three years (568 interviews) and wrote seven narratives on the same topic (1511 narratives). As expected, the DUB approach, which is in line with a strong CLT version, was more effective in achieving proficiency in both speaking and writing and equally effective in achieving accuracy.
Chapter
This study involved in total 247 participants, 109 of whom were Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners covering primary, secondary and college students, and 138 teachers of primary (1st–5th grades) and secondary schools (6th–12th grades) in Hong Kong. They were asked to take part in an opinion survey about their understanding of English article use, difficulties (students) encountered and possible solutions to the problems. Results reveal that Cantonese ESL learners understand the important roles played by English articles, though advanced/very advanced learners seem to be more able to articulate the specific roles, functions and usages of English articles. There are difficulties which are common to all learners of different proficiency levels, which may be related to their lack of a clear understanding of the major uses of English articles involving linguistic concepts such as generality, referentiality, specificity, and noun countability. The role of teachers’ own understanding of English article use is also found to be significant. The pertinent concepts central to one’s understanding of English articles should be introduced, and this should also be done collaboratively among junior and senior form teachers.
Article
Este estudo quasi-experimental examina a efetividade de atividades gamificadas e interativas no ensino e aprendizagem de gramática em um curso online de Inglês para Fins Específicos dirigido para a leitura de textos acadêmicos na área de Educação. A investigação, realizada em 2020, contou com a participação de 26 estudantes da área de Educação (graduação e pós-graduação) da Universidade Federal do Pará-Brasil. O curso foi criado seguindo as orientações provenientes de pesquisas sobre a inserção de atividades gamificadas e interativas no ensino e aprendizagem e sobre design instrucional. As atividades de aprendizagem foram disponibilizadas no Moodle da universidade participante (incluindo as ferramentas H5P e Hot Potatoes) e no site/app gratuito Duolingo for Schools. Os dados foram coletados antes (pré-teste) e ao final do curso (pós-teste e Planilha do Duolingo for Schools). As análises estatísticas comparando as médias revelaram resultados benéficos sobre os efeitos das tecnologias utilizadas para a aprendizagem dos estudantes. O estudo foi finalizado com a obtenção de respostas positivas referentes às hipóteses investigadas sobre a aprendizagem de gramática inglesa.
Article
Existing research indicates a qualitative difference between Second Language Learning and Third Language Acquisition, and certain psycholinguistic and developmental aspects of multilingual learners merit investigation. The present article examines stages in receptive learner acquisition of English as a Third Language at Italian medium primary schools in South Tyrol (Italy) employing a picture selection task and implicational scaling analysis. It highlights the role that processing approaches to acquisition proposing constraints on developmental readiness and cross-linguistic influence may play in the emergence of receptive competence in morphosyntactic structures.
Article
The neurolinguistic approach (NLA) is an intensive sentence-based pedagogy designed specifically for low-proficiency learners. It places a premium on orality and the development of both internal and external grammars through a project-based literacy loop. The present study employed a pretest–posttest control group design to investigate the effect of NLA on conveniently sampled pre-intermediate EFL learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge of the English present perfect tense. Treatment for the experimental group (EG; N = 25) spanned three 1.5-h project-based sessions, with orality marking the beginning and end of each session and reading, rule induction, and writing as intermediary phases. The control group (CG; N = 24), on the other hand, was exposed to tense-rich reading input, followed by rule explanation and follow-up communicative tasks. Implicit knowledge was measured through a timed grammaticality judgment test and an interview, and explicit knowledge was measured through an untimed grammaticality judgment test and a metalinguistic knowledge test. ANOVA results showed CG’s and EG’s comparable significant gains on explicit knowledge measures and only EG’s significant gain on implicit knowledge measures. The findings substantiate NLA’s potential for the development of both internal and external grammars and have implications for grammar instruction.
Article
Full-text available
The paper looks at the current practice of CBI (Content-Based Instruction) and the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model as dominant methodological approaches of teaching a foreign or second language (FL/SL) and proposes some useful teaching strategies for the development of L2 skills not only in the public school system of the USA but for similar teaching environments in other countries where English is a medium of instruction of at least a few content subjects. The paper specifically addresses the difficulties many in-service and novice teachers experience during the SIOP lesson planning to come up with meaningful language teaching objectives in order to facilitate learning of both content and all four basic language skills such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Bautista & Castañeda, 2011, Bigelow & Ranney, 2005, among others). The main proposal of the paper on how to advance these skills is informed by the best practices of teaching and learning that follow English Language Development (ELD) standards of certain states and International TESOL standards. With these guiding documents and teaching principles drawn from a variety of reputable sources, the paper offers some hands-on strategies and teaching scenarios that could potentially enhance the focus on linguistic form, function, and structure during content lessons to facilitate L2 learning, and this focus includes word decomposition skills that are instrumental in vocabulary learning and complex syntactic structures such as passives during teaching Social Studies and Math lessons. The paper will be useful for both inservice teachers and teacher candidates who are preparing to deliver sheltered courses of various subjects in schools such as Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts, and so on. The paper also touches on the division of labor between content teachers and ELS professionals on how they need to collaborate to be able to better serve L2 learners at the various stages of L2 skill development.
Article
This study investigates the differential effects of a task-based inside-school intervention and an outside-school project intervention on the development of speaking skills of 56 beginner second language (L2)-learners. The study extends previous research by looking at development across multiple occasions instead of two (i.e., a pretest and posttest), and by assessing speaking development by means of a non-intrusive task eliciting an informal conversation, rather than a formal test. To measure students’ development of Dutch speaking skills, syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, accuracy, fluency, and communicative effectiveness were assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed differential effects for both interventions. The task-based intervention inside school led to significant positive development of communicative effectiveness and syntactic complexity measured by length and subordination, but also to more breakdowns in fluency. The outside-school project intervention, however, did not result in any significant speaking development. The findings demonstrate the learning potential of a task-based inside-school intervention for developing various aspects of informal speaking skills, except for fluency. From a methodological perspective, this study illustrates the complexity of test and measure selection when assessing L2 speaking development.
Article
Full-text available
The discipline of Applied Cognitive Linguistics is a recent, still emerging framework, which is situated at the interface of Cognitive Linguistics (CL) and Applied Linguistics research (Pütz, Niemeier & Dirven 2001a, 2001b). At its core, Applied CL is concerned with the use of CL models, theories, or concepts for L2 teaching and learning, where it aims to create effective teaching methods, activities, or materials. Owing to its more recent origin in the 1990s/2000s, a lively metadisciplinary discussion is still taking place within the discipline, which highlights various challenges or concerns that Applied CL research is currently facing (e.g., Achard & Niemeier 2004; Pütz 2010; Roche 2014; Tyler & Huang 2018). Major concerns in this discussion are, for instance, (1) the underuse of empirical data in Applied CL research and (2) the yet limited application of CL theories to Communicative Language Teaching (as opposed to Present-Practice-Produce, in which it is typically embedded). This article outlines these two challenges to research in Applied CL and offers suggestions how to address these concerns in future investigations. By doing so, we intend to contribute to the ongoing metadisciplinary discussion about the Applied CL framework and to promote its further consolidation.
Article
Language awareness (LA)—an understanding of the communicative functions and conventions of language—could benefit monolingual children as they navigate their increasingly multilingual world. To evaluate how non-native language exposure influences English-speaking children’s understanding that different languages can convey equivalent information, 63 5–7-year-olds compared utterances in English and Lithuanian (unfamiliar to all participants). Half of the children also compared English utterances to Spanish (a widely spoken language in their community—94% of children had some past exposure), whereas the other half compared English utterances to Tagalog (unfamiliar to all participants). Children in the Spanish condition were significantly more likely than those in the Tagalog condition to agree that a Lithuanian and an English speaker could be saying the same thing. We argue that children’s experience with Spanish as a community language, coupled with explicit questioning about commonalities between languages, served to scaffold an understanding of LA.
In recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest in the use of computer technologies for L2 writing instruction. Many researchers have empirically investigated the effects of the applications of educational technologies on language learners’ writing performance and have highlighted the effectiveness of the use of educational technology in writing classes (Howell et al., 2021 Howell, E., Perez, S., & Abraham, W. T. (2021). Toward a professional development model for writing as a digital, participatory process. Reading Research Quarterly, 56(1), 95–117. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.294[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]; Lan et al., 2019 Lan, Y. J., Lyu, B. N., & Chin, C. K. (2019). Does 3D immersive experience enhance Mandarin writing by CSL students? Language Learning & Technology, 23(2), 125–144.[Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Rahimi & Fathi, 2021 Rahimi, M., & Fathi, J. (2021). Exploring the impact of wiki-mediated collaborative writing on EFL students’ writing performance, writing self-regulation, and writing self-efficacy: A mixed methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 34, 1–48.[Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar]). The aim of the present meta-analysis was threefold: (1) to examine the overall effectiveness of the applications of educational technology on English as a Second/Foreign Language (EFL/ESL) writing performance, (2) to investigate the substantive factors leading to between-study variation, and (3) to provide a genre-specific technology analysis. Sixty-four studies meeting the inclusion criteria were synthesized in this review. The results revealed that the applications of technology produce a large positive effect (g = 1.00) on EFL/ESL learners’ writing performance. Moderator analyses, which were conducted with some study features, also led to the identification of two statistically significant moderator variables, i.e., genre of writing and type of technology. The results of meta-regression showed that there is a significant relationship between type of technology, genre of writing, and the overall effect size of the applications of educational technology. Pedagogical implications are discussed, and the future prospects for the use of technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) in the area of ESL/EFL writing instruction are presented.
Article
Explicit knowledge of language is posited as a core component of language teachers’ professional knowledge, as it impacts on their classroom practice, cognition and professional reflection. In response to a sociocultural turn in teacher education, this paper presents a sociocultural rationale for the implementation of an explicit-inductive approach to grammar teaching in L2 teacher education. In an explicit-inductive approach, students are guided to induce and articulate grammatical rules for themselves. A tripartite analysis of: teacher educator as pedagogue, student language teacher as teacher-learner and pedagogy as process within an explicit-inductive approach is presented, to form a sociocultural model for the teaching of explicit knowledge in L2 teacher education. It is argued that an explicit-inductive approach which is grounded in praxis has the potential to develop student language teachers’ (SLTs’) content knowledge, i.e., their declarative knowledge of grammar, as well as their pedagogical knowledge of how to teach grammar. The paper calls for further discussion and critical reflection on the teaching of explicit knowledge in L2 teacher education.
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the theoretical rationales for focus on form is the notion that second language (L2) learning requires noticing of what is to be learned. Various techniques of input enhancement have been developed with the hope that they promote noticing of target forms. While their effectiveness has been evaluated in terms of subsequent acquisition of the target forms, few attempts have been made to investigate whether enhanced input is processed differently by learners. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one input enhancement technique — textual modification — can make L2 forms more noticeable and affect learner on-line processing of forms. In this study, native speakers of English in a second semester Spanish class at Georgetown University were assigned to enhancement and comparison groups. Participants in the enhancement group received a sample text in Spanish with all preterit and imperfect verb forms highlighted; participants in the comparison group received the same text with no typographical modification. Think-aloud protocols were collected during a subsequent task in which participants wrote a picture-based narrative similar to that presented in the sample text. Analysis of the data revealed that enhancement participants’ protocols contained more episodes related to selection and conjugation of preterit and imperfect verbs than did those of the comparison participants. Enhancement participants also produced more target features in their written production. The results indicate that textual enhancement promotes noticing of target L2 form and has an effect on learners’ subsequent output.
Chapter
Full-text available
ESL students who received systematic instruction on article use outperformed students who did not receive such instruction. This suggests that ESL students can benefit from overt grammar instruction.
Article
Full-text available
The teaching of grammar in second language (SL) pedagogy has a history of at least 2,500 years (Rutherford, 1987), and it seems plausible that focus on grammatical form may be a factor in the advantage that instructed SL learners sometimes enjoy over naturalistic learners (Ellis, 1989; Long, 1988). Recently, the use of tasks in language teaching has gained increasing acceptance in the language teaching field (e.g. Nunan, 1989), and suggestions have been made regarding the potential of the task concept as an organizing principle for second language syllabi (Long, 1985). However, regarding the use of communicative tasks to teach second language grammar, there has only recently begun to be much of anything written (though see Bley-Vroman, 1989; Madden & Reinhart, 1987; Nunan, 1989; Rutherford, 1987; Ur, 1988). More importantly, little theoretical work has been done in tying grammar pedagogy and task-based methodology together. The purpose of this chapter is to bring together these two strands: focus on grammatical form and the use of tasks in language teaching. Recent discussion of the role of grammar has focused on at least three key questions: When should some aspect of grammar be taught? Which should be taught? How should grammar be taught? (see Rutherford & Sharwood Smith, 1988). We will deal primarily with the third question - the question of methodology. It will be argued that the best way to incorporate grammar in language instruction is not by the use of drill or of grammar exercises, but instead, as Rutherford & Sharwood Smith (1988) claim, by the use of 'consciousness raising' activities which facilitate the development of grammatical knowledge through hypothesis testing and inferencing. We suggest that meaningful communication tasks can effectively be used to do just that. We will present an approach to designing structurally based communication tasks and will provide a psycholinguistic rationale for this approach.
Article
Full-text available
Data analysis methods in psychology still emphasize statistical significance testing, despite numerous articles demonstrating its severe deficiencies. It is now possible to use meta-analysis to show that reliance on significance testing retards the development of cumulative knowledge. But reform of teaching and practice will also require that researchers learn that the benefits that they believe flow from use of significance testing are illusory. Teachers must revamp their courses to bring students to understand that (a) reliance on significance testing retards the growth of cumulative research knowledge; (b) benefits widely believed to flow from significance testing do not in fact exist; and (c) significance testing methods must be replaced with point estimates and confidence intervals in individual studies and with meta-analyses in the integration of multiple studies. This reform is essential to the future progress of cumulative knowledge in psychological research.
Chapter
Full-text available
The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: ID - 638
Article
Full-text available
The present comment reviews practices revolving around tests of statistical significance. First, the logic of statistical significance testing is presented in an accessible manner; many people who use statistical tests might not place such a premium on the tests if these individuals understood what the tests really do, and what the tests do not do. Second, the etiology of decades of misuse of statistical tests is briefly explored; we must understand the bad implicit logic of persons who misuse statistical tests if we are to have any hope of persuading them to alter their practices. Third, three revised editorial policies that would improve conventional practice are highlighted.
Article
This study investigates under a cognitive attentional framework whether amount (single vs. multiple) and type (teacher-centered vs. learner-centered) of exposure to the same morphological information has positive effects on first-semester adult learners' second or foreign language (L2) development of morphological forms after 1 semester, and whether there is any differential performance due to type of postexposure task (recognition vs. production). The performances of four groups of learners receiving different amounts and types of exposure over a period of 1 semester were compared on both a recognition and written production task. Repeated measures analyses of variance, performed on the raw scores obtained on both tasks comprising a pretest and three posttests, revealed significant main effects for amount of exposure, type of exposure, task, and time. They also revealed significant interactions between time and amount of exposure and time and type of exposure. Results suggest beneficial effects of both multiple and learner-centered exposures to morphological forms and differential performances based on type of postexposure assessment task. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The present study describes how much and in what ways the authors of articles fail to include adequate information about data collection. The instrumentation reported in 220 articles from 22 randomly selected journals was coded and tabulated using a scheme based on criteria from current research textbooks that are consistent with American Educational Research Association/American Psychological Association/National Council on Measurement in Education (AERA/APA/NCME) standards. Results suggest that the quality of measurement reporting continues to be a problem. Eight of the most common reporting failures are identified. It is recommended that journal editors and referees more thoughtfully consider the quality of measurement reporting when reviewing and editing submitted articles.
Article
This paper reports on an experimental study intended to test the generalization of instruction in second language learning. A group of students in an English as a second language program served as subjects for special instruction in relative clause formation. The subjects were given a pre-test on combining two sentences into one sentence containing a relative clause where either the subject, object, or object of a preposition was the relativized noun phrase. Based on the pre-test results, four equal groups were formed, three of which served as experimental groups and one as the control group. Each experimental group was given instruction on the formation of only one type of relative clause. The subjects were then given a post-test. From the results of the experiment, it is argued that maximal generalizatioń of learning takes place from structures which are typologically more marked to those structures which are typologically less marked, and not the reverse. Some implications of this interpretation are discussed.
Article
A test of statistical significance addresses the question, How likely is a result, assuming the null hypotheses to be true. Randomness, a central assumption underlying commonly used tests of statistical significance, is rarely attained, and the effects of its absence rarely acknowledged. Statistical significance does not speak to the probability that the null hypothesis or an alternative hypothesis is true or false, to the probability that a result would be replicated, or to treatment effects, nor is it a valid indicator of the magnitude or the importance of a result. The persistence of statistical significance testing is due to many subtle factors. Journal editors are not to blame, but as publishing gatekeepers they could diminish its dysfunctional use.
Article
Choice of the unit of analysis in syllabus design is crucial for all aspects of a language teaching program. A variety of units, including word, structure, notion, function, topic, and situation, continue to be employed in synthetic, Type A, syllabuses. While each is relevant for analyses of the target language and its use, nativelike linguistic elements find little support as meaningful acquisition units from a language learner's perspective. Task has more recently appeared as the unit of analysis in three analytic, (primarily) Type B, alternatives: procedural, process, and task syllabuses. Each of these has certain limitations, too, but when the task syllabus is combined with a focus on form in task-based language teaching, the task receives more support in second language acquisition (SLA) research as a viable unit around which to organize language teaching and learning opportunities.
Article
To date, few empirical studies have been designed to evaluate the effects of different types of feedback on error in the written work of second language writers. The study reported in this article contrasted four methods of providing feedback on written error. These methods differed in the degree of salience provided to the writer in the revision process. In the study, a factor analysis was used to reduce an initial set of 19 measures of writing skill to a subset of 7. Each of the 7 measures in the subset was then used as a dependent variable in an analysis of covariance design which contrasted the effects of the feedback methods on subsequent narrative compositions. Evidence against direct correction of error in written work is discussed.
Article
Grammar consciousness-raising tasks combine the development of knowledge about problematic L2 grammatical features with the provision for meaning-focused use of the target language. However, for this task type to be pedagogically useful in ESL/EFL classrooms, it must be shown that task performance is as effective as a teacher-fronted grammar lesson in promoting gains in knowledge of the target structure and is comparable to performance of regular communicative tasks in terms of opportunities for communicative language exchange. This article reports an investigation of three grammar consciousness-raising tasks dealing with word order. The results indicate that the tasks successfully promoted both proficiency gains and L2 negotiated interaction in the participants, with negotiation quantity being determined by the combination of task features present rather than by the nature of the task content. Thus, grammar consciousness-raising tasks can be recommended as one way to integrate formal instruction within a communicative framework.
Article
This article examines the effects of negotiated interaction on the production and development of question forms in English as a second language (ESL). The study focused on one feature of interaction, recasts, which have recently been the topic of interactional work in the SLA literature (Long, 1996; Long, Inagaki, & Ortega, this issue; Lyster & Ranta, 1997; Oliver, 1995). The study compared groups of learners who received interactionally modified input with learners who received the same input containing intensive recasts in order to investigate: (a) the effect of recasts on learners' short term interlanguage (IL) development, and (b) the nature and content of learners' responses to recasts. The results suggest that for more advanced learners, interaction with intensive recasts may be more beneficial than interaction alone in facilitating an increase in production of targeted higher‐level morphosyntactic forms. These positive developmental effects were found for recasts even though, as is generally acknowledged in the discourse, recasts were usually not repeated and rarely elicited modification by the learners. This study, therefore, suggests that recasts may be beneficial for short term IL development even though they are not incorporated in learners' immediate responses. In fact, the responses may be red herrings.
Article
The present study extends previous research (VanPatten & Cadierno, 1993a, 1993b) and compares the relative effects of two types of instruction (i.e., traditional instruction and processing instruction) on the acquisition of Spanish past tense verb morphology. Traditional instruction involved grammar explanation and output‐based practice, while processing instruction involved grammar explanation and input‐based practice aimed at redirecting learners'strategies in processing input data. Sixty‐one classroom learners of Spanish were assigned to one of three instructional treatments: traditional instruction, processing instruction, and no instruction. Pretest and posttest measures consisting of one interpretation (comprehension) and one production task were submitted to a Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results revealed significant gains in both comprehension and production for subjects in processing instruction, while subjects in traditional instruction had significant gains only in production.
Article
Does second language instruction promote second language acquisition? Some studies conclude that instruction does not help (or even that it is counter-productive); others find it beneficial. The picture becomes clearer if two distinctions are made. First, researchers may address one or both of two issues: the absolute effect of instruction, on the one hand, and its relative utility, on the other. Second, studies need to be subclassified according to whether or not the comparisons they make involve controlling for the total amount of instruction, exposure, or instruction plus exposure—that is, for the total opportunity to acquire the second language.Observing these distinctions, a review of research findings concludes that there is considerable (although not overwhelming) evidence that instruction is beneficial 1) for children as well as adults, 2) for beginning, intermediate, and advanced students, 3) on integrative as well as discrete-point tests, and 4) in acquisition-rich as well as acquisition-poor environments. These findings have implications for theories of second language acquisition, such as Krashen's Monitor Theory, which make predictions about second language acquisition with and without instruction, and also for those involved in educational administration, program design, and classroom teaching.
Article
Providing learners with grammar problems they must solve interactively integrates grammar instruction with opportunities for meaningful communication. This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the use of a communicative, grammar-based task in the college EFL classroom. The two research questions addressed are whether the task successfully promoted L2 linguistic knowledge of a specific grammar point and whether it produced the kind of negotiated interaction which has been assumed to facilitate L2 acquisition. The limited results of this investigation suggest that the grammar task encouraged communication about grammar and enabled EFL learners to increase their knowledge of a difficult L2 rule.
Article
This paper discusses some possibilities and limitations of laboratory research methods fortesting theories of second language acquisition. The paper includes a review of 20 experimentallab studies. The review focuses on the motivation for conducting lab studies, the use of artificialor semiartificial language structures, and various design features (including pre- and posttesting,number of subjects, random subject assignment, between- and within-subjects comparisons,treatment materials and procedures). The paper calls for lab studies addressing issues central toSLA theory ( vs. ) and ends with somemethodological recommendations, concerning the length of experimental treatments, the use ofgrammaticality judgment tasks, the measurement of reaction times, and the use of retrospectiveinterviews.
Article
This paper focuses on a parametric difference between French and English, namely the issue of whether or not the language allows verb movement. The lack of verb-raising in English causes a potential learnability problem for francophones, as far as English adverb placement is concerned. In particular, an adverb in English is not allowed to interrupt a verb and its direct object, in contrast to French. It is argued in this paper that form-focused classroom instruction, including negative evidence, is more effective in helping L2 learners to arrive at the appropriate properties of English than positive input alone. An experimental study on the effectiveness of teaching adverb placement was conducted with I 1 and 12 year-old francophone learners of English. One group (n = 82) was explicitly instructed on adverb placement, and another on ques tion formation (n = 56). Subjects were tested on a variety of tasks relating to adverb placement; they were pretested, and post-tested twice, immediately after the instructional period, and again five weeks later. Some of the subjects were followed up a year after the original testing. Results show significant differences between the two groups: only the group that received positive and negative evidence that was specifically oriented towards adverb placement came to know that adverbs may not interrupt the verb and object. The results from the follow up, however, suggest that this knowledge is not retained in the long-term.
Article
One of the most important stages of a meta-analysis is specifying the inclusion criteria. In other words, what studies will be included in or excluded from the quantitative review? How are these decisions made? The author presents problems and illustrations from this first phase in an ongoing meta-analysis of crime reduction programs. The eight criteria for including studies in the crime reduction meta-analysis are specified, problematic studies confronted using the criteria are listed, and rules for handling those studies to retain consistency throughout the meta-analysis are discussed. The article concludes with three recommendations for future meta-analyses of this type.
Article
Use of the effect size as a descriptive statistic for single-subject research is presented. A brief review of visual and statistical analysis techniques commonly used in single-subject methods is provided, and the limitations of each are noted. Effect sizes are presented as statistics that can augment the interpretation of results as well as provide additional information about the effectiveness of interventions. Four types of treatment effects are presented, with corresponding case studies illustrating the computation and interpretation of the effect size for each. An appendix includes the case study data and a sample computer program for computing the effect sizes described.
Article
A substantial body of research has investigated how form-focussed instruction contributes to language learning, but there has been very little discussion of how the knowledge provided by this research can inform language teaching. This article reviews research that addresses how grammar can best be taught in terms of four theoretically motivated instructional options: (a) structured input, (b) explicit instruction, (c) production practice, and (d) negative feedback. Given the difficulty of reaching firm conclusions based on this research, a number of possibilities for the pedagogic utilization of the information it makes available are considered, based on the distinction between teachers' practical knowledge and technical knowledge. These possibilities are (a) treating the research findings as provisional specifications to be experimented with through teaching, (b) conducting action research, and (c) conducting participatory research involving teachers and researchers working collaboratively. The need for research that investigates how teachers integrate technical knowledge into their personal pedagogical systems is also recognized.
Article
Self-assessment has been used widely in language testing research, but has produced variable results. In many quarters self-assessment is considered a viable alternative to formal second language assessment for placement and criterion-referenced interpretations, although variation in self-assessment validity coefficients suggests potential difficulty in accurate interpretation. This article first summarizes the research literature with the use of a formal meta-analysis conducted on 60 correlations reported in the second language testing literature. These are the basis for estimates of median effect sizes for second language speaking, listening, reading and writing tests. The second phase of the study is an empirical analysis of the validity of a self-assessment instrument. 236 'just-instructed' English as a foreign language learners completed self-assessments of functional English skills derived from instructional materials and from general proficiency criteria. The learners' teachers also provided assessments of each of the 236 learners. The criterion variable was an achievement test written to assess mastery of the just-completed course materials. Contrastive multiple regression analyses revealed differential validities for self-assessment compared to teacher assessment depending on the extent of learners' experience with the language skill self-assessed.
Article
The meta-analytic technique was used to synthesize experimental research findings on the relationship between level of teacher questioning and student achievement. Twenty studies on teachers’ use of “higher” and “lower” cognitive questions were reviewed. Higher cognitive questions require pupils to manipulate information to create and support a response; lower cognitive questions call for verbatim recall or recognition of factual information. Effect sizes were computed to investigate the impact of program monitoring, experimental validity, and level of teacher questioning. Results show that gains in achievement can be expected when higher cognitive questions assume a predominant role during classroom instruction.