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Success rates for different types of organizational change

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... Organizacione promene, odnosno način na koji se realizuju je u velikoj meri povezan sa zajedničkim pretpostavkama, stavovima i vrednostima menadžera i zaposlenih koji su ugrađeni u njihovim programima tumačenja (Janićijević, 2012). U dosadašnjoj literaturi je uočeno, na primer, da organizaciona kultura ima niži procenat uspešnosti u odnosu na ostale organizacione promene (Smith, 2002). Značajan teorijski fond ukazuje da je organizaciona kultura jedan od osnovnih uzročnika otpora prema promenama i ključna pretnja naporima organizacionih promena (Waddell & Sohal, 1998 (Markides, 2006;Taylor & Helfat, 2009;Markides & Oyon, 2010;Birkinshaw et al., 2016;Khanagha et al., 2018). ...
... Noviji koncepti organizacionih promena se temelje na promenama u organizacionoj kulturi, individualnoj i organizacionoj kompetenciji kroz procese organizacionog učenja (Dulanović & Jaško, 2009). Podela organizacionih promena na strukturne, tehnološke i biheviorističke promene predstavlja i rezultat različitih intervencija koje se sprovode u životnom ciklusu promena (Dulanović & Jaško, 2009 Kada je organizaciona kultura u pitanju, rezultati istraživanja ove studije su u saglasnosti sa nalazima Smith (2002), koji je u svom radu objavio da prosečna stopa uspešnosti ove vrste organizacione promene iznosi 19%. ...
... S druge strane, Smith (2002) je analizirao uspešnost širenja poslovanja, te se rezultati mogu uporediti sa dobijenim u ovom istraživačkom poduhvatu. Nalazi u analizama koje je predstavio Smith (2002) ukazuju da je prosečna stopa uspešnosti širenja poslovanja 19%, što je u suprotnosti sa dobijenim rezultatima u ovoj studiji u kojoj je predviđanje uspešnosti ove vrste organizacione promene iznad 30%, implicirajući pozitivan efekat, odnosno trend rasta uspešnosti kada je širenje poslovanja u pitanju. ...
Thesis
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Notable low success rate of organizational changes, complex and uncertain business environment imposes a growing need for examing, developing, integrating and adopting appropriate approaches, models, tools and software solutions in the area of organizational change management aiming at creating an expected value for business. In addition to the challenges managers are faced with nowadays, significant issue refers to prediction of organizational change success, that is to a great extend founded on subjective assessments, and as such represents a major limitation to managing change process in today's highly turbulent and uncertain business environment, characterized by significant transformations. With that in mind, it represents key concern that can create irreparable costs for an organization. Taking all into account, the central problem that the dissertation considers is to examine the possibility of predicting an organizational change success using quantitative Beckhard and Harris's model. The conceptual Beckhard and Harris's model does not contain elaborated components of measurement and control that represent key dimensions for organizational change management, resulting in the need for further model verification. This study has twofold objective. The scientific objective of this research paper is to extend and deepen theoretical fund in the organizational change management area by establishing correlations and causal relationships in the model, examining the prediction of organizational change success. The expected level of cognition is to achieve the degree of classification and explanation. The degree of classification aims at finding explicit characteristics of the research phenomenon, based on which greatest value can be achieved in further intellection. The degree of scientific explanation aims to explain research phenomenon by determining the relationship among relevant variables, as well as to explore the causality that can result into conclusions of the cause-and-effect relationship of an organizational change success. The study intends to provide a quantitative prediction model in the area of organizational change management that is mostly designed at an inappropriate approach referring to subjective individual assessment, before formalizing the measurement construct. The primary social objective of this study is to improve both, efficiency and effectiveness of organizational change management on the basis of predicting a change success, further implying improvement of an overall change design process, i.e. improvement of implementation process management. The purpose of this paper is to examine the usability of the model, i.e. to investigate its reliability and applicability in practice. In other words, the study seeks to explore the possibility of introducing a quantitative approach of predicting organizational changes success in change management practices, implying additional value for an organization. Reliable framework for planning, implementing and measuring a change success at each phase of the change program lifecycle, allows a holistic view on the results or on underdeveloped elements that influence final output of change process, indicating possibility for effective decision making and providing a corresponding basis for finding appropriate solutions grounded on lessons learned for future organizational change programs. Predicting an organizational change success using quantitative Beckhard and Harris's change model will be based on the statistical general scientific method. The statistical general scientific method includes particular basic methods that refer to statistical tests, correlation and regression. Beckard and Harris's change model has not been empirically certified so far. The research will show its effectiveness using quantitative approach. In terms of scientific contributions, expectations lie in recognition of the model effectiveness with description, classification and explanation of the phenomenon. This research will enrich theoritical fund in the discipline of organizational changes, supported by empirical findings. In methodological terms, the research follows the principles of methodological procedures of social research. Social contribution is greatly significant, taking into account that research deals with the present-day subject that does not provide expected results in organizations. The expectations of this study are numerous. It is expected that the paper improve efficiency and effectiveness of organizational change management based on the prediction of the final outcome, further enhancing the overall design of change process, that is, managing of change implementation. The conceptual Beckhard and Harris's change model explained this, but it does not contain the elaborated measurement and control components that are key to the management concept. Hence, it is expected that the research will provide an insight into the usability value of the model, that is, the study will show whether Beckard and Harris model can be a reliable and applicable tool for managers and change agents who deal with organizational changes. Furthermore, it is expected that the research will depict situations in which the model will be most effective in practice. It is also expected that the study will enable more effective decision-making in management of organizational changes, and empower change success. Equally important, the applied approach in this research can provide measurement of the change success and holistic view into the limiting factors that should be further improved until final expected outcome.
... However, many change efforts aiming to adapt to these conditions fail (Lauer, 2021;Mack et al., 2016;Smith, 2002). ...
... Additionally, the ongoing process of digitalization requires reoccurring changes for organization and employees (Kotera & Correa-Vione, 2020). Smith (2002) distinguishes in his meta-study different types of organizational change processes. Among them the implementation of new strategies, restructuring, introduction of new technologies, merger & acquisition, and the change of corporate culture. ...
... merger & acquisition 33% and change of corporate culture only 19% (Smith, 2002). ...
Thesis
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This thesis focuses on the role of transformational leadership, communication, and work engagement on the employee readiness for change and subsequent organizational outcomes commitment and turnover intention during acute change process. Building on the conservation of resources theory, motivational process of the job demands-resources model and the theory of planned behavior this thesis predicts a comprehensive theoretical model to explore psychological process of employees in times of organizational change and their attitude towards it. For this purpose, 71 participants were surveyed in a cross-sectional design utilizing existing scales. The gathered data was analyzed using a path analysis procedure. Additionally, separate mediation and regression analysis were conducted to obtain reliable results regarding the smaller sample size. A significant mediation effect from transformational leadership to employee readiness for change via quality of change communication was overserved. Even though transformational leadership has remarkable positive relation to work engagement, no correlation between work engagement and employee readiness for change could be measured. Finally, both work engagement and employee readiness for change have significant effects on the organizational outcome’s affective commitment and turnover intention. The results were used to derive new implications for research and practical advice for organizations.
... En cuanto a las probabilidades de éxito de los procesos de implementación del TQM, es necesario señalar que la evaluación rigurosa de la efectividad de los diferentes modelos de cambio organizacional, enfrenta grandes desafíos metodológicos. A pesar de lo anterior, Smith (2002) realiza un análisis de las investigaciones publicadas en los últimos años, a partir de lo cual concluye que la tasa de éxito en los procesos dirigidos bajo la filosofía de TQM varía de manera importante, dependiendo del estudio al que se haga referencia. Dicha variación ocurre en un rango de éxito que va desde el 14% hasta el 65%, con una media de éxito de 37%. ...
... Dicha variación ocurre en un rango de éxito que va desde el 14% hasta el 65%, con una media de éxito de 37%. Si bien estos resultados, como señala Smith (2002), deben ser tomados con cautela, subrayan la dificultad y complejidad implicada en la implementación del TQM. ...
Article
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Este artículo revisa la importancia de los factores humanos en la Gestión Total de Calidad (TQM), así como la posible contribución que la Modificación de Conducta Aplicada a las Organizaciones (OBM) puede tener para la implementación exitosa del TQM. Para ello, el autor expone los conceptos generales del TQM y OBM, a partir de lo cual establece posibles áreas de contribución. Finalmente, se presentan algunas reflexiones en torno a la integración de ambos enfoques. Palabras claves: OBM, TQM, gestión de calidad, administración del desempeño, análisis conductual. ABSTRACT This árdele reviews the importance of the human factors in the Total Quality Management (TQM). It also considers the possible contribution of the Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) to the field of TQM. The author exposes the main concepts of TQM and OBM, and analyzes the possible áreas where OBM could contribute to improve the application of TQM. Finally some ideas about the possible integrations of both approaches are presented. INTRODUCCIÓN En la actualidad, las organizaciones se enfrentan a un creciente aumento en las exigencias de los clientes en cuanto a la calidad de los productos y servicios que ofrecen. Lo anterior, en alguna medida, se encuentra relacionado con el surgimiento de mercados más competitivos y globalizados (Mawhinney, 1992) en cuyo contexto, el mejoramiento continuo constituye un factor crítico para la supervivencia de cualquier organización (Conti, 2004). De acuerdo con Conti (2004), la Gestión de Calidad Total (TQM) ha sido un factor fundamental en muchas de las mejoras observadas en los últimos veinte años en el desempeño de las organizaciones. Si bien, una afirmación d e este tipo debe ser validada por estudios empíricos a gran escala, preferiblemente de carácter longitudinal y en diferentes contextos, es importante anotar que el TQM sigue siendo uno de los enfoques más difundidos (Redmon, 1992) y ha sido durante las dos últimas décadas una filosofía adoptada por importantes compañías (Rahman, 2004), a pesar de la creciente popularidad de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad (Zhu y Scheuermann, 1999). En cuanto a las probabilidades de éxito de los procesos de implementación del TQM, es necesario señalar que la evaluación rigurosa de la efectividad de los diferentes modelos de cambio organizacional, enfrenta grandes desafíos metodológicos. A pesar de lo anterior, Smith (2002) realiza un análisis de las investigaciones publicadas en los últimos años, a partir de lo cual concluye que la tasa de éxito en los procesos dirigidos bajo la filosofía de TQM varía de manera importante, dependiendo del estudio al que se haga referencia. Dicha variación ocurre en un rango de éxito que va desde el 14% hasta el 65%, con una media de éxito de 37%. Si bien estos resultados, como señala Smith (2002), deben ser tomados con cautela, subrayan la dificultad y complejidad implicada en la implementación del TQM.
... Organizational changes can happen from low impact types, such as rotation of people or modification of job functions, to high impact types of change. Smith (2002) clarified that major organizational change means any intentional change in the way the organization does business that affects the strategic position of the organization vis-à-vis its competition. Examples of major organizational change include: ...
... It is essential to understand the success factors as well as the obstacles of organizational changes. Based on the study of business and professional publications about success of various types of organizational changes, Smith (2002) reported that there were seven re-engineering and process design studies from 3,442 sample sizes. But the success rate was only 30 percent. ...
Article
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The first two decades of the twenty-first century have been exposed to the high velocity of change in social economy and communication technology. Several concepts of management become either irrelevant or obsolete. Moreover, the future well-being of humans is increasingly challenging with the emergence of new technology and innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), and robotic technology that can replace human in several aspects including probably organizational change’s action taking. Organizational change should be pluralism entailing engagement between social science and management research on change and innovation, and require alternative models and theories. Unfortunately, studies showed that approximately 70% of highly impacted organizational changes failed and many managers do not know how to execute changes effectively. Therefore, to ascertain the success of major change efforts, organizational changes should start from effective individual self-change. This paper aims to propose a new construct of holistic self-change concept to enhance the effectiveness of change efforts based on the framework using self-forced actions and action value as the central idea.
... Organizational change includes changes in the organizational structure, individuals or jobs that affect what people do at work, how people perform their tasks, and their responsibilities, and accountabilities (Loo, Lee, & Low, 2017). Smith (2002), after examining the results of 49 studies on major change projects found that the areas of organizational changes were: strategy development (3 projects), restructuring and downsizing (9 projects), technology change (5 projects), mixed change efforts (1 project), TQM driven change (5 projects), mergers and acquisitions (9 projects), reengineering and process design (7 projects), software development and installation (6 projects), business expansion (1 project), and cultural change (3 projects). ...
... Although this failure rate seems to be surprisingly high or exaggerated, many survey results are corroborating this claim to such as Kanter et al. (1992), Kotter (1996), Smith (2002Smith ( , 2003 or Burnes (2009). Thus, Burnes & Jackson (2011) say that organizations encounter a classic paradox that change is inevitable, but at the same time most change initiatives fail. ...
Thesis
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Using a sample of bank employees in Jordan, this study seeks to analyse how high performance human resource management practices and organizational commitment impact employees readiness for change. We also seek to study the role of readiness for change in improving employee performance. The results demonstrate a positive association between some high performance Human resource management practices and both affective commitment and readiness for change. Results also show a positive relationship between affective commitment and readiness for change. We have also found that readiness for change positively influences employees individual performance. Hierarchy culture moderates the relation of high performance HRM practices with affective commitment.
... Sorge & Van Witteloostuijn, 2004). However, a considerable number of organizational changes fail to achieve their strategic and operational goals (Cameron, 1994;Haleblian, Devers, McNamara, Carpenter, & Davison, 2009;King, Dalton, Daily, & Covin, 2004;Schoenberg, 2006;Smith, 2002;Tuch & O'Sullivan, 2007; cf. Hughes, 2011;Risberg & Meglio, 2012). ...
... By organizational change, I refer to changes that influence how an organization operates. Examples of such changes are merger and acquisitions, cultural changes (e.g.., developing customer-orientation), new IT systems and technology changes, process improvement, restructuring organizational groups or units, changes in organizational leadership, and deployment of new strategies (Eurofound, 2012;Smith, 2002;Sutela & Lehto, 2014). ...
Book
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This dissertation examined employees’ psychological experiences during organizational changes. While change frequently occurs in today’s workplace, organizational changes bear a risk of adverse effects on employees’ well-being and motivation. To improve employees’ well-being, and thus also the success of change endeavors, it is essential to understand how different types of employees’ experiences evolve by influencing each other during change events. The first substudy of the dissertation presented a theoretical model. This model postulated key psychological processes that influence employees’ work engagement during organizational changes, and their dynamic relationships. The other two substudies provided a partial test of the model by utilizing a three-wave longitudinal survey data (N = 623) collected during the merger of City of Helsinki’s departments of Social and Health Care Services. This data captured employees’ experiences during 2012–2014 with one-year intervals; once before the merger and twice after the merger. The empirical substudies utilized longitudinal structural equation modeling as an analytical framework. The results of the second substudy showed that employees’ cognitive trust towards top management and favorable perceptions of merger process fairness were mainly reciprocally and positively related. While trust was associated with subsequent fairness perceptions throughout the merger, fairness was related to subsequent trust only during the first merger year. The findings suggest that subordinates trust towards leaders may not only be a product of favorable treatment as trust may also color fairness perceptions. The third substudy demonstrated reciprocal relationships between employees’ work engagement and cognitive appraisals of change. Employees’ negative appraisals regarding the personal impact of the change, and increases in such appraisals, were related to decreases in engagement throughout the organizational merger process. Positive change appraisals, and increases in these appraisals, were associated with increases in work engagement only during the first year of the merger. For the opposite direction, high work engagement, and increases in engagement, were related to decreases in negative appraisals, and increases in positive appraisals throughout the merger. These results showed how work engagement accumulates over time especially by mitigating employees’ negative change appraisals. Taken together, this study revealed how employees’ experiences, specifically trust and fairness, and work engagement and change appraisals, evolve via reinforcing reciprocal relationships throughout distinct phases of change events. These processes can result either in upward spirals that foster employees’ well-being and adaptation or to loss spirals with the opposite effect. Organizational change scholars and practitioners would therefore benefit from attending to more dynamic and bi-directional processes in employee change experience.
... Based on Graham (2012) there is a proven tendency of returning to the way things were before. Smith (2002) reported that only 33% of major organizational change activities succeed. However, cultural change (19%) was more challenging than a strategy deployment (58%) (Smith, 2002). ...
... Smith (2002) reported that only 33% of major organizational change activities succeed. However, cultural change (19%) was more challenging than a strategy deployment (58%) (Smith, 2002). Both inhouse and external training activities are needed in successful change implementation and transformation. ...
... Philip J. Salem Texas State University, USA & Brooks, 1995) and more recent estimates place the figure at or below 20 percent (Cabry & Haughey, 2014;Towers Watson, 2013). Strategic initiatives with the purpose of changing organizational culture succeed less than 20 percent of the time (Smith, 2002). There is a body of literature just dealing with these failures and a multitude of explanations (see Robbins & Finley, 1996), effective communication separates those that were most successful from those that were not (Cabrey & Haughey, 2014), and there are specific identifiable communication patterns associated with failed change efforts (Salem, 2008). ...
Chapter
Most efforts at transformational organizational change fail. In order to explain that failure and the potential for success, this chapter introduces the construct of organizational communication practices and develops a theory to explain how these processes constitute organizations as complex adaptive social systems. Five axioms anchor the theory, and the author derives theorems explaining the important features of attempting to change transformative organizational communication practices.
... The reliability of the measurement needs to be confirmed through the sufficient test activities before the methodology can be applied to the real system. Smith (2002) suggested success rates by type of measure as shown in table 2 below. Once the instrument of the change capability measurement has been confirmed for its acceptance and reliability, the methodology and application can be started with consequences and reaction from the target organization. ...
Article
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The dynamic change capabilities of organizations are prerequisite to the success, long-term growth and sustainability (Moran & Brightman, 2000; Andreeva & Victoria, 2006; Barreto, 2010; Halkos, 2012). Although organization development (OD) study involves planned changes that would help businesses to stay competitive in the marketplace, there is no effective and reliable change indicator that can reflect the need and level of change capabilities. Apparently, organizational change management requires multi-perspectives approach rather than a single approach to all change situations (Andreeva, 2008). To achieve the successful and sustainable change, an effective change measurement is the key (Moran, Baird & Brightman, 2000). This study aims to propose the development idea for a change indicator or so-called “exdysivity index (EI)” as the change capability assessment and requirement for change intervention at both international and individual organization level.
... Existing literature shows a high failure rate of all change initiatives amounting of around 70% [39]. Yet, it has been noted that at least 40% of all organizational change efforts consist of simultaneous different types of changes [40], which implies an application of adequate approaches to managing change aiming at increasing its success rate. ...
Conference Paper
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A large and fruitful arena of theories and practices of project and change management disciplines often show these two areas as independent in its basis. However, it has been recently recognized that project and organizational change management disciplines are complementary with a common objective to an organization, i.e. to increase project and change success rates, further implying improvement of overall organizational performances. To understand if project and organizational change management integration represent a path for sustainable value creation for organizations, this paper focuses on empirical research aiming at understanding integration value and dimensions of integration that can build capabilities for a successful project and organizational change outcomes. Overall research results show that multiple values can be obtained by integrating two disciplines.
... In order to remain competitive, organizations are regularly forced to introduce changes to improve external adaptation and internal integration in order to boost organisational performance ( Walker, Damanpour & Devece 2011). Despite the mantra of organisational change, failure rates for major change initiatives can be as high as 80 percent depending on the type of change program ( Smith 2002). Change projects that have a relatively small scope are also prone to fail to live up to expectations ( Jacobs, Arjen & Christe-Zeyse 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Managers in Hong Kong’s civil service bureau face a dilemma in that they operate in a relatively turbulent environment but have to manage organisations with cultures that are not conducive to change. The objective of this research is to examine whether trust in management mediates the relationships between two types of leadership (transactional and transformational) and acceptance of change in the Hong Kong public sector. The findings from 68 civil servants show that although trust in management mediates the relationship between both types of leadership and acceptance of change, transformational leadership is more effective in increasing both trust and acceptance of change. The findings suggest that one strategy for increasing acceptance of change is to develop perceptions of trustworthiness by focusing on transformational leadership.
... For decades, both scholars and practitioners have lamented the publicized statistic that as much as 70% of change initiatives fail (Kotter, 1995;Pasmore, 2011;Smith, 2002). In fact, this statistic has been so often quoted that it has become conventional wisdom, generally accepted by both business leaders and academics that most change initiatives fail. ...
Chapter
This chapter shares the findings of a research study that investigated how organizations managed critical incidents that had the potential for dramatic economic impact and why those organizations chose to pursue certain issues. The findings expose organization identity's role in stabilizing organizations. Understanding this role creates an opportunity to improve organization change efforts by examining and understanding a subject's organization identity. Armed with this understanding, a change agent may design interventions in such a way as to align with identity or, when necessary, to specifically alter identity. Copyright © 2016 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
... Joint ventures often limit the discretion, control, and profit potential of partners, expose partners to attempts to "steal" each other's expertise, and demand managerial attention and other resources that could be directed toward the firm's mainstream activities (Pearce and Robbins, 2008). More acquisitions fail than succeed (Smith, 2002), and do damage to the shareholders of the acquiring company, as things are seldom what they seem (Buffett, 1995). Specific risks related with acquisitions include the lack of a strategic rationale; unrealistic expectations of possible synergies; inadequate due diligence; the acquisition of a firm whose financial or market position is weaker; payment of a price that is too high; over-leverage applied to finance it, conflicting corporate cultures; poor post-merger integration (PMI); and business diversification resulting from the acquisition (Hitt et al., 2009;Zweig et al., 1995). ...
Article
Purpose Most mature organizations face a major decline in performance at some time during their existence. For more than three decades, it has been suggested that the management practices that could cure a troubled company could have also kept it well. Inspired by this concept, this paper is proposing a preventive approach to early implementation of turnaround strategies as an alternative for otherwise traumatic rescue efforts, further along the downward spiral. Design/methodology/approach Corporate turnaround strategies and associated risks are integrated with a risk-based approach, along with a proactive decision-making process. The link between turnaround research, resource-based view, the sources of organizational decline, and the governance of organizational-decline-related risks – is explained. Findings The integrated model streamlines a preventive organizational process for considering the suitability of commonly used turnaround practices – for the non-crisis business routine of a mature company. By considering and adjusting the risks associated with such practices, it addresses risk aversion at the early stages of decline and determines the optimal sequence and timing of retrenchment and recovery activities. As such, it encourages mature companies to take actions for reducing their exposure to organizational decline. Accordingly, the model is named the “Anti-Aging” framework. Research limitations/implications Empirical testing of the suitability of turnaround strategies for non-crisis situations is proposed as a direction for future research. Practical implications The Anti-Aging framework opens an opportunity for the senior management of a mature organization to respond earlier to organizational decline and avoid the trauma associated with otherwise more challenging conditions, for the benefit of all stakeholders. Originality/value The Anti-Aging framework proposes an innovative way of bridging the gap between the benefits of early implementation of turnaround strategies, and major obstacles faced by willing, traditional management teams of mature organizations.
... Despite an accumulation of best practices research that has identified a series of success factors, many projects still fail [246]. Some 40% of information technology developments in a variety of sectors are either abandoned or fail [91], while fewer than 40% of large systems purchased from vendors meet their goals [269]. Similar numbers have been estimated for health care, and the number has unfortunately remained approximately the same for at least the last 25 years [14,231,[270][271][272]. ...
Article
Objective: To review evaluation literature concerning people, organizational, and social issues and provide recommendations for future research. Method: Analyze this research and make recommendations. Results and Conclusions: Evaluation research is key in identifying how people, organizational, and social issues – all crucial to system design, development, implementation, and use – interplay with informatics projects. Building on a long history of contributions and using a variety of methods, researchers continue developing evaluation theories and methods while producing significant interesting studies. We recommend that future research: 1) Address concerns of the many individuals involved in or affected by informatics applications. 2) Conduct studies in different type and size sites, and with different scopes of systems and different groups of users. Do multi-site or multi-system comparative studies. 3) Incorporate evaluation into all phases of a project. 4) Study failures, partial successes, and changes in project definition or outcome. 5) Employ evaluation approaches that take account of the shifting nature of health care and project environments, and do formative evaluations. 6) Incorporate people, social, organizational, cultural, and concomitant ethical issues into the mainstream of medical informatics. 7) Diversify research approaches and continue to develop new approaches. 8) Conduct investigations at different levels of analysis. 9) Integrate findings from different applications and contextual settings, different areas of health care, studies in other disciplines, and also work that is not published in traditional research outlets. 10) Develop and test theory to inform both further evaluation research and informatics practice.
... Despite the high failure rate of organizational changes, currently it is an unavoidable practice (Smith, 2002). ...
Article
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Majority of existing literature on change readiness provide a fragmented single level examination. Recently, some studies tried to incorporate multilevel concept in change readiness, however they still neglected institutional level readiness. For appropriate intervention, change agents need to consider all levels of change readiness. Following extensive literature on organizational change readiness at individual level and organization level, this conceptual paper uses institutional theory to provide broader concep-tualization on multilevel change readiness. Institutional theory viewpoint provides to look change readiness from wider perspective. Since organizations are multilevel in nature, thus multilevel change readiness examination provides comprehensive understanding. In addition to the traditional individual and organizational level readiness, using institutional theory, we propose institutional level readiness should also be a critical predictor for the success of organizational change particularly in developing countries. Thus, the study proposes some propositions showing how these concepts relate to each other. Finally, the study suggests some practical implications for the leaders.
... A major concern in the fields of organizational change and strategic HRM is that initiatives and practices be effective and contribute to organizational performance (Combs et al. 2006;Zatzick and Iverson 2006). Both fields distinguish distal outcomes, such as forms of organizational and financial performance, from proximal outcomes that relate to the situation of employees (Boselie et al. 2005;Jackson et al. 2014;Oreg et al. 2011;Smith 2002). It is, however, difficult to disentangle the effects of organizational change, HRM practices and other organizational procedures on forms of organizational performance (Wright et al. 2005). ...
Article
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The contingency perspective on human resource management (HRM) advocates that HRM practices fit the internal or external situation of the organization. Organizational change has not been considered to be one of these contingencies, although in many organizations, the HR department is responsible for implementing and managing change. This study in the journal Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation aims to explore the use and effectiveness of HRM practices to manage organizational change in a case-based approach. Data were collected in five organizations, and interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. The results show two sets of HRM practices relating to the major organizational changes in the five companies, that is, reorganization and downsizing. The organizations adapted a broad range of practices to suit change-related requirements, and these practices yielded more favourable outcomes than the changes themselves (e.g., regarding perceived job security). Using a broader range of HRM practices and implementing them with more care produces more beneficial outcomes. Hence, organizational change should be considered to be a factor of contingency. It is beneficial for organizations to attentively adapt the current practices to the ongoing change. Link to the read-only version of the full text: https://rdcu.be/bBGWH
... In order to adjust to the dynamically changing markets, organizations have to determine the most appropriate way of conducting the change which covers also the designation of the right employees who become responsible for the results of the process [Beckhard, Harris 1987]. As an unavoidable practice, organizational change is distinguished by a relatively high ratio of failure [Smith 2002]. There are plenty of reasons why almost every organizational change is considered a big challenge. ...
... First, both organizational change processes and accommodation processes are characterized by an intentional goal to approach a challenge/an existing problem and to achieve an improved future state (Beckhard and Harris, 1987). Organizational change can be directed at various corporate challenges (e.g., business acquisitions, process improvements, technology changes; Smith, 2002). Similarly, job accommodation processes derive from a situation that is in some way problematic, i.e., an employee's health impairments interfere with the performance expectations of his or her job. ...
Article
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By modifying the work environments, work routines, and work tasks of employees with health restrictions, organizations can effectively help them continue to perform their jobs successfully. As such, job accommodations are an effective tool to secure the continued employment of aging workers who develop disabilities across their life span. However, while accommodations tackle health-related performance problems, they might create new challenges on the part of the affected employee. Building on the organizational change and accommodations literatures, we propose a theoretical framework of negative experiences during accommodation processes and apply it to qualitative data from group interviews with 73 manufacturing workers at a German industrial company who were part of the company's job accommodation program. Although problems associated with health-related impairments were mostly solved by accommodation, affected employees with disabilities reported about interpersonal problems and conflicts similar to those that typically occur during organizational change. Lack of social support as well as poor communication and information were raised as criticisms. Furthermore, our findings indicate that discrimination, bullying, and maltreatment appear to be common during accommodation processes. To make accommodation processes more successful, we derive recommendations from the organizational change literature and apply it to the accommodation context. We also emphasize unique characteristics of the accommodation setting and translate these into practical implications.
... For example, organizational-level health equity interventions can be undermined or supported by structural factors such as policies and funding conditions [22][23][24]. These dynamics contribute to the fact that upwards of 60% of deliberate attempts at organizational change are ineffective [25][26][27][28][29]. ...
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Background: The health care sector has a significant role to play in fostering equity in the context of widening global social and health inequities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the process and impacts of implementing an organizational-level health equity intervention aimed at enhancing capacity to provide equity-oriented health care. Methods: The theoretically-informed and evidence-based intervention known as 'EQUIP' included educational components for staff, and the integration of three key dimensions of equity-oriented care: cultural safety, trauma- and violence-informed care, and tailoring to context. The intervention was implemented at four Canadian primary health care clinics committed to serving marginalized populations including people living in poverty, those facing homelessness, and people living with high levels of trauma, including Indigenous peoples, recent immigrants and refugees. A mixed methods design was used to examine the impacts of the intervention on the clinics' organizational processes and priorities, and on staff. Results: Engagement with the EQUIP intervention prompted increased awareness and confidence related to equity-oriented health care among staff. Importantly, the EQUIP intervention surfaced tensions that mirrored those in the wider community, including those related to racism, the impacts of violence and trauma, and substance use issues. Surfacing these tensions was disruptive but led to focused organizational strategies, for example: working to address structural and interpersonal racism; improving waiting room environments; and changing organizational policies and practices to support harm reduction. The impact of the intervention was enhanced by involving staff from all job categories, developing narratives about the socio-historical context of the communities and populations served, and feeding data back to the clinics about key health issues in the patient population (e.g., levels of depression, trauma symptoms, and chronic pain). However, in line with critiques of complex interventions, EQUIP may not have been maximally disruptive. Organizational characteristics (e.g., funding and leadership) and characteristics of intervention delivery (e.g., timeframe and who delivered the intervention components) shaped the process and impact. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that organizations should anticipate and plan for various types of disruptions, while maximizing opportunities for ownership of the intervention by those within the organization. Our findings further suggest that equity-oriented interventions be paced for intense delivery over a relatively short time frame, be evaluated, particularly with data that can be made available on an ongoing basis, and explicitly include a harm reduction lens.
... In order to remain competitive, organisations are regularly forced to introduce changes to improve external adaptation and internal integration in order to boost organisational performance (Walker et al., 2011). Despite the mantra of organisational change, failure rates for major change initiatives can be as high as 80 per cent depending on the type of change programme (Smith, 2002). Change projects that have a relatively small scope are also prone to fail to live up to expectations ( Jacobs et al., 2013). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether trust in management mediates the relationships between two types of leadership (transactional and transformational) and acceptance of change in the Hong Kong public sector. Design/methodology/approach Data from 68 civil servants in the Hong Kong SAR Government were used in the partial least squares analysis. Findings The findings from civil servants show that although trust in management mediates the relationship between both types of leadership and acceptance of change, transformational leadership is more effective in increasing both trust and acceptance of change. Research limitations/implications The strong support for the mediation hypotheses highlights the need for leaders to be trusted by their followers if followers are to accept and support the change process. Trust in management is what ultimately reduces resistance to change. Practical implications The findings from this study have demonstrated that one strategy available to leaders in the Hong Kong public sector is to concentrate on developing perceptions of trustworthiness by utilising both transactional leadership and transformational leadership but especially transformational leadership. Originality/value This paper provides a unique and nuanced view of leadership and trust, and their effect on the acceptance of change in Hong Kong’s civil service bureau that operates in a turbulent environment. Public sector organisations in Hong Kong are unique in that they contend with pressures from Hong Kong nationals and also with pressures from the Government of Mainland China.
... The ability to respond is recognized as essential to survive (Kuilboer, Ashrafi and Lee, 2016). In order to maintain and improve performance, organizations need to be able to adjust their processes, products and behaviors along with the constantly alternating business environment to remain competitive and relevant on the market (Smith, 2002). Agility is not necessarily related to direct creation of value, but it is expected to create necessary resilience for future threats, and can be seen as a form of insurance against future changes in the environment. ...
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In assuring organizational agility, informing activities play a key role by sensing the environment for important changes. A special part has to be assigned to business intelligence (BI) activities, since their exact task is to monitor the environment and detect important issues to provide ground for well-informed responses. In turbulent business environment, BI function has to adjust dynamically to maintain the quality of produced insights. A survey on published research has shown that many sources stress the importance of agile BI on organizational agility in general. However, the importance of managerial and especially cultural factors for the role of informing in building up agility competencies is under-researched. The technology factors of agile informing that create preconditions for organizational agility are much better researched and evaluated than their human and managerial counterparts. There appears to be a need for consistent research approach in favor of the less researched human and managerial factors. The goal of this paper is to define research framework by addressing agility issues at three levels: organizational, information and BI agility. This framework is going to serve as a foundation for planned research on the factors of BI agility.
... There are various kinds of changes and transformations that organizations go through. Organizational changes could be due to merging and acquisition, or cultural, structural, procedural, and technological changes (Smith, 2002). Organizational change management is about taking action toward a defined state through practices that are different from the routine practices (Burnes, 2009;Maali et al., 2020) to reach a goal. ...
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This paper provides a stagewise overview of the important issues that play a role in technology adoption and use in organizations. In the current literature, there is a lack of consistency and clarity about the different stages of the technology adoption process, the important issues at each stage, and the differentiation between antecedents, after-effects, enablers, and barriers to technology adoption. This paper collected the relevant issues in technology adoption and use, mentioned dispersedly and under various terminologies, in the recent literature. The qualitative literature review was followed by thematic analysis of the data. The resulting themes were organized into a thematic map depicting three stages of the technology adoption process: pre-change, change, and post-change. The relevant themes and subthemes at each stage were identified and their significance discussed. The themes at each stage are antecedents to the next stage. All the themes of the pre-change and change stages are neutral, but the way they are managed and executed makes them enablers or barriers in effect. The thematic map is a continuous cycle where every round of technology adoption provides input for the subsequent rounds. Based on how themes have been addressed and executed in practice, they can either enhance or impair the subsequent technology adoption. This thematic map can be used as a qualitative framework by academics and practitioners in the field to evaluate technological changes.
... Obviously, such a trend is not conducive to understanding why people do as they do. It is not surprising then that culture change interventions are said to have a low success rate (e.g., Meaney & Pung, 2008;Smith, 2002;Tatton, 2015) and can have negative consequences. Harris and Ogbonna (2002) found that culture change programmes can be hijacked, "degenerating into cost-cutting, customer service or delayering initiatives." ...
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Since the 1980s, psychologists and management scholars have contributed significantly to the popularity of the idea of culture in organizations. A common and tenacious pitfall surrounding this idea, at times pointed out by these scholars themselves, is that culture is too often hypostatized and superimposed upon people. In doing so, this can have harmful consequences for employees at every level of organization. In this article, we reiterate this critique, challenge familiar managerial notions used to address “shared” behavior among employees, and answer to an old but neglected call to bring back real people to the forefront of our analyses. Based upon our adaptation of the enactive approach to the social tuning of behavior developed by Paul Voestermans and Theo Verheggen—made applicable in empirical studies on culture change conducted by the first author of this article—and inspired by principles of Gestalt, we propose a novel heuristic model to address organizational culture change. We attempt to do so both from an analytical and interventionist standpoint, while avoiding attributing causality to the idea of culture.
... Les changements organisationnels sont pluriels. Il peut s'agir, entre autres, de restructurations ou de ré ductions de personnels, de changements de technologie (comme l'introduction de nouveaux logiciels) ou encore de changements de culture organisationnelle (Smith, 2002). Bien que justifiables par la né cessité des organisations de travail de s'adapter à de nouveaux contextes et enjeux, ces diffé rents changements sont porteurs d'é lé ments perturbateurs devant être gé ré s par les salarié s et leur hié rarchie. ...
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Résumé Cette étude examine dans quelle mesure l’impact du leadership participatif sur les émotions et sur la satisfaction des besoins psychologiques est médiatisé par une réduction de l’incertitude chez les collaborateurs. Parmi les conseillers à Pôle Emploi, 108 ont été interrogés sur leurs perceptions de leadership, leurs incertitudes (i.e. ambiguïté de rôle, besoin de clôture) et sur des indicateurs d’un fonctionnement psychologique satisfaisant au travail (i.e. émotions et satisfaction/frustration des besoins). Les résultats révèlent que seul un leadership participatif est associé positivement à nos indicateurs de fonctionnement psychologique au travail et que cette relation est médiatisée par la capacité de ce type de leadership à réguler l’incertitude habituellement associée aux changements organisationnels. Ces résultats sont discutés au regard des récentes approches du leadership en temps d’incertitude.
... According to Mtulo (2014), off-the-job training allows an employee to participate in the training program without being disrupted by external factors as the training venue is usually set to enable the employee's total concentration. Literature (Ex: Smith, 2002;Hamilton, 1990;Wright & Geroy, 2001;Ramya, 2016) provides enough shreds of evidence to assume that there is a value addition towards employee performances from off-the-job-trainings. So, researchers have developed H2a and H2b accordingly. ...
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Training methods are essential for any business organization, especially in the case of service providers like banks. The top-level managers of the banks pay close attention to the training methods. As literature suggested, training is essential to the commercial banks to enhance their existing workers' knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is crucial to recognize the training needs of the employees before planning a Training. This research was conducted to identify the nexus between training methods and performance of non-executive level employees in the banking sector. Here, researchers have identified the main two types of training methods: "on-the-job training methods" and "off-the-job training methods". Commercial banks use both methods to enhance employee performance, and researchers have tried to investigate the most effective method for non-executive level employees. Researchers have adopted a quantitative methodology. Primary data has been collected through structured questionnaires from 600 non-executive level employees from Sri Lankan banking industry. A simple random sampling technique has been used as the sampling technique. The Descriptive statistics, Reliability test, correlation analysis and regression analysis has been used to analyze the collected data. Results imply that the off-the-job training methods are highly impacted than the on-the-job training methods, although both on-the-job training methods and off-the-job training methods positively affect employee performance. Considering the study results, the researchers suggested for the top managers of the commercial banks to pay more attention for the off-the-job training methods when deciding the mixture of training programs because it is highly affected than the on-the-job training methods.
... Benjamin also suggests that these approaches do not work referencing Smith (2002). ...
Article
The audits and inspections process is a critical component related to a pharmaceutical firm’s compliance in the industry. To be out of compliance has significant ramifications both on the safety and purity of the firm’s products and its viability in the industry. Such firms are routinely audited by boards of health and customers that purchase the firm’s products to ensure they are in compliance with expected standards. The success of hosting the audits and inspection program is the first line of defense in demonstrating compliance. To succeed at these audits and inspections changing with the times is a necessity. The implementation of change in an organization is fraught with challenges. Issues such determining who in the organization are the right people to discover, develop, and diffuse change is a complex process for management. This study will describe how the use of Liberating Structures and coaching were used to change the audits and inspection process for a major pharmaceutical firm. The changes are evaluated through the lens of Adaptive Space and the use of action research to integrate theory and action with the goal of answering the following questions: How might I get the right people on the team to implement a digital auditing process? How might I implement a digital auditing process? In the time involved with the completion of this action research study, COVID-19 hit. This led me to another question: What modifications to the auditing process must be made as a result of COVID-19, how can I modify the auditing approach to incorporate site restrictions The outcome of this effort transformed the auditing process at the firm and was implemented at the firm’s sites worldwide.
... El documento cuestiona las explicaciones que ven la gentrificación como una expresión de las demandas de los consumidores, las preferencias individuales o las leyes del mercado de oferta y demanda. Smith (2002) es el autor del segundo documento más citado "New Globalism, New Urbanism: Gentrification as Global Urban Strategy" con 23 citas. En este artículo el autor afirma que el fenómeno de gentrificación no está restringido a Europa o Norte América, ya que su impulso ahora es generalizado e influye globalmente. ...
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El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los avances en la investigación sobre gentrificación y turismo desde una perspectiva general. Basado en un análisis bibliométrico de 278 estudios y una revisión de literatura de 43 investigaciones sobre gentrificación y turismo de la base de datos Scopus® para el período 1990-2021, los autores discuten los resultados desde las siguientes perspectivas: resultados generales, número de publicaciones por año, citación de artículos, principales autores, las revistas más importantes, las instituciones más prominentes y los países con mayor productividad. Se presenta una revisión de los efectos económicos y socioambientales, tanto positivos como negativos de la gentrificación. Los resultados del análisis se pueden utilizar para mejorar la comprensión de la investigación de la gentrificación y el turismo para respaldar la investigación adicional en esta área. Como conclusión se puede decir que la gentrificación puede conducir a mejoras en el entorno físico y económico de una ciudad (particularmente sus barrios) o territorio, pero también diferentes consecuencias para el entorno social y ambiental; en efecto, la gentrificación puede cambiar comunidades.
... There are many types of organizational change: from business expansion, acquisition, and mergers to cultural re-engineering and changes in technology. Major, strategic organizational change has been defined as any intentional change in the way the organization does business that affects the strategic position of the organization vis-à-vis its competition (Smith, 2002). Many organizational changes originate from the necessity to react to changes in the market rather than from company vision (Hayes, 2018;Moran & Brightman, 2000). ...
... Despite the existence of many theories and methods regarding efficient implementation of changes in organisations (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015), research consistently shows that, in most cases, changes do not bring the desired results (Beer and Nohria, 2000;Smith, 2002Smith, , 2003Isern and Pung, 2007;McKinsey and Company, 2008;Rouse, 2011;Jansson, 2013). At the same time, increasing attention is being paid in the literature not to the content of changes per se (i.e., what is supposed to change or different models of implementation), but to those undergoing the changesthe employees (Armenakis and Bedeian, 1999;Erwin and Garman, 2010;Oreg et al., 2011). ...
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When introducing changes to an organisation, it is crucial to know how a given change will affect the company’s success. It is easy to forget or, more frequently, fail to appreciate the importance of the feelings and thoughts of the people who experience such changes. The distinction between objective change and subjective change is helpful in understanding the psychological consequences of changes and how they may affect the effectiveness of introducing changes in organisations. Results of studies on the psychological costs of changes for an individual indicate that there are differences in the way people experience objective and subjective changes, and that the way a change is perceived by an individual (i.e., subjective change) is crucial for the consequences of change. Studies have also identified factors which can buffer the negative consequences that changes may have on an individual. For changes in an organisation, coaching is one method to nurture these buffering factors in affected individuals, and, most of all, in those who are responsible for planning and introducing the changes, so that the employees of a company can experience the change in the most constructive way possible.
Conference Paper
Social, economic and technological changes constantly change business landscape and raise an array of challenges to organisations. Organizations have to adapt to the environmental changes and maintain competitiveness and flexibility. Thus, changes aim to transform current state of organisations, to increase productivity and competitive advantage in the market. On the other hand, a number of investigations confirm that majority of organisational changes fail and do not produce an expected performance. Scientific literature suggests various management methods and links these methods to the desirable outcomes. Considering the fact that organisations are unique systems, some change management models do not capture such aspects as exceptional experience, culture, intuition of managers, etc. These issues lead to the restricted application of majority of models or methods. The opinions of scholars about definition and measurement of success diverge. The paper aims to investigate the factors impacting and restricting organisational changes. Particular emphasis is put on the success as the desirable outcome of all initiatives. The investigation is based on analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. A case of service providing company is presented. The paper integrates the main researches in the field and provides insights and recommendations into future investigations.
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Grundlegendes Ziel von universitären medizinischen Einrichtungen ist es, Innovationen aus der Forschung schnell und gezielt in die Krankenversorgung zu integrieren und für die Durchführung dieser Aufgabe vor allem das zukünftige ärztliche und Pflegepersonal auszubilden. Die Anforderungen in der Krankenversorgung nehmen zu, dadurch dass die Ansprüche an die medizinische Qualität, an das nicht-medizinische Leistungsniveau, also die Service-Qualität, und an die wirtschaftliche Qualität der erbrachten Leistung zunehmen.
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Purpose This study examines the role of organisational climate in readiness for change with particular focus on Lean Six Sigma (LSS). The main aim is to develop and operationalise an instrument to measure organisation climate to determine the organisational readiness of the Kenya Institute of Management (KIM) to progress to the next stage of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation lifecycle. Design/methodology/approach A case study outlining the KIM journey to LSS is described. A quantitative survey was developed based on the ten organisation climate dimensions discovered by Ekvall (1983) and redefined by Lauer (1994). This was then used to measure the climate of the case study organisation. Data were analysed to determine individual perceptions of the climate dimensions within KIM. The average score for each dimension was used to determine overall organisational performance and hence readiness for change. Findings The generally positive scores across each dimension of the survey indicate that the KIM climate is ready for the next stage of its Lean Six Sigma implementation lifecycle although there may be some isolated pockets (individuals or groups) of resistance to change. However, the range of scores on each dimension indicates that there is disagreement within the survey group about the overall organisational climate. Research limitations/implications The response rate to the climate survey questionnaire was only two-thirds of the total staff at KIM Headquarters and approximately one-fifth of all staff. The views of non-respondents are therefore not known and this may bias the results. Practical implications Since climate influences readiness for change it is essential that an organisation can measure it to ensure their environment is conducive to the implementation of change generally and Lean Six Sigma particularly. The developed questionnaire is easy to use, easy to analyse and easy to interpret making it an ideal climate measurement instrument. Originality/value Previous papers on Lean Six Sigma concentrate on organisational culture rather that climate as a success factor for Lean Six Sigma implementation. This paper addresses that omission.
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Efforts to address mental illness stigma within the healthcare sector have not produced sufficient or sustained changes to delivery, quality, or models of care. One such reason is that many anti-stigma efforts tend to be targeted at interpersonal aspects of stigma, seeking to reduce prejudicial attitudes and improve discriminatory behaviors. Shifting attention to structural aspects of stigma may have unique potential to advance stigma reduction into the future. In this study, the authors conducted a realist case study of interventions to address structural stigma in healthcare organizations. Utilizing a realist multiple explanatory case study approach, authors reviewed data from 62 cases. After developing their initial program theory, 6 exemplar cases were analyzed for possible context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Results suggest that effective interventions required organizational readiness to disrupt existing power asymmetries, shared governance infrastructures, and an alignment of values despite historical mistrust between disparate partners. Mechanisms for change involved proactive management of resistance, disruptive innovation, co-designing processes, and embedding structural change into existing policy. Outcomes included sustainability, reduced coercion, and improved trust. Findings suggest that interventions to address structural stigma can produce sustained policy and practice change if organizations embrace power sharing and trust building while embedding change within policies and governance structures.
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In this study addresses the effect of organizational memory on the resistance that businesses encounter in their efforts for change. Reasons of resistance against change and how this problem should be dealt with is discussed, and it is also assessed whether the change resistance in those businesses which do not blindly adhere to organizational memory, that is, which have a developed ability of unlearning is as strong as in others. The main purpose of the study is to reveal an important factor in the context of addressing sub-dimensions of organizational memory, its effects on resistance to change as well as change resistance, and thus to provide those managers who would take efforts to change management with an important key for decreasing the resistance to change. The research has been carried out on the businesses are registered to the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce. The thought that there is a positively-oriented-oriented relationship between organizational memory and resistance-to-change underlying the research model has showed itself at certain levels between the analysis results and its sub-dimensions. By the same token, the negatively-oriented relationship of unlearning with resistance-to-change and organizational memory has been put forward at the levels of sub-dimensions. That the knowledge retained by the institutions could cause adverse effects in the event of change, and the necessity to act in line with unlearning ability in order to weaken these adverse effects have come to light.
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How does organizational culture form in real time? I present an overview of this topic using the formation of a fictional community garden organization for explanation. This chapter also presents a brief history of the thinking and literature of organizational culture as it emerged in the 1950s, beginning with Deal and Kennedy and Pettigrew. It outlines some of the theory and suggests why the work of Edgar Schein changed the field.
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This paper aims to provide practitioners and academics with an empirical approach for assessing the current state and future directions of the Salafi-Jihadi Movement’s (SJM) member organisations. Making use of available data, it taps into the Islamic State’s (IS) and al-Qaeda’s (AQ) strategic priorities. Then, the article maps and examines various strategies of the broader SJM using game theory. It assigns numerical representations to these strategies based on both the quantitative analysis of AQ’s and IS’s strategic priorities and published assessments of jihadi organisations’ strategies. The findings suggest that Localisation is the most pragmatic approach when compared to global undertaking for winning the hearts and minds of jihadi constituencies or proto-state building. Moreover, the results indicate that to regain hegemony of the SJM, AQ may opt to orchestrate terrorist attacks against the West. The model also shows that IS scores the highest payoffs through using guerrilla warfare methods and sleeper cells—as well as by rebuilding its depleted capacities and carrying out attacks that polarise Sunni communities. The paper concludes by providing implications, limitations, and directions for future research.
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Change management versus epistemological and performance stakes. Towards an interactionnist, epistemological and pragmatic model of organizational capacities to change This article raises three major epistemological observations about change management knowledge production. 1) There is a signification increase of publications, while performance ratios remain relatively low and stable over time. 2) Action-Knowledge duality present a schism in the field of study that leads to a methodological paradox. 3) The knowledge development is highly contextualized to its production era. This demonstration points out that these findings are the main foundations for the proposal of the passage from change management to the study of change capacities. Thus, this article attempts to identify the main epistemological implications of such a shift. First it reviews and discusses the epistemological foundations of the “organizational capacities” concept. Then, these foundations are integrated to Rondeau (2008) matrix about change capacity study as this article suggest an epistemic and pragmatic research avenue.
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One of the barriers of the lean manufacturing introduction in enterprises is staff resistibility to change. The article describes the impact of philosophy and the concept of lean manufacturing training on the level of staff readiness for change. The research object is an engineering enterprise. Using the ROC technique, the authors conduct observations before and after training. The analysis shows that the number of neutral and positively inclined personnel increased from 70% to 82% after the training. Global practice indicates that it is possible to state the absence of barriers to implementation when the threshold is 80% according to these indicators.
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Introduction. In modern conditions of formation of a new type of organizations - intellectual organizations, organizational knowledge becomes an important criterion of the level of organizational development. The purpose of the paper is to substantiate of intellectual capital growth as a criterion of organizational development and supplement methodological tools for intellectual capital assessment. Results. In the paper the increase of intellectual capital as a criterion of organizational development is substantiated. The classification of intellectual capital types of is offered. The criteria of organizational development by stages of the life cycle are supplemented with the allocation of quantitative, qualitative criteria and types of capital. The methodological tools of intellectual capital assessment with the use of the effective approach are systematized and supplemented and it is offered to allocate assessment methods on three levels in the structural approach: the level of the organization (allows to estimate the general level of organizational development); level of the individual (allows to assess the contribution of each individual as a carrier of intellectual capital); the level of intellectual property (allows to assess the contribution of each element in the overall level of organizational development); for each of the levels the subject of assessment types of methods; methods and results indicators are described. Examples of evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduction of artificial intelligence as a component of intellectual capital are given. Conclusion. The study of methodological principles of assessing organizational development suggests that in an unstable environment, an increasing role in the development of knowledge of the organization, which can be assessed through the growth of intellectual capital. To assess organizational development, quantitative and qualitative criteria for determining each stage of development with the separation of the criterion of type capital growth are proposed. The combination effective and structural approaches to assessing of intellectual capital has a significant impact on the methodology of organizational development management by stages and requires careful study and supplementation of methods of organizational development management.
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Most organizational research employs either quantitative or qualitative methods. Furthermore, users of one methodology often dismiss those who use another. The purpose of this report was to describe how researchers could use mixed methods, especially online. Researchers often begin investigations with paradigmatic assumptions or multiple constructs that should lead to mixed methods. However, quantitative methodological assumptions may seem to contradict qualitative methodological assumptions, and scholars have found it easier and quicker to deliver results adopting only one methodology. Additionally, researchers may be resistant because making high quality inferences from mixed methods might seem too demanding. This chapter describes how one researcher grappled with these challenges when using mixed methods off-line. Online technologies contribute to resolving some difficulties more easily.
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Most efforts at transformational organizational change fail. In order to explain that failure and the potential for success, this chapter introduces the construct of organizational communication practices and develops a theory to explain how these processes constitute organizations as complex adaptive social systems. Five axioms anchor the theory, and the author derives theorems explaining the important features of attempting to change transformative organizational communication practices.
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Although digital transformation (DT) is gaining importance, we know little about the challenge of ambidextrous learning in that context or how to manage the challenge. To address this gap, this study explores the relationships among entrepreneurial leadership, ambidextrous learning, and organisational performance in DT, and the influence of non-technical digital context (i.e. change in operation) on these relationships. Using multi-source data from a sample of 73 CEOs/entrepreneurs and 377 middle managers in China, we find that in DT: (1) ambidextrous learning is positively related to organisational performance; (2) entrepreneurial leadership has a positive impact on ambidextrous learning; (3) ambidextrous learning mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and organisational performance. Our results further reveal that change in operation strengthens the effect of ambidextrous learning on organisational performance while it has no significant impact on the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and ambidextrous learning. Finally, we discuss how our findings extend the studies of entrepreneurial leadership and ambidextrous learning and provide implications for DT practices.
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This chapter is dedicated to the dynamics of development of BI function in an organization. The first part discusses the development path of BI systems since the start of its life cycle, and addresses the notion of BI maturity using published research and own findings. The second part of the chapter is given to the notion of BI agility, deeming it one of the most important features in a turbulent and ever-changing business environment. For BI that is considered mature, all important discoveries regarding its adoption have been made, while agility has to be prepared for important discoveries that can emerge from any unexpected points. In this aspect, maturity seems to apply to more structured and well-understood phenomena, while agility regards activities and environments that are experiencing constant changes. BI is a mix of both, but the insight-producing part of BI, attributed to advanced informing, needs agility because of being largely unstructured and undergoing constant changes.
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Change processes, the activities that enable change, and change leadership, meaning how to lead change processes, both influence the success of change. However, a surprising omission from this knowledge is how do leaders choose between change processes? This article explores leaders’ choices between two orientations of change processes—illustrated by dialogic and diagnostic organizational development—in 79 cases of organizational change. It identifies that change is successful when leaders choose to oscillate between these two processes as change unfolds. Developing a model that explains this evolution, the article describes how the change leadership practice of concurrent inquiry interacts with the two representations of knowledge described by diagnostic and dialogic theories to inform a choice to oscillate. For scholars, this model further integrates the theoretical perspectives of dialogic and diagnostic theories. For practitioners, it provides a means to navigate between extant theories and, as such, ameliorate outcomes.
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This chapter discusses solutions for building relational ‘organizational intelligence’ and the use of the latter in effecting change. The era of Industry 4.0 (aka Smart World) involves specific priorities concerning what changes are needed and how they should be effected. Organizations used to be viewed as compilations of tasks, products, employees, profit centers and processes. Today, they are increasingly seen as intelligent systems designed to manage knowledge in a relational setting. Multiple techniques and solutions have been proposed for attaining Industry 4.0 priorities, often causing confusion rather than helping to deliver results. This chapter develops a framework for a systematic analysis of organizational intelligence and its application. Due to the multifaceted nature of the issue, the study includes a method for monitoring factors that stimulates organizational intelligence, factors such as new, disruptive technologies. The framework helps improve change processes leading to implementing relational strategies. Keywords: Organizational Intelligence, Industry 4.0, Technology, Relational Strategies, Organizational Change
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The article examines the impact of changes on the development potential of the enterprise. Possible reactions to changes are considered in detail. The definition of resting potential and action potential is given. Rest potential is not a static indicator of enterprise development, but has a slower pace than action potential. We know that all enterprises are in constant search and improvement, even crises can be perceived as an impetus to action. The authors identified the need to take into account changes in the external environment and the inverse reaction to the external environment, the strength of the impact of changes on the enterprise development potential. The relationship between changes and the potential of the enterprise is identified through a system of sets that helps to establish the relationship and consistency of factors influencing changes, taking into account cross-influences. Among the main factors, we will pay attention to the following: organization, personnel, marketing, technology, novelty degree of equipment and technologies, product update frequency, availability of patents and licenses, product, resources, finances, organizational culture, as well as the main characteristics of the external environment: complexity, mobility, uncertainty and interrelationship of factors. We proposed to use mathematical functions and tuples of the full combination to describe the relationship between changes and enterprise development potential.
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Introduction1. The Crisis That Will Not Go Away2. Reengineering-The Path to Change3. Rethinking Business Processes4. The New World of Work5. The Enabling Role of Information Technology6. Who Will Reengineer?7. The Hunt for Reengineering Opportunities8. The Experience of Process Redesign9. Embarking on Reengineering10. One Company's Experience-Hallmark11. One Company's Experience-Taco Bell12. One Company's Experience-Capital Holding13. One Company's Experience-Bell Atlantic14. Succeeding at Reengineering15. Questions that Readers Ask the MostEpilogueIndex
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