Article

Taking the Bite out of Wildlife Damage The Challenges of Wildlife Compensation Schemes

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  • Human-Wildlife Conflict Collaboration (HWCC)
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... 4) Site specificity: The design of the scheme is compatible with the national political context and also local HWC realities. National laws exist in China requiring local governments to provide compensation for damage to property and human safety caused by animals of national importance 32 . Lack of clarity and uncertainty on how to interpret the national policy led to limited implementation. ...
... Lack of clarity and uncertainty on how to interpret the national policy led to limited implementation. The worsening HEC context in Yunnan led the provincial government to enact the country's first provincial compensation policy 32 . This initial scheme experienced bureaucratic insufficiencies by the implementing prefecture governments, which had difficulties responding to and funding increasing numbers of claims 30 . ...
... 8) Ability to measure success: No established measures of success could be found related to the outcomes of this scheme. While defined aims specific to Yunnan were not found, the motivation for the implementation of this scheme is in part driven by the local government's need to comply with the national policy requiring compensation, which itself has been considered vague and lacking clear aims and standards of work and outcomes 32 . ...
Technical Report
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Annex Report to "Human Wildlife Conflict mitigation: Lessons learned from global compensation and insurance schemes" - This report provides wildlife conservation practitioners with more detailed understanding of how insurance, compensation, and other financial mitigation systems can be applied as tools to lesson the severity of impacts from human wildlife conflict scenarios. Important considerations such as valuation of damages are covered in more depth. This Annex report also provides case studies of 12 different financial mitigation approaches across the world in varied human wildlife conflict scenarios - crop damage, livestock depredation, property damages; case studies cover - micro-insurance, community-managed insurance, public liability insurance, ex-post compensation, ex-ante compensation, interim relief schemes, compensation performance payments; species covered include wolves, bears, mountain lions, birds of prey, wolverine, lynx, elephants, otters, snow leopards, tigers, African lions, African leopards, Central Asian leopards, jackals, hyenas, buffalo, crocodiles, and hippopotamus.
... The evidence for their efficacy in stemming rates of carnivore killings is mixed. Several studies report positive results (e.g., Bauer, Müller, Van Der Goes, & Sillero-Zubiri, 2017;Hazzah et al., 2014;Maclennan, Groom, Macdonald, & Frank, 2009;McManus et al., 2015), while others criticize compensation, citing that it creates inter alia an environment for moral hazard, weakened care of livestock by farmers and is not a financially viable model for long term conservation impact (Nyhus, Fischer, Madden, & Osofsky, 2003;Nyhus, Osofsky, Ferraro, Madden, & Fischer, 2005). ...
... If claimants did not place livestock in protective bomas at night, or if there is evidence of gross negligence on the part of livestock owners/herders, either withhold or drastically reduce payments. Nyhus et al. (2005) and Nyhus et al. (2003) warned of the dangers of moral hazard in compensation programs, and these have been echoed in several other studies (Mmopelwa & Mpolokeng, 2008). Although we cannot explicitly say that this moral hazard is being observed in this system, it is one potential explanation for the increased attacks (along with increase in carnivore attacks due to environmental reasons or an increase in livestock in the region). ...
... Although it is not yet proven whether the compensation scheme has reduced the killings of large carnivores on nonprotected land surrounding LMNP, our study makes important recommendations on how to better manage the MCF to ensure financial sustainability for the fund and similar proposed schemes in the future. More importantly it re-emphasizes some of the concerns highlighted by Bauer et al. (2017) and Nyhus et al. (2003) in that financial sustainability (in terms of the source of compensation funds and the size of the fund itself) of any compensation fund requires careful thought. In a Ugandan human-carnivore conflict context further investigations are required into how the communities affected by carnivore depredation could be more involved in the mitigation process. ...
Article
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The conflict of large carnivores and agro-pastoral communities is a key driver of carnivore decline globally. The East African state of Uganda relies heavily on tourism as a GDP contributor and large carnivores are important for generating visitor revenue in its national parks. African leopards, spotted hyenas and African lions are three species that draw significant tourist attention but also cause damage to the livestock of human communities living on Ugandan national park edges. A private safari lodge in the Lake Mburo National Park has been using a financial compensation scheme in an attempt to stem conflict between these species and human communities living in the region since 2009. Financial compensations have produced mixed results with some studies reporting successes in reducing carnivore deaths, while others warn against their use, citing moral hazard, financial unsustainability and weakened protection of livestock by farmers. We sought to assess the characteristics of this compensation scheme and the patterns of conflict between Bahima pastoralist communities and carnivores that the scheme aims to mitigate. Using a dataset of 1,102 leopard and hyena depredation events (we found that spotted hyenas were responsible for the overwhelming majority of livestock depredation (69%) around Lake Mburo. Depredations occurred mostly at night (97% and 89% of all depredation for spotted hyenas and leopards respectively) and inside livestock protective pens (bomas). Depredation was more likely to occur in rugged areas, closer to human settlements, and the national park border, and further away from water. We could find no evidence of seasonality in depredation events. Our most important, albeit worrying result was that conflict had increased dramatically over time and the number of depredation claims had tripled in the period from 2014-2018 when compared to 2009-2013, risking financial unsustainability of the scheme. Our results are important for future conservation stakeholders attempting to implement financial compensation in the broader Ugandan landscape. They suggest that careful thought needs to be placed into fund sustainability, increasing claims over time and the development of clear rules that underpin compensation claims.
... Damage compensation forms an important component of contemporary conflict management, and is often achieved through compensation programs (Nyhus et al. 2003;Schwerdtner & Gruber 2007). These programs focus on off-setting wildlife-caused direct economic losses, and generally do not address either the opportunity costs of conservation for affected peoples, or the psychological costs of living with large and potentially dangerous wildlife. ...
... Despite this limitation, by attempting to shift the economic burden of conservation from local communities to the society at large, compensation programs, in principle, represent a socially just means of conservation and conflict management. However, unless managed carefully, many compensation programs have resulted in aggravating conflicts rather than mitigating them (Nyhus et al. 2003). State-run compensation programs often fail to address conflicts due to several factors such as low compensation rates, false claims or corruption, bureaucratic apathy, and the time and effort required in securing compensation (Mishra 1997;Nyhus et al. 2003;Madhusudan 2003;Maclenan et al. 2009;Agrawal et al. 2010). ...
... However, unless managed carefully, many compensation programs have resulted in aggravating conflicts rather than mitigating them (Nyhus et al. 2003). State-run compensation programs often fail to address conflicts due to several factors such as low compensation rates, false claims or corruption, bureaucratic apathy, and the time and effort required in securing compensation (Mishra 1997;Nyhus et al. 2003;Madhusudan 2003;Maclenan et al. 2009;Agrawal et al. 2010). Successful programs also need to adapt as costs of compensation increase with the recovery of the carnivore species (Treves et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Crop depredation by wild animals is one of the most important Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC)faced by the Bhutanese farmers. The conflict has direct and indirect consequences in terms ofhousehold food security, livelihoods and socio-economic condition of the rural farmers. Some ofthe indicators of these problems are increasing rate of abandoning agriculture land and ruralurban migration. To address this important issue, RDC-Wengkhar in collaboration with NPPC and RDC-Yusipang has developed a model of electric fence, which includes imported IEC certified energizer and locally fabricated fencing materials as well as locally innovated fence designs for different problem species of animals. It is found to be safe for both human and wild animal as well as cost effective and socially acceptable technology for the Bhutanese farmer to mitigate human wildlife conflict. Recently Bhutan Electricity Authority (BEA), Bhutan Power Cooperation (BPC), Bhutan Standard Bureau (BSB) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoAF) have approved this technology to be used as one of the crop protection methods. Now the efforts are being made by various concern agencies/institutes (government, NGOs and private enterprises) to promote this technology in the farmers’ field to mitigate Human-Wildlife Conflict. The same technology and the approach could be shared and promoted in the SAARC neighbouring countries, where they face similar situations.
... Much of the evidence used to verify incidents (e.g. marks left on carcasses or scat presence at damaged crops) can quickly deteriorate or be disturbed. Incidents therefore require both rapid reporting by victims and rapid response by verifying agents 32 . There are two overarching reasons for slow responses: 1) the local HWC context and 2) the limitations of the verification agents in that area. ...
... Sustainable funding has been identified by the IIED as the biggest challenge for schemes as it is almost universally faced by all schemes 71 . The sudden or unexpected end of a scheme or reduction in performance due to improper funding can have significant negative results locally 32 . Schemes that are designed as temporary measures should clearly communicate that to stakeholders. ...
... Increased involvement by external groups regarding wildlife issues may result in, "it's your animal" syndrome, where stakeholders increasingly perceive all issues relating to wildlife to be the responsibility of governments and conservation groups 57 . Once a scheme is established, communities may quickly adopt the view of compensation as a right, and possibly reduce preventative efforts 32,58 . This shift in how local people perceive the breakdown of responsibility for wildlife management may create barriers to future management actions that seek local commitment to conservation work and behaviour change. ...
Technical Report
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Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) mitigation takes many forms with the majority being financially focused and can be categorized into three types: economic incentives to increase tolerance to wildlife; alternative livelihoods and income diversification to spread or avoid financial risk; and payments tied to incidents. Beyond the immediate benefits of mitigation, enhancing mitigative efforts also enhances all the actions in the other elements of conflict. i.e. better mitigation means better overall management and a long-term decrease in HWC: mitigation schemes should always be linked to a behaviour change or preventative action; mitigation will only be effective with robust and trusted data collection which helps to strengthen HWC monitoring frameworks; the enhanced information collected can better contribute to policy development and budgetary allocation; active face to face engagement and follow-up after HWC events – critical to scheme designs – builds empathy and stakeholder trust, and enhances reporting and people’s participation in schemes.
... For example, compensation schemes have been implemented extensively in the Americas and Europe (Montag & Patterson 2001). The efficacy of these schemes have however been widely criticised, mainly because many farmers have abused the scheme for their own benefit (Nyhus et al. 2003). Furthermore, it is argued that the compensation scheme encourages lax livestock husbandry, such as farmers letting livestock stray or failing to adequately protect livestock . ...
... For compensation schemes to be implemented, a good understanding is also required of the underlying mechanisms and dynamics of HWC, as well as a robust and ongoing commitment from governmental and private sectors . In South Africa, like most other developing nations, the implementation of compensation schemes is thus not currently feasible (Dickman et al. 2011;Thorn et al. 2013 Botswana, but little to no data exist to evaluate the ultimate success or failure of these schemes (Nyhus et al. 2003). ...
Thesis
Three major forms of hunting are believed to be on the increase in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, posing independently and synergistically some of the greatest threats to the continued survival of local wildlife. Firstly, there is growing evidence of the presence and reliance of local communities on bushmeat harvesting by means of wire-snare poaching, potentially implying severe reductions or extirpations of target species, high rates of non-target off-take, and the loss of entire communities. Secondly, human-wildlife conflict poses a threat to the livelihoods and agricultural security of many stakeholders living at the interface of human development and natural habitat in the Boland, resulting in the vast eradication of damage-causing animals (DCA’s). Finally, the use of animals and animal-derived materials in traditional medicine constitutes an important part of the belief-systems of indigenous African cultures, and is believed to be rapidly expanding. Due to the severity of the consequences reported elsewhere globally, and the general lack of local information with which to quantify the extent and impact of these hunting practices locally, structured interviews were conducted with farmers (n = 103) and labourers (n = 307) on private agricultural properties bordering protected areas (PA’s). In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with traditional healers (n = 36) operating from impoverished, rural communities near PA’s. Our reliance on the knowledge and experiences of local people elucidated several dynamic and interwoven social, economic and ecological factors underlying wildlife off-take, and subsequently allowed for the quantification, documentation and mapping of vertebrate off-take at the human-wildlife interface. Wire-snare poaching incidence and behaviour was strongly influenced by economic factors relating to poverty, a lack of governing regulations and punitive measures, interpersonal development, and abiotic factors such as proximity to major residential areas, roadways and PA’s. Results showed that local, male farmers managing large commercial properties affiliated with regional conservancies were most likely to rely on the lethal control of DCA’s. The highest level of tolerance by farmers was shown for primates and ungulates, while tolerance for carnivores, avifauna and invasive or feral species was comparatively lower. The spatial location of observed and expected zones of species-specific risk on a regional level was also mapped using a maximum entropy algorithm. We recorded 26 broad use-categories for 12 types of animal parts or products from 71 species used in traditional medicine. The most commonly sold items were skin pieces, oil or fat, and bones. To conclude, we conducted a synergistic assessment of species’ vulnerability to the combined impacts of the above-mentioned hunting practices, and subsequently found that leopard, grey duiker, chacma baboon, caracal, Cape porcupine, aardvark, genet spp., and cape clawless otters experience the highest potential endangerment. This study provided the first demonstration of the multifaceted and complex nature of hunting practices in the Boland Region, opening a dialogue between local communities and conservation agencies. The primary goals being to broaden our understanding of the heterogeneity in local-scale socio-ecological dynamics, to apply policies for effective management and eradication, to prioritize areas and species for intervention, to provide for more accurate allocation of conservation resources, and to provide grounds for future research in the area and elsewhere.
... Human-wildlife con ict (HWC) is predicted to increase globally and occurs in several different contexts and spans a range of animal taxonomic groups [1,2]. Currently, HWC is a global issue that has adverse consequences for both humans and wildlife [3]. ...
... Human Wildlife Con ict (HWC) arises from a range of direct and indirect negative interactions between humans and wildlife. This occurs when the needs and requirements of human and wildlife overlap, which usually results in costs to both the local residents and animals when the needs of one impact negatively on the other [1,4]. The loss, degradation and fragmentation of habitats through human activities such as, logging, animal husbandry, agricultural expansion and developmental projects [5][6][7] intensify the con ict. ...
Preprint
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Background: Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is predicted to increase globally in the vicinity of protected areas and occurs in several different contexts and involves a range of animal taxonomic groups whose needs and requirements overlap with humans. Human-monkey conflict exists in different forms more in developing countries and ranks amongst the main threats to biodiversity conservation. Grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops) are any slender agile Old-World monkeys of the genus Cercopithecus. This study was conducted to investigate the status of human grivet monkey conflict and the attitude of local communities towards grivet monkey conservation in and around Wof-Washa Natural State Forest (WWNSF), Ethiopia from September 2017 to May 2018. Questionnaire survey (143) was used to study the human-grivet monkey conflict and its conservation status. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the responses were compared using a nonparametric Pearson chi-square test. Results: Majority of respondents from both gender (male= 67.1%; female= 74.1%) were not supporting grivet monkey conservation due to its troublesome crop damaging effect. There was significant difference in respondents perceptions towards grivet monkey conservation based on distance of farmland from the forest (χ2= 12.7, df =4, P = 0.013). There was no significant difference in the techniques used by villagers to deter crop raiders (χ2= 14.73, df =15, P = 0.47). There was significant difference in respondents expectations on the mitigation measures to be taken by government (χ2= 40.01, df =15, P = 0.000). Based on the questionnaire result, 42.5 ± SD 8.68 of respondents in all villages elucidated that the causes of crop damage was habitat degradations. Conclusion: The encroachment of local communities in to the forest area and exploitation of resources that would be used by grivet monkey and enhanced crop damage by grivet monkey exacerbated the HGMC in the study area. As a result grivet monkeys have been killed relentlessly as a consequence of crop damage. This was due to negative energy developed in human perspective. Thus, awareness creation education program and feasible crop damage prevention techniques need to be implemented.
... Estrategias tales como el uso de seguros ganaderos exigen cambios en la conducta de los ganaderos (p.e., registro del ganado, denuncia oportuna en caso de daño, etc. 14 ). Mecanismos tales como la compensación, además de requerir un conjunto de buenas prácticas (verificación de pérdidas, pagos oportunos y justos, reglas claras, etc.; ver Nyhus et al. 2003) por parte de las agencias involucradas, podrían tener una serie de consecuencias negativas como, por ejemplo, una disminución en los esfuerzos por prevenir los daños (Nyhus et al. 2003;Bulte y Rondeau 2005). En términos más amplios, las alternativas de manejo del llamado conflicto humanos-fauna silvestre constituyen intervenciones sociales y requieren cambios conductuales humanos. ...
... Estrategias tales como el uso de seguros ganaderos exigen cambios en la conducta de los ganaderos (p.e., registro del ganado, denuncia oportuna en caso de daño, etc. 14 ). Mecanismos tales como la compensación, además de requerir un conjunto de buenas prácticas (verificación de pérdidas, pagos oportunos y justos, reglas claras, etc.; ver Nyhus et al. 2003) por parte de las agencias involucradas, podrían tener una serie de consecuencias negativas como, por ejemplo, una disminución en los esfuerzos por prevenir los daños (Nyhus et al. 2003;Bulte y Rondeau 2005). En términos más amplios, las alternativas de manejo del llamado conflicto humanos-fauna silvestre constituyen intervenciones sociales y requieren cambios conductuales humanos. ...
... If democratic societies value the presence of carnivores in places where they can cause harm to local communities, the cost should be borne equitably by all the citizens in such a society instead of disproportionately by individuals living in proximity of carnivores (Harris, 2020). Prompt and fair payment, clear rules and guidelines, sufficient and sustainable funds, site specificity, quick and accurate verification and measures of success (are compensation schemes having the intended effect) are core elements of a successful compensation program (Philip Nyhus et al., 2003). ...
... Bureaucratic inadequacies and practical barriers in filing complaints lead to additional transaction costs for the rural poor" (Ogra & Badola, 2008). This study tries to assess some of these issues that other researchers have teased out in their works, most notably Nyhus et al. (Philip Nyhus et al., 2003;Pj Nyhus et al., 2005) and Ogra and Badola (Ogra & Badola, 2008). ...
... There are various ways in which society, either through government agencies or non-profit organizations, tries to encourage rural dwellers to coexist with and conserve large carnivores like wolves. These approaches include payments to encourage coexistence such as compensation, revenue sharing schemes, and performance payments (Nyhus et al., 2003;Dickman et al., 2011;Defenders of Wildlife, 2015). The effectiveness of payments to encourage coexistence is debated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Real and perceived economic losses are key factors driving negative attitudes and lack of tolerance toward carnivores. Alleviating economic losses through compensation and market-based strategies is one tool for addressing negative human-carnivore interactions. Despite general support among the public for market-based economic incentives to improve coexistence with predators, products marketed as ‘predator-friendly’ are rare in mainstream markets. We explored stakeholders’ perspectives on certification of predator-friendly beef as a market-based economic incentive to enable ranchers to better coexist with gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Washington state, USA. We conducted semi-structured interviews (N = 104) and explored narratives using grounded theory to understand the perspectives of stakeholders involved in the cattle-wolf relationship, including ranchers, wildlife agency personnel, environmental non-government organization employees, beef industry workers, and politicians. Both economic and social factors motivated and constrained ranchers to participate in a program creating a predator-friendly beef label. Ranchers largely perceived marketing their products as predator-friendly to be more of a public outreach opportunity than a new source of income. Most stakeholders perceived an economic opportunity for predator-friendly beef facilitated by existing pro-environmental markets and existence of a private beef processing plant. Based on these results, we propose a design for effectively implementing a predator-friendly beef market. We recommend focusing on the type and objective of the rancher, ensuring local access to beef processing facilities to process small volumes of custom beef, developing a product brand that is favored by ranchers and beef processors, considering viable product pricing , and developing a regulatory process for a potential predator-friendly beef label on the mainstream market.
... With entrenched cultural prejudice, compensation may not increase tolerance (Marino et al. 2016) or may incentivize poor husbandry (Nyhus et al. 2003;Dickman et al. 2011). Similarly, state-sanctioned culls may neither encourage goodwill toward targeted species (Chapron & Treves 2016) nor discourage further killing (Treves & Bruskotter 2014). ...
Article
Millennia of human conflict with wildlife have built a culture of intolerance toward wildlife among some stakeholders. We explored 2 key obstacles to improved human-wildlife coexistence: coexistence inequality (how the costs and benefits of coexisting with wildlife are unequally shared) and intolerance. The costs of coexisting with wildlife are often disproportionately borne by the so-called global south and rural communities, and the benefits often flow to the global north and urban dwellers. Attitudes and behaviors toward wildlife (tolerance versus intolerance) vary with social and cultural norms. We suggest more empathetic advocacy is needed that, for example, promotes conservation while appropriately considering those who bear the costs of conflict with wildlife. To achieve more equitable cost-sharing, we suggest limiting the costs incurred by those most affected or by sharing those costs more widely. For example, we advocate for the development of improved wildlife compensation schemes, increasing the scale of rewilding efforts, and preventing wildlife-derived revenue leaching out of the local communities bearing the costs of coexistence. © 2020 Society for Conservation Biology.
... Por ello, los programas de conservación incluyen medidas de mitigación de conflictos (ej. vallado eléctrico, protección del ganado) y compensaciones económicas por daños y pérdidas, destinadas a mejorar el punto de vista de los más afectados (Nyhus et al., 2003). Estas acciones deben basarse en una mejor comprensión de la ecología y el comportamiento de los carnívoros, así como en el conocimiento acumulado y las experiencias locales sobre los conflictos (Shivik, 2006;Treves and Karanth, 2003). ...
Thesis
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Brown bear (Ursus arctos) in the Cantabrian Mountains as an example of the coexistence between humans and large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes. PhD Thesis.
... While farmers were willing to participate, a non-governmental insurance programme proved infeasible. Farmers were only willing to pay a minimal premium, so a continued significant external investment would be required (Nyhus et al. 2003, 2005, Dickman et al. 2011. Management strategies are likely only popular and effective if community costs are kept to a minimum. ...
Article
Humans are contributing to large carnivore declines around the globe, and conservation interventions should focus on increasing local stakeholder tolerance of carnivores and be informed by both biological and social considerations. In the Okavango Delta (Botswana), we tested new conservation strategies alongside a pre-existing government compensation programme. The new strategies included the construction of predator-proof livestock enclosures, the establishment of an early warning system linked to GPS satellite lion collars, depredation event investigations and educational programmes. We conducted pre- and post-assessments of villagers’ livestock management practices, attitudes towards carnivores and conservation, perceptions of human–carnivore coexistence and attitudes towards established conservation programmes. Livestock management levels were low and 50% of farmers lost livestock to carnivores, while 5–10% of owned stock was lost. Respondents had strong negative attitudes towards lions, which kill most depredated livestock. Following new management interventions, tolerance of carnivores significantly increased, although tolerance of lions near villages did not. The number of respondents who believed that coexistence with carnivores was possible significantly increased. Respondents had negative attitudes towards the government-run compensation programme, citing low and late payments, but were supportive of the new management interventions. These efforts show that targeted, intensive management can increase stakeholder tolerance of carnivores.
... Public reports of attacks on livestock are somewhat unreliable, as exaggerating them is occasionally part of lobbying activities, even when evidence indicates that other factors, such as falling meat prices, threaten livestock farming to a greater extent (Chapron and López-Bao, 2014). Some administrations manage livestock-carnivore conflicts with compensation and carnivore relocation programs (Agarwala et al., 2010;Boitani et al., 2011, Nyhus et al., 2003Treves and Karanth, 2003;Vos, 2000). Improvements in husbandry techniques appear to be the most effective means of preventing attacks (Ciucci and Boitani, 1998;Mishra, 1997), but uptake of such methods remains low at a global scale (van Eeden et al., 2018a(van Eeden et al., , 2018b. ...
Article
1. Conflict between humans and large carnivores hinders carnivore conservation worldwide. Livestock depredations by large carnivores is the main cause of conflict, triggering poaching and retaliatory killings by humans. Resolving this conflict requires an understanding of the factors that cause large carnivores to select livestock over wild prey. Individual studies to date report contradictory results about whether wild prey density affects livestock depredation by large carnivores. 2. We carried out a systematic review of grey wolf (Canis lupus) dietary preferences. We reviewed and analysed 119 grey wolf dietary studies from 27 countries to determine whether wild prey or livestock density affects grey wolf dietary selection. 3. We also assessed whether there are traits that predispose species to be preyed upon (body size, group size, defence mechanisms, speed), and whether livestock management is a factor that affects selection of livestock by grey wolves. 4. Overall, wild prey (65% of the total frequency of occurrence in all reviewed grey wolf diet studies) was selected for even when livestock was abundant. The average proportion of biomass percentage in grey wolf diets was 13% for livestock and 19% for wild species. 5. Wild prey species in possession of defence mechanisms (horns, antlers, spikes, and fangs), with high body weight and present in high density were more likely to be depredated by grey wolves. 6. Even when prey abundance significantly affected selection of wild prey, livestock predation was much lower considering their substantially higher density. Areas where livestock were left to graze freely in small numbers (<20 individuals/km²) were more vulnerable to grey wolf attacks. 7. Our results suggest that the adoption of attack prevention measures on pastures and the increase of wild prey abundance could reduce depredation on livestock by grey wolves, and in turn, provide better opportunities for coexistence between humans, grey wolves and livestock.
... Compensation schemes may increase tolerance of wildlife and promote more positive attitudes toward concerns and therefore decrease the number of Human-Wildlife Impacts (Nyhus et al. 2005). However, often there is little quantitative evidence and costs are mostly estimated (Nyhus et al. 2003, Nyhus et al. 2005 ...
Thesis
Wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) distribution and agricultural damage in Flanders
... Other types of damage compensation include periodic, ex-ante payments which farmers may either use to account for eventual livestock losses, or may invest in damage prevention measures and practices (Hötte and Bereznuk, 2001;Schwerdtner and Gruber, 2007;Zabel and Holm-Muller, 2008). Insurance for carnivore damages is yet another type of compensation thought to increase the accountability of farmers, when the insurance premium increases as depredations increase, and when farmers are made liable for all or part of the premium's cost (Blanco, 2003;Hussain, 2003;Madhusudan, 2003;Nyhus et al., 2003;Miquelle et al., 2005;Psaroudas, 2007;Marino et al., 2016Marino et al., , 2018. Compensation may be conditional to specific conservation outcomes (Hötte and Bereznuk, 2001;Mishra et al., 2003;Zabel and Holm-Muller, 2008;Maclennan et al., 2009;Nelson, 2009;Dickman et al., 2011), or to the use of damage prevention measures (Boitani et al., 2010;Rigg et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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Relationships between humans and large carnivores are multi-layered and built on a variety of values, beliefs and interactions. When the experience of coexistence is predominantly negative, both local livelihoods and carnivore conservation can suffer. By focusing on an area of Spain where local communities have always lived alongside wolves and bears, this research aims to study how local experiences of coexistence are shaped by governance approaches. The study is a comparison between four different sites with distinct socio-political characteristics and with different large carnivore management policies. Semi-structured and informal interviews were carried out with over 60 informants, and both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a sample of livestock farmers (n=271), hunters (n=157) and beekeepers (n=40), in order to compare carnivore acceptance levels and narrative constructs across the study sites. // The thesis begins by introducing the broader context in which interactions with carnivores take place, and by exploring how changes in the landscape and in traditional livestock farming practices driven by agricultural policy have shaped local perceptions of the environment and of resource user’s role within it. The thesis then presents a synthesis the wolf governance systems in place across the study sites, and explores their effects on coexistence between wolves and local resource users. Using theories on environmentality, I analyse the ideological approaches underlying carnivore governance, and then look at how these approaches are received on the ground, by examining how local resource users either assimilate or resist governance approaches. The final chapter then focusses on two study areas with similar bear presence, to investigate the sociopolitical drivers that result in different levels of acceptance of bears among resource users. In doing so, it looks at the ways in which narratives over bear recovery, protected area management and land tenure resonate with each other and serve to reinforce one another.
... In Sanjiangyuan National Park, the compensation program is key to minimizing retaliation against carnivores Miller et al, 2015). However, only one compensation program currently supports herders in the Sanjiangyuan National Park, and this cannot fully resolve carnivore damages (Li et al., 2018;Morehouse, Tigner, & Boyce, 2018;Nyhus, Fischer, Madden, & Osofsky, 2003). In conjunction with the current compensation program, the local government should purchase insurance for herders' properties to supplement compensation from the destruction of homes and loss of livestock. ...
Article
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Abstract Damage to homesteads by brown bears (Ursus arctos) has become commonplace in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Science‐based solutions for preventing damages can contribute to the establishment of mechanisms that promote human–bear coexistence. We examined the spatial distribution patterns of house break‐ins by Tibetan brown bears (U. a. pruinosus) in Zhiduo County of the Sanjiangyuan region in China. Occurrence points of bear damage were collected from field surveys completed from 2017 to 2019. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model was then used to assess house break‐in risk. Circuit theory modeling was used to simulate risk diffusion paths based on the risk map generated from our MaxEnt model. The results showed that (a) the total risk area of house break‐ins caused by brown bears was 11,577.91 km2, accounting for 29.85% of Zhiduo County, with most of the risk areas were distributed in Sanjiangyuan National Park, accounting for 58.31% of the total risk area; (b) regions of alpine meadow located in Sanjiangyuan National Park with a high human population density were associated with higher risk; (c) risk diffusion paths extended southeast to northwest, connecting the inside of Sanjiangyuan National Park to its outside border; and (d) eastern Suojia, southern Zhahe, eastern Duocai, and southern Jiajiboluo had more risk diffusion paths than other areas examined, indicating higher risk for brown bear break‐ins in these areas. Risk diffusion paths will need strong conservation management to facilitate migration and gene flow of brown bears and to alleviate bear damage, and implementation of compensation schemes may be necessary in risk areas to offset financial burdens. Our analytical methods can be applied to conflict reduction efforts and wildlife conservation planning across the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.
... Our findings also support previous research that identified educational programs and non-lethal measures as the most reported management actions ( figure 2(b)). In addition, several studies showed that educational programs and non-lethal measures are successful strategies for fostering coexistence (Nyhus et al 2003, Fernández-Gil et al 2016, Lozano et al 2019. ...
Article
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Carnivore and humans live in proximity due to carnivore recovery efforts and ongoing human encroachment into carnivore habitats globally. The American West is a region that uniquely exemplifies these human-carnivore dynamics, however, it is unclear how the research community here integrates social and ecological factors to examine human-carnivore relations. Therefore, strategies promoting human-carnivore coexistence are urgently needed. We conducted a systematic review on human-carnivore relations in the American West covering studies between 2000 and 2018. We first characterized human-carnivore relations across states of the American West. Second, we analyzed similarities and dissimilarities across states in terms of coexistence, tolerance, number of ecosystem services and conflicts mentioned in literature. Third, we used Bayesian modeling to quantify the effect of social and ecological factors influencing the scientific interest on coexistence, tolerance, ecosystem services and conflicts. Results revealed some underlying biases in human-carnivore relations research. Colorado and Montana were the states where the highest proportion of studies were conducted with bears and wolves the most studied species. Non-lethal management was the most common strategy to mitigate conflicts. Overall, conflicts with carnivores were much more frequently mentioned than benefits. We found similarities among Arizona, California, Utah, and New Mexico according to how coexistence, tolerance, services and conflicts are addressed in literature. We identified percentage of federal/private land, carnivore family, social actors, and management actions, as factors explaining how coexistence, tolerance, conflicts and services are addressed in literature. We provide a roadmap to foster tolerance towards carnivores and successful coexistence strategies in the American West based on four main domains, (1) the dual role of carnivores as providers of both beneficial and detrimental contributions to people, (2) social-ecological factors underpinning the provision of beneficial and detrimental contributions, (3) the inclusion of diverse actors, and (4) cross-state collaborative management.
... Researchers have found that in any conservation initiative, stable long-term funding is important to achieve success of compensation schemes (Nyhus et al., 2005). They have also found that most effective compensation programs are fair, transparent-and most importantly, fast (Nyhus,et al., 2003). ...
Technical Report
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Livestock depredation by carnivores especially by tiger has emerged as one major problem with the farmers of central and western Bhutan. It is costing farmers untold hardships, additional expenses and possible personal injury. If not taken care, this will lead to serious human-tiger conflict in the region.
... While the success of financial compensation has been mixed in fostering tolerance towards carnivores (e.g. Nyhus et al., 2003;Fernández-Gil et al., 2016), it seems that conflict mitigation is more likely to occur when non-lethal management measures, such as electric fences and guarding dogs, are a prerequisite for the payment (Bautista et al., 2017). Therefore, future research on human-carnivore relations should put more attention to integrated measures that include non-lethal control, education and compensation, as well as to evaluate their effectiveness in mitigating conflict and fostering coexistence. ...
Article
We conducted a systematic review of 502 articles, published between 2000 and 2016, to characterize the research on human-carnivore relations according to (i) temporal and geographical distribution, (ii) biology, (iii) relations between carnivores and humans, (iv) social actors, (v) drivers of change, (vi) management, and (vii) applied methods. We performed a detrended correspondence analysis and Kruskal-Wallis tests to identify and describe thematic clusters used in human-carnivore relations research. Our results show that research is deeply biased so far, and four important knowledge gaps were detected. First, we found more studies had been conducted in the Global North than in the Global South, although risks and benefits of living alongside carnivores exist in the Global South equally. Second, most research focused on large predators, while small and medium-sized carnivores are also source of damages and ecosystem services. Third, relations were often framed around conflicts, with little attention to possible ecosystem services. Fourth, most research was carried out using natural sciences methods, despite methods from the social sciences having much to offer in this context. Research fell into seven thematic clusters focusing on: (1) North-American bears, (2) African large carnivores, (3) social research in America, (4) meso-carnivores, (5) Asian felids, (6) conflicts with the grey wolf, and (7) damages to human property. These results highlight the need for more integrative, social-ecological research on human-carnivore relations. We discuss how addressing existing knowledge gaps could contribute to mitigating conflicts as well as fostering coexistence between humans and carnivore species.
... One of the most common measures undertaken by conservationists for mitigating damages caused by large carnivores to the local population living closest to them is to provide financial compensation for said damages. The benefits and pitfalls of compensations schemes have been largely debated (Bulte & Rondeau 2005) and their success (or lack of) is largely dependent on several factors related to efficiency in identifying damages and fairness in financial distribution (Dickman et al. 2011, Nyhus et al. 2003). ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores how people in mountainous regions of Albania interrelate with large carnivores. For the research, I used a combination of questionnaire survey and ethnographic fieldwork to generate insights into how rural dwellers perceive and interact with bears, wolves and lynx. Research and conservation efforts relating to large carnivores in areas where they live near humans often have a strong focus on human-wildlife conflicts; with the presumption that conflicts are a central part of people’s relationships with predators. I argue that, although conflicts between people and predators do occur, human-predator relationships in highland Albania are complex and diverse, beyond a simple engagement with conflict-causing animals. Large carnivores have rich local cultural profiles; each species being differently perceived, and responded to, by local groups in terms of their beliefs about the behaviours and characteristics of the animals. I argue that large carnivores are constructed, and responded to, as social actors and, as such, they are integrated into the moral community of humans. Customary codes that regulate the social life of people in highland Albania seem to extend into relationships with carnivores. Damages from predators are largely interpreted and evaluated on principles of belonging and moral integrity with little considerations of their financial aspects. Lack of conservation efforts from Albanian institutions for prolonged periods of time, and the remoteness of mountain communities, has brought about a situation in which locals have been largely left uninfluenced in shaping their relationships with large carnivores. I contend that such a situation, albeit seemingly problematic from an outside perspective, is particularly beneficial in maintaining low conflicts with, or over, predators. Recent increases in conservation efforts in Albania may influence relationships between people and predators in the future. Conservation actors will be faced with the challenge of avoiding possible conflict escalation to the detriment of large carnivores and to rural livelihoods.
... Then, because a lynx family typically consists of approximately six individuals (Andrén et al., 2002), a comparison between our results and those in Bostedt and Grahn (2008) suggests that the economic impact on hunting lease value is close to 16 times as large as the cost in terms of livestock depredation. Evidently, this finding should be interpreted with care because the cost estimate in Bostedt and Grahn (2008) accounts for only depredation costs compensated by the government, implying that effects related to stressed livestock, reduced productivity, and increased labor are not fully accounted for (cf., e.g., Nyhus et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.
... Human wildlife conflict is a significant and critical threat to conservation across the world [1]. This threat occurs when the needs of human population overlap with the requirements of the wildlife which usually results in costs to both the local residents and animals [2]. ...
Article
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As human populations expand into areas where wildlife exists, competition for resources and confrontation arises as a result. Some parts of rural Zimbabwe are typical of this problem especially in newly resettled areas. The aim of this survey was to examine the impact of crop raiding and livestock depredation by baboons (Papio ursinus Kerr) on farmers living around the edge of Makumbiri mountains in Concession, Mazowe District in Mashonaland Province of Zimbabwe. The survey was conducted from January to mid-April 2018 using a set of structured questionnaires complemented with field survey, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. Fifty-nine crop fields were surveyed and forty newly resettled farmers within the five villages surrounding the mountains were interviewed. The purpose was to elicit information on their experiences with crop/livestock losses incurred from baboons, and to quantify these losses as well as to evaluate their attitudes and perceptions towards the baboons and their mitigation strategies towards their losses. Apart from maize, some respondents (20%) reported that other crops raided were vegetables and other small grains such as rapoko (30%). About 62.9% of the respondents indicated livestock losses by baboons during the 2017 cropping season. The total maize crop destroyed in each field was compared with the total estimate of the crops grown in that field producing an average percentage loss of 0.11%. The χ2 test showed that there was no relationship between the level of crop destruction and the distance from the edge of the forest (χ2= 4110, df = 58, p= 0.086). Many (62.5%) farmers felt that baboons were retarding their success as a community but many opted to coexist with baboons. Although baboons are vermin in a society relying on subsistence agriculture, their impact is perceived to be overly moderate. Peaceful coexistence between humans and baboons seems to be the favoured conservation strategy.
... Direct costs occur as a result of killed and injured animals, but there can also be indirect costs in terms of decreased productivity and additional labor required to prevent attacks and manage the consequences of attacks. In many countries all over the world, compensation is paid for costs associated with killed and injured animals, while compensation for indirect costs is rarely granted (Nyhus et al. 2003, Bulte and Rondeau 2005, Sommers et al. 2010. ...
Article
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Carnivore depredation gives rise to direct costs for killed and injured animals as well as indirect costs due to productivity losses and additional labor requirements. Our aim was to investigate indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence. We estimated these costs using survey data describing conditions in 2013. Reproduction and time spent on fence maintenance and taking care of animals were analyzed to isolate effects of carnivore exposure from other factors that affect these variables. Results indicate that both high carnivore densities and attacks are associated with comparatively lower sheep reproduction. Farmers who experienced an attack spent much more on labor for maintaining fences, searching for lost animals, and bringing the animals in for the night. Results suggest that the indirect cost per adult female sheep is EUR23 for nonattacked herds in areas with high carnivore densities; EUR71 in herds that were attacked and where sheep are kept on fenced grazing land; and EUR100 on attacked summer‐pasture farms, where free‐range grazing is applied. A flat rate compensation per adult female sheep, differentiated between herds in areas with high carnivore density that have not been attacked and herds that have been attacked could be used to compensate sheep farmers for these costs. © 2019 The Wildlife Society. We investigated indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence in 2013. Results indicated that both high carnivore densities and attacks were associated with comparatively lower reproduction; farmers who have experienced an attack spent more labor on fence maintenance, searching for lost animals, and bringing animals in for the night.
... Since economic loss has been the main cause of the local primary sector producers' grievances relating to their coexistence with the bear, as well as other large carnivores, introducing compensation schemes for wildlife-caused damages has been popular amongst policy makers and advocated by conservationists (cf. Can et al. 2014;Nyhus Fischer, Madden and Osofsky 2003). ...
Article
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In this research we examine the existing stakeholders’ views on brown bear’s (Ursus arctos) management in northern Greece, by combining the formal structure of the ‘problem orientation’ framework for analysis with Q-methodology, a semi-quantitative method developed specifically to study human subjectivity. We identify three distinct viewpoints, or factors, concerning both the characteristics and causes of the bear ‘problem’ as well as the characteristics of the preferred management alternatives: one guided by the wish to conserve the local bear population, a second prioritizing the local primary sector producers’ (i.e. farmers’ and herders’) welfare and a third one allowing for the lethal management of a damaging –and not-endangered- species. Besides the national-specific relevance of its findings, the methodological format of this research offers a replicable framework for analysis in other national contexts and/or wildlife management.
... Providing ex-gratia payments or financial assistance to those affected, and its effectiveness in the mitigation of conflict has been widely debated (Nyhus et al., 2003;Bulte and Rondeau, 2005;Wunder, 2013). However, in India, ex-gratia payments or financial compensation for incidents of HWC is a major policy backed by central and state government mandates, with a majority of states implementing such policies . ...
Article
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Human-wildlife interactions resulting in conflict remains a global conservation challenge, requiring innovative solutions to ensure the persistence of wildlife amidst people. Wild Seve was established in July 2015 as a conservation intervention program to assist people affected by conflict to file and monitor claims and receive ex-gratia payments from the Indian government. In 48 months of operation, Wild Seve filed and tracked 13,808 claims on behalf of those affected from 19 forest ranges around the Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks in Karnataka, India. This included 10,082 incidents of crop loss, 1,176 property damage incidents, and 1,720 incidents where crop and property loss occurred together. Wild Seve also filed claims for 782 livestock predation incidents, and assisted in 45 human injury incidents and three human fatalities. Elephant related losses comprised 93.9%, and big cat losses comprised 5.5% of reported cases. Wild Seve provides an immediate response to human-wildlife conflict incidents and improves access to ex-gratia payment schemes. Wild Seve is a low-cost intervention that uses open-source technology and leverages existing policies to facilitate ex-gratia payments. The Wild Seve model of monitoring and addressing human-wildlife conflict is adaptable and scalable to high conflict regions globally, to the benefit of people and wildlife.
... Such schemes may help balance the economic benefits between private stakeholders and the local public who accrue most of the costs of predators and scavengers. Similar incentive schemes have been used successfully by conservation NGO's and governments to promote changes in human behavior, such as reducing carnivore killings (Nyhus et al. 2003). However, the success of these schemes can be jeopardised if they lack sufficient logistic and financial support, they do not award adequate compensation to offset losses, or if compensation is awarded inequitably (Dickman et al. 2011). ...
Thesis
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Humans are exerting unparalleled pressures on terrestrial vertebrates through overexploitation and development. The patterns of human destruction on the natural environment are especially prevalent within carnivore distributions because they are subject to not only habitat fragmentation and loss, but they are also perceived as a threat to human societies leading to direct conflict. Although the perceived negative impacts of predators and scavengers dominate policy and individual action towards carnivores, there is a growing body of literature pointing to the potential benefits that predators and scavengers provide within shared landscapes. The overall aim of this thesis is to address key gaps in our knowledge on the exposure and contribution of predators and scavengers to humans and how this information can be used to enhance conservation initiatives. Human pressures cause species extinction. These pressures range from over-hunting and urbanization to other forms of habitat loss such as agricultural development. While human pressures and their threatening processes have been increasingly documented across a range of species and ecosystems, we do not know the extent of intense cumulative human pressures within species’ geographic ranges globally. In Chapter 2, I aim to quantify the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to intense human pressure, including carnivores. I use the most up-to-date spatial dataset on cumulative human pressure, which takes into account eight pressures known to cause species decline. I find that 85% of the terrestrial vertebrates assessed have more than half of their range exposed to these cumulative pressures, with carnivores having similar exposure. Specifically, carnivores have on average 75% of their ranges overlapping with intense human pressures. This work provides a useful starting point for assessing species at risk of decline, especially for species with limited information on threats. Carnivore declines impact ecosystem stability that can result in negative impacts on human well-being. In Chapter 3, I aim to provide the first review of the benefits provided by predators and scavengers in shared landscapes with humans. I find that predators and scavengers have been shown to reduce zoonotic disease risk, increase agricultural output, and limit species known to cause injury and death to humans. Through the review process, I found considerable gaps in knowledge regarding the potential benefits of predators and scavengers in shared landscapes, and I discuss future avenues of research, its caveats, and opportunities. An important knowledge gap identified during the review was the ecological and human well-being implications of losing apex scavengers. Although there is a great deal of information about the ecological repercussions of losing apex predators, we know relatively little about the role of apex scavengers at regulating lower trophic levels and how this can impact ecosystem health and human well-being. In Chapter 4, I describe the mesoscavenger release hypothesis, the competitive release of mesoscavengers in the absence of apex scavengers. This work sets the foundation for future studies investigating the consequences of apex scavenger decline on ecosystems and human health and provides a springboard for conservation action on imperilled apex scavengers. Another key question asked during the review was the potential role of large carnivores at benefiting humans. Chapters 5-7 focus on addressing this gap. Chapter 5 provides a case study of one of the most widespread large carnivores, leopards (Panthera pardus), at reducing bites and rabies risk from feral dogs in Mumbai, India. I discuss the implications of large carnivores at providing similar services around the world, especially where feral dogs are a considerable human health hazard in peri-urban environments. In Chapter 6 I quantify the predation value of two large carnivore species on an overabundant invasive species, wild pigs (Sus scrofa), known to cause substantial damage to agricultural lands. This chapter offers important information for assessing the benefits of large carnivore conservation on agricultural productivity while accounting for livestock loss. In Chapter 7 I assess the global ramifications of expanding wild pig populations, utilizing information on predicted wild pig densities and data on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage to quantify their relative impacts on SOC vulnerability. I discuss that wild pig control could be promoted through human-induced management and conservation of native predators. These case studies provide a foundation for future work investigating links between natural predation and human well-being through mitigating health hazards and increasing agricultural productivity in shared landscapes. These studies will also deliver conservation practitioners additional information on the consequences of large carnivore recovery. This thesis highlights the state of carnivores in shared landscapes with humans and the potential crucial services they provide. I address key gaps in our knowledge on the exposure and contribution of predators and scavengers to humans and how this information can be used to enhance conservation initiatives
... The situation will be exacerbated when the wildlife authorities prioritise the needs of wild animals above the needs of humans (Madden 2004). Quantifying the damage, and immediately disbursing sufficient ex-gratia to the victims could ameliorate the human-animal conflict (Nyhus et al. 2003). In India, as mentioned above, no studies have been conducted to measure the extent of crops that peafowl damage. ...
... Compensation is a payment to "compensate" a monetary loss of property (crops, infrastructure, livestock, etc.) as a direct result of a wildlife conflict (Nyhus et al., 2003(Nyhus et al., , 2005Ravenelle & Nyhus, 2017). Compensation payments might be related to species-specific schemes (e.g., elephants, large carnivores, etc.) or related to any activity (e.g., crop raiding). ...
Chapter
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Human-wildlife conflicts are ancient, but they are posing an increasing challenge for conservation managers across Africa. Human-wildlife conflicts can lead to a loss of biodiversity and a substantial decline in human well-being, most often for people living near protected areas . Avoiding or solving these conflicts are key issues for both protected area and wildlife managers.
... Nonetheless, such mechanisms may help to demonstrate a wider political commitment toward sharing the costs of carnivore conservation (Agarwala et al., 2010;Dickman et al., 2011). Importantly, they should be incorporated into a holistic approach to large carnivore conservation that avoids unintended outcomes, as they otherwise risk removing incentives to safeguard livestock against attacks or disrupting important cultural values associated with large carnivore conservation (Nyhus et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Coexistence with large carnivores poses challenges to human well-being, livelihoods, development, resource management, and policy. Even where people and carnivores have historically coexisted, traditional patterns of behavior toward large carnivores may be disrupted by wider processes of economic, social, political, and climate change. Conservation interventions have typically focused on changing behaviors of those living alongside large carnivores to promote sustainable practices. While these interventions remain important, their success is inextricably linked to broader socio-political contexts, including natural resource governance and equitable distribution of conservation-linked costs and benefits. In this context we propose a Theory of Change to identify logical pathways of action through which coexistence with large carnivores can be enhanced. We focus on Africa's dryland landscapes, known for their diverse guild of large carnivores that remain relatively widespread across the continent. We review the literature to understand coexistence and its challenges; explain our Theory of Change, including expected outcomes and pathways to impact; and discuss how our model could be implemented and operationalized. Our analysis draws on the experience of coauthors, who are scientists and practitioners, and on literature from conservation, political ecology, and anthropology to explore the challenges, local realities, and place-based conditions under which expected outcomes succeed or fail. Three pathways to impact were identified: (a) putting in place good governance harmonized across geographic scales; (b) addressing coexistence at the landscape level; and (c) reducing costs and increasing benefits of sharing a landscape with large carnivores. Coordinated conservation across the extensive, and potentially transboundary, landscapes needed by large carnivores requires harmonization of top-down approaches with bottom-up community-based conservation. We propose adaptive co-management approaches combined with processes for active community engagement and informed consent as useful dynamic mechanisms for navigating through this contested space, while enabling adaptation to climate change. Success depends on strengthening underlying enabling conditions, including governance, capacity, local empowerment, effective monitoring, and sustainable financial support. Implementing the Theory of Change requires ongoing monitoring and evaluation to inform adaptation and build confidence in the model. Overall, the model provides a flexible and practical framework that can be adapted to dynamic local socio-ecological contexts.
... Moreover, available government funds for developing countries may be too limited to address all national priorities. As a result, funding allocated to support wildlife conservation for most countries is typically small relative to that available, while the sustainability of ongoing financial support, including that for HWC compensation, remains a concern (Nyhus et al., 2003). Hence, mechanisms additional to dedicated government expenditures, following a user-pays principle, should be considered. ...
Article
Costs of large predator conservation may not be equitably distributed among stakeholders; these include farming communities, tourism business owners and visitors. Financial redistribution mechanisms based on accrued benefits and costs of conservation require relevant data unavailable in many locations. To address this, a contingent valuation method identified willingness to pay (WTP) among national park visitors and connected tourism business owners. Both groups derive benefit from government-funded conservation policies. The study was conducted in Bardia and Chitwan National Parks, Nepal 2017–2018; two locations world-renowned for tiger conservation. Local and international park visitors (N = 387) provided WTP for ongoing conservation via additional park entry fees. Tourism business owners (TBOs; N = 74) proximate to the parks stated their WTP for compensation funding provided directly to farmers. The majority (65%) of park visitors were willing to pay extra to support conservation (sample mean US$ 20) while 85 percent of TBOs supported their payment of funds for compensating farming communities (sample mean annual contribution being US$ 156). Valid WTP regression modelling found that visitor WTP was predicted by international travel costsand environmental organization affiliation. For TBOs indicating WTP, the amount to pay was predicted by annual net income from the tourism business. Application of study data indicates US$ 25 average increase to visitor park fees would maximise revenue and contribute a further US$ 495,000 available for conservation activities. Similarly, a flat-rate tariff on TBOs at the mean WTP amount would contribute more than double the annual budget available for farmer compensation (providing approximately US$ 43,000). More generally, the study findings are informative for policy-makers seeking equitable conservation outcomes while maintaining viable populations of critically endangered wild tigers. They should however be interpreted with caution given limitations of the sampling frame and method of data elicitation. Regardless, any policy decision effects require careful scrutiny to ensure desired outcomes are realized.
... According to the World Parks Congress Recommendation, the human-wildlife conflicts occur when wildlife and humans adversely impact each other (Madden, 2004, p. 248). In areas adjacent to the PAs, conflicts also surface because local communities directly or indirectly often feel pressurised to assist with conservation, despite financial burden and personal risk (Nyhus et al., 2006). It has been noticed that whenever wildlife has caused damage or the possibility of causing damage to human life and livelihood has existed, they have been killed leading to extermination of certain species in some cases (Woodroffe et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Protected Areas often share boundaries with local communities leading to frequent human-wildlife interactions, which result in conflicts. Though the Kaziranga National Park, located in the Indian state of Assam, is considered one of the most successful cases of conservation, it witnesses recurrent human-wildlife conflicts thereby leading to conflicts between park management and local communities. In such cases, compensation figures as one of the most important conflict mitigation tools. Based on empirical research conducted in the vicinity of Kaziranga, this paper deals with the dynamics of human-wildlife and park management-local community conflict. It examines the process of compensation policy, along with the issues and challenges experienced by the local communities. It also raises the question as to whether the compensations offered to the victims have been able to fulfill its primary purpose of reducing conflict and building trust between the park management and the local communities.
... Addressing social and political barriers can be difficult because they are intangible costs (Kansky and Knight, 2014;Thondhlana et al., 2020). It is more common and easier for government agencies and NGOs to address quantifiable tangible costs like depredation damage through cost-sharing or compensation programs (Nyhus et al., 2003). However, compensation only solves part of the problem, as it may not improve attitudes toward wolves and other large carnivores and is not the only factor that affects whether or not ranchers adopt mitigation measures (Naughton-Treves et al., 2003;Redpath et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Potential impacts to rural livelihoods by large carnivores, such as gray wolves (Canis lupus), increase economic liability and fear among residents, resulting in social conflicts over wildlife issues. Strategies have been developed to promote non-lethal predator management in rural communities, but there is limited understanding of why ranchers choose to participate in such programs. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 45) of ranchers in Washington state, United States, asking open-ended questions to explore their perspectives on conflict mitigation. Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Ranchers mentioned five broad types of mitigation strategies: state agency intervention (i.e., calling the state agency in charge of wolf management to request either compensation or lethal wolf removal), biological measures (e.g., use of guard animals), physical measures (e.g., fences), human interference (cowboys and cowgirls), and indirect measures (e.g., husbandry practices). Motivations for participating in non-lethal mitigation strategies included previous positive interactions with wildlife agency officials, an understanding of the importance of wolves to the ecosystem, and clearly outlined guidelines on how to deal with wolf interactions. Barriers that hindered rancher participation included disdain for regulation both regarding the Endangered Species Act and the state's requirements for accessing damage compensation, which were perceived to be extensive and over-reaching. Negative attitudes toward wolf recovery included fear of wolves and perceived damage that wolves inflict on rural lives and livelihoods. Ranchers' motivations and perceived barriers for participating in mitigation strategies included sociopolitical and economic factors. Thus, we suggest that in addition to mitigating economic loss, wildlife managers address the intangible social costs that deter ranchers' participation in mitigation strategies through continued dialogue.
... Bureaucratic inadequacies and practical barriers in filing complaints lead to additional transaction costs for the rural poor" (Ogra & Badola, 2008). This study tries to assess some of these issues that other researchers have teased out in their works, most notably Nyhus et al. (Philip Nyhus et al., 2003;Pj Nyhus et al., 2005) and Ogra and Badola (2008). ...
... Likewise, the solutions that I presented to deal with specific conflicts in agriculture and forestry are examples of management approaches that I experienced. There are many other solutions such as land acquisition to reestablish black-footed ferrets, Mustela nigripes, and their prey, the black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus (Schroeder 1987), compensation programmes (Nyhus et al. 2003), and habitat restoration initiatives (Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association 2002). Solutions to similar conflicts will vary among countries according to social and economic environments. ...
Article
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Human activities resulting in the extirpation of small carnivore populations-either directly through shooting, trapping, or poisoning of the animals, or indirectly through the control of prey or habitat destruction-have repeated themselves over space and time. Since the early 1900s, pest control methods in the Canadian Prairies and habitat loss and deterioration in the northern forests negatively affected and continue to alter small carnivore communities. Typically, for decades industry has taken the same approach in control of vertebrate pests and obtained meagre results that affected negatively small carnivores. The reduction of Richardson's ground squirrel, Urocitellus richardsonii, and northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, populations to density levels that do not cause significant losses to crop productivity is the solution. A properly developed Integrated Pest Management programme, with detailed information about when and how to use specific control methods, and protocols to follow to avoid non-target and secondary poisoning, can meet the needs of both conservationists and farmers. Timber harvesting has produced landscapes that failed to meet the ecological needs of small carnivores such as the American marten, Martes americana, and the fisher, Pekania pennanti. In central interior British Columbia, to compensate a forestry company for increased habitat conservation in parts of its forest management area, timber harvest was increased in forests with lower biodiversity potential that were adjacent to 2 conservation areas. The resulting forest management plan was a win-win solution for conservationists and foresters. We need to change our response to human-small carnivore conflicts or we will face continued erosion of small carnivore populations and alteration of the ecosystems to which they contribute. In a world where economics generally dominate management decisions, wildlife biologists must link the benefits and costs of small carnivore conservation with those of human societies and activities. The involvement of wildlife biologists in small carnivore conservation programmes must be pragmatic, and conservation programmes must be based on solid field-based datasets.
... For a short period, wildlife damage payments can generate local support for conservation, reduce the incentives for retaliatory actions [9,10], and buy time for alternative management practices [11], but these effects do not seem to last long. According to Nyhus et al. [12], the characteristics of a successful compensation scheme are: (1) quick and accurate verification of the damage; (2) prompt and fair payments; (3) long-term sustainable funding; (4) specificity of the site; (5) clear rules and guidelines; (6) a final assessment of its effectiveness. However, these conditions are difficult to achieve, mainly due to late payments [13], the absence of specialized figures in environmental agencies [7], the lack of coordination and available data [5], and a bureaucracy that is often too detached from the real local needs. ...
Article
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Compensation programs are an important tool for mitigating conflicts between farmers and large predators. However, they present significant weaknesses and faults. For years, the EU has been prioritizing programs for the prevention of damage caused by large carnivores, rather than compensation programs, introducing compulsory compensation for the purposes of decision EC (2019) 772 of 29/01/19. This manuscript reports the experience with the wolf damage prevention programs in an Italian region, Emilia-Romagna, which implemented a pilot project, adopting a new method to interface with the farmers involved in the prevention programs. Methods: Starting in 2014, a project aimed at spreading prevention measures was financed through regional and European resources, accompanied by resources sharing and technical assistance with breeders from the regional body. In detail, (i) standardized types of intervention were defined and technical assistance was structured; (ii) ex post, the effectiveness of the interventions carried out was assessed; and (iii) the difficulties encountered in using the various financing instruments were analyzed. Results: Overall, 298 farms were analyzed, of which 166 applied for regional calls and 132 applied for European funds. The mitigation measures produced a reduction in predatory phenomena of 93.4%, i.e., from 528 to 35 predations over a period of 4–6 years. This study shows that more than one-third of the farmers were forced to abandon the two tenders, mainly due to the lack of liquidity in anticipating the prevention measures. Conclusion: In the years examined by this study, the prevention programs in the Emilia-Romagna region, due to the technical support offered, proved to be a functional and effective tool, capable of significantly reducing the wolf predation on livestock. However, this work highlights the high percentage of denials of mitigation measures by farmers interested in adopting these tools, stressing the need for regional agencies to focus on new policies that can provide advance economic resources to farmers and solve the authorization problems related to the various bodies with which the participant in the tenders must interface.
... A few studies have focused on communication and deliberation between stakeholders and decision makers and have suggested process and policy improvements (Røskaft et al. 2007;Dressel et al. 2015;Sjölander-Lindqvist et al. 2015;von Essen and Allen 2015;von Essen 2016). Other studies have analyzed selected aspects of this multi-faceted problem: economic impacts of the wolves on local communities (Naughton- Treves et al. 2003;Nyhus et al. 2003;Treves et al. 2009), people's attitudes towards the wolf (Karlsson and Sjöström 2007;Heberlein and Ericsson 2008;Frank et al. 2015), and the ecological condition which the wolves need to survive and thrive within the natural and social limitation of rural areas of the modern age (Sjögren-Gulve and Hörnell-Willebrand 2015). However, none of these studies has taken into consideration all the abovementioned aspects together in a systematic and holistic manner. ...
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... Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has become a well-known and discussed threat to wildlife, most notably to carnivores (Distefano, ND;Nyhus et al. 2003;Madden 2004;Inskip and Zimmermann 2009). In some cases, this is because of increased proximity of wildlife to humans, either due to human encroachment into rural areas, or because wildlife find their way into cities. ...
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... L'indemnisation est un paiement destiné à compenser une perte monétaire liée à un bien (production agricole, infrastructure, bétail, etc.), résultant directement d'un conflit lié à la faune sauvage (Nyhus et al., 2003(Nyhus et al., , 2005Ravenelle & Nyhus, 2017). Ces paiements compensatoires peuvent être liés à des programmes particuliers à certaines espèces (par exemple, les éléphants, les grands carnivores, etc.) ou à tout autre préjudice (par exemple, la destruction de récoltes). ...
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Les conflits entre l’homme et la faune sauvage sont très anciens mais ils posent de nos jours un défi croissant aux responsables de la conservation et ce, à travers toute l’Afrique (Lamarque et al., 2009; Nyhus, 2016; Shaffer et al., 2019). Ces conflits peuvent entraîner une perte de la biodiversité et un déclin important du bien-être humain, le plus souvent pour les personnes vivant à proximité des aires protégées (Thirgood et al., 2005). Ignorer ou résoudre ces conflits constituent donc des questions essentielles pour les gestionnaires des aires protégées et de la faune sauvage.
... The ex-gratia disbursed by the Wildlife Department to victims from 2010 to 2018 was uneven (Fig. 4). Inadequate compensation to the wildlife victims results in intolerant behaviour of local population towards conflict causing wild animals which perhaps increase the conflict incidences (Nyhus et al., 2003;Wani, 2013;Greeshma et al., 2016). A non-parametric Spearman's Rho test was used to analyze the correlation coefficient between the total human wildlife conflict cases and the amount of ex-gratia disbursed. ...
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Damage-causing animals (DCAs) originating from protected areas which inflict damage on persons and property are particularly contentious when promises to satisfactorily address such conflicts, either by protected areas or other management institutions, are left unfulfilled. Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) of this nature can erode trust and if not adequately resolved, assure the maintenance of tense relationships between parks and neighboring communities. This paper, based on archival research, interviews and community focus groups, examines management responses to the long history of DCAs exiting the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. First, I document historical promises of compensation and the subsequent responses by conservation agencies to local communities to address these past injustices. Recent strategies to the DCA problem at KNP have been multi-faceted and include a wildlife damage compensation scheme initiated in 2014 which entails financial retribution given to affected farmers who have lost, and continue to lose, livestock to DCAs originating from the park from 2008 to date. I then present livestock farmers’ recent perceptions of DCAs, the compensation scheme itself, and proposed avenues for going forward. Despite continuing challenges in the process, I demonstrate that fulfilling promises is a key step to building relational trust and legitimacy and must be considered in similar contexts where protected areas and other conservation agencies are key actors in managing HWC.
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