During the New Kingdom period, Egypt succeeded in occupying most of Nubia. Colonial towns were built, which served as centers of government and redistribution. This paper uses a bioarchaeological approach to address the effects of this cultural contact on non-elites. Skeletal remains from the site of Tombos (N = 100), a cemetery in Upper Nubia dating to this important time, are analyzed, in ... [Show full abstract] addition to 1,082 individuals from contemporaneous Egyptian and Nubian sites, in order to shed light on the social, political, and economic processes at play and to determine how the people at Tombos were affected during this transitional period. In many ways, the Tombos population appears to have been affected by similar stressors as the other populations under study. However, a few small differences in the subadult frequencies of pathological lesions, especially remodeling rates, are significant in the overall picture of health at Tombos. These analyses suggest that, although the people of Tombos may have been integrated into the Egyptian colonial network, the additional resources they may have obtained could not protect them from nutritional and disease stress. A lower childhood survival through bouts of ill health at Tombos is suggested. While status may have played a role in the differences seen in the comparative populations, it is likely that parasites and/or other infections led to childhood illness and death.